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INDIA

AN INSTIT
TUTE OF TECHNOL
T
LOGY MA
ADRAS, CH
HENNAI
Departme
ent of Civil Engineerin
ng
CE
E 3350 Ge
eotechnicall Engineeriing
T
Tutorial
# 4:
4 Pile Foundations
Note: Make suitable as
ssumptions whereve
er necessary.
1. (a) How doo I estimate the allowabble load cappacity of a single pile annd pile grouups?
(b) A 12 m long, 6000 mm diameeter pile is driven in a uniform deposit of saand ( = 400). The waater
table is att a great deepth and is not likely to
t rise. Thee average drry unit weigght of sandd is 18 kN/m
m3.
Using Nq values of Berezantzev
B
, calculate the
t safe load
d capacity of the pile with
w a FS of 2.5.
ment of a sinngle pile and
a
2. (a) How doo I estimate the settlem
pile groupps?
(b) Determ
mine the alloowable pile load capaccity of the 600
6
mm diameeter driven concrete pille shown inn Fig. 1.
3. (a) How doo I select a pile
p for a givven applicaation?
(b) A fricttion pile 300 mm in diiameter is proposed
p
too be
driven in a layer of uniform
u
cohhesive soil. The pile tipp is
p cent of the
t load. Thhe skin fricttion
assumed tto carry 20 per
between tthe pile surfface and thee soil is assumed to bee 50
kN/m2. Determine thhe length off piling requuired to carrry a
Fig. 1.
w a FS off 4.
safe load oof 200 kN with
4. A 500 mm
m 500 mm
m concrete pile, 15 m long, peneetrates a deeep uniform deposit of clay (cu = 40
2
kN/m ) annd rests in a stratum of
o good beaaring. Estim
mate the load taken by skin fricction. Assume
adhesion fa
factor, of 0.8.
0
5. The follow
wing data reffers to a cycclic pile loadd test carrieed out on a 300
3 mm diaameter, 10 m long pile.
Loaad on pile toop (kN)
150 200 250 3000 400 500
6000
T
Total settlem
ment of pile top (mm) 1.45 2.255 2.75 3.660 5.75 10.75 30.000
N
Net settlemeent of pile toop (mm) 0.40 0.655 0.80 1.000 1.70 5.25 22.880
Plot the loaad-settlemeent curve and
a estimatee the allowaable load of the pile as per
p IS Codee of Practicee.
m diameter concrete piile, 10 m loong, was drriven by a McKiernan
M
and Terry double actiing
6. A 300 mm
hammer (rrated energyy 16.62 kJ,, total masss 2200kg). The drivinng was done with a shhort dolly and
a
cushion 2.550 m. The average pennetration reecorded in thhe last five blows wass 3.0 mm/bllow. Calcullate
the safe pille load.
c resting on
7. At a site foor a factory building, thhe soil conssists of 2.3 m of fill folllowed by 8 m of soft clay
a thick depposit (> 10 m) of densse sand. Thee current grroundwater level is at 4 m from thhe surface but
b
fluctuates sseasonally from
f
the suurface to aboout 5 m below it. The average
a
collumn load consists
c
of 200
2
kN dead looad and 1500 kN live looad. For a preliminary
p
y design, deescribe the following:
f
( the typee of
(a)
pile you w
would select,, (b) the minnimum leng
gth you thinnk you wou
uld need, andd (c) the poossible meth
hod
of installattion. Sufficiient justificaation must be
b given forr each answ
wer.
c
in saand ( = 32
2).
8. A nine pilee group arrranged in a square patteern is used as a foundaation for a column
Piles 300 m
mm in diam
meter and 10 m in lenggth, are plaaced at a sp
pacing of 9000 mm in eeach directio
on.
Calculate tthe ultimatee load capaccity of the pile group. Assume
A
the unit weightt of soil as 18
1 kN/m3. Use
U
Berezantzeev recommeendation forr bearing caapacity facttor, Nq. Wh
hat will be the
t settlemeent of the pile
p
group, if thhe settlemennt of the sinngle pile is as
a per data of
o Question 5.
m The emb
mbedded lenggth
9. Consider a pipe pile (flat drivingg point) having an outside diameteer of 406 mm.
of the pilee in layered saturated clay is 30 m. The follow
wing are thee details of the
t subsoil:
D
Depth from ground
g
surfa
face (m) Saturated
S
unnit weight, (kN/m3) cu (kN/m
m2)
0-5
18
30
5-10
18
30
10-30
19.6
100
T grounddwater tablee is located at a depth of 5 m from
The
m the grounnd surface. Estimate Qp by using (a)
Meyerhofs method, and
a (b) Vesiics methodd.
10
0. (a) Calcullate the settllement of a pile group for conditioons indicateed in Fig. 2.
4.1

Fig. 2.
_________________________________________________
___
10. (b) The allowable worrking load on
o a prestreessed concrrete
T
pile 21 m longg that has beeen driven into sand iss 502 kN. The
Area = 0.10
045
pile is octagonnal in shapee with D = 356 mm (A
m2, Perimeter = 1.168 m)). Skin resistance carriies 350 kN of
the allowable looad, and pooint bearing carries the rest. Use Ep =
m2, Es = 25 x 103 kN/m
m2, s = 0.35 and = 0.62.
21 106 kN/m
Determine the settlement of
o the pile.
p that is 305 mm 305 mm inn cross sectiion in sand. The pile iss 15.2 m lon
ng.
11. Consider a concrete pile
wing are thee variations of N60 with
h depth.
The follow
Depth bellow GL (m)) 1.5 3 4.5 6 7.5 9 10.5 12 13.5 15 16.5 18 19.5 21
N60
8 100 9 12 14 18 11 17 20 28 29 32 30 27
(a) Estimaate Qp usingg Meyerhoff (1976) eq. (b) Estimatte Qp using Briaud et all. (1985) eqq.
2. Consider an 18 m loong concrette pile (crosss section: 305
3 mm 305 mm) fully
f
embeddded in a saand
12
f
iss an approxximation off the cone penetrationn resistance qc
layer. Forr the sand layer, the following
(mechaniccal cone) an
nd the frictioonal resistannce fc with depth.
d
Estim
mate Qa with
h FS = 3.
2
2
D
Depth
from
m ground surrface (m) qc (kN/m ) fc (kN/m )
0-5
3040
73
5-15
4560
102
15-25
9500
226
3 Refer to thhe pile in satturated clayy shown in Fig.
F 3. For the
t pile,
13
(a) Calcullate the skinn resistancee (Qs) by (1) the metthod, (2)
the methhod, and (3) the methhod. For thee method,, use R
= 30 for all clay laayers. The top
t 10 m of
o clay is NC.
N The
bottom cllay layer haas an OCR = 2. (Note: diameter of
o pile =
406 mm). (b) Using
g the results of Questiion 9, estim
mate the
allowablee pile capaciity (Qall). Usse FS = 4.

14
4. A concrette pile 305 mm 305 mm in crooss section is
i driven too a depth off 20 m beloow the grou
und
surface inn a saturatedd clay soil. Estimate thhe frictionaal resistancee Qs for thee pile. A suummary of the
t
variation of
o frictionall resistance fc obtainedd from a conne penetratioon test is as follows:
m)
Frictiional resistaance, fc (kg//cm2)
Depth (m
0-6
0.335
0.556
6-12
0.772
12-20
15
5. A concrette pile of 45
50 mm diam
meter is drivven throughh a system of
o layered cohesive
c
soiils. The lenggth
of the pilee is 16 m. The followinng data are available.
a
The water tabble is close to the grounnd surface.
Top layerr 1: Soft clay
y, thicknesss = 8 m, unit cohesion = 30 kN//m2 and adh
hesion factoor = 0.90.
Layer 2:
Medium
m stiff, thickkness = 6 m, unit cohession = 500 kN/m2 andd = 0.75.
Layer 3:
Stiff straatum extendds to a greatt depth, unitt cohesion = 105 kN
N/m2 and = 0.50.
Compute Qu and Qa with
w FS = 2.5.
2
4.2