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Pelton Wheel

Pelton Wheel

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Pelton wheel

o The Pelton wheel is composed of a nozzle which converts the

whole available head to kinetic energy and a rotor made up

of a series of double hemispherical buckets fastened on the

periphery of the rotor. The rotor is not enclosed, and the

o

The Pelton wheel falls in a large class of these machines

known as the axial-flow type where the nozzle angle relative

to the runner is zero. However, the bucket cannot have a

180 camber angle, since the water must have a finite radial

velocity component away from the wheel in order to avoid

interference.

Hydraulic bench

o A mobile self-contained bench to provide a variable supply of

water to a series of interchangeable bench-mounting or floor-

Tachometer

o A tachometer (revolution-counter, tach, rev-counter, RPM

gauge) is an instrument measuring the rotation speed of a

shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. The device

usually displays the revolutions per minute (RPM) on a

calibrated analogue dial, but digital displays are increasingly

common.

Methodology

Methodology that is used to make this project complete and working well.

The method is use evaluate this project that will accomplish a good result. In

order to evaluate this project, the methodology based on experiment procedure

Implementing and analysis.

Referring to figure 1.3, steps to run experiment are:

1. Close the experimental valve (1) and switch on the water

supply (2)

2. Slowly open the spear valve until it fully open, allowing the

jet (4) to drive the pelton wheel

3. Increase the load on the wheel by adjusting the knob above

4.

At each interval, record the wheel speeds (using optical

tachometer), force at a both spring balances and jet inlet

pressure.

5. Repeat the above experiment using spear valves position

no.2.

Data Analyse

Interpolation

To analyse the data that we obtain from pelton wheel experiment

we used Interpolation In numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of

constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known

data points. In engineering, we often obtain a number of data points from

experimentation. It is often required to estimate (i.e., interpolate) the

value for an intermediate value.

To predict an unknown data, the simplest form of interpolation is to

connect two known data points with a straight line, that is, linear

interpolation. But in our project we use Lagrange and Newtons Divided

Difference

technique for interpolation. It can be represented concisely as:

Order /Quadratic Lagrange Interpolation (3 points) because Second

order

interpolating

polynomial

gives

the

highest

accuracy.

accuracy

the basic idea is to express the predicted function from the known

previous data. For our project we used until third order difference

only.

Divided Difference.

Formula we used

The power developed in the jet can be calculated from the speed and crosssectional area. The power developed in the jet can be calculated from the speed

and cross-sectional area. The power developed by the Pelton Wheel will be less

than this, in the ratio of the wheel's efficiency, which may be estimated by

reference to the known performance of existing machines of comparable size

and output. Depending on the head and flow rate available the size and speed of

the Pelton Wheel obtained in this way may prove to be impracticable or

uneconomic. Fortunately, other types of water turbine are available to suit a wide

variety of circumstances. The Pelton Wheel is usually chosen when the available

head is high, but the flow rate is comparatively low. The power developed by the

Pelton Wheel will be less than this, in the ratio of the wheel's efficiency, which

of comparable size and output. Depending on the head and flow rate available

the size and speed of the Pelton Wheel obtained in this way may prove to be

impracticable or uneconomic. Fortunately, other types of water turbine are

available to suit a wide variety of circumstances. The Pelton Wheel is usually

chosen when the available head is high, but the flow rate is comparatively low.

Torque:

T= [F1-F2] r........................................ (1)

Where;

r = Brake wheel radius (0.025m),

F 1 = Force on spring balance (0-25N)

F2 =Force on spring balance (0-15N)

Turbine power:

P = 2 rNT/60... (2)

Where;

N = Speed (rev/mi n), T = Torque (Nm), P =Power (W)

Radial velocity (bucket):

N = Speed (rev/mi n)

T = Torque (Nm)

P =Power (W)

Maximum efficiency occurs when u = v/2....... (3);

Where;

u =dN/60 (4)

60

1

Where;

Cv = Velocity coefficient = 1

v =jet velocity

u = bucket velocity

d = wheel diameter

r = pitch radius

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