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METROLOGY

By
V.C SANDEEP RAJ
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING

METROLOGY
METEROLOGY : It is a science of measurement
Metrology may be divided depending upon
the quantity under either time measurement

Important aspects of Metrology

Units of measure and their standards


Methods of measurement
Error measurement
Measuring instruments and devices
Accuracy of measuring instruments and their
care
Industrial applications

SYSTEMS OF LIMITS AND FITS


IN NATURE TWO SIMILAR (IDENTICAL )
THINGS ARE DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN
SPECIALLY THIS FACT HOLDS GOOD FOR
PRODUCTION MATERIALS
SPECIALLY MEANT FOR SHAFTS AND HOLES

LIMITS
LIMITS ARE DEFINED AS THE MIMINUM OR
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DIMENTION THAT
CAN BE CONSIDERES

TERMS FOR LIMITS AND FITS


SHAFT : Term shaft refers not only to the
diameter of a circular shaft but also to any
external dimension of a component
Hole : hole not only fers to

TOLERANCE
THE PERMISSIBLE VARIATION IN SIZE OR
DIMENSION IS CALLED TOLERANCE

SYSTEM OF WRITING TOLERANCES


THERE ARE TWO SYSTEMS
1. UNILATERAL SYSTEM
2.BILATERAL SYSTEM

Hole basis system


In this system hole is of constant diameter and
shafts vary

Shaft basis system


In this kind of system shaft is of constant
diameter and holes vary in size

Standard limit systems


British standard BS -45001969
The international standard
ISO: 286-1988
Indian standard IS 919

Indian standard systems of limits and


fits
The Indian standard systems are in line with
the ISO recommendations
It consists of 18 combinations of grades
The grades of the fundamental tolerance are
IT01, ITO,IT1 IT 16
The fundamental deviations are A B C D E F G
H JS J K L M N P R S T U V X Y ZA ZB ZC

TYPES OF ASSEMBLIES
1. TRIAL AND ERROR
2. INTERCHANGEABLE ASSEMBLY
3.SELECTIVE ASSEMBLY

LINEAR MEASUREMENT
A Length may be measured As the distance
two lines or as the distance between two
parallel faces
They are classified into two types they are
1. Line standards
2. End standards

Line standards
When length is measured as the distance
between the centers of two engraved lines, it
is called line standard, both standard yard and
metre are shown,
The most common measuring instrument is
the rule with divisions shown as lines marked
on it

END STANDARDS
When length is expressed as the distance
between two flat parallel plates
slip gauges are the best example, micrometre
anvils

Slip guages
Slip gauges are blocks of steel that have been
hardened and stabilized by heat treatment.
They are ground and lapped to size to very
high standards of accuracy and surface finish.
They are the most accurate standards of
length available for use in workshops.

SLIP GAUGE
Slip gauges are rectangular blocks of steel
having a cross-section of about 30 by 10 mm
Normal set

Classification
AA slip gauges
A slip gauges and
B slip gauges

AA slip gauges
Master slip gauges
Accurate to plus or minus two microns per meter

A slip gauges
Reference purpose
Type A is guaranteed accurate up to plus or minus
four microns per meter

B slip gauges
Working slip gauges
Type 'B' for plus or minus eight microns per meter

Classes
Grade 2
Grade 1
Grade 0

Grade 00
Calibration grade

Grade 2
This is the workshop grade
Typical uses include setting up machine tools,
positioning milling cutters and checking

mechanical width.

Grade 1
Used for more precise work, -tool room.
Typical uses include setting up
Sine bars and sine tables
Checking gap gauges and
Setting dial test indicators to zero

Grade 00
This grade would be kept in the Standard
Room and would be kept for work of the
highest precision only.
Determination of any errors present in the
workshop or Grade 2 slips.

Calibration grade
Calibration grade are used for calibration of
slip gauges, other measuring instruments

Dial indicators
Dial indicators are precision measuring tools
with a myriad of applications in the machine
shop. Once you move beyond the basic
machining operations you will definitely want
to have one or more of these in your
workshop.

A plunger moves in and out from the body of


the indicator and rotates the measuring
needle on a dial face. Dial indicators usually
have either a 1" or 2" range and are
calibrated in increments of .001". A smaller
dial reads each revolution of the larger dial in
increments of 0.100".

callipers

Surface plate
Cast iron
Granite
Glass

Cast iron

Granite

Glass

Sprit level

Beam comparator

Straight edges

Combination se square

Universal surface guage

Engineers parallels

Feeler guage

Screw pitch gauge

Radius guage

Wire guage

Slip gauges

MICRO METER
A micro meter is a precision instrument used to
measure a job, generally within an accuracy of
0.01mm.Micrometer used to take the outside
measurements are know as outside micrometer.

PARTS OF MICROMETER
Frame
Anvil and spindle
Screwed spindle

Graduated sleeve or barrel


Ratchet or friction stop
Spindle clamp

Bevel protractor
A bevel protractor is a graduated circular
protractor with a pivoted arm; used for
measuring or marking off angles.
Sometimes Vernier scales are attached to give
more precise readings. It has wide application
in architectural and mechanical drawing,

clinometer

Angle slip guages

Sine bars

Rollers

Limit gauges

Go and no go guage

Plug guages

A snap gage is a form of Go/no go gauge. It is a


limit gage with permanently or temporarily fixed
measurement aperture(s) (gaps) which is used to
quickly verify whether an outside dimension of a part
matches a preset dimension or falls within predefined
tolerances. The surfaces which define the edges of the
aperture are the anvils, which may be made of
separate pieces of hard material such as tungsten
carbide for wear resistance. Two apertures are
frequently used to provide Go/No-Go testing and are
often arranged such that a part being measured can
pass through the two apertures in sequence;

Snap guages

Ring guages

Profile guages

Taper guages

Feeler guage

OPTICAL MEASUREMENT
INSTRUMENTS
Optical instruments use light as the source of
measurement
Accuracy and precession is very high when
compared to the mechanical and electrical
measuring devices

Tool makers microscope


Tool makers microscope is a versatile
instrument based on optical means
It consists of a heavily hallow base
accommodating the illuminating underneath
Work piece is mounted on the base

Applications

Linear measurement
Measurement of pitch of screw
Measurement of thread angle
Comparing thread forms with stand profiles
Measurement of pitch diameter
Measurement of centre distance between the
holes

Collimators
A collimator is a device that narrows a beam
of particles or waves. To "narrow" can mean
either to cause the directions of motion to
become more aligned in a specific direction

]Optical collimators

Optical collimators
In optics, a collimator may consist of a curved
mirror or lens with some type of light source
and/or an image at its focus. This can be used
to replicate a target at infinity without parallax

Michaelsons interferometer

interferometers

N p l interferometer

Optical collimators can be used to calibrate


other optical devices, to check if all elements
are aligned on the optical axis, to set elements
at proper focus, or to align two or more
devices such as binoculars and gun
barrels/gunsights A surveying camera may be
collimated by setting its fiduciary markers so
that they define the principal point, as
in photogrammetry.

N p l guage

Profile Projector
Profile projector is known as an optical
comparator, or even called a shadowgraph, a
profile projector is an optical instrument that
can be used for measuring

. The projector magnifies the profile of the


specimen, and displays this on the built-in
projection screen. On this screen there is
typically a grid that can be rotated 360
degrees so the X-Y axis of the screen can be
aligned with a straight edge of the machined
part to examine or measure

Optical flat
An optical flat is an optical-grade piece
of glass lapped and polished to be extremely
flat on one or both sides, usually within a few
millionths of an inch (about 25 nanometers)
They are used with a monochromatic light to
determine the flatness of other optical
surfaces by interference

Flat surface Measurement


Flatness of surface is a very important factor
in engineering
Roughness is caused during machining
Surface finish is an important factor when two
parts in a machine are mating

Microscopic view of a surface

Instruments used to measure surface


finish

Straight edges
Surface plates
Auto collimator
Surface finish comparators

Straight edges
A straightedge is a tool with an edge free from
curves, or straight, used for transcribing
straight lines, or checking the straightness of
lines. If it has equally spaced markings along
its length it is usually called a ruler.
Straightedges are used in the automotive
service and machining industry to check the
flatness of machined mating surfaces.

Surface plate
A surface plate is a solid, flat plate used as the
main horizontal reference plane for precision
inspection, marking out (layout), and tooling
setup.
The surface plate is often used as the baseline for
all measurements to the workpiece, therefore
one primary surface is finished extremely flat
with accuracy up to 0.00001 in/0.00025 mm for a
grade AA or AAA plate.

Autocollimator
An autocollimator is an optical instrument for
non-contact measurement of angles. They are
typically used to align components and
measure deflections in optical or mechanical
systems. An autocollimator works by projecting
an image onto a target mirror, and measuring the
deflection of the returned image against a scale,
either visually or by means of an electronic
detector. A visual autocollimator can measure
angles as small as 0.5 arcsecond, while an
electronic autocollimator can be up to 100 times
more accurate.

isual autocollimators are often used for lining up laser


rod ends and checking the face parallelism of optical
windows and wedges. Electronic and digital
autocollimators are used as angle measurement
standards, for monitoring angular movement over long
periods of time and for checking angular position
repeatability in mechanical systems. Servo
autocollimators are specialized compact forms of
electronic autocollimators that are used in high speed
servo-feedback loops for stable platform applications.
the measurement with autocolimator is done with by
formula

h=2af where
h= reading on collimator
a= angle
f= focal length of the collimator.

Surface Roughness Measurement


Surface roughness, often shortened
to roughness, is a measure of the texture of
a surface. It is quantified by the vertical
deviations of a real surface from its ideal form.
If these deviations are large, the surface is
rough; if they are small the surface is smooth.
Roughness is typically considered to be the
high frequency, short wavelength component
of a measured surface

Surface Waviness
Waviness is the measure of the more widely
spaced component of surface texture. It is a
broader view of roughness because it is more
strictly defined as "the irregularities whose
spacing is greater than the roughness
sampling length". It can occur from machine
or work deflections, chatter, residual
stress, vibrations, or heat treatment

Factors Effecting Surface


Roughness

The following effecting


Vibrations
Material of workpiece
Type of machining
Rigitity of the system

Order of geometric irregularities


First order- the irregulrities caused by in
inaccracies in machine
Second order iregullarities caused due
tovibrations
Third order this is caused due to machining
Fourth order due to rupture

CLA CENTRE LINE AVERAGE IN MICRO


INCHES
Rt ROUGHNESS,TOTAL IN MICRONS
R.M.S ROOT MEAN SQUARE IN MICRO
INCHES
Rz - is the average of single roughness of 5
following test sections
R10: 1.00 1.25 1.60 2.00 2.50 3.15 4.00 5.00
6.30 8.00

MEATHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF
SURFACE FINISH
Evaluation of surface
1 peak to valley height
2 average roughness

Profilograph
The profilograph is a device used to measure
pavement surface roughness. In the early 20th
century, Profilographs were low speed rolling
devices. Today many Profilographs are
advanced high speed systems with a
laserbased height sensor in combination with
a inertial system that creates a large scale
reference plane

Many road profilographs are also measuring


the pavements cross slope, curvature,
longitudinal gradient and rutting. Some
profilographs
take digital photos or videos while profiling
the road. Most profilographs also record the
position, using GPS technology. Yet another
common measurement option is cracks.

Tomilsons surface tester

Visual testing

TALYSURF
TALYSURF IS A ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT
MACHINE IS USEWD TO MEASURE THE
ROUGHNESS OF THE SURFACE