You are on page 1of 6

Material

Pelton wheel
o The Pelton wheel is composed of a nozzle which converts the
whole available head to kinetic energy and a rotor made up
of a series of double hemispherical buckets fastened on the
periphery of the rotor. The rotor is not enclosed, and the
o

water leaving the buckets goes immediately to the tailrace.


The Pelton wheel falls in a large class of these machines
known as the axial-flow type where the nozzle angle relative
to the runner is zero. However, the bucket cannot have a
180 camber angle, since the water must have a finite radial
velocity component away from the wheel in order to avoid

interference.
Hydraulic bench
o A mobile self-contained bench to provide a variable supply of
water to a series of interchangeable bench-mounting or floor-

standing hydraulic and fluid mechanics experiments.


Tachometer
o A tachometer (revolution-counter, tach, rev-counter, RPM
gauge) is an instrument measuring the rotation speed of a
shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. The device
usually displays the revolutions per minute (RPM) on a
calibrated analogue dial, but digital displays are increasingly
common.

Methodology
Methodology that is used to make this project complete and working well.
The method is use evaluate this project that will accomplish a good result. In
order to evaluate this project, the methodology based on experiment procedure
Implementing and analysis.

Experimental procedure and method to run the experiment


Referring to figure 1.3, steps to run experiment are:
1. Close the experimental valve (1) and switch on the water
supply (2)

2. Slowly open the spear valve until it fully open, allowing the
jet (4) to drive the pelton wheel
3. Increase the load on the wheel by adjusting the knob above
4.

the spring balance (3) at desire intervals.


At each interval, record the wheel speeds (using optical
tachometer), force at a both spring balances and jet inlet

pressure.
5. Repeat the above experiment using spear valves position
no.2.

Data Analyse
Interpolation
To analyse the data that we obtain from pelton wheel experiment
we used Interpolation In numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of
constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known
data points. In engineering, we often obtain a number of data points from
experimentation. It is often required to estimate (i.e., interpolate) the
value for an intermediate value.
To predict an unknown data, the simplest form of interpolation is to
connect two known data points with a straight line, that is, linear
interpolation. But in our project we use Lagrange and Newtons Divided
Difference

Lagrange polynomial interpolation is a well-known and classical


technique for interpolation. It can be represented concisely as:

For analyse our data we used Lagrange interpolation Second


Order /Quadratic Lagrange Interpolation (3 points) because Second
order

interpolating

polynomial

gives

the

highest

accuracy.

Interpolation using higher order polynomial usually gives higher


accuracy

In the Newtons Divided Difference interpolating polynomial,


the basic idea is to express the predicted function from the known
previous data. For our project we used until third order difference
only.

Graphical depiction of the recursive pattern of Newtons

Divided Difference.

Formula we used
The power developed in the jet can be calculated from the speed and crosssectional area. The power developed in the jet can be calculated from the speed
and cross-sectional area. The power developed by the Pelton Wheel will be less
than this, in the ratio of the wheel's efficiency, which may be estimated by
reference to the known performance of existing machines of comparable size
and output. Depending on the head and flow rate available the size and speed of
the Pelton Wheel obtained in this way may prove to be impracticable or
uneconomic. Fortunately, other types of water turbine are available to suit a wide
variety of circumstances. The Pelton Wheel is usually chosen when the available
head is high, but the flow rate is comparatively low. The power developed by the
Pelton Wheel will be less than this, in the ratio of the wheel's efficiency, which

may be estimated by reference to known the performance of existing machines


of comparable size and output. Depending on the head and flow rate available
the size and speed of the Pelton Wheel obtained in this way may prove to be
impracticable or uneconomic. Fortunately, other types of water turbine are
available to suit a wide variety of circumstances. The Pelton Wheel is usually
chosen when the available head is high, but the flow rate is comparatively low.
Torque:
T= [F1-F2] r........................................ (1)
Where;
r = Brake wheel radius (0.025m),
F 1 = Force on spring balance (0-25N)
F2 =Force on spring balance (0-15N)
Turbine power:
P = 2 rNT/60... (2)
Where;
N = Speed (rev/mi n), T = Torque (Nm), P =Power (W)
Radial velocity (bucket):
N = Speed (rev/mi n)
T = Torque (Nm)
P =Power (W)
Maximum efficiency occurs when u = v/2....... (3);
Where;
u =dN/60 (4)
60
1

and v =) C V (2 gH) 2 .... .. ... . ...... .. . .... (5)


Where;
Cv = Velocity coefficient = 1
v =jet velocity
u = bucket velocity
d = wheel diameter

r = pitch radius