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Jasmin Martinez

September 21, 2007

Dr. Kouramas

requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Process Systems Engineering and

for the Diploma of Imperial College

Imperial College London

London SW7 2AZ, UK

Abstract

In recent years, wind turbines have become an acceptable alternative for electrical

energy generation by fossil or nuclear power plants, because of the environmental and

economic benefits. Still, much research remains to be done in order to improve wind

turbines behaviour and make them more profitable and reliable.

This work covers the modelling of wind turbines for power system studies. The

operation of horizontal, variable speed wind turbines with pitch control was

investigated. Complexities of various parts of a wind turbine model, such as

aerodynamic conversion, drive train and generator representation were analyzed. The

mathematical equations describing the dynamic behaviour of a wind energy system

were successfully simulated in gPROMS. The wind turbine model was further tested

upon step changes in the wind velocity as well as the blade pitch angle, confirming

the need of power control.

Based on the obtained wind turbine model, a power control structure was developed

that takes into consideration the dynamical aspects of the wind turbine as well as

constraints. An explicit parametric controller, a novel control method, was designed

using MATLAB and the Parametric Optimization (POP) software. A simple explicit

optimal control law was constructed that allows the on-line implementation via simple

linear function evaluations. The controller was implemented using gO:MATLAB and

the simulation results show that the controller accurately adjusts the blade pitch angle

to set the wind turbine power output to its reference value.

Acknowledgments

First of all I wish to thank my parents for being an example and encouraging me

throughout my studies, making this thesis possible. I am also grateful to my favourite

sister, Cami.

I acknowledge Prof. Pistikopoulos and Dr. Kouramas for their supervision, advice and

contribution for the success of this work. I am indebted to Mark Pinto and Lin

Zhenhua for their help with gPROMS and gO:MATLAB.

Special thanks to my friends at Imperial College, who made this thesis an enjoyable

experience.

Financial support for this work was provided by Programme Alban.

Finally, I would like to express my deepest gratitude for the constant support, patience

and love that I received from Nico.

Contents

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................ 2

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................................................................................................................... 3

CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................ 4

LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................................ 6

LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................................................. 7

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 8

1.1

1.2

1.3

WORK MOTIVATION............................................................................................................... 8

WORK OBJECTIVE .................................................................................................................. 9

THESIS OUTLINE .................................................................................................................... 9

2.1 WIND TURBINE DEVELOPMENT AND TYPES OF TURBINES ............................................................ 11

2.1.1 Wind Turbine History........................................................................................................... 11

2.1.2 State-of-the-art Technologies ............................................................................................... 12

2.1.2.1 Definition of a Wind Turbine ....................................................................................................... 12

2.1.2.2 Aerodynamic Lift and Aerodynamic Drag Wind Turbines .......................................................... 12

2.1.2.3 Horizontal-axis and Vertical-axis Wind Turbines ........................................................................ 12

2.1.2.4 Variable-speed and Constant-speed Wind Turbines ..................................................................... 15

2.1.3.1 Stall Control ................................................................................................................................. 17

2.1.3.2 Pitch Control ................................................................................................................................ 18

2.1.3.3 Active Stall Control...................................................................................................................... 19

2.2.1 Wind Farm Definition and Siting ......................................................................................... 19

2.2.1.1 Definition of Wind Farm .............................................................................................................. 19

2.2.1.2 Wind Farm Siting ......................................................................................................................... 20

2.2.2.1 Centralised Control Structure ....................................................................................................... 22

2.2.2.2 Decentralised Control Structure ................................................................................................... 22

2.2.2.3 Partly Centralised, Partly Decentralised Control Structure .......................................................... 22

2.2.3 Requirements for the Interconnection of Wind Farms to the Power System ........................ 23

2.2.3.1 Active Power Control ................................................................................................................... 23

2.2.3.2 Frequency Control ........................................................................................................................ 23

2.2.3.3 Voltage Control ............................................................................................................................ 23

2.2.3.4 Tap Changers ............................................................................................................................... 24

2.2.3.5 Wind Farm Protection .................................................................................................................. 24

2.2.3.6 Modelling Information and Verification ...................................................................................... 24

2.2.3.7 Communication and External Control .......................................................................................... 24

3.1 MODELLING OF THE BLADES ......................................................................................................... 27

3.2 MODELLING OF THE DRIVE TRAIN ................................................................................................. 29

3.3 MODELLING OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR ....................................................................... 30

3.3.1 Model assumptions............................................................................................................... 31

3.3.2 0dq reference frame ............................................................................................................. 32

3.3.3 Per unit system ..................................................................................................................... 32

3.3.4 Asynchronous generator model............................................................................................ 33

3.3.4.1 Model including stator transients ................................................................................................. 34

3.3.4.2 Model neglecting stator transients ................................................................................................ 35

3.4.1 Modelling in gPROMS ......................................................................................................... 36

3.4.2 Simulation results................................................................................................................. 37

3.4.2.1 Base case ...................................................................................................................................... 38

3.4.2.2 Wind velocity step change ........................................................................................................... 40

3.4.2.3 Blade pitch angle step change ...................................................................................................... 41

4.1 POWER CONTROL .......................................................................................................................... 42

4.2 EXPLICIT PARAMETRIC CONTROLLER ............................................................................................ 42

4.2.1 Model identification ............................................................................................................. 46

4.2.2 Explicit parametric controller design .................................................................................. 47

4.2.3 Controller implementation (gO:MATLAB) .......................................................................... 50

CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK............. 54

5.1 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS THESIS ................................................................................................... 54

5.2 FUTURE WORK RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................. 55

REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 56

APPENDICES ...................................................................................................................................... 61

List of Figures

FIGURE 1. VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINE [WIND-WORKS, 2007] ......................................................... 13

FIGURE 2. HORIZONTAL-AXIS AND VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES CONFIGURATIONS [SCOTTISH

EXECUTIVE, 2007] ......................................................................................................................... 13

FIGURE 3. KEY COMPONENTS OF A HORIZONTAL-AXIS UPWIND TURBINE [NPOWER RENEWABLES, 2007]

...................................................................................................................................................... 14

FIGURE 4.

C p V S.

FIGURE 5. C p VS. TIP-SPEED RATIO AND PITCH ANGLE FOR A TYPICAL WIND TURBINE WITH PITCH

CONTROL [BALAS ET AL, 2006] ..................................................................................................... 19

FIGURE 7. OFFSHORE WIND FARM [ARTHUS-BERTRAND, 2007] ............................................................. 21

FIGURE 8. WIND TURBINE SCHEME [BOUKHEZZAR ET AL, 2005] ............................................................ 26

FIGURE 9. ANALYTICAL APPROXIMATION OF Cp ( , )

CHARACTERISTICS (

FIGURE 11. THE WINDINGS IN THE ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR [LUBOSNY, 2003] .............................. 31

FIGURE 12. WIND TURBINE CURRENTS ................................................................................................... 39

FIGURE 13. WIND TURBINE ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE AND SLIP RATIO .............................................. 39

FIGURE 14. WIND TURBINE POWER ......................................................................................................... 40

FIGURE 15. POWER OUTPUT TOWARDS WIND VELOCITY STEP CHANGE ................................................... 40

FIGURE 16. POWER COEFFICIENT TOWARDS BLADE PITCH ANGLE STEP CHANGE .................................... 41

FIGURE 17. POWER OUTPUT TOWARDS BLADE PITCH ANGLE STEP CHANGE ............................................ 41

FIGURE 18. PARAMETRIC CONTROLLER STRATEGY ................................................................................ 44

FIGURE 19. SIMULINK OVERALL WIND TURBINE MODEL ......................................................................... 45

FIGURE 20. SIMULINK AERODYNAMIC MODEL ........................................................................................ 45

FIGURE 21. SIMULINK DRIVE TRAIN MODEL............................................................................................ 46

FIGURE 22. SIMULINK INDUCTION GENERATOR MODEL .......................................................................... 46

FIGURE 23. PROJECTION OF THE CONTROLLER REGIONS IN Pt 1 t 1

FIGURE 24. PROJECTION OF THE CONTROLLER REGIONS IN Pref

t 1

SPACE ...................................... 49

SPACE

..................................... 49

SPACE ...................................... 50

FIGURE 26. GPROMS WIND TURBINE MODEL EXECUTING WITHIN MATLAB ........................................ 51

FIGURE 27. GO:MATLAB POWER PROFILE ............................................................................................ 52

FIGURE 28. GO:MATLAB BLADE PITCH ANGLE PROFILE ...................................................................... 53

List of Tables

TABLE 1. VARIABLES WITH A KNOWN VALUE, VARIABLES WITH AN UNKNOWN VALUE AND NUMBER OF

EQUATIONS FOR WIND TURBINE MODEL ......................................................................................... 37

TABLE 2. WIND TURBINE PARAMETERS [LUBOSNY, 2003], [MARTINS ET AL, 2007] ............................... 38

TABLE 3. CONTROL DESIGN VARIABLES .................................................................................................. 47

Chapter 1. Introduction

Wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable energies in the world. The

generation of wind power is clean and non-polluting; it does not produce any byproducts harmful to the environment.

Nowadays, modelling is the basic tool for analysis, such as optimization, project,

design and control. Wind energy conversion systems are very different in nature from

conventional generators, and therefore dynamic studies must be addressed in order to

integrate wind power into the power system. According to [Lubosny, 2003], in the

case of power systems with classical sources of energy analysis, the modelling is

relatively simple because the models of objects and controllers are well known and

even standardized; the data are available. But in the case of wind turbine modelling,

researchers meet problems related to the lack of data and lack of control-system

structures due to strong competition between wind turbine manufacturers. This leads

to the situation in which many researchers model the wind energy conversion systems

in relatively simple form, almost neglecting the control systems, which significantly

influence the reliability of the analytical results.

Classical techniques such as proportional (P), integral (PI) and derivative (PID)

controllers are typically used to regulate wind power. But by assuming the wind

turbine operating in steady state conditions, most of the previous work regarding wind

turbine control does not take into consideration the dynamical aspects of the wind and

the turbine, which have strong non-linear characteristics [Balas et al, 2006]. Advances

in wind turbine technology made necessary the design of more powerful control

systems, to improve wind turbines behaviour and make them more profitable and

reliable [Boukhezzar et al, 2005]. However, as stated in [Balas et al, 2006]

Controlling modern turbines to minimize the cost of wind energy is a complex task,

and much research remains to be done to improve controllers. An interesting

characteristic of wind energy systems is that wind speed determines the point of

operation; it simply defines the available amount of energy that can be converted into

electricity. The wind cannot be controlled; in other words the system is driven by

noise, which makes wind turbine systems essentially different from most other

systems. This explains the need for robust controller design [Bongers et al, 1992].

8

On the other hand, theoretically, the electrical output from a wind turbine should be

smooth and non-fluctuating [Butterfield et al, 2001]. But electricity generated from

wind farms can be highly variable on different time scales: from hour-to-hour, daily

and seasonally. This represents a considerable challenge when incorporating wind

power into a grid system, since in order to maintain grid stability energy supply and

demand must remain in balance.

The main objective of this work is to contribute to the topic of wind energy systems

modelling and control by developing an accurate model for a wind turbine and based

on this model contemplate control issues.

The scientific objectives of this research include the following:

mechanical and electrical parts of a variable speed wind turbine equipped with

an induction generator and blade pitch angle control.

Optimization (POP) software.

A parametric controller is a novel control method that has been recently applied to a

number of processes. This work aims at exploiting the properties of explicit

parametric control and demonstrate the potential benefits of this control method for

wind turbines.

The wind turbine configuration considered throughout this work is an aerodynamic

lift, 3 blade, horizontal-axis, variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbine.

The thesis is divided into five chapters including this introduction chapter. The paper

is structured as follows.

Chapter 2 contains a background on theoretical fundamentals regarding wind turbines

and wind farms. The first part gives an overview of the wind turbine history and

development. The main types of wind turbines and their configurations are explained

in detail. Furthermore, the different power control techniques available to control the

wind turbine power output are exposed. Wind farms are introduced and classified

accordingly to their siting. The main wind farm control structures are described and

the requirements for the interconnection of wind farms to the power system are

discussed.

Chapter 3 presents detailed mathematical models that describe the dynamic behaviour

of a wind energy system, including aerodynamic, mechanical and electrical parts.

Simulation results of the overall wind turbine model are given for a base case, as well

as for wind speed and blade pitch angle step changes.

Chapter 4 contains the formulation of an explicit parametric control strategy for a

wind turbine. The properties and potential benefits of this control method for wind

energy systems are investigated. Moreover, the controller is implemented and tested.

Finally, Chapter 5 provides conclusions on the research done and offers

recommendations for future work.

10

This chapter is aimed at presenting a review on the wind turbines and wind farm state

of the art technologies.

Wind-powered machines have been used by humans for thousands of years. Until the

20th century wind power was used to provide mechanical power to pump water or to

grind grain. The earliest recorded windmills are vertical-axis mills and were used in

Afghanistan in the seventh century BC. Horizontal-axis windmills are found in

historical documents from Persia, Tibet and China around 1000 AD. From Persia and

the Middle-East, the horizontal-axis windmill spread across Europe in the 12th century,

where windmill performance was constantly improved; by the 19th century a

considerable part of the power used in the industry in Europe was based on wind

energy. Industrialisation then led to a gradual decline in windmills, as the use of

fluctuating wind energy was substituted by fossil fuel fired engines which provided a

more consistent power source [Ackermann et al, 2000].

In the 1970s, with the first oil price shock, the modern era of wind turbine generators

began, focusing in producing electricity instead of mechanical energy. Conventional

methods to generate electricity burn fuel to provide the energy to drive a generator,

creating pollution, acid rain and contributing to global warming. In recent years there

has been a growing interest in wind energy power systems because of the

environmental benefits and the economic benefits of fuel savings [Fujita et al, 2006].

The wind is a clean source and it will never run out. Wind energy technology is

developing fast; turbines are becoming cheaper and more powerful, bringing the cost

of renewably-generated electricity down [British Wind Energy Association, 2006];

The cost of generating electricity from wind has fallen almost 90% since the 1980s

[Karrari et al, 2005]. Nowadays, wind energy is one of the most important sustainable

energy resources and has become an acceptable alternative for electrical energy

11

generation by fossil or nuclear power plants [Bongers at al, 1992]. A list of wind

turbines manufacturers can be found in Appendix 1 [Energy Source Guides, 2007].

A wind turbine is a machine for converting the kinetic energy in the wind into

mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a

pump or grinding stones, the machine is called a windmill. If the mechanical energy is

then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator. Utility-scale

turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to several megawatts [EERE, 2007].

There are two different types of wind energy conversion devices: those which depend

mainly on aerodynamic lift and those which use mainly aerodynamic drag.

High speed turbines rely on lift forces to move the blades. To generate electricity

from a wind turbine, it is usually desirable that the driving shaft of the generator

operates at considerable speed (1500 revolutions per minute). This, together with the

higher aerodynamic efficiency of lift devices, means that turbines which rely in

aerodynamic drag are not commonly used [Jenkins et al, 1997].

Wind turbines can further be classified into horizontal-axis or vertical-axis. The

earliest windmills in antiquity rotated about a vertical axis and they were driven by

drag. Modern vertical-axis turbines use vertical symmetrical airfoils and the driving

force is produced by lift developed by the blade in the moving air stream. The only

vertical-axis turbine which has been manufactured commercially at any volume is the

Darrieus machine, named after the French engineer Georges Darrieus who patented

the design in 1931. The conventional Darrieus turbine has curved blades connected at

the top and at the bottom and rotates like an egg whisk [Harrison et al, 2000], as

illustrated in Figure 1.

12

Vertical-axis wind turbines have the advantages that no tower is needed, they operate

independently of the wind direction (a yawning mechanism is not needed) and heavy

gearboxes and generators can be installed at ground level. But they have many

disadvantages: they are not self-starting, the torque fluctuates with each revolution as

the blades move into and away from the wind, and speed regulation in high winds can

be difficult. Vertical-axis turbines were developed and commercially produced in the

1970s until the end of the 1980s. But since the end of the 1980s the research and

production of vertical-axis wind turbines has practically stopped worldwide

[Ackermann et al, 2000].

At present, horizontal-axis wind turbines dominate the market; Figure 2 illustrates the

different configuration between a horizontal-axis and a vertical axis turbine.

2007]

13

2000]:

The rotor blades, which extract the kinetic energy present in the wind and

transform it into mechanical power.

The nacelle, with a power control system that limits and conditions the

extracted power; a gear box that transfers the load and increases the rotational

speed to drive the generator; and an electrical system which converts the

mechanical energy into electrical energy.

The major components of a modern horizontal-axis wind turbine are shown in Figure

3.

The yaw mechanism turns the turbine so that it faces the wind. Sensors are used to

monitor wind direction and the tower head is turned accordingly.

Wind turbines can have three, two or just one rotor blades. Two or three blades are

usually used for electricity power generation. Two blades cost less than three blades,

but they need to operate at higher rotational speed than three-bladed wind turbines. As

a result, the individual blades need to be lighter and hence more expensive on a two14

bladed turbine [McNerney et al, 1993]. Besides, three-bladed turbines are generally

accepted as more aesthetic than two or one bladed turbines. Hence, turbines with three

blades dominate the wind industry.

A final distinction is whether the rotor is allowed to run at variable speed or

constrained to operate at constant speed. In the early 1970s wind turbines usually

operated at constant speed. That means that regardless of the wind speed, the wind

turbines rotor speed is fixed. Constant speed wind turbines allow the use of simple

generators whose speed is fixed by the frequency of the electrical network. For

variable speed wind turbines, a power electronic frequency converter is required in

order to connect the variable-frequency output of the wind turbine to the fixed

frequency of the electrical system. Although the power electronics needed for variable

speed wind turbines are more expensive, this type of turbines can spend more time

operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency than constant speed turbines [Balas et

al, 2006]. This can be seen clearly if the performance coefficient, C p of a wind turbine

is plotted against the tip speed ratio, .

The tip speed ratio, , is defined as the ratio between the speed of the tips of the

blades of a wind turbine and the speed of the wind

vTIP

R

=

vWIND

v

(2. 1. 1)

where is the blades angular velocity (rad/s), R the rotor radius (m) and v the wind

speed (m/s).

The coefficient of performance, Cp , is defined as the fraction of energy extracted by

the wind turbine of the total energy that would have flowed through the area swept by

the rotor if the turbine had not been there

Cp =

PEXTRACTED

PWIND

(2. 1. 2)

of the power in the wind can be converted to useful energy by a wind turbine. The

power available for a wind turbine is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the air

15

as it passes through the rotor. This maximum theoretical C p was first formulated in

1919 by Betz and applies to all types of wind turbines.

It is conventional to plot the variation of the performance coefficient, C p , against the

tip speed ratio, , rather than against the wind velocity, as this creates a

dimensionless graph. A typical C p vs. curve is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. C p Vs.

This curve illustrates that the maximum value of C p is only reached for a specific

(approximately 6 in this example). For a fixed-speed wind turbine, where is

constant, this corresponds to a particular wind speed. For all other wind speeds the

efficiency of the turbine is reduced [Jenkins et al, 1997]. The aim of variable-speed

wind turbines is to always run at optimal efficiency, keeping constant the particular

that corresponds to the maximum C p , by adapting the blades velocity to the wind

speed changes. Hence, variable speed wind turbines are designed to operate at

optimum energy efficiency, regardless of the wind speed.

On the other hand, due to the fixed-speed operation for constant speed turbines, all

fluctuations in the wind speed are transmitted as fluctuations in the mechanical torque

and then as fluctuations in the electrical power grid [Ackermann, 2005]. This,

together with the increased energy capture obtained by using a variable-speed wind

turbine provides enough benefit to make the power electronics (frequency converter)

16

cost effective [Balas et al, 2006]. Therefore, the wind industry trend is to design and

construct variable-speed wind turbines.

The kinetic energy in a flow of air through a unit area perpendicular to the wind

direction is

1 2

v per mass flow rate. For an air stream flowing through an area A the

2

1

1

P = ( A v ) v 2 = A v 3

2

2

(2. 1. 3)

where is the air density (kg/m3), A the area (m2) and v the wind speed (m/s), and

P the power of the wind (watts or J/s).

From equation 2.1.3, the power available from the wind is a function of the cube of

the wind speed. That means that a doubling of the wind speed gives eight times the

power output from the turbine. Therefore, turbines have to be designed to support

higher wind loads than those from which they can generate electricity, to prevent

them from damage.

Wind turbines reach the highest efficiency at a wind speed between 10 and 15m/s.

Above this wind speed, the power output of the rotor must be controlled to reduce

driving forces on the rotor blades as well as the load on the whole wind turbine

structure [Ackermann et al, 2000]. High winds occur only for short periods and hence

have little influence in terms of energy production but, if not controlled, they would

dominate the design and cost of the drive train and the generator [Harrison et al, 2000].

Accordingly, all wind turbines are designed with a type of power control. There are

different ways to control aerodynamic forces on the turbine rotor and therefore limit

the power in high winds in order to avoid damage to the wind turbine [Ackermann,

2005].

Three options for the power output control are currently used:

Stall control is the simplest, cheapest and most robust control method [Ackerman,

2005]. It has long been the preferred control method for small and medium sized

Danish commercial turbines [Harrison et al, 2000] and it is also known as passive

17

control, since there are no moving parts to adjust: it is the inherent aerodynamic

properties of the blade which determine power output. The twist and thickness of the

rotor blade vary along its length in a way that turbulence occurs behind the blade

whenever the wind speed becomes too high. This turbulence means that less of the

energy in the air is transferred, minimising power output in higher speeds [British

Wind Energy Association, 2006]. In other words, the design of the blades

aerodynamic causes the rotor to stall (lose power) when the wind speed exceeds a

certain level. Thus, the aerodynamic power of the blades is limited.

The disadvantages of this control method are low efficiency at low wind speeds, and

no assisted start-up [Ackermann, 2005]. Besides, this type of control requires the use

of a constant speed turbine which, as already explained, has lower energy efficiency

than the variable speed turbine.

The blades of pitch controlled wind turbines can be turned out or into the wind as the

power output becomes too high or too low, respectively; the angle of the rotor blades

can be actively adjusted by the control system in order to shed the unwanted power.

Pitch control is relatively fast and can be used to limit the rotor speed by regulating

input aerodynamic power flow [Butterfield et al, 2001].

The main advantages of this type of control are good power control (power kept close

to the rated power in high winds), assisted start-up and emergency stop. Besides, stall

controlled turbines have to be shut down beyond a certain speed, whereas pitch

controlled turbines can adjust the angle of the blades to reduce the aerodynamic forces.

A disadvantage that may be considered is the complexity arising from the pitching

mechanism of the blades [Ackermann, 2005].

In Figure 5, the change of the C p - curve as the pitch angle is adjusted is shown. In

low and medium wind speeds, the pitch angle is regulated to allow the wind turbine to

operate at its optimum condition. In high wind speeds, the pitch angle is increased in

order to shed some of the aerodynamic power and maintain the rotor speed within a

controllable limit. As pitch angle increases, the wind turbine operates at lower

efficiency [Butterfield et al, 2001].

18

Figure 5.

C p Vs. Tip-Speed Ratio and Pitch angle for a typical wind turbine with pitch control

Nowadays, large wind turbines are increasingly being operated with pitch control

systems [Harrison et al, 2000].

As the name indicates, active stall control is a combination of the two techniques

explained above. At low and medium wind speeds, the blades are pitched similar to a

pitch-controlled turbine; when the wind turbine reaches rated capacity, the turbine

will pitch in the opposite direction in order to make the blades go into a deeper stall

[Ackermann et al, 2000].

A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines in the same location and used for the

generation of wind power electricity. Installing several turbines in groups at a site

leads to large-scale utilisation of wind energy. This has operation, maintenance as

well as economic advantages. Any wind energy project will incur fixed costs such as

19

the preparation of the environmental statement, legal fees and project management

costs. They are largely independent of the size of the wind farms, so it is desirable to

spread them over as large a project as possible [Jenkins et al, 1997]. This had led to

the construction of large wind farms, some of them having as many as 150 wind

turbines [EERE, 2007] and an output of hundreds of megawatts [Ackermann, 2005].

Wind farms can be classified by the location in which they are installed:

Onshore developments (Figure 6), where wind farms are constructed inland,

usually in hilly or mountainous regions to favour windy conditions.

Offshore developments (Figure 7), where wind farms are installed in the sea,

at least 10 kilometres away from the land. This is attractive because of higher

wind speeds over the sea but mainly because of the reduced environmental

impact. The major disadvantage of this type of wind farm development is the

higher cost involved in terms of foundations, power collection cables,

installation and maintenance [Jenkins et al, 1997].

20

The trend in the wind energy industry is to install wind turbines in large

concentrations with hundreds of megawatts of power capacity. Wind farms of this

size are often connected directly to the transmission grid, replacing traditional power

plants. This means that wind turbines are required to behave as active controllable

components in the power system. Such large wind farms need to meet very high

technical demands, such as to perform frequency and voltage control, to regulate

power and provide quick responses during transient and dynamic situations in the

power system. The traditional wind turbines, where the active power is controlled by

a simple pitching of the blades, do not have such control capabilities and cannot

contribute to power system stability as will be required. Power electronic technology

will therefore become more and more attractive for large wind farms that will have to

fulfil future high demands [Ackermann, 2005].

There are currently several research activities in progress in order to develop the

electrical control of such wind farms. Many control methodologies are being

investigated and some are already being implemented in practice. Depending on how

the power electronic devices are used inside a wind farm, there are different topology

options, each with its particular advantages and disadvantages [Ackermann, 2005]:

21

In this type of control structure there is a central power electronic converter. The

advantage of such structure is that the internal behaviour of the wind turbines is

separated form the grid behaviour, and thus the wind farm is robust to possible

failures of the grid. The disadvantage of this concept is that all wind turbines are

rotating with the same average angular speed and not at an individual optimal speed,

therefore giving up some of the features of the variable-speed concept, for each

individual turbine. Furthermore, this type of centralised control structure is difficult to

design, sometimes leading to complex optimisation problems [Ackermann, 2005].

In this type of control methodology, there is a hierarchical structure with both a

central control level and a local control level. The central wind farm control level

controls the power production of the whole farm by sending out reference power

signals to each individual wind turbine, while the local wind turbine control level

ensures that the reference power signal sent by the central control level is reached

[Blaabjerg et al, 2006].

The main trend of wind turbines/wind farms is clearly a variable speed operation and

attention is drawn to wind farms with centralised automatic control, which

intermediates a wind farm production conditioned by the system operators demands

[Blaabjerg et al, 2006].

In this type of configuration, each turbine in the wind farm has its own frequency

converter and its own control system. This configuration has the advantage that each

wind turbine can operate at its optimum level with respect to its local wind conditions

[Ackermann, 2005].

This solution has not been implemented in practice yet [Ackermann, 2005].

Another option to these typical wind farm control structures is the use of a highvoltage DC link as power transmission, where all wind turbines are connected to the

same power converter, and the entire wind farm is connected to the public supply grid

though another power converter. These two converters are connected to each other

through a long link cable [Ackermann, 2005].

22

2.2.3 Requirements for the Interconnection of Wind Farms to the Power System

The integration of large scale wind farms into the grid can have severe impacts on the

power system operation. Traditionally, wind turbines were not required to participate

in frequency and voltage control; however, in recent years, wind farm performance in

the power system has gained attention. Consequently, some grid codes have been

defined to specify the steady state and dynamic requirements that wind turbines and

wind farms must meet in order to be connected to the grid [Chan, 2005].

This section provides an overview of the relevant technical interconnection

regulations for wind power systems. The main requirements, directed towards

distribution network companies, wind turbine manufacturers and network operators,

are:

In theory, power production and consumption have to be in balance within a power

system. Changes in power supply or demand can lead to a temporary imbalance in the

system and affect operating conditions of power plants as well as consumer. In order

to avoid long-term unbalanced conditions the power demand is predicted and power

plants adjust their production. The requirements regarding active power control of

wind farms aim to ensure a stable frequency in the system, to prevent overloading of

transmission lines an ensure compliance with power quality standards [Ackermann,

2005].

In the power system, the frequency is an indicator of the balance or imbalance

between production and consumption. For normal power system operation, the

frequency should be close to its nominal value; in Europe this corresponds to a

frequency range of 47-52 Hz. In the case of an imbalance between production and

consumption, primary and secondary control is used to return to balanced system.

[Ackermann, 2005].

Utility and customer equipment are designed to operate at a certain voltage rating. On

the local level, voltage variations are the main problem associated with wind power.

23

This can be the limiting factor on the amount of wind power which can be installed

[Chen, 2005]. Voltage regulators and the control of reactor power at the generators

and consumption connection points is used in order to keep the voltage within the

required limits and avoid voltage stability problems [Ackermann, 2005].

Tap-changing transformers are used to maintain predetermined voltage levels. This is

achieved by alternating the transformer-winding ratio [Ackermann, 2005].

Recommendations for the connection of wind farms to distribution networks usually

include the disconnection of wind farms in the case of a fault in the network. However,

this does not apply for large wind farms, for which an immediate disconnection would

put additional stress on the already troubled system.

After severe disturbances, several transmission lines may be disconnected and part of

the network may be isolated, leading to an imbalance between production and

consumption in this part of the network. As a rule, wind farms are not required to

disconnect, as long as certain voltage and frequency limits are not exceeded.

Undervoltages/overvoltages and overfrequency/underfrequency after a fault can also

damage wind turbines and associated equipment. The protection system of the wind

farm should therefore be design to pursue two goals [Ackermann, 2005]:

-To comply with requirements for normal network operation and support the network

during and after a failure.

-To secure wind farms against damage from impacts originating from faults in the

network.

The interaction between wind farm and power system during faults in the power

system is usually verified through simulations [Ackermann, 2005].

In most regulations, the wind farm owner is required to provide the signals necessary

for the operation of the power system, such as: voltage, active power, reactive power,

operating status, wind speed, wind direction, ambient temperature and pressure,

24

abnormalities and external control possibilities [Ackermann, 2005].

It is important to note that interconnection regulations vary considerably and it is

difficult to find a general technical justification for the different technical regulations

that are currently in use worldwide. Many of the differences in the technical

regulations are caused by different wind power penetration levels and different power

system robustness depending on the countries [Ackermann, 2005].

25

Modelling is a basic tool for analysis, such as optimization, project, design and

control. Wind energy conversion systems are very different in nature from

conventional generators, and therefore dynamic studies must be addressed in order to

integrate wind power into the power system. Models utilised for steady-state analysis

are extremely simple, while the dynamic models for wind energy conversion systems

are not easy to develop. Dynamic modelling is needed for various types of analysis

related to system dynamics: stability, control system and optimization.

Referring to [Lubosny, 2003], in the case of power systems with classical sources of

energy analysis, the modelling is relatively simple because the models and controllers

of the processes are well known and even standardized; the data are available. But in

the case of wind turbine modelling, researchers face problems related to the lack of

data and lack of control-system structures due to strong competition between wind

turbine manufacturers. This leads to the situation in which many researchers model

the wind energy conversion systems in relatively simple form, almost neglecting the

control systems, which significantly influence the reliability of the analytical results.

Modern wind turbine generator systems are constructed mainly as systems with a

horizontal axis of rotation, a wind wheel consisting of three blades, a high speed

asynchronous generator (also known as induction generator) and a gear box.

Asynchronous generators are used because of their advantages, such as simplicity of

construction, possibilities of operating at various operational conditions, and low

investment and operating costs. The wind turbine under study falls under this category

and is also equipped with a blade pitch angle control system, which enables the power

generated by the wind turbine to be controlled. A typical wind energy conversion

system is displayed in Fig. 8.

26

The wind turbine model, consisting of the aerodynamic, drive train and electrical

generator model is described next. These models are proposed by [Lubosny, 2003],

[Martins et al, 2007] and [Lei et al, 2006]. A list of the wind turbine variables

symbols and units used throughout the model definition can be found in Appendix 2.

As pointed out in Chapter 2, the wind turbine blades extract the kinetic energy in the

wind and transform it into mechanical energy. The kinetic energy in air of an object of

mass m moving with speed v is equal to

E=

1

m v2

2

(3. 1. 1)

The power in the moving air (assuming constant speed velocity) is equal to

Pw =

dE 1 2

= m v

dt 2

(3. 1. 2)

where m is the mass flow rate per second. When the air passes across an area A (e.g.

the area swept by the rotor blades), the power in the air can be computed as

Pw =

1

A v3

2

(3. 1. 3)

where is the air density. Air density can be expressed as a function of the turbine

elevation above sea level H

= 0 1.194 10 4 H

(3. 1. 4)

where 0 = 1.225 kg/m3 is the air density at sea level at temperature T=298K.

The power extracted from the wind is given by

1

PBLADE = Cp ( , ) Pw = Cp ( , ) A v 3

2

(3. 1. 5)

The rotor power coefficient is usually given as a function of two parameters: the tipspeed ratio and the blade pitch angle (in degrees). The blade pitch angle is

defined as the angle between the plane of rotation and the blade cross-section chord.

And the tip speed ratio is defined as

m R

v

(3. 1. 6)

27

where m is the angular velocity of the rotor and R the rotor radius (blade length).

The rotor torque Tw can be computed as

Tw =

PBLADE

1

Cp ( , ) A v 3

= 2

(3. 1. 7)

A = R2

(3. 1. 8)

1

Cp ( , ) R 2 v 3

Tw = 2

(3. 1. 9)

the tip-speed ratio and the blade pitch angle as follows

1

C 6

1

Cp ( , ) = c1 c 2 c3 c 4 x c5 e

(3. 1. 10)

with defined as

1

1

0.035

+ 0.08 1 + 3

(3. 1. 11)

while the coefficients c1-c6 are proposed as equal to: c1=0.5, c2=116, c3=0.4, c4=0,

c5=5, c6=21 (x is not used here because c4=0).

According to [Lubosny, 2003] an example of the power coefficient ( Cp ( , ) )

characteristics computed taking into account equations 3.1.10 and 3.1.11 and the

above parameters c1-c6 for a given rotor diameter, rotor speed and for various blade

pitch angles is presented in Figure 9.

blade pitch angle in degrees [Lubosny, 2003]

28

The drive train (mechanical parts) of a wind turbine system in general consists of a

blade pitching mechanism, a hub with blades, a rotor shaft (relatively long in wind

energy conversion systems with asynchronous generators) and a gearbox with

generator. The drive train model presented in this paper includes the inertia of both

the turbine and the generator. The moment of inertia of the wind wheel (hub with

blades) is about 90% of the drive train total moment, while the generator rotor

moment of inertia is equal to about 10%. At the same time, the generator represents

the biggest torsional stiffness.

The acceptable and common way to model the drive train of a wind turbine in power

system operation analysis is based on the assumption of two lumped/masses only: the

generator (with gearbox) mass and the hub with blades (wind wheel) mass [Lubosny,

2003]. The structure of the model is presented in Figure 10.

Hg

d g

dt

= Te +

Tm

n

(3. 2. 1)

Additionally, since the wind turbine shaft and generator are coupled together via a

gearbox, the wind turbine shaft system should not be considered stiff. To account for

29

the interaction between the windmill and the rotor, an additional equation describing

the motion of the windmill shaft is adopted

H m

d m

= Tw Tm

dt

(3. 2. 2)

Tm = K

+ D

g m

n

d

= g m

dt

(3. 2. 3)

(3. 2. 4)

where n is the gear ratio, is the angle between the turbine rotor and the generator

rotor, m , g , H m and H g are the turbine and generator rotor speed and inertia

constant, respectively, K and D are the drive train stiffness and damping constants, Tw

is the torque provided by the wind (from section 3.1) and Te is the electromagnetic

torque.

The mechanical power of the wind turbine is converted into electric power by an

alternating current (AC) generator or a direct current (DC) generator. The AC

generator can be either a synchronous machine or an induction (asynchronous)

machine. The latter is most widely used in the wind power industry and was selected

for this project. The electrical machine works on the principle of action and reaction

of electromagnetic induction. The resulting electromechanical energy conversion is

reversible. The same machine can be used as a motor for converting mechanical

power into mechanical power or a as generator for converting mechanical power into

electric power.

As pointed out by [Lubosny, 2003], it is assumed that the asynchronous generator,

also called induction generator, has three-phase stator armature winding (AS, BS, CS)

and a three-phase rotor winding (AR, BR, CR) as shown in Fig. 11. The stator is the

outer stationary member and the rotor is the inner rotating member of the machine.

The rotor is mounted on bearings fixed to the stator. In the electromagnetic structure

of the induction generator, when the stator winding is supplied with three-phase

current (waveforms of equal amplitude, displaced in time by one-third of a period), a

30

rotating magnetic field is produced. The angular speed of the rotating magnetic field

is called the synchronous speed, s . The relative speed between the rotating field and

the rotor induces a current in the rotor. The resulting magnetic field interacts with the

stator field to make the rotor rotate in the same direction. In this case, the machine

acts as a motor since, in order for the rotor to rotate, energy is drawn from the electric

power source. However, if an external mechanical torque (in this case the wind torque)

is applied to the rotor to drive it beyond the synchronous speed, then electrical energy

is pumped to the power grid, and the machine will act as a generator [Dorf, 2000].

An induction machine needs no electrical connection between the stator and the rotor.

Its operation is entirely based on electromagnetic induction. The absence of rubbing

electrical contacts and simplicity of its construction make the induction generator a

very robust, reliable, and low-cost machine.

usually based on the following assumptions [Lubosny, 2003]:

The stator currents are positive when flowing towards the network.

The real and reactive power are positive when fed into the grid.

31

The stator and rotor windings are placed sinusoidally along the air-gap as far

as the mutual effect with the rotor is concerned.

The stator slots cause no appreciable variations of the rotor inductances with

rotor position.

The rotor slots cause no appreciable variations of the stator inductances with

rotor position.

Additionally, for machine modelling, such a type of model is adequately precise.

The set of equations of the asynchronous generator model is usually converted into a

model related to an arbitrarily set reference frame: the machine is converted into the

so-called 0dq reference frame model. The dq axis representation of induction

generator is used for simulation, taking flux linkage as basic variable [Jangamshetti et

al, 2006]. It is based on fifth-order two axis representations. Mathematical

transformations are used in the analysis and simulation of three-phase systems, mostly

to decouple variables, to facilitate the solution of difficult equations with time-varying

coefficients. Parks transformation [Slemon, 1989] decouples and rotates the stator

variables into a dq reference frame. The positive d-axis of the dq frame is aligned with

the magnetic axis of the field winding, that of the positive q-axis is ahead in the

direction of rotation or lead the positive d-axis by / 2 . ds and qs correspond to stator

direct and quadrature axes; dr and qr correspond to rotor direct and quadrature axes.

As stated in [Weedy et al, 1998], in electrical engineering the per unit (p.u.) system is

the expression of system quantities as fractions of a defined base unit quantity. These

fractions are called per unit and the p.u. value of any quantity is defined as

32

value in p.u. =

base or reference value in the same unit

Calculations are simplified because quantities expressed as per unit are the same

regardless of the voltage level. Similar types of apparatus will have impedances,

voltage drops and losses that are the same when expressed as a per-unit fraction of the

equipment rating, even if the unit size varies widely. Although the use of p.u. values

may at first sight seem a rather indirect method of expression there are several reasons

for using a per-unit system:

per unit quantities are the same on either side of a generator, independent of

voltage level.

calculations are simplified.

Referring to [Slootweg et al, 2001] it is difficult to calculate the per unit value of the

power extracted from the wind, because aerodynamic and mechanical wind turbine

characteristics such as rotor diameter and wind velocity come into play. Therefore the

asynchronous generator equations are given in the per unit system (p.u.), and the

aerodynamic and drive train equations in the standard international units.

An appropriate model of the induction generator is the most complicated part of the

total wind generation model. The model of such a system is well described in many

books and papers [Karrari et al, 2005].

Two main induction generator models are used when performing power system

dynamic studies [Martins et al, 2007]:

and the rotor circuits, containing four electromagnetic state variables. This

model is also known as the fifth order model.

33

electromagnetic state variables. This model is sometimes referred in the

literature as the third order model, accounting for the two electric state

variables and the generator speed.

equation relating Vds , Vqs , the stator direct and quadrature axis voltages, to I ds , I qs ,

the stator direct and quadrature axis currents, is required.

The complete model of an asynchronous generator, expressed in a 0dq reference

frame rotating at synchronous speed and taking positive currents going out from the

machine, consists of the following equations:

Magnetic fluxes

ds = X s I ds + X m I dr

(3. 3. 1)

qs = X s I qs + X m I qr

(3. 3. 2)

dr = X r I dr + X m I ds

(3. 3. 3)

qr = X r I qr + X m I qs

(3. 3. 4)

Voltages

Vds = Rs I ds + s qs

Vqs = Rs I qs s ds

d ds

dt

d qs

0 = Rr I dr + s s qr

0 = Rr I qr s s dr

dt

d dr

dt

d qr

dt

(3. 3. 5)

(3. 3. 6)

(3. 3. 7)

(3. 3. 8)

where the sub indexes (s,r) stand for the stator and rotor quantities, respectively, and

the sub indexes (d, q) stand for the components aligned with the d- and q- axis in a

34

linkage, V the voltage and I the current. In the case of the traditional induction

machine, the rotor voltage Vdr and Vqr is equal to zero, since the current is only fed

into the stator. Variables s and g are the synchronous and generator rotor speed,

respectively.

The slip of the rotor, s, is defined as follows

s=

s g

s

(3. 3. 9)

The slip is positive in the motoring mode and negative in the generating mode.

The electric parameters of the machine Rs , X s , X m , Rr and X r stand for the stator

resistance and reactance, mutual reactance and rotor resistance and reactance,

respectively.

The electrical torque is given by

Te = qr I dr dr I qr

(3. 3. 10)

The developed torque Te is positive for motoring operation and negative for

generation operation.

Finally, the wind turbine active, reactive and apparent power output are given by the

following equations

Pactive = Vds Ids + Vqs I qs

(3. 3. 11)

(3. 3. 12)

(3. 3. 13)

For power system transient studies, the inclusion of the network transients and

generator stator transients increases the order of the overall system model, thus

limiting the size of the system that can be simulated. Furthermore, a small time step is

required for numerical integration resulting in an increased computational time. For

these reasons, it has become conventional to reduce the order of the generator and

neglect the network transients for stability analysis [Ekanayake et al, 2003]. Different

methods for reducing the generator equations are discussed in [Wasynezuk et al,

1985]. For this project, a standard method of reducing the order of the induction

generator model was considered where the rate of change of stator flux linkage is

35

2007]. It is done by neglecting terms

d qs

d ds

and

in Equations 3.3.5-3.3.6, which

dt

dt

windings.

Rearranging equations 3.3.1-3.3.13 leads to the following simplified model

ds = X s I ds + X m I dr

(3. 3. 14)

qs = X s I qs + X m I qr

(3. 3. 15)

dr = X r I dr + X m I ds

(3. 3. 16)

qr = X r I qr + X m I qs

(3. 3. 17)

Vds = Rs I ds + s qs

(3. 3. 18)

Vqs = Rs I qs s ds

(3. 3. 19)

0 = Rr I dr + s s qr

0 = Rr I qr s s dr

s=

d dr

dt

d qr

dt

s g

s

(3. 3. 20)

(3. 3. 21)

(3. 3. 22)

Te = qr I dr dr I qr

(3. 3. 23)

(3. 3. 24)

(3. 3. 25)

(3. 3. 26)

The mathematical equations above consist of a mixed set of ordinary differential and

algebraic equations that express the wind turbines physical laws of conservation of

energy and momentum.

36

A state of the art software application, gPROMS, which enables the user to specify

the order of polynomial and the number of points for discretisation of the spatial

domain was used here for dynamic simulation. The software gPROMS is an equation

oriented modelling system used for building, validating and executing models. The

wind turbine model described in sections 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 was implemented in

gPROMS. Details can be found in Appendix 3.

In table 1, the variables with a known value, the variables with an unknown value and

the number of equations for the wind turbine are given.

Known variables

, v , Vds , Vqs

Unknown variables

Te , Tm , Tw , g , m , ds , qs , dr ,

qr , I ds , I dr , I qs , I qr , s , , Cp ,

, , P

Number of equations

19 (Appendix 3)

Table 1. Variables with a known value, variables with an unknown value and number of

equations for wind turbine model

The table above shows that the number of unknown variables equals the number of

equations for the wind turbine model. Therefore the number of degrees of freedom is

equal to zero, and a simulation of the wind energy conversion system can be run.

The wind turbine parameters used for the simulation are given in Table 2.

Parameter

Value

Rotor radius, R

25

Air density,

1.225

37

c6=21

Gear ratio, n

65.27

Damping, D

1E6

Stiffness, K

6E7

Rotor inertia, H m

1.6E6

Generator inertia, H g

35.184

Stator resistance, Rs

0.0121

Stator reactance, X s

0.0742

Mutual reactance, X m

2.7626

Rotor resistance, Rr

0.0080

Rotor reactance, X r

0.1761

Synchronous speed, s

It is important to note that for simulation purposes, the initial conditions were taken as

steady state (all time derivatives equal to zero).

Wind turbines usually operate at a wind velocity between 5 m/s to 25m/s. Since the

rated power is achieved at a wind velocity around 10 m/s, the wind velocity was set to

10 m/s for the base case. The transmission system and some portions of the

distribution system are operated at voltages in the kilovolt (kV) range. Therefore Vds

and Vqs were assigned a value of 1000 V. The blade pitch angle was set to zero in

the base case, which translates in capturing all the available power from the wind. The

simulation was run in gPROMS for 10 hours; results are shown in the following

graphs.

38

400

30

300

20

200

10

100

0

-100 0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

-10

-200

-20

-300

S t at o r cu r r e n t ( A )

R o t o r cu r r e n t ( A )

W i nd turbi ne currents

-30

-400

T ime ( s)

Idr

Iqr

Ids

Iqs

The electromagnetic torque and the generator rotor slip are plotted in Fig. 13. As

expected, they have negative values in the generating mode.

-1000

0

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

-0.2

-2000

-0.4

-3000

-0.6

-4000

-0.8

S lip r at io

E le ct r o m ag n e t ic

t o r q u e ( N .m )

T ime ( s)

Elecromagnetic Torque

Slip ratio

39

60000

Power (W)

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

Time (s)

Power

In order to observe how the wind velocity affects the wind turbine output power, a

simulation was run modifying the wind speed. The initial wind speed was set to 8m/s

for 10 hours, and then increased up to 10m/s for another 10 hours. Figure 15 shows

that an increment in the wind speed results in a higher output power.

49300

10

49200

49100

49000

48900

48800

48700

W in d V e lo c it y

( m /s )

12

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

P o w er (W)

70000

T im e ( s )

Wind Velocity

Power

40

The response of the wind turbine towards a blade pitch angle step change is shown in

Figures 16 and 17. Figure 16 illustrates how an increment in the blade pitch angle

accurately translates in a reduction of the wind power coefficient.

12

0.25

10

0.2

0.15

Cp

Beta (degrees)

0.1

4

2

0.05

0

0

20000

40000

60000

80000

100000

120000

Time (s)

Beta

Cp

Figure 16. Power coefficient towards blade pitch angle step change

Figure 17 shows that the angle of the rotor blades can be adjusted in order to shed the

unwanted power. When the wind speed becomes too high, a control structure could

increase the blade pitch angle in order to reduce the aerodynamic power.

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

49500

49000

48500

48000

47500

47000

46500

0

20000

40000

60000

80000

100000

Powe r (W)

B e t g a ( de g r e e s)

120000

T ime ( s)

Beta

Power

Figure 17. Power output towards blade pitch angle step change

41

As explained in section 2, the energy from the wind is not constant and the wind

turbine power output is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, which causes the

generated power to fluctuate. In general, the electrical power should be smooth and

non-fluctuating. Therefore, in order to reduce fluctuation, a blade pitch control

strategy can be developed. With pitch control, the power captured ( PBLADE ) from the

wind power ( Pw ) can be controlled by a pitch actuator. As the wind speed increases,

the power generated by the wind turbine also increases. Once the maximum rated

power is reached, the pitch angle is increased (pitch-to-feather) to reduce the power

coefficient and hence the aerodynamic power.

As stated in section 3, the inputs for the wind turbine model are the wind velocity v

and the blade pitch angle . The wind velocity is a disturbance variable; it changes

constantly and cannot be controlled. On the other hand, the blade pitch angle is a

manipulated variable. It can be adjusted in order to reduce the unwanted power when

the wind speed becomes too high.

Classical techniques such as proportional (P), integral (PI) and derivative (PID)

controllers are typically used to regulate the pitch angle of a wind turbine.

Nevertheless, as stated in [Balas et al, 2006], controlling modern turbines to minimize

the cost of wind energy is a complex task, and much research remains to be done to

improve controllers. Referring to [Bemporad et al, 2002], model predictive control

has become the accepted standard for complex constrained multivariable control

problems in the process industries. Although in the 1970s industry started

implementing model predictive control for many type of processes, considerable

research still needs to be carried out regarding the implementation of this type of

control for wind turbines [Brosilow et al, 2002]. The main advantage of this control

strategy is that it takes into account constraints (such as economic considerations or

operating conditions), which are usually not considered by the investigations done in

42

wind energy systems. A model predictive controller predicts the future behaviour of a

process using a reduced model, and finds the control actions necessary for regulating

the process solving an optimal control problem on a receding horizon. The goal of the

optimization problem is to bring the system to the target regulation set point y * in an

optimal way, while satisfying all constraints. The optimization satisfies possible

constraints and bounds on the states y and inputs u . These constraints can include,

for example, limited control authority and bounds on the blade pitch command and its

rates, or maximum values of important parameters of the system that need not be

exceeded. Model predictive control is a form of control in which the current control

action is obtained by solving, at each sampling instant, a finite horizon open-loop

optimal control problem, using the current state of the process as the initial state

[Mayne et al, 2000].

An important drawback of model predictive control is that it requires on-line

computational effort, which limits its applicability to relatively slow and/or small

problems. A solution to the implementation problem of model predictive control is

given by using novel parametric programming techniques. Parametric programming is

an advanced mathematical programming method for solving optimization problems;

model predictive controllers obtained via parametric programming are usually

referred to as parametric controllers or explicit controllers. This technique [Bemporad

et al, 2002] allows to move all the computations necessary for the implementation of

the model predictive control off-line, while preserving all its other characteristics,

thus increasing the range of applicability of model predictive control. The

optimization problem of the model predictive control is solved off-line and the

optimization variable (in this case the blade pitch angle) is obtained as a function of

the parameters of the process such as the output, states and set points. The feasible

region of the parameters space is also obtained.

In general any optimization framework in engineering problems can be described

mathematically as

z ( ) = min f ( x ) + d T y

x, y

(4. 2. 1)

s.t. g (x ) + Ey b + F

min max

43

x X Rn

y Y {0,1}

Rs

where y is a vector of binary variables, x a vector of continuous variables, f a

scalar of continuous differentiable function of x , g a vector of continuous

differentiable function of x , is a vector of parameters, b and d are constant vectors.

Parametric optimization obtains z and x as explicit functions z ( ) , x( ) of and

the regions CR ( ) where these functions are valid. By treating the process operating

variables as parameters, the optimization problem of the model predictive control is

solved off-line by parametric optimization to obtain the optimal solution as an optimal

mapping of the operating variables. The on-line implementation of model predictive

control is then reduced to a simple function evaluation at each sampling time instant.

The parametric controller design strategy is shown in Figure 18. The main advantage

of using explicit parametric controllers is that as the operating conditions of the

process fluctuate there is no need to re-optimize since the optimal solution is already

given as a function of the set of operating conditions. Hence, parametric controllers

can be implemented on inexpensive hardware with inexpensive and less complicated

software. This has been successfully demonstrated on several continuous processes

[Panga et al., 2005]. More details of parametric control can be found in [Bemporad et

al, 2002] and [Pistikopoulos et al, 2002].

44

This work attempts to design a parametric controller for the power output of a wind

turbine, by regulating the pitch angle of the blades. The parametric controller was

built in MATLAB. For this reason, the wind turbine model was directly transposed to

the

MATLAB/Simulink

software.

An

overview

of

the

implemented

described with their mathematical relations, defined in section 3.

45

The parametric controller was developed by first obtaining a linear input/output ARX

polynomial representation of the wind energy system. This was done by importing the

simulation data of the wind turbine power and blade pitch angle into MATLAB and

representing the data in the system identification toolbox. The sampling time for the

data acquisition was 1 second. The mathematical description of the resulting ARX

model was:

A(q) y (t ) = B(q) u (t ) + e(t )

(4. 2. 2)

46

q 1 y (t ) = y (t 1)

(4. 2. 3)

with A(q ) = 1 q 1

(4. 2. 4)

(4. 2. 5)

The modelling mismatch, e(t ) , was neglected for the design of the controller.

The following model predictive controller formulation is considered for the wind

energy system:

J = min

Ut +1,...UN

t =1

Q ( y t y ref ,t ) + t =1 Ru t2

2

(4. 2. 6)

u t = u t u t 1

0 u t 90

0 y t 50000

Q = 50 , R = 1 , = 10 3 , N = 5

where y is the controlled variable (wind turbine power output P in W), u is the

manipulated variable (blade pitch angle in degrees), is a positive optimization

variable incorporated to perform constraint softening in the presence of output

infeasibility, and N (prediction horizon), Q (output cost), R (control moves

suppression weight) are the tuning parameters. The values of the constraint bounds

(determined by the wind turbine design specifications) along with the tuning

parameters are given in Table 3.

P low

P up

low

up

Values

50000

90

Tuning

50

10 3

Constraints

parameters

Values

47

The specifications of the parametric controller are to reduce the tracking error

between the output and the optimal power and satisfy the constraints imposed on the

parameters of the wind energy system. The only information needed to solve equation

4.2.6 and compute the control action u (t ) ( (t ) ) are the values of the elements of the

state vector x . This vector comprises the past input and output values and the future

set-point of the output power spanned until the end of the prediction horizon

t 1

x = Pt 1

Pset po int

(4. 2. 7)

The solution of this problem is obtained using recently developed algorithms [Dua et

al, 2002] and the Parametric Optimization (POP) software (property of ParOS Ltd). It

consists of a set of explicit linear expressions for the optimal value of the optimization

variable in terms of the parameters and a set of regions in space where those

expressions are valid. This mapping features an output feedback control law for the

wind turbine as it directly relates the control action (current (t ) ) to the controlled

output ( P ). The solution gave a polyhedral partition of the state-space into 21 regions.

For example in region 1, the expression for the control law (manipulated variable) is:

= [1 0.0045579 - 0.0045579 ] ,

1

-1

- 2.4358e - 014

2.4358e - 014

-1

if

1

0.0045579

- 0.0045579

1

-1

0

0

-1

1

0

0

- 0.0045579

0.0045579

-1

0

*x

0

-1

90

0

219.4

219.4

0

90

47034

2966

47034

2966

(4. 2. 8)

A two dimension projection of the controller regions, by fixing Pset po int , is given in

Figure 23.

48

Similar 2D plots of the polyhedral space partition are given in Figures 24 and 25, by

fixing Pt 1 and t 1 respectively.

49

For the controller implementation, the measured output value y (t ) and the values of

the past output/input variables and future set-point are substituted into the set of the

inequalities for each region. If all the inequalities are satisfied, the region where the

parameters lie is identified. Then, the processor substitutes the parameter values to the

obtained optimal control function to calculate the value of the blade pitch angle that

needs to be adjusted.

Since the wind turbine model was built in gPROMS and the parametric controller was

designed in the MATLAB environment, a link was created in order to connect these

two programmes and implement the controller. gO:MATLAB, licensed as an optional

component of the gPROMS family, allows an entire gPROMS model to be called as a

single function from inside MATLAB, enabling to solve a complex set of algebraic

and ordinary differential equations within a single call. gO:MATLAB avoids the need

for existing models to be simplified and rewritten for the MATLAB environment.

Therefore, the validated, detailed gPROMS wind turbine model was called as a

50

MATLAB function for use in control analysis and design. The model was exported

from gPROMS using a simple export facility, which packages the model and all the

solvers and support software required for its solution within MATLAB. For this

purpose, a schedule was created in the gPROMS process entity that introduces the

communication protocols that defined the data to be exchanged with MATLAB

(Appendix 5).

Data exchange was implemented on the gPROMS side using the gPROMS Foreign

Process Interface (FPI). This was carried out by using the FPI GET and SEND

statements:

The GET statement is used to read data from MATLAB for input to the

gPROMS simulation.

MATLAB.

The FPI communication schedule was implemented using a task entity which is itself

called by the Process Entity. Details can be found in Appendix 6.

The gO:MATLAB function was called inside the MATLAB environment using the

syntax: gOMATLAB. The script file is shown in Appendix 7. Figure 26 presents the

gPROMS wind turbine model executing correctly within MATLAB.

51

Results are plotted in Figures 27 and 28. Once the maximum rated power is reached,

the blade pitch angle is increased to reduce the power coefficient and hence the

aerodynamic power. The figures illustrate how in less than one minute the blade pitch

angle is adjusted by the controller in order to set the wind turbine power output to the

reference value.

As explained in section 2, as the wind speed increases, the turbine extracts more

power from the wind. Above 10-15 m/s wind speeds, the power output of the rotor

must be controlled to reduce driving forces on the rotor blades as well as the load on

the whole wind turbine structure.

As shown in the graphs bellow, once the rated power is achieved, the controller

accurately increments the blade pitch angle to shed some of the unwanted power and

prevent the wind turbine from damage.

Power profile

49,500

49,000

Power (W)

48,500

48,000

47,500

47,000

46,500

20

40

60

80

100

120

Time (s)

140

160

180

200

52

0.012

0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

20

40

60

80

100

120

Time (s)

140

160

180

200

53

5.1 Contributions of this thesis

A wind energy conversion system consisting of the blades, mechanical parts and

induction generator was modelled. Using the presented model, the output power for

wind turbines was simulated in a simple way in gPROMS. To test the performance of

the proposed model, wind turbine responses both to a step increase in wind speed and

blade pitch angle were simulated. In both cases, the proposed model gave valuable

insight into the performance of the variable speed wind turbine. As expected, the

power generated increases with the wind speed, confirming the need of some sort of

power control. On the other hand, an increment in the blade pitch angle proved to

shed the aerodynamic power. As a normal dynamic simulation time step was adopted,

this model was proven to be computationally efficient.

Based on the obtained rigorous wind turbine model, a blade pitch angle control

strategy for output power levelling was developed. An explicit parametric controller

was formulated using MATLAB and the Parametric Optimization (POP) software.

The controller design was based on an input-output ARX model and a predictive

optimization problem formulation. The controller was derived off-line by recasting

the current and past control input and process output together with the future

reference trajectory as a set of parameters. Then parametric optimization was used to

derive a mapping of the control actions in the parameter space. The solution gave a

polyhedral partition of the state-space into 21 regions. Hence, a simple explicit

optimal control law was constructed that allows the on-line implementation via simple

linear function evaluations. The controller was successfully implemented using

gO:MATLAB, a tool for calling the wind turbine gPROMS model from inside

MATLAB. The simulation results show that the parametric controller performs well,

accurately adjusting the blade pitch angle in order to set the power output to the

reference value, in less than one minute.

Although a comparison of the parametric controller with classical control techniques

such as PI was not made, an important advantage of the parametric controller over

standard controllers is worth mention. The PI controller is designed to operate for the

nominal operating conditions. When a perturbation of the nominal operating

conditions occurs, re-optimization of the PI parameters is required to cope with the

54

new scenario. On the contrary, the explicit parametric controller does not need reoptimization since the optimal solution is already a function of the set of operating

conditions. Thus, for any change in the operating conditions the explicit parametric

controller can successfully produce a control action to counteract for these changes.

The results obtained during this investigation are encouraging. The potential benefits

of parametric control for wind energy systems were analysed; it appears that this

control method allows for smooth wind turbine operation. However, a comparison of

this control method with classical PI controllers would be desirable to demonstrate if

substantial performance improvement of the parametric controller approach over

standard controllers is possible.

Furthermore, validating the developed wind turbine model and parametric controller

with an experimental real-time implementation on an actual turbine would be very

valuable. Moreover, this study is limited to the available data, and further validation

of the model with other wind turbines, other operating points and different

disturbances would be advisable. For instance, this study can be improved by taking

into account wind gusts and other practical problems.

The inclusion of the power electronics, converter, inverter, rectifier, capacitor,

transformer and grid connection would make the wind energy system model more

complete. Further research includes modelling and control of a group of

interconnected wind turbines or wind farm.

It should be noticed that the design of the parametric controller did not take into

account any robustness requirements. Since this work is a first attempt to develop an

explicit controller for a wind turbine, the design of a robust explicit controller is

recommended as future work.

55

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60

Appendices

Appendix 1

List of wind turbines manufacturers [Energy Source Guides, 2007]:

Bergey Windpowers

DeWind

Nordex

manufacturers

Southwest Windpower

Vestas Wind Systems, Denmark- the worlds largest wind turbine producerwind turbines up to 4.5 MW

61

Appendix 2

Symbol

Variable

Units

wind speed

m.s-1

air density

kg.m-3

rotor radius

m2

Pw

P BLADE

Tw

aerodynamic torque

N.m

no units

pitch angle

degrees

Cp ( , ) power coefficient

no units

rotor speed

rad.s-1

generator speed

rad.s-1

Te

N.m

Tm

mechanical torque

N.m

Tw

wind torque

N.m

Hm

rotor inertia

kg.m2

Hg

generator inertia

kg.m2

damping

Nm.rad-1.s-1

stiffness

Nm.rad-1

gear ratio

no units

magnetic flux

p.u.

current

amperes

voltage

volts

slip ratio

no units

62

inductance

p.u.

reactance

p.u.

synchronous speed

p.u.

Pactive

active power

Preactive

reactive power

apparent power

63

Appendix 3

#####################################################################

Model Entity

###################################################################################

PARAMETER

Rho

AS

REAL

R

AS

REAL

Rs

AS

REAL

Xs

AS

REAL

Xm

AS

REAL

Rr

AS

REAL

Xr

AS

REAL

Ws

AS

REAL

Hg

AS

REAL

Hm

AS

REAL

K

AS

REAL

D

AS

REAL

C1

AS

REAL

C2

AS

REAL

C3

AS

REAL

C5

AS

REAL

C6

AS

REAL

VARIABLE

Te

Tm

Tw

Wg

Wm

FLUXds

FLUXqs

FLUXdr

FlUXqr

Ids

Idr

Iqs

Iqr

Vds

Vqs

S

Theta

Cp

V

Lamda

Beta

P

Q

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

AS

Torque

Torque

Torque

AngularSpeed

AngularSpeed

Flux

Flux

Flux

Flux

Current

Current

Current

Current

Voltage

Voltage

Ratio

Angle

Ratio

Speed

Ratio

Ratio

Power

Power

64

Gama

AS

Ratio

EQUATION

# Induction Generator model

FLUXds=Xs*Ids+Xm*Idr;

FLUXqs=Xs*Iqs+Xm*Iqr;

Vds=-Rs*Ids+Ws*FLUXqs;

Vqs=-Rs*Iqs-Ws*FLUXds;

FLUXdr=Xr*Idr+Xm*Ids;

FLUXqr=Xr*Iqr+Xm*Iqs;

0=-Rr*Idr+S*Ws*FLUXqr-$FLUXdr;

0=-Rr*Iqr-S*Ws*FLUXdr-$FLUXqr;

Te=FLUXqr*Idr-FLUXdr*Iqr;

S=(Ws-WG)/Ws;

P=Vds*Ids+Vqs*Iqs+Vqs*Ids-Vds*Iqs;

#2 mass drive train model (mechanical parts)

Hg*$Wg=Te+Tm/n;

Hm*$Wm=Tw-Tm;

Tm=K*(Theta/n)+D*((Wg-Wm)/n);

$Theta=Wg-Wm;

#aerodynamic model (blades)

Tw=(0.5*Rho*3.1416*(R^2)*Cp*V^3)/Wm;

Cp=C1*(C2/Gama-C3*Beta-C5)*exp(-C6/Gama);

Gama=1/((1/(Lamda+0.08*Beta))-(0.035/(1+Beta^3)));

Lamda=Wm*R/V;

#####################################################################

Process Entity

###################################################################################

UNIT

Turbine AS windturbine

SET

Turbine.Rs

Turbine.Xs

Turbine.Xm

Turbine.Rr

Turbine.Xr

Turbine.Ws

Turbine.Hg

Turbine.Hm

Turbine.K

Turbine.D

Turbine.R

Turbine.n

Turbine.Rho

Turbine.C1

Turbine.C2

Turbine.C3

Turbine.C5

:=0.0121;

:=0.0742;

:=2.7626;

:=0.0080;

:=0.1761;

:=1;

:=35.184;

:=1.6E6;

:=6E7;

:=1E6;

:=25;

:=65.27;

:=1.225;

:=0.5;

:=116;

:=0.4;

:=5;

65

Turbine.C6

:=21;

ASSIGN

Turbine.V

Turbine.Beta

Turbine.VQS

Turbine.VDS

:=10;

:=0;

:=1000;

:=1000;

INITIAL

STEADY_STATE

SOLUTIONPARAMETERS

REPORTINGINTERVAL :=100;

SCHEDULE

Continue for 3600*10

66

Appendix 4

wind turbine explicit parametric controller

% Minimum values for u (pitch angle) and y (power)

vnom= [0];

ynom= [47033.97];

% Number of inputs

mpc.nu = 1;

% Output and control horizon

mpc.hy= [5];

mpc.hc= [5];

mpc.bMismatch = 0;

% Upper and lower bounds for y

mpc.y_up = [50000] - ynom;

mpc.y_low= [0] - ynom;

% Upper and lower bounds for u

mpc.u_up= [90] - vnom;

mpc.u_low= [0] - vnom;

mpc.bLimitDU =[1];

mpc.DU_up = [1];

mpc.DU_dn = [1];

mpc.wu = [0];

mpc.yridx=[1];

% Q value

mpc.wy=[50];

% R value

mpc.wdu = [1];

% Rho value

mpc.rho = [1e-3];

mpc.termul = 10;

mpc.lin_mv= [0];

% mpc.e_penalty = [0];

% mpc.sp_prof{1}=[{1:mpc.hy}];

% mpc.sp_prof{1}=[{1:mpc.hy}];

% Define wind turbine model

m.A = [1 -1];

% Enter A(q) here

67

m.na = [1];

m.nb = [2];

m.nk = [0];

% Enter order of A(q)

% Enter order of B(q)

% Enter time delay here

arxm = m; % The arx model is stored with the name arxm: this is needed later

% Parameters low and upper bounds

t_low = [mpc.u_low mpc.y_low mpc.y_low];

t_up = [mpc.u_up mpc.y_up mpc.y_up];

% Procedure for parametric controller calculation

[mpver, trans] = arx2qp(arxm, mpc);

cri = mpqp2(mpver, bound2constr(t_low,t_up), zeros(length(t_low),1), 10000);

psol = cri;

inQP = inv(mpver.Q)*trans.P';

nt = length(t_low);

for i=1:length(cri)

% x = v - inv(Q)P't;

%psol(i).X = cri(i).X(:,1:nt+1) - [inQP; zeros(size(inQP,1),1)];

psol(i).X = cri(i).X(:,1:nt+1) - [inQP zeros(size(inQP,1),1)];

%

psol(i).X(:,1:nt) = cri(i).X(:,1:nt) - inQP;

% constant term unchanged

end

% Algorithm ends and the variable psol contains the solution

save windturbine psol

68

Appendix 5

UNIT

Turbine AS windturbine

SET

Turbine.Rs

Turbine.Xs

Turbine.Xm

Turbine.Rr

Turbine.Xr

Turbine.Ws

Turbine.Hg

Turbine.Hm

Turbine.K

Turbine.D

Turbine.R

Turbine.n

Turbine.Rho

Turbine.C1

Turbine.C2

Turbine.C3

Turbine.C5

Turbine.C6

:=0.0121;

:=0.0742;

:=2.7626;

:=0.0080;

:=0.1761;

:=1;

:=35.184;

:=1.6E6;

:=6E7;

:=1E6;

:=25;

:=65.27;

:=1.225;

:=0.5;

:=116;

:=0.4;

:=5;

:=21;

ASSIGN

Turbine.V

Turbine.Beta

Turbine.VQS

Turbine.VDS

:=10;

:=0;

:=1000;

:=1000;

INITIAL

STEADY_STATE

SOLUTIONPARAMETERS

gRMS := OFF;

FPI

:= "eventFPI";

ReportingInterval := 1 ;

SCHEDULE

sequence

gMATLAB(wind is Turbine)

end

69

Appendix 6

gPROMS task entity to exchange data with MATLAB

PARAMETER

wind as MODEL windturbine

SCHEDULE

SEQUENCE

while True Do

sequence

GET

wind.Beta;

END

continue for 1

SEND

wind.A;

END

end

end

END

70

Appendix 7

gOMatlab('startONLY');

gOMatlab('select', 'varpitch', 'varpitch');

gOMatlab('simulate', 'varpitch');

ee=1;

%Length of each simulation interval

L=1;

%Number of results from gPROMS

M=21;

%Number of control regions

N=5;

%Number of control horizons

y=0;

u=0;

Uout=zeros(N,1);

count=0;

%to calculate how many regions are being met

ReturnMatrix=zeros(1,L+1);

%exports the simulation results from gPROMS to MATLAB

Time=0;

tempu=u;

tempy=y+47033.97;

while Time <=200

i=1;

while i<=M

if psol(i).cr.A*[u;y;2193]<=psol(i).cr.b

Uout=psol(i).X*[u;y;2193;1];

disp ('***********find feasible region************')

count=count+1;

break;

end

i=i+1;

end

ReturnMatrix(1,:)=gOMATLAB('evaluate',[Uout(N)],L);

y=ReturnMatrix(1,1)-47033.97;

u=Uout(N);

tempu=[tempu u];

tempy=[tempy y+47033.97];

Time=Time+ee;

end

plot(tempu);

figure

plot(tempy);

count

Time

gOMATLAB('stop');

-min(y)

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