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ABSTRACTS

2nd One Health International Conference

Strategic Approach to Global


Health Security through One
Health Innovations: Vision 2035
Speke Resort, Munyonyo, Kampala, Uganda
16th - 19th November 2015

2nd One Health International Conference


Strategic Approach to Global Health Security
through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035
Speke Resort, Munyonyo, Kampala, Uganda
16th - 19th November 2015

Funded by:
United States Agency for International Development
(USAID) Emerging Pandemics Threats-One Health Workforce Project
With additional support from:
Defence Threats Reduction Agency (DTRA) through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)
Food and Agricultural organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Wellcome Trust
Resilient Africa Network (RAN)
USAID Preparedness and Response (P&R) Project
African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET)
Makerere University School of Public Health (MaKsph)
Organized by One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA)

MAK@90

MAKERERE

UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE


ANIMAL RESOURCES & BIOSECURITY
Transforming Human Capital Development, Science, Technology, innovations
and services for socio-economic Transformation
The College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity
(CoVAB) is repositioning in line with both the Makerere University
Strategy (2010-2020) to meet emerging development challenges, and the
National Vision (2010-2040) to transform Uganda from a peasant to a
modern and prosperous society.

CoVABs channels for Repositioning:


Teaching and Learning Programs
Research, knowledge and technology transfer programs
Technology, development, production and multiplication
programs
Makerere in-training community services and extension
programs
Enterprise incubation programs
Academic-Community-Public-Private-Partnerships
Institutional and organizational development

dangers posed by life threatening biological agents at national, regional


and global level.
CoVAB, in partnership with the Government of Uganda have introduced
a unique training model, with a unique curriculum (a blend of
entrepreneurial, vocational, intellectual and managerial skills and unique
graduates (with skills, an enterprise and quality certificate). In this model,
no school leaver is useless. The model is designed to take the university
into communities by engaging academia as partners in development
under the AFRISA platform. Courses include production, value addition
and entrepreneurship in poultry, dairy, leather, meat, pig, fish, animal
feeds and wildlife. Others are Companion animal production, training and
management and Laboratory Science Education and Industrial technology

School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources


Departments:

CoVABs Global Development Mandates:

Veterinary Services: securing the wellbeing of animals


Animal

Resources Development: securing economic


opportunities from the animal world (wealth, livelihood, production,
employment)

Sustainable Biosecurity: securing the freedom, integrity and


sustainability of humanity, economic and security systems from the

Livestock and Industrial Resources


Wildlife and Aquatic Animal Resources
Veterinary Pharmacy, Clinical and Comparative Medicine

School of Bio-security, Biotechnical and Laboratory


Sciences Departments:

Bio-molecular Resources and Bio-lab Sciences


Biotechnical and Diagnostic Sciences
Bio-security, Ecosystems and Veterinary Public Health

Vision: A healthier,
wealthier and safer society in Africa through
Animal resources, with CoVAB as the Leading Academic
Institution for strategic innovations and services.
Mission: To drive transformative skills,
knowledge, technology, enterprises, learning, research and
engagement services for the continuous wellbeing
and socio-economic growth.

For further information:


Visit; www.covab.mak.ac.ug or www.afrisa-africa.org
Call; +256 312 514 068 / +256 414 554 685
Email; pr@vetmed.mak.ac.ug or info@afrisa-africa.org

WELCOME
Welcome to Kampala and to OHCEAs Second
International Conference on One Health. The recent
Ebola outbreak in the West African region demonstrated
how a geographically isolated outbreak of a zoonotic
disease can cause global disruption and underscored
the economic and humanitarian impacts of infectious
diseases. In todays globalized world, the speed with
which emergent diseases can surface and spread
raises serious public health, economic, security and
development concerns. The continuing threat from
infectious diseases such as Ebola, avian influenza, Rift
Valley Fever, and Nipah virus have raised awareness of the
interdependence of human health, animal health and the
ecosystem and the need for more systematic and crosssectoral approaches to identify and respond to global
public health emergencies. One of the key approaches to
achieve the Global Health Security vision is by building
a multidisciplinary public health workforce that is well
trained and fully equipped to counter infectious disease
threats. The premise of engaging multiple disciplines to
address shared problems that span the human-animalenvironmental interface eliminates the current global
barriers that exist as a result of disciplinary silos.
The theme of this second International One Health
Conference - Strategic approach to Global Health
Security through One health Innovations: vision 2035
recognizes the need for all disciplines infectious disease
specialists, scientists, environmentalists, clinicians,
anthropologists, veterinarians, wildlife experts, policy
makers and academicians who share knowledge on One
health to work together to predict, prevent and respond
to any public health threats.
One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA) is a
network of universities in Central and Eastern Africa
which are collaborating to build One Health capacity and
academic partnerships between the member institutions
in the region and with governments. OHCEA membership
includes 14 Central and Eastern African Schools of Public
Health (7) and Schools of Veterinary Medicine (7); and
US partner institutions, The University of Minnesota

Prof. David Kabasa


Conference Chair

(UMN) and Tufts University. The overall goal of this


collaboration is to enhance One Health policy formation
and implementation, in order to contribute to improved
capacity of countries to respond to any emerging
pandemics in the region.
The OHCEA networks vision is to be a global leader in
One Health, promoting sustainable health for prosperous
communities, productive animals and balanced
ecosystems. OHCEA seeks to expand the human resource
base needed to detect and respond to potential pandemic
disease outbreaks, and increase integration of animal,
wildlife and human disease surveillance and outbreak
response systems.
The one health paradigm emerged from the recognition
that the wellbeing of humans, animals and ecosystems
are interrelated and interdependent, and there is need
for more systematic and cross sectoral approaches
to identifying and responding to global public health
emergencies and other health threats arising at the
human animal ecosystem interface. The subthemes of
the conference intend to advance the One Health agenda
beyond the theoretical to the practical, bringing much
needed attention to policy and operational issues that
ultimately determine the impact and success of cross
sectoral efforts.
We hope that this conference will provide everyone with
a unique opportunity to consider recent progress in One
Health, review challenges and develop collaborative
solutions that will allow us to discover, detect, understand,
prevent and respond to any infectious disease outbreaks,
and provide us with a forum to assess the investments
required to build a practical one health approach.
This meeting, and OHCEA, is financially supported by
United States Agency for International Development
through the USAID Emerging Pandemics Threat-One
health Workforce Project. Thank you for your participation
Sincerely,

Prof. William Bazeyo


OHCEA Chair
2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to
Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

PROGRAM-AT-A-GLANCE
Date

Activity

Room

November 14-15th
8.30 - 17.00

Pre-conference
1. Fundamentals of Bio risk Management
2. Basics of Biosafety and Biosecurity Risk Assessment

Sheena
Conference
Hall

3. Biorisk Management Training & Curriculum: Tips and Tricks


November 15th
12.00 - 21.00

Registration and Information Desk

Victoria Ball
Room

7:00pm

Vice Chancellor Dinner

TBD

Monday, November 16th, 2015


Theme: Emerging Pathogens and their Interface

Victoria Ball
Room

08.00 - 08.30

Registration

08.30 - 10.00

Welcome and Official opening: Key note and key guests


Press conference

10.00 - 10.30
10.30 - 12.45
12.45 - 13.15
13.15 - 14.15
14.15 - 16.15
16.15 - 17.30
18.30 - 21.30

Session 1: Plenary: Lessons learnt from Ebola and MERS-Corona virus outbreaks
Session 2 Poster viewing
Lunch
Break-out sessions
Session 3: Emerging Pathogens (Terrestrial, aquatic, and air)
Session 4: Vector Borne Pathogens
Session 4: Environmental Pollution as a predisposing factor
Coffee Break
Session 6: Poster viewing (Break out session1)
Session 7: Program Evaluation Workshop (Breakout session 2)
Welcoming Dinner

Time

Tuesday, November 17th, 2015


Theme: Emerging Pandemic Threats preparedness and response

2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

Victoria Ball
Room

08.00 - 10.00
10.30 - 12.30
12.30 - 13.00
13.00 - 14.00
14.00 - 16.00
16.00 - 18.00

Session 9: Plenary: Transforming the current and future workforce

Victoria Ball
Room

Break out sessions


Session 10: Immunotoxicology, antibiotic and antiviral resistance
Session 11: Social determinants of health
Session 12: The role of the One health workforce
Session 13: Poster viewing
Lunch
Break out session
Session 14: Innovative translation of research methods to policy and
community: success stories
Session 15: Clinical research on emerging diseases
Session 16: Novel case studies
Session 17 Monitoring and Evaluation workshop

Time

Wednesday, November 18th, 2015


Theme: Innovative Multidisciplinary Interventions

08.30 - 10.00

Session 18: Plenary: Innovative communication strategies

10.30 - 12.30

Breakout sessions

12.30 - 13.30

Session 19: National regional and International One Health platforms/


Engaging stakeholders Panel

14.30+

Victoria Ball
Room.

Session 20 Resilient Africa, OH Innovations in One Health


Closing ceremony
Lunch
Networking partnership building and site visits
08.30 - 17.00

Session 19: FAO-OHCEA Workshop: One Health Regional Meeting

Albert Hall

Time

Program activity

Responsible
person

12:00 to late

Check-in hotels by participants

OHCEA
Secretariat

14.00 - 17.00

Registration of participants

OHCEA
Secretariat

2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

SATURDAY 14TH NOVEMBER 2015


1. Fundamentals of Biorisk Management (Susan Boggs, Ph.D, Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA)
This course is intended for those who work with infectious biological material or educators and students. This
is a foundational course on biorisk management for educators, students, researchers, clinicians, veterinarians,
and government employees related with biosciences. Biosafety and biosecurity risks are managed through an
effective biorisk management system. Scenarios used in the course and small group discussions will illustrate
core concepts on biorisk management through an interactive learning environment. This course is a prerequisite
to Basics of Biosafety and Biosecurity Risk Assessment course.
Target Audience: All Educators, Students, Laboratory Workers, Field Investigative teams, Government officials
related in biosciences. Audience Level: Basic
Objectives:
Define biorisk management, biosafety, and biosecurity risks
Develop a strategy to manage biorisks
Identify laboratory and field biosafety and biosecurity practices
Identify resources to manage biorisks

2. Basics of Biosafety and Biosecurity Risk Assessment (Susan Boggs, Ph.D., Sandia National
Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
This course will offer a deeper understanding of biosafety and biosecurity risk assessment process. Conducting
a risk assessment doesnt have to be time consuming but it does need to be robust. This course will focus on
risk characterization as an important step in the risk assessment process. Scenarios and group exercises will
illustrate effective risk assessment process that leads to appropriate mitigation control measures. This course will
be interactive with the use of scenarios and small group discussions. This course is intended for those who have
completed Fundamentals of Biorisk Management or equivalent.
Target Audience: All Biosafety Professionals, Laboratory Workers. Audience Level: Intermediate
Objectives:
Identify and list contributing factors for assessing biosafety and biosecurity risks
Identify the steps of a risk assessment
Determine steps to manage risk (mitigation)
Identify resources and references for risk assessment

Time

Program activity

Speaker

Room

8.3013.00

Fundamentals of Biorisk
Management

Susan Boggs, Sandia National


Laboratories

Sheena Conference Hall

14.00-17.00

Biosafety and Biosecurity Risk


Assessment

Susan Boggs, Sandia National


Laboratories

Sheena Conference Hall

2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

SUNDAY 15TH NOVEMBER 2015


3. Biorisk Management Training & Curriculum: Tips and Tricks
This course is intended for pre-service and in-service educators and trainers in biorisk management. Biosafety
and biosecurity skills are needed now more than ever by multiple disciplines. How do you train, educate, and
maintain skills in biorisk management? This course will discuss options on integrating biorisk management
curriculum into existing curriculum, designing short courses for learners needs, and building a robust in-service
training program. This course will be interactive with the use of scenarios and small group discussions. This course
will be interactive using small group discussions and lessons learned from the facilitators.
Target Audience: All in-service and pre-service educators, trainers, and management
Audience Level: Basic
Objectives:
Identify learning objectives for a given biorisk management scenario
Identify steps of a training design cycle
Analyze current situation and desired outcome to develop learning
Identify resources and references for training in biorisk management
Time

Program activity

Speaker

Room

8:30-12:30

Biorisk Management Training & Curriculum: Tips and


Tricks

Susan Boggs, Sandia


National Laboratories

Sheena Conference Hall

Speakers name

Chair

Day 1. Monday, 16th November 2015: Official Opening session


Sunday: 15th November 2015: arrival of guests at Speke Resort
Time

Program activity

08.0008.30

Registration

08.3009.30

Program announcements and Housekeeping

Notes
Speke
Resort

Introductory remarks by Chair Conference


organizing committee

Prof. David Kabasa

Welcome from OHCEA

Prof. William Bazeyo

Prof. William
Bazeyo

Welcome from Vice Chancellor Makerere University.


Brief remarks from FAO
Brief remarks from WHO
Brief remarks from USAID Uganda Mission
Introduction of Guest of Honour (Minister of Health
Uganda.)

Hon. Chris Baryomunsi

Official Opening speech by Rt.Hon. Prime Minister


of Uganda

Hon. Ruhakana Rugunda

09.0010.00

Keynote speech on Global Health Security: the role


of One Health Innovations

Dr. Dennis Carroll

10.0010.30

Press conference (Attendance by one representative


from Government of Uganda, USAID, OHCEA,
FAO, WHO, MaK, CDC and one member of overall
organizing committee)

10.0010.30

COFFEE BREAK- POSTER VIEWING

Angelina
Twinomujuni

2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

SESSION SPEAKERS

John Jack Woodall, PhD


Dr. John Jack Woodall, a viral epidemiologist, is
visiting Professor and Director (retired), Nucleus for
the Investigation of Emerging Infectious Diseases
at the Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Center for
Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. Dr Woodall is a co-founder and associate
editor of ProMED-mail www.promedmail.org, the free,
online outbreak reporting system of the Program for
Monitoring Emerging Diseases of the International
Society for Infectious Diseases, which gives early
warning of outbreaks of emerging diseases and toxins in
humans, animals and food & feed crops worldwide. He
became the contents manager/editor of the ProMEDmail section in the Kahn-Kaplan-Monath One Health
Initiative website http://www.onehealthinitiative.com
in February 2009.
Other posts that Dr. Woodall currently holds include
member of the Scientists Working Group of the Center
for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington
DC (USA) since 2004, the Editorial Advisory Board
of The Scientist magazine since 2007, and member
of the Editorial Advisory Boards of the Journal of
Medical Chemical, Biological & Radiological Defense
since 2008 and of the Journal of Infection, Ecology &
Epidemiology (IEE) since 2012. In addition, he was on
the Scientific Advisory Board, Sabin Vaccine Institute,
Washington DC from 2004-2006. He has served on the
American Committee on Arthropod-Borne Viruses of
the American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene
(ASTMH) and as Web Site Editor of the ASTMH from
2002-2008.

2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

Dr. Woodall earned his PhD in virology/entomology


at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
in 1958. He was successively Senior Scientist for Her
Majestys Overseas Research Service, East African
Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda; a staff
member of The Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY
(USA); Director, Belm Virus Laboratory, Belm, Par,
Brazil; Research Fellow, Yale Arbovirus Research Unit,
Yale University, New Haven CT (USA); Head, Arbovirus
Laboratory, New York State Health Dept., Albany NY,
USA; Staff member, US Public Health Service, Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA;
Director, San Juan Laboratories, San Juan, Puerto Rico;
Scientist with the World Health Organization, Geneva,
Switzerland; and a second tour with the New York State
Health Dept. as Director, Arbovirus Laboratory, Albany,
NY, USA. From 1998 until his retirement in 2007 he was
Visiting Professor in the Federal University of Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.
Dr. Woodall is a recognized public health authority,
educator and One Health leader. He is currently the
contents manager of the ProMED-mail page of the One
Health Initiative website and an active participant
of the autonomous pro bono One Health team of
Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP, Bruce Kaplan, DVM,
Thomas P. Monath, MD and Lisa A. Conti, DVM, MPH.
Dr. Woodall has published numerous articles in peerreviewed journals. He travels frequently by invitation
to promote the online reporting of emerging diseases
and One Health.

William Bazeyo
William Bazeyo is a Ugandan physician, academician
and Occupational Health specialist. He is currently
an Associate professor of occupational medicine
at Makerere University college of Health Sciences
School of Public Health where he is the Dean of the
school. Makerere University is the oldest university
in Uganda. He is also the Lab Director and Chief of
Party of ResilientAfrica Network (RAN) which brings
together 20 Universities in 16 African Countries,
Director Center for Tobacco Control in Africa [CTCA],
Principal Investigator (Executive Director) One Health
Central and Eastern Africa [OHCEA]
In 1979, He joined Makerere University Medical
School where he obtained the degree of Bachelor of
Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB). He went
on to obtain the Master of Medicine (M Med [OM])
degree specializing in Occupational Health from
the National University of Singapore (NUS) in 1992.
He later obtained the Doctor of Public Health (PhD)
degree from Atlantic International University in 2014.
He also obtained a certificate in Authentic Leadership
Development (ALD) from Harvard Business School in
August 2015.
Dr. William Bazeyo has been a researcher, academician
and lecturer at Makerere University School of Public
Health since 1992 where he currently serves as the
Dean. Prior to that, he worked as a medical officer
at Kitagata Hospital in Western Uganda, Murchison
bay prison hospital in Kampala and a Senior Medical
Officer at the Coffee Marketing Board in Kampala. He is

a Principal Investigator for several projects funded by


Development partners including USAID, CDC, Bill Gates
and many more. The Projects focus on different areas
namely, ResilientAfrica Network (RAN), a USAID Higher
Education Solutions Network (HESN) Lab which is a
consortium of 20 African Universities led by Makerere
University School of Public Health in partnership with
Stanford University, Tulane University and Center for
Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) whose main
focus is the creation of Resilient Communities using
innovations created by students and faculties (multidisciplinary) with community participation. The 20
universities are in 16 African countries and is funded
by USAID. Centre for Tobacco Control in Africa focuses
on supporting governments to enact and implement
Tobacco control measures that reduce tobacco use
especially among the youth who are more prone.
He is the PI of OHCEA which houses the One Health
Work (OHW) force Project which brings together 15
Schools of Public Health and Schools of Veterinary
in 7 regional countries to create a cadre of graduates
with skills and competencies to address global health
issues while breaking the different silos of Veterinary
medicine and Public health. OHW is currently being
funded by USAID. He is also the PI of the Monitoring
and Evaluation Technical Support (METS) program
which is Centres for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC)- funded collaboration between the Makerere
University School of Public Health (MakSPH) and the
University of California San Francisco (UCSF) for 5
years. Dr. William Bazeyo has published extensively in
medical journals and other peer publications.

2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

Thomas Gillespie
Pathogen emergence is disproportionately associated
with the tropics and is often linked to anthropogenic
change. The overall goal of Gillespies work is to
determine how and why anthropogenic changes to
tropical forests place people and wildlife in such
ecosystems at increased risk of pathogen exchange.
The central hypothesis of this work is that key
human behaviors, wildlife behaviors, ecological
conditions, and landscape features increase the
risks of interspecific disease transmission. This effort
entails a combination of epidemiology, molecular
ecology, behavioral ecology, social and clinical
survey, and spatially explicit modeling. The ultimate
products are implementable plans for protecting
human and wildlife health, while simultaneously
ensuring the sustainability of the ecosystems within
which they live. Gillespie is an Emory Global Health
Institute Faculty Member of Distinction and Associate
Professor in Environmental Health at Rollins School of
Public Health and Environmental Sciences at Emory

University. Prior to his tenure at Emory University,


Gillespie was Director of the Earth and Society
Initiative on Disease Emergence and Ecosystem Health
at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, where
he also served on the faculty of Veterinary Medicine
and Anthropology. His expertise in disease ecology
has been called upon by the UN General Assembly,
The US Department of State, The US Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, The US Department of
Defense, The US Environmental Protection Agency, the
UN Environment Programme and The European Union.
He is a member of working groups on Land Use Change
and Disease through the National Center for Ecological
Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) and the The National
Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC). He is
a member of the IUCN Species Survival Commission
and editor of the IUCN Best Practices in Great Ape
Health. He has served On the scientific advisory
board of the Morris Animal Foundation and is a board
Member of Pivot and Centre Valbio.

Trevor Ames
Dr. Trevor R. Ames is dean of the University of
Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. Prior to
this position, he served as chair of the universitys
Veterinary Population Medicine Department, acting
chair of the Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department,
chair of the Veterinary Medical Center Leadership
Team and as the colleges Interim Dean.

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2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

He earned his DVM degree in 1978 from the Western


College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of
Saskatchewan and his MS degree in 1981 from the
University of Minnesota.
Dr. Ames is a Diplomate of the American College of
Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), with research
interests that include infectious diseases of horses
and cattle.

Thierry Baldet
Senior Program Specialist
Agriculture and Environment Program
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)

Expertise: environmental health, public health, vectorborne diseases, emerging infectious diseases
Languages: French, English, Spanish
Based in: Ottawa, Canada
Thierry Baldet has over twenty years of experience
in research, surveillance and control of infectious
diseases in Africa.
Before joining IDRC, Thierry worked with the
Centre de coopration internationale en recherche
agronomique pour le dveloppement (CIRAD), a French
agricultural research centre focused on research for
the development and the Institute of research for
development (IRD), a French scientific institution
dedicated to the development of tropical countries.

He carried out research on vector-borne diseases,


as well as training and expert consulting for several
organisations: French ministries of Agriculture, Health
and Research, the French Centre dExpertise National
sur les Vecteurs (CNEV), the European Food Safety
Authority (EFSA), and the World Health Organization
(WHO). He has lived and worked in many West African
countries, including the Entomological Research Center
of Cotonou CREC/Ministry of Health in Benin where he
helped develop and coordinate the first International
Master in medical and veterinary Entomology linking
France and West Africa.
Baldet holds PhD in Medical Entomology from the
University of Montpellier, France.

Dr. Monica Musenero Masanza


Dr. Musenero a Veterinary Doctor, graduated from the
Makerere University in 1992, and was immediately
recruited as staff at the then Faculty of Veterinary
Medicine. In 1994, She joined Cornell University,
Ithaca USA to undertake her Masters Studies where
she majored in Microbiology and Immunology. In 2003,
she enrolled for her Master of Public Health (MPH)
at Makerere School of Public Health. She spent her
two years of attachment during training with Hoima
District located in South Western Uganda; one of the
hot spots of emerging and re-emerging diseases. Upon
completion she joined the Ministry of Health, first as
a Fellow and then as Principal Epidemiologist at the
Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, working with
Surveillance, systems strengthening and Epidemic

response. Dr. Musenero recognition as a significant


personality in public health started to emerge during
the 2007 Ebola epidemic. Her work was widely
recognized by many including the President of the
Republic of Uganda. She later joined the African Field
Epidemiology Network (AFENET) where she played a
very significant role not only in Uganda but all over
the African continent in strengthening capacity for
outbreak response. Dr. Monica Museneros unique
training which combines veterinary, microbiology and
public health positions her to be one of the strongest
advocates for a One Health approach to sustainable
public health, not only in Uganda but globally. She has
authored a number of publications, spoken at various
conferences, developed and conducted both academic

2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

11

and non-academic training programs. Dr. Musenero


is the architect behind the Masters of Preventive
Medicine Field Veterinary Epidemiology Track, which
is currently offered at Makerere College of Veterinary
Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB).
She has served as a consultant to various organizations
including USAID, WHO and DTRA.
Most recently, Dr. Musenero has been celebrated for
her heroic role during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra
Leone. She has been received various awards in Sierra

Leone, Uganda and regionally. Dr. Musenero is the


incumbent Assistant Commissioner, Epidemiology
and Surveillance Division in the Ministry of HealthUganda, but is currently on temporary secondment
to Sierra Leone to support programs to end the Ebola
outbreak and strengthen basic health systems. She is
the current Vice-President of the Uganda Veterinary
Association and a mentor to many.
Dr. Musenero is married to Dr. Michael Masanza and
they have three children - Joshua, Michelle and Joel.

Prof. Robinson Hammerthon Mdegela

BVM (SUA, Morogoro), MVSc. (RVAU, Copenhagen) PhD (NVH, Oslo)


Associate Professor: Fish Diseases; Environmental Toxicology; and Risk Analysis
Area of specialization: Ecosystem Health

Prof. Robinson Mdegela received his Bachelor of


Veterinary Medicine from Sokoine University of
Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania in 1996, Master
of Veterinary Science from Royal Veterinary and
Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark in 1998
and PhD from Norwegian School of Veterinary Science,
Oslo, Norway in 2006. He also holds a number of
certificates among which are Certificates in Molecular
diagnostics for infectious diseases, Fish Diseases
and Pathology, Risk Analysis, Ecosystem Health,
Environmental Toxicology and Biorisk Management.
Prof. Robinson Mdegela currently teaches wildlife,
livestock and fish diseases; risk analysis; environmental
toxicology; One Health Medicine; Globalization
and Health; Population and Ecosystem Health; and
Environmental Epidemiology to both undergraduate
and postgraduate students at the University in the
Faculties of Veterinary Medicine and Forestry and
Nature Conservation. Since 2001, he has also been
involved in the supervision of graduate (21 PhD and
33 MSc) students as well as 52 special projects for
undergraduate students. Prof. Mdegela, is a very
active academic, researcher and consultant, having
published over 110 papers, over 68 in peer-reviewed
journals and over 42 publications in proceedings.
He has been involved in the development of more
than 25 collaborative research projects funded by
multinational development partners, also serving
as an active researcher and principal investigator in

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2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

seven (9) of them. From his research projects, he has


worked hard with his research groups to generate
3 patents. He is a member of various institutional,
national and international organizations that include
Tanzania Veterinary Board (TVB), Tanzania Veterinary
Association (TVA), Tanzania Association of Public,
Occupational and Environmental Health Experts
(TAPOHE), Society of Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry (SETAC), Wildlife Disease Association
(WDA), Western Indian Marine Science Association
(WIOMSA), The World Poultry Science Association
(WPSA) (Tanzania chapter) and the Aquaculture
Society for East Africa (ASEA). He is a resourceful
person in teaching and research on contemporary
and emerging health issues. In addition, he serves
as Guest/visiting professor for teaching a course on
Climate Change and Diseases to the International
Global Health Programme, in Helsinki Finland. He is
a University Focal Person for One Health Central and
East Africa (OHCEA) representing Sokoine University
of Agriculture (SUA). He is an active researcher in areas
related to Ecology of infectious zoonotic diseases
in wildlife interface areas; fish diseases; Endocrine
disruptors and Cyanobacterial toxins in aquatic
ecosystems. In addition to research, Prof. Mdegela
has also been involved in consultancies related to
pollution of aquatic environment; ecosystem health,
climate change and variability and risk analysis

Katey Pelican
Katey Pelican got her DVM from the University of
Minnesota in 1997. She completed her PhD in Wildlife
Physiology with the Smithsonians National Zoo and
the University of Maryland in 2002. She continued
at the Smithsonian until 2007 when she was hired
by the University of Minnesota, College of Veterinary
Medicine to head an Ecosystem Health Initiative
focused on improving health at the intersection of
animals, humans and the environment for which she was
made a Division Head in 2014. From 2009 to 2014 she
was University Partner Co-Lead for the USAID funded
RESPOND project that worked with the university
networks, One Health Central and Eastern Africa and
Southeast Asia One Health University Network to
build global capacity for diseases emerging out of
animal populations using One Health approaches.
In 2014, this work continued with Dr. Pelican as the
Deputy Director of the USAID One Health Workforce
Project. Both RESPOND and One Health Workforce are

part of the USAID Emerging Pandemic Threats Program


(EPT) and focus on working with 28 university schools
of public health, veterinary medicine, nursing and
medicine through the university networks to create
innovative training programs that improve health
and control infectious diseases in emerging disease
hotspots. In addition to her work with the EPT program,
she has research projects focused on understanding
health and disease at the human-livestock-wildlife
interface in Africa and Minnesota. Over the past 3
years Dr. Pelican has also worked with USDA, the
World Bank, CDC, FAO and now the State Department
to implement a new One Health Systems Mapping and
Analysis Resource Toolkit (OH-SMART) process that
was piloted in Minnesota in 2013 and is now being
launched as a Toolkit for US Veterinary Services and
for 6 countries in Southeast Asia as part of the global
efforts to promote interagency coordination to reduce
the risk of infectious disease threats.

Dr. Monica Musenero Masanza


Ms Elisabeth Dibongue serves as the Deputy
Permanent Secretary of the National Program for
the Prevention and the Fight against Emerging
and Reemerging Zoonotic Diseases (NPPFERZD) in
Cameroon. She joined the NPPFERZD in February
2015 after her close participation in the process of
establishing the national One Health framework in
Cameroun from 2011 to 2014.
Elisabeth Dibongue graduated from the National
School of Administration and Magistracy as a Senior
Public Health Administrator. She was then appointed
to the Department of Disease Control in the Ministry of

Health in 2011. She served as the national focal point


for Zoonotic diseases and for the One Health approach
from 2012, after receiving a One Health training in
Libreville-Gabon in 2012.
Ms Dibongue has some years of progressive public
health experience and her skills encompass field
epidemiology, planning, administrative and financial
procedures and incident management system. She
is very familiar with the one health approach and
she is experiencing the challenge of multi sectoral
collaboration in her day to day work.

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Prof. John David Kabasa


Professor Kabasa gained his PhD in Natural Systems
Science with model research on the Ankole rangeland
ecosystem at Goettingen University, Germany. His
first degree in Veterinary Medicine and his second, a
Master of Science were both from Makerere University.
In addition to his primary role of overall administration
of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal
resources and Biosecurity (CoVAB), Prof. Kabasa is
also a visiting Professor in a number of African and
Western Universities, as well as an academic director
of a number of regional and research and training
networks.
Since completion of his PhD, Prof. Kabasa has held
various positions in production ecosystem health
and ecology as; Team Leader-Production Ecosystem
Restoration & Management Program, Chair-National
task Force on Climate Change (National Adaptation
Plans of Action), Chair-Climate Change Course
Curriculum, Chair-Board of International Network
on Animal and biomedical Sciences for Africa and
Regional Coordinator of the Norwegian (African Project
on Zoonoses and Ecotoxicology), among others.
Furthermore, he has held a variety of development
positions both national and international, some of
which he continues to hold as: a member of the Advisory

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Committee for the Implementation of the Africa Union


Strategic plan for Animal Resources Development,
National Coordinator for the New Partnership for
Africas Development (NEPAD) Council Chapter,
National Task Force Member on Avian Influenza,
Chair of the National Biodiversity Committee for the
National Environment Management Authority, Chair
of the Agricultural and Water Resources Task Force on
Climate Change.
Professor Kabasa is also the founding Director of
the Africa Institute for Strategic Animal Resource
Services and Development(AFRISA), through which
he plays leading roles in a number of public and
private partnerships that draw together commercial,
governmental and academic interests in public
and ecosystem health, urban and rural economic
development.
He has received a number of academic honors, awards
and special recognitions, the most recent, having been
in July 2013 in Accra, Ghana, where he won an award
from African Network for Agriculture, Agroforestry and
Natural Resources Education (ANAFE) in recognition of
curricula reforms that he has spearheaded at CoVAB
which support ANAFEs agenda and service to the
African continent

Monday November 16th, 2015


Theme: Emerging Pathogens and their interface
Session 1:
Room: Victoria Ball Room
Plenary: Monday 16th November, 10.30-12.45: Lessons learnt from Ebola and MERS-Corona
Virus outbreaks

Title of abstract

Presenter

Session Speaker: Dr. Monica Musenero .M

Session Chair: Professor


Deborah Kochevar

1.001

One Health in Action: The experience of Qatar National Response to MERS.COV, 2012 to 2015

Farag. E

1.002

Essential skills for frontline fighters: lessons from West Africa Ebola

Monica Musenero

1.003

The Epidemiology of Four Back to Back Ebola and Marburg Virus Outbreaks in Central and
Western Uganda

Musa Sekamatte

1.004

Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea: Evaluation of contacts tracing, Conakry, Guinea, 2014

Kambala Pakafwa

1.005

Working Across Sectors: A University-NGO Partnership to Fight Ebola in Liberia

Cheryl Robertson

1.006

Effective Implementation and adherence to Infection Prevention and Control (IPC)protocol


contributed to the containment of Ebola outbreak in West Africa

Hentsa Haddush Desta

1.007

Outstanding Challenges for Effective control strategies against Ebola

Justin Masumu

1.008

Cultural constraints impede application of control measures during disease response: Lessons
learned from previous Ebola in DRC

Florence Ngolole

1.009

Lessons learnt from Ebola and MERS-coronavirus outbreaks: a systematic review

Gebretsadik Berhe

1.001
One Health in Action: The experience of Qatar National Response to MERS.COV, 2012 to 2015
E. Farag1, M. Al-Hajri 1, A. El-Sayed1, F. Al-Hajri 2, K. Mohran2, H. Ghobashy2, C. Reusken3, M. Koopmans3
Supreme Council of Health, Doha, Qatar
Ministry of the Environment, Doha, Qatar
3
Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
1
2

Background: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a human respiratory disease reported to have emerged in
the human population in April 2012; it is associated with coronavirus (MERS CoV) infection. As of October-28- 2014
globally, 1413 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV including at least 502 related deaths have
been reported to WHO. Qatar had reported Ten laboratory confirmed human cases of MERS CoV infection to the
WHO and four confirmed camel cases of MERS CoV infections to the OIE. Guided by one Health approach, public and
Animal Health sectors have been working closely together to conduct joint outbreak investigations and surveys and
Studies to identify potential links between MERS CoV infections in human and Animal.
Purpose: This paper is to increase awareness of the roles & responsibilities of health system partners during the
response to a case(s) of an emerging infectious disease, it will provide opportunities for the rest of the countries in
the region to explore the strengths and challenges faced by health system partners in preparing for and responding
to MERS-CoV Emergence.
Methods: One Health approach was used as national strategy to control MERS-CoV outbreak in Qatar. Here, we
describe Qatar National response to MERS-CoV, using one health approach as strategy and how has one health
approach support the quick implementation of MERS-CoV Surveillance and the collaborative studies to assess the
transmission of MERS CoV at the human animal interface.

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Results: One Health is fundamental for controlling MERS CoV infection, through their transparency and
commitment to work with public and animal health authorities in Qatar have set an excellent example for others
to follow. WHO, OIE congratulated Qatar for Achievements and for its transparency in sharing important research
findings with the international community. The outputs from human animal interface ongoing studies in Qatar are
making an important contribution to better understanding the potential relationship between human and animal
infections. The results provide compelling evidence that MERS CoV is circulating in the camel population; that
camel workers are at increased risk of exposure to MERS CoV; and that slaughterhouses and camel racing yards
may be higher risk environments for virus shedding and exposure.
Conclusion: Successful public health interventions to overcome the emerging pathogens require the cooperation
of the human health, veterinary health, and environmental health communities. By promoting this collaboration,
the public health authorities can achieve the optimal health outcomes for both people and animals.

1.002
Essential Skills for Frontline Fighters: Lessons from West Africa Ebola
Monica Musenero1 & Miriam Nanyunja2
Ministry of Health, Uganda
WHO Country Office, Uganda

1
2

Ebola Outbreak was preceded by decade of significant push to strengthen capacity to respond to outbreaks
globally, but specifically on the Africa continent. Multiple initiatives in workforce and laboratory capacity were
undertaken. It was projected that rapid and massive deployment of the capacity developed would short cut any
potential pandemic spread of diseases such as Ebola Virus Disease. Indeed as the outbreak unfolded, there was
significant deployment of experts from all over the world to the frontline.
Despite the massive deployment, the Ebola spiralled out of control, enshrining itself as the most destructive,
most expansive and longest Ebola pandemic in history. While in some countries, such as Nigeria, effective efforts
were applied and the disease brought under control, measures showed no impact on the disease for Months in
the other countries. Closer examination however shows that within these countries, some districts within these
countries managed to control the outbreak ahead of others.
As the outbreak progressed, it became evident that the skills and competencies of those deployed by international
technical agencies were a significant determinant in the direction the outbreak would take in the locality.
Using case studies of four districts within Sierra Leone, the paper presents evidence of critical competences
and practices that were effective in the control of EVD. We also make strategic recommendations for strategic
development of such skills in the global public health force.

1.003
The Epidemiology of Four Back to Back Ebola and Marburg Virus Outbreaks in central and
western Uganda
M Sekamatte1, J Wamala1, C Okot1, L Lukwago1, M Malimbo1, I Makumbi1
1
Ministry of Health, Uganda
Background
Ebola and Marburg viruses are feared due to the dramatic and highly fatal illness they cause. Though Ebola/
Marburg outbreaks rarely occur in humans, Uganda experienced four outbreaks in 2012, the highest experienced
by any single country in one year. We describe the epidemiology of the Ebola/ Marburg outbreaks of Uganda in
2012 and explore the possible factors for the escalating frequency of the VHF outbreaks in Uganda.

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Methods
A case series outbreak investigation was conducted to describe the initial cases with the aim of determining
the definitive diagnosis to allow appropriate care to be initiated and to develop a working case definition for
identifying additional cases. Additional assessments were taken to evaluate the potential high risk exposures prior
to the onset of the illness and to identify all the contacts. Outbreak case definitions were disseminated country
wide and hotlines were established to receive alerts from communities and health facilities. All suspect cases were
verified by rapid response teams and all confirmed or probable cases were entered into Epi Info case database
Results
Two Ebola virus disease outbreaks were reported in the central and western regions while all the two Marburg virus
disease outbreaks occurred in the western region. The outbreaks occurred during the period June and December
2012. A total of 31 Ebola cases with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 68% and 28 Marburg cases with a CFR of 54%
reported. The majority of the Ebola/Marburg cases were females (60-80%) aged 20-29 years (46-50%). Though
bleeding was reported in 54% and 36% of Ebola and Marburg cases respectively, most cases initially presented
with non-specific symptoms. The Marburg outbreaks were linked to mining activities in caves infested with bats
that later tested positive for the virus. There were no clear leads to the source of the Ebola outbreaks.
Conclusion
Uganda experienced for Ebola/Marburg outbreaks and young adults being more affected and the Marburg outbreak
linked to mining. We recommend enhanced capacities for surveillance and response to allow prompt detection and
response. Also, the mining sector should be regulated to avert the public health risk.

1.004
Outbreak of Ebola in Guinea: Evaluation of contacts tracing, Conakry, Guinea, 2014
Kambala Pakafwa1, Kazadi Kawaya2, Abouba Lupungu3, Kebela Ilunga4 , Sarata5
Ministry of Health, DRC
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kinshasa
3
Veterinary Laboratory in Kinshasa
4
Direction de lutte contre la Maladie, D.R.C
5
Ministry of Health, Guinea
1
2

Background
Ebola is a very severe infection with high lethality (55-90%). Since March 2014, there has been an Ebola outbreak
in Guinea. On October 18, 1287 cases, 707 deaths and 3765 contacts were recorded. Contact tracing is one of the
major strategies to break transmission chains, to reduce the lethality and to break the outbreak. Therefore, the
objective of this study is to assess the contacts tracing.
Methodology
We conducted a cross-sectional study in the city of Conakry from August 1 to October 20, 2014. The study
population consisted of all confirmed cases admitted in Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) and all contacts followed of
Conakry. The hypotheses were tested with Z test and Chi-square test at the 5% significance level. Data analysis
was made with the software Epi Info 7.
Results
the sample consisted of 126 cases and 1071 contacts. The male was most predominant among cases, 52% (n = 126)
and contacts followed, 53% (n = 1071). The average age of cases was 27 years 15 years with a predominance
of the class of 15-24 years. The proportion of contacts followed among cases admitted to the ECT was only 36%
; and the proportion of contacts followed who accepted to be admitted to the ETC was 64% (n = 1071). The time
between the beginning of signs and admission to the ECT was 3.4 3 days for contacts followed against 3.8 2.7
days for contacts not followed. The difference was not statistically significant between the two groups (Z = 0.68, p
= 0.5). The lethality is statistically twice less among contacts followed than contacts not followed (prevalence ratio
= 0.5, p<0, 05). The preventive fraction from death of contact tracing was 49% (Fpe = 49%).

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Conclusion
The quality of the contact low is low: more contacts not followed and a third of contacts followed refused admission
to the ETC. The resistance of community could be the major reason. That why, we recommend strengthening the
awareness and monitoring contacts.

1.005
Working Across Sectors: A University - NGO Partnership to Fight Ebola in Liberia
Cheryl Robertson, PhD, MPH, RN1, Dorcas Kunkel, DNP, PHN2, Jeanne Pfeiffer, DNP, PHN3, Linda Halcon, PhD, MPH,
RN4 and Carolyn Porta Garcia, PhD, MPH, RN5,
1-5 School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, 5-160 Weaver-Densford Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455
Statement of the problem:
In response to the worst Ebola outbreak in history, by fall 2014 US government and non-governmental agencies
were rapidly scaling up response strategies in West Africa.
Approach: University of Minnesota (UMN) and a Minnesota-based international NGO, American Refugee Committee
(ARC) formed a strategic partnership to support response to the Ebola crisis in West Africa. ARC, a globally
respected development agency, was charged with constructing, staffing, and managing an Ebola Treatment
Unit in a remote Liberian county. ARC invited a team of School of Nursing faculty members to co-develop the
early response in Liberia. The nursing team brought decades of relevant field experience and scholarship to the
collaborative efforts, specifically regarding Liberian healthcare, poverty, post-conflict recovery, health system
degradation, and infectious disease epidemiology--all contributing factors to Ebolas rapid spread.
Outcome: Successful timely collaboration involving public health nursing leaders contributed to positive
outcomes in the global response to Ebola in Liberia. Logistical and legal collaborative challenges were overcome
to facilitate this partnered public health response effort.
Implications: Unrealized potential from academic partnerships with NGOS and other development entities results
from missed collaborative opportunities. NGOs in challenging environments often have years-long relationships
with local government and communities. NGOs know the situation on the ground, the logistical challenges;
they implement complex projects and support local professional development. Academia, particularly public
health nursing, contributes innovation, political history, research and data-driven intervention strategies, deep
ethnographic methods, and program evaluation design.

1.006
Effective Implementation and adherence to Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) protocol
contributed to the containment of Ebola outbreak in West Africa
Hentsa Haddush Desta
Email: hentsa5@gmail.com
Background
Since the Ebola virus was first identified in 1976, the outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa is
unprecedented in its scale, severity, and complexity. Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone were extremely affected
by this outbreak. With more than 26,000 cases and 11,000 deaths reported, the outbreak is by far the largest in
recorded history. Expectedly, the outbreak had a devastating impact on the health of women and children, the
health system and even the economy of the three countries. The critical economic and social functions were
affected.
Situational Analysis
After the catastrophic spread of Ebola outbreak in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone; many health workers, health
care facilities staff and patients have been died of EVD infection. The main cause of the rapid spread was weak
health systems and inadequate implementation of infection prevention and control protocol. Standard IPC

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guidelines and implementation protocol was not in place, there was no Adequate IPC training and logistics, Poor
triaging system and weak referral linkage. The health facilities were the main vehicle to the rapid spread of the
Ebola outbreak. As a result almost all public and private health care facilities, schools and social services had
been shut down.
Action taken
Following the closure of healthcare facilities and schools, the ministry of health and partners set and establish
IPC taskforce to coordinate the implementation of IPC standards and protocols.
Rapid IPC assessment conducted to identify the gaps both for healthcare facilities and schools.
Both health facility and school IPC implementation standard and guidelines prepared by the taskforce with
minimum standards to reopen the healthcare facilities and schools. Identified challenges were addressed by
the national IPC Task Force developing training that targeted key personnel. Triage training, based on existing
MOHSW-approved IPC training materials. AU volunteers deployed in Ebola Hotspot healthcare facilities and
schools to support the implementation of IPC protocol and triage.
Implementation of Ring Approach (Ring IPC)
Ring IPC is a strategy focused on interrupting the chain of transmission in non-Ebola healthcare settings. The
Ring IPC intervention was rapidly implemented and integrated into Liberia's national Ebola response as a result
of coordinated, collaborative efforts by multiple partners. Coordination and collaboration among the national
Incident Management System, county health teams, CDC, WHO, African Union and nongovernmental organization
partners was key to identifying gaps in IPC needs and preventing duplication of efforts.
Achievements
After integrated extensive efforts; the hand washing, chlorine mixing, temperature checking, waste management
practices have been institutionalized. Healthcare facilities and schools have been reopened to provide routine
health services to the community. The triage system is strengthened; many suspect cases are being identified,
referral linkage between healthcare facilities and ETUs improved. Continuous capacity building and logistic
support, local capacity has been created. No Ebola case seen in any of the schools after reopening and Ebola
outbreak contained in Liberia. On May 9, 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the end of the
Ebola outbreak in Liberia.
Conclusion and way forward
The implementation of Standard IPC in Liberia might offer a useful model for rapid response to Ebola virus
transmission and health care worker exposure in other settings. This approach, however, might be most appropriate
at the beginning or near the end of an outbreak, when specific chains of transmission can be identified and
when HCFs can be identified and targeted based on their risk for encountering an Ebola patient when there
is known active transmission in their geographical area. Strengthening healthcare facility and community IPC,
Strengthening the public health emergency management unit at each level.

1.007
Outstanding challenges for effective control strategies against Ebola disease
Justin Masumu 1,2,3, Florence Ngolole2 & Jean-Jacques Muyembe2,4
National Pedagogic University, Kinshasa/RDC
National Institute for Biomedical Research, Kinshasa/RDC
3
Veterinary Laboratory of Kinshasa, Kinshasa/RDC
4
University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa/DRC
1
2

Ebola is a life threatening infectious disease that affects human communities after an index person has been in
contact with an infected wild animal. Once in the community the disease must quickly be diagnosed and infected
persons should be isolated to prevent further contamination. However most outbreaks are recognized about

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four months later leading to massive contamination and delay in the application of earlier response strategies.
Through analyses of previous Ebola outbreaks we have identified gaps that impede application of an early
response either at individual or community level. The first challenge remains the clinical disease recognition
because of lack of specific symptoms. This is complicated by unavailability of appropriate diagnostic tools in
the site until the disease is declared. Then other challenges arise like reluctance in transferring patients to the
hospital, reluctance in caring for patients by healthcare personnel. Adoption of control measures depends on
cultural background of the local population and the involvement of principal stakeholders like political, spiritual,
community, traditional leaders In conclusion, early response during Ebola and related diseases outbreak is
highly required indeed; however challenges are numerous in remote areas where these diseases occur. Although
some of these challenges are very difficult to overcome in the current context of Ebola occurrence in sub-Saharan
Africa much effort should be put in the preparedness with focus in local community.

1.008
Cultural constraints impede application of control measures during disease response: Lessons
learned from previous Ebola in DRC
Florence Ngolole1, Justin Masumu1,2,3 & Jean-Jacques Muyembe1,4
National Institute for Biomedical Research, Kinshasa/RDC
National Pedagogic University, Kinshasa/RDC
3
Veterinary Laboratory of Kinshasa, Kinshasa/RDC
4
University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa/DRC
1
2

Responding to Ebola outbreak remains a big challenge for most of the health care systems. One of the reasons
is that most response strategies require changes in the cultural behavior of the affected population. In areas
where these strategies are in opposition with what is generally accepted by the local community response team
members encounter several difficulties to implement these control measures. Based on a survey conducted in
DRC we report here some of the cultural barriers that may impede successful implementation of strategies during
Ebola outbreaks. In health care facilities these barriers are mostly related to the negligence in the application
of very simple biosecurity measures including wearing gloves and other PPEs, washing hands, using individual
materials, applying adequate care-giving procedures. Facilities with or without Ebola experience are all involved.
In most cases financial constraints are listed as cause of the no application of these security measures. In the
local communities negative practices include auto-medication that reduce hospital attendance, mourning and
burial ceremonies such as washing deceased persons, taking corpses in the community, touching or manipulating
corpses during rituals... "The more the community is caring the more risk behaviors are numerous". Also "faith
of believer" tends to negatively affect the control measures. Efforts in implementing "One Health" approach to
control infectious diseases should take into account the "local community" counterpart.

1.009
Lessons learnt from Ebola and MERS-coronavirus outbreaks: a systematic review
Gebretsadik Berhe* (DVM, MSc, BSc, PhD), Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Public
Health, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Ethiopia.
*Email: gebretsadik_b@yahoo.com or gebretsadikberhe@gmail.com; Mobile: 251-0914-706710
Background: Over the past several decades, many previously unknown human infectious diseases have emerged
from animal reservoirs. The most recent zoonotic diseases that caused widespread public concern alongside
the potential for global health security threat are Ebola virus disease (EVD) and MERS Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
disease. Health authorities and governments didnt act on the lessons of the past, but they can prepare for the
future. In this regard, what lessons do we learn from emerging and re-emerging disease outbreaks needs to be
investigated. This systematic review was conducted to critically review published information on the lessons
learnt from Ebola and MERS-CoV outbreaks.

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Methods: We used systematic review methodology to identify published materials on the lessons learnt from
Ebola and MERS-CoV outbreaks. The main sources of data for our literature review were Google scholar, CDC
websites and PubMed databases.
Results: More than 40 papers and abstracts were reviewed. It was found that the current EVD outbreak is now the
largest ever recorded and differs from prior outbreaks in its duration, number of people affected, and geographic
extent. The MERS-CoV is a newly recognized viral zoonosis of humans with a high mortality rate. It was observed
that air travel has made it easy for people to carry infectious diseases like Ebola, MERS etc. far and wide. The
risk of spread MERS is high in health care system where there are frequent patient transfers. The lesson that we
can learn from the MERS-CoV and EVD outbreaks include: the EVD outbreak was characterized by weak health
system capacity, lack of timely response to the outbreak, inadequate numbers of qualified health workers and low
government health expenditure. Moreover, infrastructure, logistics, health information, surveillance, governance
and drug supply systems were weak. The organization and management of health services was sub-optimal. The
MERS-CoV outbreak response had shortcomings in existing public health surveillance and response capacity and
control of nosocomial transmission. Generally, proactive integrated surveillance of human and animal illnesses,
research on the epidemiology and pathogenesis, and development of new drugs and vaccines for infectious
diseases that potentially threaten global health security should be maintained. Moreover, long-term strategy that
addresses global governance of public health needs to be formulated.
Conclusion: For preventing and controlling these global threats, there is a need for a holistic "One Health"
approach with interdisciplinary engagement clearly connected across all geopolitical and geo-economic spectra,
given the vital interconnectedness among humans, animals, and the environment.

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Session 3; Monday 16th: 14.15 to 16.15: Emerging Pathogens


(Terrestrial, Aquatic and Air)
(Break-out session 1)
Room: Victoria Ball Room.

Prof. Robinson Mdegela

Session Chair: Professor Deborah


Kochevar

3.001

Isolation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella from


domestic Low Quality Water and Oreochromis niloticus in Morogoro, Tanzania

Ofred J. Mhongole

3.002

La dpense de sant de la lutte contre les maladies infectieuses et parasitaires en


RD Congo

Prof Grard Eloko Eya Matangelo

3.003

PREVALENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITE IN OLIVE BABOONS (Papio Anubis)


AT AKAGERA NATIONAL PARK, RWANDA

Muvunyi Richard

3.004

Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Historical Anthrax Outbreaks in Queen


Elizabeth National Park Wildlife Ecosystem, Western Uganda

Margaret Driciru

3.005

Inter-epidemic Seroepidemiological Surveillance of Rift Valley Fever in Garissa


District, Kenya

Mark Nanyingi

3.006

Leptospira Sero-prevalence in Health Centre Patients in Hoima, Uganda Preliminary Results

Dreyfus A. and J.Diyal

3.007

Annual trends of human brucellosis in pastoralist communities of south-western


Uganda: a retrospective ten-year study

Catherine Kansiime

3.008

Gastro-intestinal helminthes in mountain gorillas (gorilla beringei beringei) of


rwanda volcanoes national park, impact on public health

Alice Gloria UMURERWA

3.009

Spatially-explicit uncertainty modeling of zoonotic pathogen distribution: a case


of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State, USA

Rita Mwima

3.010

Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle, goats and
humans in Makuutu sub-county, Iganga district

JOYCE NGUNA

3.001
Isolation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella from domestic Low
Quality Water and Oreochromis niloticus in Morogoro, Tanzania
Ofred J. Mhongole1, 2, Robinson H. Mdegela1, Anders Dalsgaard3 and Lughano. J. M. Kusiluka1
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, P. O. Box 3021, Chuo
Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania. 2National Fish Quality Control Laboratory Nyegezi Area, P. O. Box 1213, Mwanza,
Tanzania. 3Copenhagen University, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Stigbojlen 4, Frederiksberg C,
1870, Denmark
1

The purpose of this work was to isolate, characterize and determine antimicrobial susceptility of Salmonella from
domestic low quality water-LQW (Wastewater) and Oreochromis niloticus. Total of 123 isolates of Salmonella
were isolated from domestic LQW and Oreochromis niloticus grown in wastewater stabilization-maturation pond
at Mzumbe University. The conventional methods for isolation of Salmonella, pre and secondary enrichments,
plating, biochemical and serological techniques using Salmonella Sero-Quick kit - Poly A + Vi SSI (Denmark) were
done as per ISO 6579:2002(E) with amendments and some modifications. All isolates were then characterized
by molecular typing methods. DNA genotyping was done by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
using ST11 and ST15 primers and Pulse-field Gel-electrophoresis (PFGE). Total of 29 PFGE identical groups with
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similar or differed by at least single band were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST). AST was done
using Trek Diagnostics System (TREKDS), East Grinstead, UK, micro dilution method. TREKDS (EUMVS2) panel of
14 antimicrobial agents with 96 wells were used. AST TREKDS results were interpreted against CLSI and EUCAST
guidelines. 97% of 29 isolates were resistant to different antimicrobials agents. The rest of isolates were resistant
to one, two up to six antimicrobial agents. One out of 29 Salmonella isolates was susceptible in all 14 antimicrobial
agents and all 29 isolates to Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Florfenicol and Kanamycin. Prevalence of resistance of
Salmonella isolates was 86% (Sulfamethoxazole), 57% (Streptomycin), 17% (Colistin and Tetracycline); 10%
(Ciprofloxacin and Nalidixic acid), 7% (Gentamycin), 3% (Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol). Ciprofloxacin,
Gentamycin, Chloramphenicol, Nalidixic acid and Tetracycline were resistant to Salmonella isolated in water and
Colistin in fish. Streptomycin, Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim resistant were detected in both water and fish
while Ampicillin in one isolate from fish. These findings indicate that Salmonella infected individuals shed the
organisms in their faeces which enter the domestic LQW and in turn contaminate water bodies and food such as
fish and irrigated vegetables. Therefore one way to contain human, animal and environmental health risks and
antimicrobial resistance is by integrated one health stakeholders approach.
Key words: Antimicrobial, Fish, Resistant, Salmonella and Susceptibility

3.002
La dpense de sant de la lutte contre les maladies infectieuses et parasitaires en RDC
Eloko Eya Matangelo Grard, Ph.D 1 et 3, Diafuka Saila-Ngita, VMD, Ph.D.Mongani Eddy3
ISTM/ Kinshasa, Sant Communautaire1 et 3, Department of Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Tufts
University, PNCNS3
Introduction
Le Budget de lEtat consacr la sant est trs faible : 4,23% en 2015, 6,92 % en 2014, 4,57 % en 2013; 7,83
% en 2012; 3,47% en 2011; 5,85% en 2010 et 5,29% en 2009[1]. Cette faible allocation entraine une mortalit
maternelle excessive pourtant vitable 549 dcs maternels pour 100 000 naissances vivantes, soit 02 dcs
maternels chaque heure. Une mortalit infantile excessive, pourtant vitable 97 dcs denfants de moins de 12
mois sur 1000 Naissances Vivantes, soit 29 dcs denfants de moins de 12 mois chaque heure.
Mthodologie
Type dtude: Descriptive rtrospective des donnes de la dpense de sant 2010 2013.
Sources des donnes : Un outil de collecte des donnes a t labor et les donnes ont t recueillies sur les
diffrents paramtres du systme des comptes de la sant.
Rsultats
Les dpenses relatives aux maladies lies la pauvret: le paludisme, la tuberculose et le VIH/Sida sont passes
de 181 441 549 USD, soit 20% en 2010, 218 104 882 USD soit 24% en 2011, 272 374 269 USD, soit 26%
en 2012 et 304 199 736 USD, soit 24% en 2013. Cette augmentation des dpenses dune anne lautre
sexplique par lamlioration de lutilisation des services et a un impact sur la pauvret et la mortalit.
Les dpenses relatives aux maladies tueuses de lenfant (Infections des voies respiratoires, maladies diarrhiques,
carences nutritionnelles et maladies prvention vaccinale) sont passes de 125 580 947 USD, soit 13% en
2010, 173 356 880 USD, soit 18% en 2011, 335 101 206 USD, soit 32% en 2012 et 367 292 924 USD, soit
29% en 2013. Ceci a eu un impact sur la rduction de la mortalit infantile en RDC.
Conclusion
Les rsultats dressent l'tat actuel du financement de la sant de faon favoriser les discussions et la prise de
dcisions politiques fondes sur des bases factuelles. Ils relvent donc le dfi constant de mesures, observations,
valuations et des analyses des donnes sur le financement de la sant.

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3.003
Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite in olive baboons (papio anubis) at Akagera National
Park, Rwanda
Richard Muvunyi1, Julius Nziza2, Tonny Mudakikwa3, Jess Brown4 , Mike canfield2, Ryan Caroline1
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Rwanda Nyagatare Campus
P.O.Box 57 Nyagatare, Rwanda.
2
Emerging pandemic threats, Predict, Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, Musanze Rwanda.
3
Department of wildlife conservation, Rwanda development Board
4
Akagera National park, Rwanda, African parks management Company.
1

59 fecal samples were collected and analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites from 3 troops of free-ranging Olive
Baboons (Papio anubis), involved in Pecheri, Ruzizi, Kiyonza areas of Akagera National Park, Rwanda between 22
July 7 August 2012. This is the first survey of gastrointestinal parasites in olive baboon that has taken place
in Akagera National Park, Rwanda. The objectives of the study was to identify the prevalence and diversity
of gastrointestinal parasites to provide baseline reference data on three troops of free range Olive baboons
(Papio Anubis) in Akagera National Park and compare this data with previous data obtained from free ranging
baboon populations in other African wildlife parks also to identify which of these parasitic species if any are
zoonotic? This study identified and determined the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites using fresh faecal
sample collected, and analyzed by sodium nitrate floatation and sedimentation technique. Five nematodes and
one protozoan from the study population were isolated. The nematodes found were; Strongyloides sp, Strongylus
sp, Trichuris sp, Oesophagostoma sp, Trichostrongylus sp, and the protozoa found was Balantidium sp. 94% of
samples collected were infected, leaving 6% with no parasites observed. Of those infected, there was a 44%
prevalence of Strongyloides sp., 31% prevalence of strongylus sp, 10% Trichuris sp, 2% prevalence of Balantidium
sp, 4% Oesophagostamum sp, and 9% Trichostrongyloide sp. Akagera National Park has a mixed forest-savanna
habitat, and baboons frequently range into human areas, which make them subject to parasites from each habitat
and multiple sources of exposure. The presence of Strongyloides sp., Trichuris sp and Balantidium sp suggest a
potential public health and anthropogenic risk between the olive baboons and humans.
Key Points: Gastrointestinal Parasites, Prevalence, Olive Baboons, Akagera National Park

3.004
Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Historical Anthrax Outbreaks in Queen Elizabeth
National Park Wildlife Ecosystem, Western Uganda
Margaret Driciru1, Innocent Rwego2, Benon Asiimwe3, Dominic Travis4 , Julio Alvarez4 , Kim VanderWaal 4 , Katey
Pelican4
1
Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda Wildlife Authority, Kampala, Uganda.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Sciences and Biosecurity, Makerere
University, Kampala, Uganda.
3
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
4
Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota,
United States of America
Anthrax is a potentially fatal infection caused by the soil borne rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-motile, sporeforming, aerobic, or facultative anaerobic bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. It is primarily a disease of domestic and
wild herbivores, although all mammals including humans and some avian species are reported susceptible.
Outbreaks in herbivores are reported to typically occur during grazing in an infected pasture land.
Historically, anthrax is described as one of the oldest infectious diseases, and it is believed to be the fifth and
sixth plagues inflicted on the Egyptians and the famous Plague of Athens.

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In Uganda, human anthrax plagues have been reported since the pre-colonial era mostly associated with
consumption of infected animals and its control in this era was hampered by the traditional beliefs of the people
that the disease was a matter of course and the destinies of the inflicted persons lay in the hands of the gods of
the land. On the other hand, livestock outbreaks have been documented since 1930s and its control alongside that
of rinderpest was mandatory and as such outbreaks got relatively well documented, traced back and managed.
However, the disease has been neglected in wildlife management and looked at in a rather more traditional and
conservative manner that is aimed at promoting the passage of superior genes in wildlife populations and as
such, wildlife anthrax outbreaks have been seen by ecologists as natures measure of controlling populations
through weeding of the week ones and setting limits of carrying capacity in the wild, a system that is also
believed to promote ecosystem health. As such, control measures in wildlife are generally either lacking or
implemented in the neighbouring livestock populations only during times when outbreaks occur. This, over time
has devastated wildlife populations in the ecosystem, affected the ever growing tourism industry and economy of
the country and calls for more proactive measures. In the One Health approach, the role of wildlife as reservoirs
of human diseases is becoming more appreciated and efforts to control emerging human epidemics now consider
understanding drivers of disease epidemics in a holistic manner including wildlife reservoirs.
This retrospective study, aimed at understanding the ecology and epidemiology of anthrax in the ecosystem
to better inform approaches for outbreak management used well defined data sets retrieved from government
archives for two specific outbreaks in 2004/5 and 2010. Data was analysed using ArcView GIS 3.2; QGIS 2.8.2;
Retrospective Space-Time Permutation model, Directional and Exponential model Analysis (StaScan 9.2.0) for
clustering of cases, directional movement and case survival times. Results showed species specific susceptibilities
for Hippopotamus amphibious; significant case clustering in space and time (p<0.001); hotzones associated with
short survival times of cases (p<0.001) and an associated directional outbreak movement (200.3, p<0.001)
in both outbreaks. These insights that suggest point source propagated outbreaks have been used to make
recommendations for management of future anthrax outbreaks in the ecosystem.

3.005
Interepidemic Seroepidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever in Garissa, Kenya
Nanyingi MO1,2,3,, Munyua P4 , Muchemi GM1, Kiama SG5 , Gachie GT6, Mosmotai G7, Bett B8, Thumbi SM3,9, Onyango
C4 , Ade F3 , Ngeiywa KJ 10 and Njenga MK 3,9

Corresponding author: mnanyingi@kemricdc.org and mnanyingi@gmail.com


Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 2Colorado State
University, LCCRSP-FTF programme, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, 3 Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for
Global Health Research Kenya, 4Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- Nairobi, Kenya, 5Wangari Maathai
Institute for Peace and Environmental Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 6Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University
of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya, 7International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, 8International
Livestock Research Institute, Kenya, 9Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University,
USA, 10Directorate of Veterinary Services, Kenya.
1

Background: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne phlebovirus that has led to outbreaks livestock and
humans in the Horn of Africa and Arabian Peninsula. Significant economic impacts of up to $ 500M were reported
in Kenya during the 1997-98 and 2006-2007 outbreak periods due to massive livestock abortions, deaths, acute
human illness and deaths. This study aims to detect RVFV antibody-specific acquisitions in cattle, sheep and
goats from an RVF prone zone six years after the previous outbreak.
Methodology: We performed a cross-sectional survey of ruminants in RVF high risk areas of Garissa County,
Kenya. Periodic sampling was done in March 2012 and July 2013 to determine the RVF seroprevalence during
the inter-epidemic period. Total antiRVF antibodies were investigated using a multispecies competitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Host and environmental risk factors for RVFV seropositivity were
examined by both univariable analysis and mixed effects logistic regression model. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR)

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for seropositivity were estimated using log linear regression model.


Principal findings: The overall seroprevalence for the 370 ruminants was 27.6%. Sheep (n= 87) and cattle (n= 12)
had higher prevalence 32.2% (CI [20.6 31]) and 33.3% (CI [6.7 60]) respectively than goats (n = 271), 25.8%
(CI [22.4 42]). Seropostivity in males was 31.8% (CI [22.2 - 31.8]) higher than 27% (CI [18.1 - 45.6]) in females.
There was an increased likelihood of higher seropositivity in older (OR 18.24, p < 0.0001) than young animals.
Conclusions: These findings suggest potential RVF circulation in domestic ruminants in the most of the areas of
Garissa and thus indicative of an endemic reservoir of infection including where no clinical disease was previously
reported.
Keywords: Rift Valley Fever, Seroprevalence, Garissa

3.006
Leptospira Sero-prevalence in Health Centre Patients in Hoima, Uganda - Preliminary Results
A. Dreyfus1 and J. Dyal 2, R. Pearson3, C. Kankya4 , C. Kajura5, L. Alinaitwe6, S. Kakooza6, M. Mahero7, K. Pelican2, D.
Travis7, D. Boulware2, L. Mugisha8,9
Section of Epidemiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland, 2University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, USA, 3SVS Laboratories Ltd, Hamilton, New Zealand, 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal
Resources & Biosecurity, Makerere University, Uganda, 5Hoima District Local Government, Uganda, 6Central
Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University,
Uganda, 7College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, USA, 8Conservation & Ecosystem Health
Alliance (CEHA), 9College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources & Biosecurity, Makerere University, Uganda
1

Introduction:
The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. Objectives: The study objectives were to estimate the
sero-prevalence (prevalence) of Leptospira antibodies and probable leptospirosis in humans visiting two health
centers in Hoima District, Uganda.
Methods:
A total of 359 patients were recruited at the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Center IVs within Hoima District
during March and April 2014. Every non-pregnant adult over the age of 18 presenting to the health center, either
as a patient or as a caregiver, was considered eligible to participate. Interviews were conducted by clinical officers
and a blood sample taken by lab technicians. Exposure variables included demographics, exposure to animals,
past medical history and domestic environment. Sera were tested by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT)
using eight Leptospira serovars from different serogroups at doubling dilutions from 1:25 to 1:3200.
Results:
In this study, we document the s a proportion of participants who reported to having suffered from fever (70%),
Typhoid fever (6%), Brucellosis (3%) and Malaria (49%) in the past year, and from a Malaria relapse (14%)
in the same year. 126 study participants (35.0%, 95% CI 30.2-40.3%) were sero-positive (MAT titre >= 100)
against any serovar. The highest prevalence of 19.8% (95% CI 15.9- 24.4%) was against L. borgpetersenii sv
Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) with 71 sero-positive cases. The prevalence of probable leptospirosis (MAT titer
>=800) was 1.9% (95% CI 0.9-4.2%) and was uniquely related to Nigeria. Probable leptospirosis was statistically
significantly associated with having had Malaria in the past year (p=0.048).
Conclusions:
This is to our knowledge the first study report on the sero-prevalence against various Leptospira serovars in
humans in Uganda. We found a prevalence of 20% against L. borgpetersenii sv Nigeria, which implies a rather
high exposure to this serovar. Nigeria has been isolated from bovine kidneys in Nigeria and therefore a bovinehuman transmission pathway is a possible hypothesis, worthwhile testing. The further investigation of Nigeria is

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of certain public health relevance, since 1.9% of participants had probable leptospirosis and possibly some of the
symptoms in study participants, which were attributed to Malaria, were actually due to leptospirosis?

3.007
Annual trends of human brucellosis in pastoralist communities of south-western Uganda: a
retrospective ten-year study
Catherine Kansiime,1* Elizeus Rutebemberwa,1 Benon B. Asiimwe,2 Fredrick Makumbi,3 Joel Bazira, 4 Anthony
Mugisha5
Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences,
Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala,
Uganda
3
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere
University, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda
4
Department of Microbiology, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 1410, Mbarara, Uganda
5
Animal Resources and Biosecurity, College of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University School of Veterinary
Medicine, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
*Corresponding author: cathie.kansiime@gmail.com
1

Background: Human brucellosis is prevalent in both rural and urban Uganda, yet most cases of the disease in
humans go unnoticed and untreated because of inaccurate diagnosis, which is often due to the disease not
manifesting in any symptoms. This study was undertaken to describe trends in laboratory-confirmed human
brucellosis cases at three health facilities in pastoralist communities in South-western, Uganda.
Methods: Data were collected retrospectively to describe trends of brucellosis over a ten-year period (2003
2012), and supplemented with a prospective study, which was conducted from January to December 2013. Two
public health facilities and a private clinic that have diagnostic laboratories were selected for these studies.
Annual prevalence was calculated and linearly plotted to observe trends of the disease at the health facilities. A
modified Poisson regression model was used to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to
determine the association between brucellosis and independent variables using the robust error variance.
Results: A total of 9,177 persons with suspected brucellosis were identified in the retrospective study, of which
1,318 (14.4%) were confirmed cases. Brucellosis cases peaked during the months of April and June, as observed
in nearly all of the years of the study, while the most noticeable annual increase (11% to 23%) was observed
from 2010 to 2012. In the prospective study, there were 610 suspected patients at two public health facilities.
Of these, 194 (31.8%) were positive for brucellosis. Respondents aged 4560 years (RR=0.50; CI: 0.290.84) and
those that tested positive for typhoid (RR=0.68; CI: 0.520.89) were less likely to have brucellosis.
Conclusions: With the noticeable increase in prevalence from 2010 to 2012, diagnosis of both brucellosis and
typhoid is important for early detection, and for raising public awareness on methods for preventing brucellosis
in this setting.
Keywords: trends, brucellosis, pastoralist communities

3.008
Gastro-intestinal helminthes in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Rwanda
volcanoes National Park: impact on Public Health
Alice Gloria UMURERWA WA1 , Patrice NZEYIMANA1, Jean Baptiste Bigirimana1, Adrien Nsabimana1 and Richard
GASHURURU2.

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University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Department of Wildlife
and Aquatic Resources Management
2
University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Department of
Veterinary Medicine
1

Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are highly endangered worldwide (Mcneilage et al; 2001) and are
the best tourists attractions of Rwanda, hence contributing to the National Gross Domestic Product through
collecting foreign currency (NISR, 2013). Owing to their close genetic relatedness, mountain gorillas and people
are therefore potentially at risk of transmitting pathogens to each other (Wallis a and Rick 1999). Gorillas of VNP
have close contact mostly with tourists, researchers, park workers and the community around the park. Foraging
areas outside the park are crossed by village pathways or are in areas where villagers obtain firewood. In addition
to poor health services and information, the local communities lack hygienic amenities including clean water and
pit latrines (Musa Musanze Gender Health Report, 2013).
Fecal material is a potential source of disease-causing pathogenic helminthes parasites (Grenfell and Gulland,
1995). Common intestinal parasites of human have been reported in primates suggesting a high potential for
interspecies transmission (Rwego et al., 2008). Our study was carried out in Volcanoes National Park of Rwanda for
two months (March--May 2015). The study aimed at assessing the prevalence of the GIT Helminthes affecting the
gorillas and identifying those parasites that can be of public health importance. Two Gorilla families namely Hirwa
and Umubano were concerned. Eighteen fecal samples were randomly collected from two families of gorillas at
different intervals. These samples where then placed in individual plastic containers and then stored in the ice
cooler box until they reached the laboratory of the University of Rwanda-Nyagatare campus; where they were
examined by flotation and sedimentation methods.
Among all the fecal samples examined: 3 nematode parasites were recovered : 8 positive cases of Trichostrongylus
spp, 5 positive c cases of Strongylus spp and 3 positive cases of Ascaris spp. The study recovered only 1cestode:
Anoplocephala spp. no trematode parasites were found in all the e samples. The prevalence in Hirwa a was of
50% (9/18) represented by 5 cases of Trichostrongylus, 1 case of Ascaris, 2 cases of Strongy rongylus and 1 case of
Anoplocephala sp, then Umubano had 44.4% (8/18) represented by 3 positive cases of Trichostrongylus, 2 cases
of Ascaris, 2 positive cases of Strongylus, and 1 case of Anoplocephala.
A minimum of 4 parasites types of intestinal helminthes was found in our study. We did not come to species level
identification to confirm exactly the species of zoonotic nature, but most of the parasites found are also found in
humans. So, the interactions between humans and gorillas can play a greater role in the transmission by zoonotic,
reservoir or paratenic ways. However, there is a need to make the systematic coproculture and determine the
transmission mode in order to confirm whether or not these are multi-host pathogens that can be shared.
Key words: Fecal material, GIT Helminthes, poor health services, Gorilla health.

3.009
Spatially-explicit uncertainty modeling of zoonotic pathogen distribution: a case of Listeria
monocytogenes in New York State, USA.
Rita Mwima Email: tusubira2010@gmail.com +256774088271
Dr. Anthony Gidudu Makerere University, College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT)
anthony.gidudu@gmail.com +256782017541
3
Mr. Allan Mazimwe, Makerere University, CEDAT, allanmazimwe@yahoo.com
4
Dr. Arika Ligmann-zielinska, Michigan State University (USA), ligmannz@msu.edu
5
Dr. Samuel Majalija, Makerere University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal resources and Biosecurity
(CoVAB), Email: saraali67@gmail.com Tel; 0775962041
6
Professor Margaret Khaitsa, Mississippi State University mkhaitsa@cvm.msstate.edu
7
Professor John David Kabasa, CoVAB, kabasajd@yahoo.com
8
Peter Bergholz, North Dakota State University, peter.bergholz@ndsu.edu
1
2

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Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that is responsible for causing Listeria, a disease that has a wide range
of adverse effects such as meningitis, bacteremia, complications during pregnancy, and other fatal illnesses
especially among those whose immune systems are compromised. The purpose of this study was to establish
hotspot candidate sites in New York State where the L.monocytogenes pathogen could be found. Several
suitability criteria which include proximity to water, pasture, forests and urban development and slope among
others in New York State were considered in this analysis. This study assessed which spatial habitat factors
influence habitat suitability of the Listeria monocytogenes pathogen in the forested areas of New York State. Multi
Criteria Evaluation was used to integrate the different habitat factors using their different weights expressed
using probability distributions. Spatially-explicit Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis (UA and SA) was carried out
to examine the robustness of habitat suitability analysis. Suitability maps were generated and summarized using,
an average suitability map, a standard deviation uncertainty map, and sensitivity maps.
Results showed that the shallowest depth to a wet soil layer (measured annually) and proximity to water are
the habitat factors which contribute the most and individually to the distribution and survival of this pathogen.
The slope gradient is singly insignificant but influential when associated with other factors like temperature,
soil organic matter content, volume of water soil can store, proximity to forest, urban development and pasture
among others. It was established that water is the key habitat factor that favors the survival of this pathogen.
Also, the ability to spatially model zoonotic pathogen hotspots is important in zoonoses control, informing and
influencing policy. From these results, it is important to maintain the water quality of the water sources (lakes,
rivers, ponds) and ensure that there is limited runoff from slopes.
Keywords: Spatial modeling, Listeria monocytogenes, Multiple Criteria Evaluation, Uncertainty Analysis (UA),
Sensitivity Analysis (SA).

3.010
Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle, goats and humans in
Makuutu subcounty, Iganga district
Nguna Joyce1, Majalija Samuel1, Mugizi Denis Rwabita1, Kellie Curtis2, Michael Apamaku4 , John David Kabasa1,
Ejobi Francis1, Michel Mainack Dione3, Thomas Walter Graham2.
College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resource and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
University of Califonia, Davis, United States of America
3
International Livestock Research Institute, Bioversity international, Kampala, Uganda.
4
National Agricultural Research Organisation, Uganda
1
2

Brucellosis is a worldwide contagious zoonotic bacterial infectious disease caused by Brucella organisms. The
aim of this study was to establish the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans and livestock and to establish the
risk factors associated with Brucellosis in Iganga district, Uganda. A structured questionnaire administered to 451
respondents captured their characteristics, breed of animals reared, occurrence of abortion, risk of infection to
herd owners and family members. The indirect ELISA test was used to screen 451 humans and 696 animals (345
cattle and 351 goats). The results showed only 13 (2.9%) of animals had ever been vaccinated against brucellosis
in the past one year and 438(97.1%) did not. All the animals used shared males as their method of breeding. Those
20 humans were positive for brucella antibodies giving an overall prevalence 4.0. The prevalence in both human
and animals was higher in the males compared to females. While was no significant predictor for brucellosis in
cattle, sex and age were found to be significant predictors for brucellosis in goats. Males were more likely to have
a positive result than females (p value). Significantly consumption of locally made dairy products were 3.997
times more likely to test seropositive than those not consuming. There were no variables found to be significant at
multivariate analysis probably because the number of seropositive were very small (cattle 4/351, goats 1/345).20
(2.9%) of the animals had history of abortion and the farmers did not know their possible cause. In conclusion,
the seroprevalence of brucellosis is still low and so control strategies should be put in place so as to avoid further
spread of the disease.

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Session 4: Monday November 16th: 14.15 to 16.15 Vector Borne


Pathogens (Break-out session 2)
Room: Meera Conference Hall

Dr. Thierry Baldet, IDRC-Canada

Chair: Prof. Julius Lutwama

4.001

Etude des facteurs de risque de dcs d au paludisme grave chez les enfants de
moins de 5 ans l'hpital pdiatrique de Kalembe-Lembe de Kinshasa, RD Congo,
2012-2014

Thierry Mukalakata

4.002

Prvalence dEchinococcus multilocularis chez le renard roux (Vulpes vulpes) en


Flandre, Belgique

Madimba Kapanga

4.003

Insecticides used for malaria vector control in households in Kinshasa: an


inventory and possible implications for future malaria control

Basilua Kanza

4.004

Zooprophylaxis from livestock rearing: the presence of cattle supports the


regional transmission interruption of onchocerciasis in endemic foci in North
Cameroon

Albert Eisenberth

4.005

Mosquito diversity and mosquito-borne arboviruses in selected areas of Kinshasa,


Democratic Republic of Congo.

Jean Pierre Kambala Mukendi

4.006

Trypanosomes infection rate in naturally infected tsetse flies in the vicinity of


Akagera National Park

Richard Gashururu Simba

4.007

Canine dirofilarial infection in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania: first report and


need for awareness

Jean Pierre Kambala Mukendi

4.008

Outbreak investigation of Zoonotic Disease Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Quetta,


Balochistan 2014

Ehsan Ahmed

4.009

Willingness to take up indoor residual spraying to prevent malaria in Tororo


District, Uganda

Wadunde Ignatius

4.001
Etude des facteurs de risque de dcs d au paludisme grave chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans
l'hpital pdiatrique de Kalembe-Lembe de Kinshasa, RD Congo, 2012-2014
Thierry Mukalakata, Joseph Kamgno, Marie-Jose Essi, Prince Kimpanga
Ecole de Sant publique, Universit de Kinshasa, RDC
Facult de Mdecine Vtrinaire, Universit de Kinshasa, RDC
3
Dpartement de Sant Publique, Universit de Yaound I, CAMEROUN
1
2

Introduction
Le paludisme demeure un rel problme de sant publique. Plusieurs facteurs de risque y interviennent. Le but
de cette tude est de dterminer les facteurs de risque de dcs au cours du paludisme grave chez les enfants
de moins de 5 ans.
Mthodes
Cest une tude cas-tmoins ralise en 2015 lhpital pdiatrique de Kalembe-Lembe (Kinshasa). Les cas (n=71)
taient reprsents par les enfants hospitaliss pour paludisme grave, et dont lissue a t fatale. Les tmoins
(n=142) taient les enfants hospitaliss pour paludisme grave et dont lvolution a t favorable. Les donnes ont
t analyses laide des logiciels Excel 2010 et Epi-Info7. Le risque de dcs a t estim grce lOR (95%).
Les facteurs pour lesquels lIC ne comprenait pas la valeur 1 ont t considrs comme significativement lis au
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risque de dcs. Les associations significatives de lanalyse bivarie ont t testes dans un modle multivarie
par la rgression logistique.
Rsultats
L'ge mdian des enfants faisant partie de cette tude tait de 14 mois avec un minimum dun mois et un maximum
de 59 mois. Leur poids moyen tait de 10,2 3,9 Kg. Dans lensemble, 22,5% denfants (48/213) avaient un
mauvais tat nutritionnel, 67,6% (144/213) des mnages avaient un niveau socioconomique faible. Dans 65,7%
des cas (140/213), le dlai de prise en charge tait dau moins 24 heures.
Les facteurs de risque associs la survenue de dcs d au paludisme grave chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans
dans cette tude sont : le mauvais tat nutritionnel [ORaj=2,24 ; 95 % IC=1,16 4,33], le niveau socio-conomique
faible [ORaj=2,17 ; 95 % IC=1,08 4,35] et le dlai de prise en charge 24 heures [ORaj=2,05 ; 95 % IC=1,04
4,03]. Cependant, aucune association na t trouve entre le dcs d au paludisme grave et les facteurs
suivants : la rsidence (OR=0,89), lautomdication, lhyperthermie (OR=0,83), le niveau dinstruction de la mre
ou tutrice (OR=1,04) ainsi que les connaissances de celle-ci sur le paludisme (OR=1,04).
Discussion
Dans la lutte contre le paludisme, certains facteurs de risque devraient tre pris en compte car tant associs
cette maladie (malnutrition, dlai de prise en charge 24 heures et le faible niveau socio-conomique). Il est
imprieux d'intensifier lducation sanitaire (surtout des mres) en vue dun recours immdiat aux structures de
sant en cas dune suspicion de paludisme et de la lutte contre la malnutrition.

4.002
Prvalence dEchinococcus multilocularis chez le renard roux (Vulpes vulpes) en Flandre,
Belgique
Madimba Kapanga1*; Leen Claes2; Ellen Bakkers2; Pierre Dorny2, 3
Facult de Mdecine vtrinaire, Universit de Kinshasa, Rpublique dmocratique du Congo
Institut de Mdecine Tropicale dAnvers, Belgique
3
Facult de Mdecine vtrinaire, Universit de Gand, Belgique
* Corresponding author: Tel. +243813681016. E-mail: yan.madimba@unikin.ac.cd, yanmadimba23@yahoo.fr
1
2

Background:
Echinococcus multilocularis est un petit cestode, agent causal de lchinococcose alvolaire qui est une zoonose
fatale pour lhomme. Ce dernier se contamine en consommant accidentellement les ufs du parasite limins
avec les selles des carnivores htes dfinitifs. En Europe, le renard roux (Vulpes vulpes) y est le principal hte
dfinitif; sa densit a largement augment, suivi de lextension de laire de rpartition du parasite. Initialement
dcrite dans 4 pays vers les annes 1980, la distribution de cette parasitose est actuellement tendue dans plus
de 18 pays en Europe. Cependant, lors dune tude mene Bruxelles et en Flandre en 2008, aucun cas positif
na t confirm.
Lobjectif gnral de notre travail est dactualiser les connaissances sur la prsence dE. multilocularis en Flandre,
Belgique ; plus spcifiquement den estimer sa prvalence et de prsenter sa distribution.
Mthode
Ltude a t ralise en Flandre, au nord de la Belgique. Cette rgion est constitue des cinq provinces
caractrises par un faible couvert forestier o sont pratiqus lagriculture, llevage et la chasse.
Entre novembre 2012 et Mars 2013, 304 renards issus de toute la Flandre, ont t chasss puis abattus ; les
carcasses ont t autopsies dans un laboratoire L3 et les intestins prlevs ont t analyss lInstitut de
Mdecine Tropicale par la technique de la filtration du contenu intestinal pour lidentification morphologique du
parasite adulte naturellement attach la muqueuse intestinal. Les rsultats ont t confirms par un second
test (PCR-RFLP) bas sur lidentification molculaire des espces.

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Rsultats
Les rsultats ont confirm six cas positifs (E. multilocularis) dans quatre provinces et plusieurs cas dAmoebotaenia
sp. Une charge parasitaire totale de 1200 vers a t observe chez un renard dans la province du brabant flamand.
Les provinces de Limbourg et de la Flandre occidentale se sont rvles aussi positives alors que le parasite ny
avait jamais t identifi.
Conclusion
Bien que faible, la prvalence estime (1,9%) dans notre tude confirme la prsence du parasite dans quatre des
cinq provinces de la Flandre, contrairement ltude mene en 2008. La prsence dAmoebotaenia dans certains
chantillons tmoignent la ncessit de recourir aux tests molculaires afin dviter les faux positifs.
Laugmentation en Flandre de la population vulpine en rgion priurbaine et urbaine, ainsi que la forte charge
parasitaire observe dans le Brabant Flamand laissent craindre une augmentation future de lincidence des cas
humains ; ce qui exigera une surveillance rgulire.
Mots cls: Echinococcus multilocularis; Prvalence; Renard roux; Flandre

4.003
Insecticides used for malaria vector control in households in Kinshasa: an inventory and possible
implications for future malaria control
Basilua Kanzaa, b,*, El Mokthar Essassi b, Gmouh Saidc, Basil Brooked,e, Watsenga Tezzoa
Special Laboratory of Biomedical Analysis, Higher Institute of Medical Technology BP774 Kinshasa, XI /DRC.
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry heterocyclic, University Mohammed V-Agdal, Faculty of Sciences, Av. Ibn
Battuta, BP1014, Rabat, Morocco.
c
CNRST, Technical Support Unit and Scientific Research / UATRS, BP 8027, Hay Riad 1000, Rabat, Morocco.
d
Centre for Occupational, Tropical & Hospital Infections, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, NHLS,
Johannesburg, South Africa.
e
Malaria Entomology Research Unit, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
a

Malaria is a major public health problem in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The principal vector of
malaria in Kinshasa is Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Insecticide treated bednets are primarily used for malaria
vector control as a national strategy, although commercially available insecticides are also used by householders.
A survey of informal insecticide use in individual households was conducted in order to evaluate the range of
active insecticidal ingredients currently used to control mosquitoes. One hundred and forty four households
in Kinshasa were randomly selected for the survey. Of these, 97.9% reported use of commercially available
insecticides. These were mainly pyrethroids (62.1%), organochlorines (14.6%) and organophosphates (5.4%).
The insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide was also represented (17.9%). Mass spectrometry revealed that
the pyrethroid tetramethrin (24.1%) was the active insecticide most represented whilst the organophosphate
dichlorvos(5.4%) was the least represented. The number of insecticides inventoried in Kinshasa was limited to
three chemical classes, which collectively target only two insect neurological sites namely the voltage-gated
sodium ion channel and acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. All
insecticides currently registered for use in public health also target one of these two neuronal sites. We thus
conclude that the potential for the selection of resistance to public health insecticides is significant, which could
adversely affect insecticide based malaria vector control activities in Kinshasa in the future.

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4.004
Zooprophylaxis from livestock rearing: the presence of cattle supports the regional
transmission interruption of onchocerciasis in endemic foci in North Cameroon
Albert Eisenbarth1, Mbunkah Daniel Achukwi2, Alfons Renz1
1
2

University of Tbingen, Institute of Evolution and Ecology, Comparative Zoology, Tbingen, Germany
Institute of Agricultural Research for Development IRAD, Wakwa Centre, Ngaoundr, Cameroon

Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus, and transmitted
by vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex. Since 1987 the main course of intervention is mass administration
of the drug ivermectin, which kills the symptoms-causing larval stage (microfilariae) in the skin. Apart from
the human parasite, the same vector transmits filariae of animal origin, such as O. ochengi from cattle and O.
ramachandrini from warthogs. We investigate whether the long-term implementation of annual communitydirected treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) has been sufficient to interrupt transmission in two onchocerciasis
endemic foci in North Cameroon.
By conducting a longitudinal field monitoring on vector biting and parasite transmission for more than 35 years,
we can trace back and evaluate the effect of annual ivermectin treatment intervention before its introduction over
time. Since 2010 we have established a PCR-based molecular detection system for filarial parasites to distinguish
the species. The two foci in North Cameroon are adjacent, but differ in ecological and environmental conditions,
such as livestock and wildlife density, altitude, vector population, and water discharge of river systems.
Our results clearly show that transmission is not interrupted even after 25 years of annual CDTI in the formerly
hyperendemic Sudan savannah. However, the formerly mesoendemic site at the Vina du Sud River on the Adamawa
highland plateau is free of parasite transmission, despite CDTI was implemented 10 years later and vector biting
rates have been higher. The high cattle stock density on the tsetse-free highland has a significant protective
effect on the human population against O. volvulus transmission.
The presence of livestock and wildlife filarial parasites reduce transmission by vector dilution and premunity
caused by cross-transmitted animal-filariae.

4.005
Mosquito diversity and mosquito-borne arboviruses in selected areas of Kinshasa, Democratic
Republic of Congo.
Kennedy K. Mbanzulu1,2; Jean Pierre K. Mukendi1,2; Josu K. Zanga1; Fortunate Shija2; Thierry L. Bobanga1; Roger
D.M. Wumba1; Gerald Misinzo2
Department of Tropical Medicine, Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa.
P.O. Box 747 Kinshasa XI, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
2
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of
Agriculture. P.O. Box 3019 Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.
1

Background.
Mosquito species distribution patterns and their ecology is gaining importance, because global climate changes
are leading to the emergence of mosquito-borne diseases; which are of considerable medical and veterinary
importance because of their high morbidity and mortality. Arboviral diseases are among the most important
emerging infectious diseases with public health threat to many countries, including the Democratic Republic of
Congo (DRC). Few studies conducted in DRC focused on the mosquito diversity and mosquito-borne arboviruses.
The present study was conducted to provide insights on mosquito diversity and the presence of mosquito-borne
arboviruses in selected parts of Kinshasa.

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Methods.
This study was conducted in five selected areas of Kinshasa namely: Kimwenza; Kingabwa; Ndjili Brasserie;
Kimbanseke and Ngaba. Kinshasa is the capital city of DRC, located at 41930S and 151920E with a climate
characterized by two seasons including a dry season from the second half of May to September and a rainy season
from October to the first half of May with short break in February. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel
traps, battery-powered aspirator; and larvae were collected by dipping technique. The species identification was
made on one part of adult and larvae-hatched adult mosquitoes using morphological identification keys. Aedes
aegypti was further identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The remaining part of adult mosquitoes was
pooled into groups according to genus and sampling sites, for screening of mosquito-borne arboviruses. Positive
pools were further screened for specific viruses using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
assays. Frequencies were used to produce proportions using EpiInfo version 7.
Results.
A total of 5714 mosquitoes were collected of which, 2814 adults and larvae-hatched adults were used for
morphological identification. They belonged to 4 genera; Culex, Aedes, Anopheles and Mansonia. Twelve mosquito
species were identified with Culex quiquenfiasciatus as the most represented species, followed by Aedes aegypti.
Although slightly represented Aedes luteocephalus was reported for the first time in Kinshasa in the present study.
From 2900 remaining adult mosquitoes, 29 pools of 100 mosquitoes each were constituted and screened for
arboviruses, from which 12 showed positivity either for alphavirus or flavivirus or bunyavirus including mixed
infection. Specifically, Chikungunya, Onyongnyong and Rift valley fever viruses were found, mainly in Aedes
pools.
Conclusions: The present study has shown the diversity of mosquito fauna in Kinshasa, and the circulating
arboviruses of public health importance. Further studies are needed both in humans and mosquitoes in Kinshasa.

4.006
Trypanosomes infection rate in naturally infected tsetse flies in the vicinity of Akagera National
Park
Richard Gashururu 1, Eustache Musafiri1, Severin Munyampuhwe 1, Justine Mukahigiro1 and
Alice Musabumuremyi2
University of Rwanda, School of animal sciences and veterinary medicine, Nyagatare campus. P.o. Box 57
Nyagatare
2
University of Rwanda, School of public health, department of environmental sciences
Corresponding author: Richard Gashururu, University of Rwanda, School of animal sciences and veterinary
medicine, Nyagatare campus. P.o. Box 57 Nyagatare; E-mail: gasirich@yahoo.fr, phone : (+250) 788556595
1

The study was carried out to determine the trypanosomes infection rates and identify the trypanosome species in
field-captured tsetse flies. The tsetse flies (Glossina) are the only biological vectors of the trypanosomes affecting
humans and livestock. There is practically no reliable data on the disease in Rwanda and little is known about the
tsetse flies and trypanosomes in the country. However, the tsetse flies are believed to be living in and around
Akagera Game Park. The wild game-livestock interface plays an important role in the epidemiology, being the
reservoirs of the disease (PATTEC, 2001; Masumu et al., 2010). The local population is not excluded in this interface
as humans are in the tsetse host range and susceptible to the disease. Animal Trypanosomiasis is endemic around
the park (RAB, 2012; Havugimali, 2012) but there is no data on the sleeping sickness in humans.
The study was carried out in Eastern province of Rwanda. Tsetse flies were collected from 3 districts surrounding
the park (Nyagatare, Gatsibo and Kayonza). Tsetse flies were trapped from 3 different locations and live flies were
counted, sex-determined and dissected so as to find the trypanosomes in their predilection sites in the tsetse fly.
The mouthparts, salivary glands and mid-guts were microscopically examined for the presence of trypanosomes.
The dissection was carried out as described by the FAO (1982) and the specific identification was done according
to the distinct differential morphology.

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A total of 257 flies were dissected (179 Glossina pallidipes and 78 Glossina morsitans). The study revealed an
overall infection rate of 12.8% (33/257) of which 4.6% is for the mouthparts, 0.7% (2/257) for salivary glands and
7.3% (19/257) for the mid-gut. Of the 33 infection cases, Trypanosoma congolense accounted for 57.5% (19/33),
Trypanosomabrucei for 6% (2/33), Trypanosomavivax for 21.2% (7/33) and the mixed infections of T.congolense
and T. vivax accounting for 15.1% (5/33). Both G.pallidipes and G.morsitans are potential vectors but G. pallidipes
appears to be the most important due to its high density.
The study confirmed the presence of trypanosome infected tsetse flies. It was only limited to species level and
revealed the presence of livestock infective trypanosomes, however, a more accurate DNA based diagnosis is
required to identify the blood meal sources and definitely differentiate the species and the sub-species or detect
the new species so as to characterize even the human infective trypanosomes as we found the T. brucei-like
species.

4.007
Canine dirofilarial infection in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania: first report and need for
awareness
Jean Pierre K. Mukendi1,2; Elikira Kimbita1; Kennedy M. Mbanzulu1,2; Patience M. Maindo1,2; Dieudonn N. Mumba2;
Gerald Misinzo1
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of
Agriculture. PO Box 3019, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania;
2
Department of Tropical Medicine, Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa.
PO Box 747, Kinshasa XI, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
1

Background
Among all Dirofilaria spp., the most relevant are D. immitis, due to its severe pathological effects and D. repens, for
its high zoonotic potential. Due to climatic changes, globalization and movements of dogs across the world, the
epidemiology of dirofilariosis is changing, with prevalence rising in endemic areas as well as spreading into new
areas. Yet, the problem remains under evaluated in Tanzania, and unknown in Morogoro, both in dogs and humans.
This study aimed to ascertain the presence of canine dirofilarial infection in Morogoro municipality.
Methods
The study was conducted in Morogoro municipality, Headquarters of Morogoro region, located about 195 km
to the west of Dar es Salaam and situated on the lower slopes of Uluguru Mountains. A cross-sectional study
was conducted from January to March 2015. Blood samples were collected from 152 dogs aged 6 months and
above from different areas within Morogoro municipality, and examined for the presence of microfilariae by
modified Knotts technique. Microfilaremic samples were further analysed by PCR and sequencing for molecular
identification. Data were analysed using EpiInfo version 7. Frequencies were used to compute proportions which
in turn, were compared using Fischer exact test with a p < 0.05 statistically significant at 95% of confidence level.
Results
A total of 152 dogs (55 females and 97 males) were included in the present study, of which 55.25% were aged 1-4
years. One hundred and thirty two dogs were kept indoors, 16 outdoors and 4 without specified keeping mode.
Forty six dogs received an anthelmintic treatment within 3 months preceding their inclusion in the present study.
This anthelmintic treatment was made of ivermectin in 6 of 46 dogs. Microfilariae were detected in 9 (5.92 %)
samples, of which 6 tested positive by PCR. Sequences generated were 97 % identical to D. immitis and 86 % to
90 % identical to D. repens sequences from the GenBank, suggesting the presence of both D. immitis and D. repens.
Conclusions: The current study has shown, for the first time, the presence of canine dirofilarial infection in Morogoro
municipality. Dirofilaria immitis has already been reported in northern Tanzania, while D. repens is being reported
for the first time by the present study. These results arouse the need for awareness implementation among both
veterinarians and human health practitioners, due the zoonotic status of dirofilariosis. Further studies are needed
in a large scale in dogs, mosquitoes and humans, to estimate the extent of the problem.

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4.008
Outbreak investigation of Zoonotic Disease Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Quetta, Balochistan
2014
Dr Ehsan Ahmed, 1Dr Zubair Khosa, 1 Dr Aamir Baig
1
Pakistan FELTP
1

Background:
Unusual occurrence of 15 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported to district health authorities by Lady
Health Worker. The clustering of cases was reported in locality of Kaichhi Baig. A three member team constituted
to investigate and institute preventive measures.
Methodology
A descriptive followed by Case Control Study was conducted in Quetta from January December 2014. WHO Case
definition was used to identify cases. Matched for age and sex, controls were taken with ratio of 1:1. House to
house survey was conducted for search of active cases and all the subjects included in study were interviewed
at their houses by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Suspected cases were identified, evaluated, diagnosed.
Diagnosis was based on clinical examination, slit skin smear for detection of Leishman-Donovan (LD) bodies and
skin biopsy for histopathology against cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Results:
311 CL cases identified. Nodulo-ulcerative lesions were commonest mode of presentation. Males (69%) were
more affected as compared to females (31%). Age range was 3 to 68 years with mean age of 27 years. Clinically,
58% had only single lesion, 31% had two lesions, while 11% of patients had three or more lesions. Most lesions
were found on exposed surfaces of the body. Overall only 13% personnel were using preventive measures
against sand fly bite. Significant statistical associations were found between residents living near hilly location
(OR 9.6; CI 1.6 25; p value <0.05) and developing CL.
Conclusion
Lack of application of preventive measures and knowledge of disease were reasons for increase in CL cases. Health
professionals and community were made aware of disease by health education sessions, personal protection
measures from sand fly like bed nets distributed. Elimination of infected dogs and rodents was implemented
with help of public health Department by spraying insecticides in houses, elimination of rodent burrows and dog
habitats to eliminate vectors were advised.
Key words
Cutaneous leishmaniasis, outbreak, preventive measures

4.009
Willingness to take up indoor residual spraying to prevent malaria in Tororo district, Uganda
Wadunde Ignatius, Musoke David, Ssempebwa CJ, Adoke Yeka
Makerere University School of Public Health
Corresponding author: Wadunde Ignatius iwadunde@gmail.com +256775065014/ +256704902283
Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an efficient method of preventing malaria in homes, and community
willingness to take up IRS greatly determines success of an IRS intervention. Tororo district conducted the first
phase of IRS between December 2014 to January 2015 and on average the district achieved a good coverage of
90%, however, Mulanda sub-county had the lowest coverage of 78%. There is limited information on willingness
to take up IRS following the first phase of the spraying.
Objectives: This study assessed willingness to take up IRS in next round of spray, and associated factors following
the first round in Mulanda sub-county, Tororo district; so as to plan for specific IRS action strategies in the district.

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Methods:
This household survey that used multistage sampling was conducted among 640 household heads, in all the
parishes of Mulanda Sub County, Tororo district, Uganda. The study used interviewer administered questionnaire
and key informant interviews. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses done using Stata 12
Key results: Over three quarters of respondents (79.9%) were willing to take up IRS in the next round. Factors
associated with willingness to take up IRS in the next round were; 35 years or older (AOR 1.9 95% CI 1.08-3.51),
being rich (AOR 0.4 95% CI 0.27-0.98), Not taking IRS in previous round (AOR 0.1 95% CI 0.06-0.23), Not knowing
reason for conducting IRS (AOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.24-0.78) and having an Iron sheet roof (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.03-4.73).
Conclusions:
Willingness to take up IRS in the next round is still suboptimal (79%) and reasons for non willingness being fears
of negative health effects due to chemicals used. Age, wealth status, having taken up IRS previously, knowing
reason for IRS were associated with willingness to take up IRS in next round. The most preferred channel of
passing out IRS information to the communities was community and religious leaders
Recommendations:
To increase uptake of IRS in the subsequent sprays, there is need to use community and religious leaders to
sensitize the communities on the reason for IRS and the efficacy and safety of the chemical used in IRS.

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Session 5: Monday 16th: 14.15 to 16.15: Environmental Pollution


as a predisposing factor (Break out session 3)
Room: Sheena Conference Hall

Prof. Thomas Gillespie, Emory University

Chair: Carolyn Porta

No

Title of abstract

Author

5.001

Effect of chronic agricultural pesticides exposure in farm workers health of a


Camerounian community and its probably impact on animals and higher plants

Pascal DD. Chuisseu

5.002

Application of IPM as a means to ameliorate risks of groundwater pesticide


contamination within Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya

Njoroge Simon Mburu

5.003

Perceived health hazards of using low-quality irrigation water in vegetable


production in Morogoro, Tanzania

Winfrida Mayilla Meshack Mollel

5.004

IMPACT OF FLOOD ON WATERBORNE BACTERIAL PATHOGENS. A STUDY IN


ANAMBRA RIVER: SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA.

Teletna Alemayhu

5.005

Monitoring of the environmental contamination from shedding of Mycobacterium


tuberculosis and bovis in Iringa rural district, Tanzania

Goodluck Charles Paul

5.006

Biological assessment of water quality and biodiversity in Rwandan rivers draining


into Lake Kivu

Torsten Wronski

5.007

Assessment of Bacteriological Quality of Meat from Abattoir and Butcher Shops in


Bishoftu, Ethiopia

Nigus Abebe Shumuye

5.008

Assessment of bacteriological quality of rastrineobola argentea along the value


chain in lake Victoria, Mwanza, Tanzania

Zebedayo Baniga

5.001
Effect of chronic agricultural pesticides exposure in farm workers health of a Camerounian
community and its probably impact on animals and Higher plants.
Pascal D. D. Chuisseu1. Simon N. Fewou1, Georgette Moudjo1, Faustin P. T. Manfo2, Josu L. Simo1, Christelle N.
Domngang1, Omer T. Njajou1, Jeanne Ngogang1 and Lazare Kaptu1.
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universit des Montagnes, P.O.Box 208 Bangangt, Cameroon
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O.Box 63 Buea,
Cameroon.
1
2

Context
The use of pesticides to improve crop protection and elimination of some plant diseases is increasing worldwide
in the developing world whose economy relies mostly on agriculture. Its appears that the damage caused by
pesticides on health poses a serious public health problem. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect
of agropesticides on health issues especially on liver and kidneys function in farm workers chronically exposed
to pesticides.
Methodology
A transversal comparative study was performed between 2 groups: A group of 40 farm workers in Nde Division
(West Cameroon) exposed to pesticides and a control group of 32 workers in Mfoundi division (Centre
Cameroon) not exposed to pesticides. After signing an informed consent form, the participants were interviewed
and blood was drawn by vein puncture. Serum enzymes and biomarkers were measured including markers of
cytotoxicity and other serum biochemical parameters such activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine
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aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), levels of direct and total bilirubin (D-Bil, T-Bil), as well as
concentrations of urea and creatinine. Data were analysed by SPSS and R softwares and the student t-test with
Wilcoxon rank test were used for comparisons.
Results
The pesticides mostly used by the farmers were insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. The average age of the
exposed group was 39 years old (39 13) and for the unexposed group, the average age was 37 (37 14); the
average exposure time to pesticides was 14 years (14 6).
A significant increase (P<0.05) of AST, PAL, direct bilirubin and creatinine levels were observed in exposed subjects
compared to control group. This could result from a multiple liver damage caused by exposure to pesticides.
A significant decrease in creatinine clearance was also observed in the group exposed to pesticides, and may
indicate the onset of renal failure.
Conclusion
Despite all benefits of agropesticides, there is worldwide concern about their use because they are harmful
to non-target organism, especially humans, livestock, wildlife and useful plants. It is therefore necessary to
consider the negative effects of agropesticides on humans and other living organism and ways to minimise such
effects. This will draw the attention of health workers, governments and environmental protection agencies when
defining agricultural policies.
Keywords: agropesticides, health, farm workers, animals, higher plants.

5.002
Application of IPM as a means to ameliorate risks of groundwater pesticide contamination
within Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya.
Njoroge Simon Mburu1; Odipo Osano.2; Munyao Thomas Mutuku2
1
2

School of Public Health, Moi University


School of Environmental Studies, Chepkoilel University College

Correspondence: Njoroge Simon Mburu., Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Moi
University, P.O. Box 4606 Eldoret Kenya. Email: njorogesmburu@gmail.com or mburu_s@yahoo.com, Tel: +254
722886702
Increasing use of pesticides threatens the quality of groundwater with contamination. Some pesticides move
easily through the soil and once introduced are removed only with great difficulty. The objective of the study
was to assess the use of integrated pest management in reducing the risks of groundwater contamination in
Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data on types and
quantities of pesticides used; and information on other methods used to control weeds, pests and plant diseases.
The results showed that 141 pesticides were used in the basin and that 75% of farms applying pesticides in high
quantities. All the farms were using (Integrated Pest management) IPM to complement pesticides use. Majority
of farms (62.5%) reported average harvest when IPM methods were used to control plant pests, diseases and
weeds. It was concluded that IPM programme around Lake Naivasha is still in its initial stages and in transition
from intensive pesticide use. The risk of groundwater contamination in the lake Naivasha basin is therefore still
high. Based on these findings the study recommended further research on pest management techniques, in order
to reduce the amount of pesticides used to minimize groundwater contamination.
Keywords: Pesticides, Integrated pest management, groundwater contamination, Lake Naivasha

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5.003
Perceived health hazards of using low-quality irrigation water in vegetable production in
Morogoro, Tanzania
Winfrida Mayilla1, Helena Ngowi1, Benard Keraita2 Flemming Konradsen2, Flavianus Magayane1
Corresponding Author: Winfrida Mayilla (winfridam@yahoo.com / winfridamm@gmail.com)
1
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
2
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
This study used the One Health Approach to assess the perceptions of vegetable farmers, traders, consumers and
key informants on the health hazards of using low-quality water in irrigation vegetable production in Morogoro,
Tanzania. Methods used to collect data were farmers (n=60), consumers (n=70) and vegetable traders (n=60)
survey, focus group discussions (n=7) and key informants interviews (n=25). The study employs cross sectional
research design. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate mean, frequencies and percentages while MannWhitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test were performed as inferential statistics to check the association between
social demographic variables and respondents score on health hazards perception scale of using low-quality
water in vegetable production. Results showed skin itching, fungal diseases, bilharzias and worm infestation
as among the perceived health hazards in using low-quality irrigation water. Results further showed that the
health hazards perception differs between farmers, consumers and vegetable traders (P = 0.000 at P <= 0.05). The
mean ranks for the groups indicated that farmers perceive less health hazards in using low-quality water (Mean
Rank = 147.98) compared to consumers (Mean Rank = 72.68) and vegetable traders (Mean Rank 69.64). Farmers
perception score was influenced by the district where farmers belong (P = 0.000 at P < 0.05) and their sex (P =
0.016 at P < 0.05) while consumers perception was associated with their education level (P = 0.001 at P < 0.05).
Vegetable traders perception was associated with the district where vegetable traders belong (P = 0.000 at P
< 0.05). Understanding respondents perceptions on the health hazards associated with the use of low-quality
water in irrigation agriculture is crucial in creating awareness to the key players and the government authorities
on the best way to design mitigation strategies that can be addressed using one health approach.

5.004
Impact of flood on waterborne bacterial pathogens: A study in Anambra river: South East,
Nigeria
Tehetna Alemayhu Teklewolde1, S. I. Oboegbulem2 and J. A. Nwanta2
College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria

1
2

Under conditions of climate change, heavy rain and flood would increase the risk of fecal contamination of surface
and ground water which is used as drinking water. A cross sectional and retrospective study was carried out to
assess the impact of flood on waterborne bacterial pathogens in Anambra River. Water samples from where the
residents collect for household purpose; water used for washing of meat at slaughter slab; samples of meat before
and after washing with the flood water were collected for 18 weeks. Bacterial load and isolation of E.coli and
Salmonella were performed following the standard microbiological technique. Questionnaire survey of residents
of the communities of Oto-ucha regarding the periods of flood of Anambra River shows that Jun/July marks the
rising of flood; Aug/Sept peak of flood; Oct/Nov receding of flood and Dec/Jan back to normal water level. There
was a significant difference (P=0.0368) in the mean Total Viable Bacterial Count (TVBC) (cfu/ml) between the
period of flood peak and of normal water level at point of water collection for household purposes. Likewise, there
was significant difference in TVBC (t=2.769; p=0.039) between peak of flood (Aug/Sept) and normal water level
(Dec/Jan) at point of water collection for washing of meat at slaughter slab. Whereas, the mean TVBC of meat after
washing with the flood water (7.95x1011 12.25) was significantly (t=2.372; p=0.03) higher than before washing
(8.0x1012 1.4). Regarding, mean Coliform Counts (CC) there was significant (P=0.030) difference between the
period of flood peak and normal water level at point of water collection for household purposes. Similarly, there

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was significant difference (t=2.945; P=0.032) between peak of flood and normal water level period at point of
water collection for washing of meat at slaughter slab. The mean CC (cfu/g) of meat after washing (2.37x1010
26.21) was significantly (t=4.063; p=0.001) higher than before washing (6.05x1010 7.5). Verotoxigenic E.coli and
Salmonella were isolated from the flood water and meat. As to the retrospective study, the result revealed that
out of a total of 433 confirmed diarrheic cases registered in two hospitals, 228(52.66%) were registered in 2012
when Nigeria experienced the worst flooding in recent years, including the Anambra River. Risk some form of
association between the level of flooding and diarrhea infection.
Key words: Anambra River, Bacteria, Flood, Waterborne

5.005
Monitoring of the environmental contamination from shedding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
and bovis in Iringa rural district, Tanzania
Goodluck Paul*1, Woutrina Miller2, Joseph Malakalinga1, Archer Yi-ujing4 , Annette Roug2, David Porter4 , Deana
Clifford2, Esther Ngadaya3, Sayoki Mfinanga3, Wellington Elizabeth4 , Midori Kato Maeda5, Phil Hopewell5,
Rudovick Kazwala1
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
3
National Institute for Medical Research Muhimbili center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
4
University of Warwick, United Kingdom
5
University of California San Francisco, USA
1
2

Introduction
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and human tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium
tuberculosis are diseases with significant consequences for animal and human health. Transmission of bTB between
animals and humans is of particular concern in areas where both people and animals live in close proximity,
and humans consume raw animal products such as untreated milk. The Health for Animals and Livelihood
Improvement (HALI) Project is conducting a case control study to investigate the epidemiology of bTB and TB in
animal and human populations in the Iringa rural district of Tanzania. One objective of the study is to investigate
whether environmental contamination possibly can play a role in the transmission of bTB and TB. Environmental
transmission pathways have not been thoroughly investigated due to the lack of sensitive diagnostic methods.
Materials and Methods
A total of 185 dust and 148 water samples were collected from the TB case control households and shared water
sources used for human and animals respectively. DNA was extracted using MP Bios Fast DNA Spin Kit for soil, and
tested for M. bovis and M. tuberculosis using qPCR.
Results
A total of 49% (49/100) of household dust samples from TB case households and 22.4% (19/85) from the control
households, tested positive for M. tuberculosis. None of the communal water samples tested positive for M. bovis
or M. tuberculosis.
Conclusion and recommendation. This study is the first to report the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA in dust
from the TB case control households. Although the viability of the bacteria was not assessed in this study, the
findings are significant and show that environmental contamination potentially could play a role in tuberculosis
epidemiology. No M. bovis was isolated from communal watering sites; possibly indicating that water borne
transmission of M. bovis is not a significant risk factor for human and animal infection in this area. Further
investigations are warranted to better understand environmental transmission pathways in bovine and human
tuberculosis epidemiology.

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5.006
Biological assessment of water quality and biodiversity in Rwandan rivers draining into Lake
Kivu
Torsten Wronski1*,Marie Claire Dusabe2,4, Ann Apio2, Bernhard Hausdorf3 & Christian Albrecht 4,5
College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, P.R. China 2Department
of Wildlife and Aquatic Resources Management, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, University of
Rwanda, P.O. Box: 57, Nyagatare, Rwanda
3
Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
4
Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics, JustusLiebigUniversity Giessen,35390 Giessen, Germany
5
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 1410,
Mbarara, Uganda
1

This study aimed at assessing the biological water quality and biodiversity of Rwandan rivers draining into Lake
Kivu using benthic macroinvertebrates as indicator organisms. We tested the hypothesis that biological water
quality and biodiversity are negatively affected by direct human perturbations and land use changes in the
surrounding habitat. Fifty-three rivers from 29 catchment areas were investigated using the Average Score Per
Taxon and the Baur Biotic Score as indices for assessing water quality. The Shannon index and the Pielous
evenness index were used to measure biodiversity and evenness, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were
applied to test the impact of hydromorphology, physical parameters, direct human perturbations and land-use
change in the surrounding habitat on water quality and biodiversity. Baur Biotic Score and Average Score per
Taxon indicated strong variation in the water quality of the investigated rivers. Best biological water quality was
found in the rivers south of Kibuye/Karongi. Diversity was found to be moderate, but slightly increased south of
Kibuye/Karongi. Evenness was also lowest south of Kibuye/Karongi. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated
that the biodiversity estimations might be affected by the sampling time, but that the assessment of water quality
was not. Water velocity significantly influenced water quality as well as biodiversity. Together with pH, it has
also the strongest effect on the composition of macrozoobenthos assemblages. We showed that discharge of
industrial waste water in the Burehe River resulted in an alarming deterioration of water quality that demonstrates
the necessity of effective wastewater treatment for a sustainable usage of water resources. Long-term water
quality monitoring is highly recommended to be established in Rwanda using a combination of physicochemical,
bacteriological and biomonitoring data.
Keywords: Macrozoobenthos, Biodiversity, Albertine Rift Valley, Average Score Per Taxon, Baur Biotic Score.

5.007
Assessment of Bacteriological Quality of Meat from Abattoir and Butcher Shops in Bishoftu,
Ethiopia
Abebe Bersisa1, Nigus Abebe1*, Habtamu Taddele1, Hunderra Sori2
1
Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Medicine, P.O.Box: 2084, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia
2
National Veterinary Institute (NVI), Debre-ziet, Ethiopia
*E-mail: nigabeshu@yahoo.com
The study was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 to determine bacterial load and identification of
pathogenic bacteria (S. aureus, E. coli and Salmonella species) in meat from abattoir and butcher shops as well as to
assess associated hygienic and sanitation practices being experienced in the selected study site. A cross sectional
study was conducted where simple random sampling method was used to select butcher shops and municipal
abattoir was purposively selected. Structured questionnaire survey was also used to assess hygienic status of the
municipal abattoir and butcher shops. A total of 124 samples (48 swab samples from abattoir carcass, 4 samples
of carcass washing water about 20 ml of each, 36 swab samples each from butcher shop cutting table and cutting
knife, respectively) were collected during the study period. The collected samples were processed for aerobic
plate count and total mean count were found to be 4.53 log10cfu/cm2 from abattoir carcass swab sample, 2.4

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log10 cfu/ml from water sample, 6.58 log10cfu/cm2 from butcher cutting table and 6.1 log10cfu/cm2 from cutting
knife. E. coli was the dominant (35.2%) followed by S. aureus (22.5%) and salmonella species (9.9%) among the
isolated pathogenic bacteria. Questionnaire survey showed that out of 31 respondents of abattoir workers, 48.4%
of them did not received training regarding food safety issues. Moreover, majority (66.67%) of the respondents
of the butcher house were grade 1-4 (elementary) in their educational level were not used hairnet and handle
money with bare hand during serving the meat to the consumers. The study showed that the hygienic status of the
abattoir and butcher shops in the study area is generally poor and the obtained results of bacterial load are higher
than the acceptable limit of the standard. Therefore, the necessary strategies to ward hygiene and sanitation of
meat in the town should be implemented.
Key words: Abattoir, Aerobic plate count, Bacterial load, Butcher shop, Meat, Bishoftu.

5.008
Assessment of Bacteriological Quality of Rastrineobola argentea along the Value Chain in Lake
Victoria, Mwanza, Tanzania
1

Zebedayo Baniga, 2Robinson Mdegela and 3Ofred Mhongole

Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development, National Fish Quality Control Laboratory,
P. O. Box 1213, Nyegezi, Mwanza, Tanzania
2
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health;
P. O. Box 3021, Morogoro, Tanzania.
1

A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the bacteriological contamination in Rastrineobola argentea
along the value chain in Lake Victoria, Mwanza, Tanzania. Rastrineobola argentea were collected from different
points along the value chain. Fresh and dried R. argentea were purposively collected from four landing sites, four
drying areas and four local markets. Bacterial counts were performed; Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were
identified using bacteriological standard procedures and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The findings showed
a significant difference (P<0.05) in bacterial loads between ground and raised racks dried R. argentea. Results for
E. coli quantification (MPN) showed that fresh R. argentea had significant difference (P<0.05) in mean counts to
the ones dried on raised racks and on ground at processing and market. The Salmonella spp were confirmed by
PCR using ST11-ST15 gene specific for Salmonella spp, sefA gene for S. enteritids and fliC gene for S. typhimurium.
The prevalence of S. typhimurium and unidentified Salmonella spp in fresh R. argentea was 20% and 5% (n=40)
respectively. Whereas the prevalence of S. typhimurium in R. argentea dried on ground at processing and market
was 20% and 15% (n=20) respectively. Salmonella spp were not detected in those dried on raised racks. Moreover,
S. enteritids were not detected in this study. Additionally, the prevalence of E. coli was 62.5% (n=40) in fresh R.
argentea and 70% (n=20) in those dried on ground at market while none of those dried on racks were contaminated.
Overall, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in Salmonella spp and E. coli contaminated in fresh R. argentea
over sundried. Both Salmonella spp and E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. However,
Salmonella spp were sensitive to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin while E. coli were sensitive to chloramphenicol,
norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that R. argentea from Lake Victoria
contain antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp and E. coli strains of public health implications. The contamination of
lake water might be attributed to poor and unregulated animal and human waste disposal, an aspect that can be
addressed using one health approach. The presence of S. typhimurium implies the contamination of lake water with
enteric bacteria which are causative agent of zoonotic disease like salmonellosis. The agent originates from the
guts of animals with both domestic and wild animals acts as reservoirs for the bacteria. But, extensive distributions
of animal spp affect the effective surveillance, prevention and control of zoonotic diseases hence, interdisciplinary
approach is necessary. Controlling contamination of lake water with antibiotics, wastes from households, industries,
agricultural, animals and hospital from point and none-point sources required an interdisciplinary approach.
This will help in monitoring agricultural activities, livestock, wildlife and environmental pollution to implement
preventive actions. The medical doctors, public health officials, veterinarians, policy-makers and environmental
agencies are the key actors to control emerging and zoonotic diseases to prevent public health from diseases
which are caused by infectious agents like S. typhimurium.
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Session 7: Monday, November 16, 16:00-18:00: Program


Evaluation Workshop - (By application and invitation).
Break away session 2
Room: Regal Hall

The purpose of this training workshop is to provide a basic orientation to the goals, roles, methods and utilization
of systematic evaluation. The goal is to impart an appreciation of the importance of evaluation and an initial
understanding of when and how it can be utilized. This training is not intended to provide the technical skills
necessary to undertake an evaluation upon completing of this workshop. Those actually charged with designing
and conducting program evaluation or training modules will need more substantial grounding in the relevant
technical knowledge and skills. The workshop will involve a combination of direct presentation of content,
application focused group discussion, and group work in designing an evaluation.
Attendance is free, but space is limited. RSVP to reserve your spot.

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Day 2: Tuesday November 17th, 2015

Theme: Emerging Pandemic Threats


preparedness and Response

Session 8: Plenary
Room: Victoria Ball Room
Tuesday, 17th November: 8.00-10.00: Transforming the current and future workforce

Session Speaker: Professor David J. Kabasa

Chair: SEAHOUN Representative

No

Title of abstract

Author

8.001

Scaling down One Health Approaches to District Local Governments and


Communities through One Health Leadership Training in the Albertine Ecosystem
in Uganda.

Lawrence Mugisha

8.002

Entrepreneurship Training as a Platform for One Health Experiential Education

Fred Rose

8.003

One Health in Practice: Genesis, steps and experiences from Kilosa District,
Tanzania

Batamuzi E

8.004

Building the Next Generation of Global Health Leaders by Integrating One Health
Core Competencies in Health Science Training: University of Global Health Equity,
Rwanda

Peter Drobac

8.005

Global Health True Leaders: Addressing Common Local Health Challenges through
Human Resources Empowerment

Wiku Adisasmito

8.006

Interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, multidisciplinary whats in a name and how do


they relate to practical teaching of One Health principles?

Stan Fenwick

8.007

Interdisciplinary integration of One Health Core Competencies into University


curricula in East and Central Africa: OHCEAs One Health Module development
process

Hellen Amuguni

8.008

Factors Affecting Utilization of E-learning Platforms in One Health Training in


Central and Eastern Africa: An OHCEA Case Study

Timothy Wakabi

8.001
Scaling down One Health Approaches to District Local Governments and Communities through
One Health Leadership Training in the Albertine Ecosystem in Uganda.
Lawrence Mugisha1,2,3, Innocent Rwego3,7, Esther Namukose4 , Justine Bukenya5, Timothy Wakabi6, Samuel Majalija2,
Juliet Kiguli4 , Geoffrey Kabagambe6, John David Kabasa2,6, Mac Fanharm3, Katey Pelican3, William Bazeyo5,6
Conservation & Ecosystem Health Alliance (CEHA), Kampala, Uganda
College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources & Biosecurity, Makerere University
3
Ecosystem Health Division, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota
4
Ministry of Health, Uganda
5
School of Public Health, Makerere University
6
One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA), Kampala, Uganda
7
College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University
1
2

Background
One Health (OH) approaches have received global recognition as effective means to solve complex health
challenges at local and international levels. In order to benefit from principals and uniqueness of one health
approaches, all stakeholders at different levels need to appreciate, adopt and apply/practice One Health
principles.

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Methods
In March 2014, the Uganda country team of One Health Eastern and Central Africa (OHCEA) network conducted a
pilot One Health leadership training of 25 district-level local government technical personnel and 5 officers from
national line ministries. Trainees were selected from 5 out of 119 districts; Hoima, Kibaale, Bundibugyo, Kasese
in the Albertine ecosystem and Luwero in Central region, Uganda. Districts were chosen based on previous
incursions of highly pathogenic disease outbreaks such as Ebola and Marburg and geographical location within the
biodiversity hotspots. Additional participants included One Health Residents, Media representatives and Political
heads from Hoima (host) district. The participants were trained on key thematic areas of one health leadership
including: 1) Vision and Strategy, 2) Teamwork and Team Building, 3) Change Management, and 4) Communication.
Daily evaluations for the training were undertaken by participants using a web-based tool Wordle: http://www.
wordle.net/create. In addition, participants level of knowledge was assessed pre-and post training using short
qualitative survey.
Results
Forty-eight participants from diverse professional disciplines were trained and equipped with one health
leadership skills and competencies step-by- step through 5 days of intensive experiential training. By end of the
fifth day, district and ministry teams developed and presented a one health strategic roadmap for each district
using a Challenge Model as one of the competencies. We present a sample of a mission statement for Hoima
district for OH Strategic Roadmap: To provide integrated health services to humans, animals and ecosystems through
multisectoral collaboration as an example of immediate outcome. Pre and post evaluation assessment revealed
immediate shift in the level of knowledge and appreciation of OH approaches from 65% to 75% at the end of
training.
Conclusion
The One health leadership training had an immediate effect on the participants by recognizing the need to work
in multidisciplinary teams to solve complex society challenges and improvement in the level of knowledge and
competencies. This was demonstrated by the ability of the teams to develop one health strategic roadmaps
for implementing in their respective districts and ministries and to inform policy makers and government
representatives.

8.002
Entrepreneurship Training as a Platform for One Health Experiential Education
Fred Rose1, Juliet Kiguli2, Samuel Majalija2, Lawrence Mugisha2, Samuel Okech2, Charles Osingada2, Cheryl
Robertson1
University of Minnesota
Makerere University

1
2

A primary focus of One Health-based training is the development of a foundational set of competencies
(knowledge, skills, and values) that prepares the student to effectively engage a broad range of One Health
challenges during their career. The authors hypothesized that entrepreneurship training would be an effective
mechanism to prepare students to develop innovate solutions and interventions to One Health (OH) challenges
they observe during field experience.
The training is referred to as Impact entrepreneurship training. Impact ventures and impact entrepreneurship
(sometimes social is used in place of impact) are globally accepted terms referring to NGOs or businesses that
directly address social or environmental challenges. Training was done with Makerere University students
in 2013 and 2014, in conjunction with One Health Field attachments. The lead author has also done Impact
Entrepreneurship training in South Asia and Central America.
The objective of the entrepreneurship training is to prepare students in One Health-based curriculum courses
with skills and frameworks that will inspire and empower them to use the knowledge they have gained in their
OH course to create plausible solutions to challenges they identify. Solutions may take varied forms, including
sustainable business or non-profit models, public policy, public health interventions, media or technical solutions.
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The training consists of several modules, each focused on a different trans-disciplinary skill.
Broadly speaking, topics include effective communication, problem scoping, design thinking (could include
qualitative methods), value proposition design, business models and theories of change. Clearly a short course,
no matter how intensive, cannot begin to cover all of these skills in any significant depth, as each is a discipline
in and of itself. However, like a One Health course that covers a myriad of topics and their complex interactions
likewise the entrepreneurship training introduces a suite of capacities necessary for acting on these challenges.
The intent is to introduce the skills so the students gain basic competency, apply them to their problem at hand,
and most importantly, gain awareness of how to use their skills to tackle big projects in the future. While an
actual student venture (such as Chilgrow, a nutrition supplement business, originating from the 2013 course)
may emerge, that is the not the determination of the success of the course, but an indication of the depth of the
understanding the students gain.
The intent of this paper is to describe the training, the results from the pilot classes and how this can be used by
the larger OCHEA network during the coming years.

8.003
One Health in Practice: Genesis, steps and experiences from Kilosa District, Tanzania
Batamuzi E. Mdegela R. Robertson N. Amuguni H et al
In Tanzania the concept of One Health has been in existence since the early 1990s with a focus on research and
training at graduate levels. Thus in the community of practice arena, efforts to build capacity for OH practitioners
at undergraduate levels were limited in scope. This deficiency prompted the need for Innovative demand driven
training programmes that would help to address the shortfall. A One Health demonstration site was therefore
seen to be an answer. Consequently, Kilosa Demonstration Site (KDS) for One Health was established and used
the for a month long attachment of undergraduate students. This aimed at exposing students from human
health and related fields; and their counterparts with predominantly animal health orientations to One Health
related research. Thus a total of 37 students studying human and veterinary medicine, laboratory technology,
nursing, nutrition; animal sciences; environmental health as well as wildlife management converged at Kilosa
for the exercise. In the first week of the attachment faculty members from SUA and MUHAS with assistance
from functional managers based in Kilosa provided theoretical training on dos and donts as well as life skills
of one health approaches to managing health challenges in communities; in order to prepare ground for the
students, lecturers and communities to work together. Then students, faculty and managers were organized into
multidisciplinary one health groups. The groups so formed were dispatched to strategically selected villages to
undertake a situational analysis of the health challenges affecting humans, domestic and wild animals as well as
the environment guided by a prepared questionnaire and FGD interview guide. Furthermore teams were afforded
opportunity to make necessary interventions for issues and health challenges that required immediate attention.
The month-long attachment to KDS has generated quite a number of valuable results and experiences. Notable
examples include the fact that it is possible to bridge discipline and interest based silos and work together to
address challenges of common interest and complexity, guided by focused OH agenda. Also KDS provided a
forum for identifying social entrepreneurship opportunities abound in remote areas that can be exploited by
all. In addition, capacity has been built on documentation, data collection and use in addressing OH challenges.
Furthermore, a OH platform involving academia; future One Health Workforce; government; service providers and
communities has been established and operationalized. It is hereby concluded that supervised attachment of
students to KDS was a worthwhile exercise in translating OH concepts into practice despite the fact that there is
room for improvement. It is therefore recommended that there is need to attach students to KDS and other places
that provide a unique opportunity on human-animal-environment interactions; on regular basis targeting both
undergraduate and graduate levels.
Key words: Kilosa, OH demonstration site, One- health approach.

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8.004
Building the Next Generation of Global Health Leaders by Integrating One Health Core
Competencies in Health Science Training: University of Global Health Equity, Rwanda
Peter Drobac MD, MPH1,2, J. Hellen Amuguni DVM, PhD, MA1.3, Deborah Kochevar DVM, PhD, DACVC3
University of Global Health Equity, Partners In Health
Division of Global Health Equity, Harvard Medical School
3
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University
1
2

Background:
The University of Global Health Equity (UGHE) is a groundbreaking health sciences university in Rwanda that
will train the next generation of global leaders in healthcare delivery. A new kind of university, UGHE aims to
harness the best ideas in higher education and integrate cutting-edge technology platforms with immersion in
complex healthcare delivery systems. Operated by Partners In Health, UGHE is an accredited private institution
that will leverage expertise from the Government of Rwanda, and academic partners including Harvard University
and Tufts University to create a center of excellence for delivery-focused education, research, clinical care,
and implementation. Using a One Health framework, UGHE will not be limited by traditional boundaries within
academic disciplines and instead foster unmatched, inter-disciplinary health science training and capacity
building using this integrated academic model.
Methods:
One Health mastery is a core competency in all UGHE degree programs starting with the Master of Science in
Global Health Delivery (MGHD) launching in September 2015 and targets mid-career clinicians and policy makers
in the medical, nursing, dental, and veterinary science fields, among others. MGHD cuts across traditional academic
boundaries to provide students a foundation in global health, One Health, management, policy and biosocial
approaches. To anchor UGHEs health science training around One Health principles, UGHE, University of Rwanda
College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at
Tufts University, and Harvard University are collaboratively designing curricula including case studies, practicum
projects, and interdisciplinary learning experiences while also building a robust One Health research agenda that
breaks down inter-professional barriers and encourages collaboration.
Results:
One Health will be at the foundation of the UGHE educational experience yielding global health leaders with this
critical expertise. By learning a holistic view of health systems animal, environmental, and human students
will be taught to systematically assess the inter-relatedness of health and health outcomes. By integrating global
health delivery training with One Health, UGHE will be the leader in this unique educational model and will be at
the forefront of a training paradigm shift developing global health leaders with technical fluency in One Health
and enabling them to solve and plan for the most important and emerging global health challenges.
Conclusions:
Given their robust One Health training, UGHE health sciences graduates will be uniquely literate in both global
health delivery and equity, and also in the complex roles that humans, animals, and environment play in health
outcomes.

8.005
Global Health True Leaders: Addressing Common Local Health Challenges through Human
Resources Empowerment
Wiku Adisasmito1,2, Dewi Nur Aisyah2, Alicia Nevriana2, Putu Mas Dewi Pratiwi2, Putri Viona Sari2, Yovita Salysa
Aulia2, Allan Lauder3, Marc Baril 4
Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
Indonesia One Health University Network, Depok 16424, Indonesia

1
2

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3
4

Faculty of the Humanities, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia


Stelerix Strategic Management, Inc., Canada Phone: +62816870101 e-mail : wiku.adisasmito@gmail.com

Background:
Substantial progress has been made to improve the status of global health, yet there are still many pressing
challenges to overcome. The forces of globalization have made it possible for diseases and other threats such
as SARS, H5N1, and MERS-CoV to spread anywhere. Such global health problems can only be tackled with
multidisciplinary collaboration between stakeholders at an international level. True leaders with a comprehensive
knowledge of global health issues are needed. It motivated Universitas Indonesia and the Indonesia One Health
University Network to start a program called Global Health True Leaders (GHTL). Before this program, the
collaboration spirit and level of understanding about multidisciplinary approach among participants were very
low. The GHTL program is an international leadership and health training program which is open to students and
young professionals. It gives them exposure to a range of highly relevant international and local health issues, and
pushes them to raise the level of their leadership and soft skills.
Method:
The program is a combination of in-class training, field activities and national leadership training. The in-class
training equips participants with the kind of thinking and issues needed to contribute to global health concerns.
The field activities see the participants stationed with local communities and allow them to experience working
together to help solve the kind of health problems the community faces but which are also of concern globally.
The national leadership training can be thought of as a kind of outward bound training and is designed to build
resilience, a group spirit, motivation and dedication.The language used for in-class activities was English, while in
the field, they had to communicate with local people by using Bahasa Indonesia.
Result:
INDOHUN has conducted GHTL in January 2014 with 114 participants coming from five countries with various
education backgrounds. Similar programs had been run as well in three other countries in Asia. The result shows
improvement in understanding of multidisciplinary approach and the level of collaboration among participants.
Conclusion:
The GHTL program has improved understanding and implementation of multidisciplinary collaboration among
the participants as well as built their empathy of international issues. As part of the follow-up activities, the
participants have been invited to submit an application for funding for their own leadership project on global
health.
Keywords: true leaders, global health, human resource empowerment, leadership, training programs, community
engagement, program funding.

8.006
Interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, multidisciplinary whats in a name and how do they relate
to practical teaching of One Health principles?
Prof. Stan Fenwick, Tufts University, USAID One Health Workforce
One Health has been defined as "the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally, and
globally to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment", and there has been international
support for the One Health approach to be adopted and institutionalised by countries in order that timely and
effective responses are mounted to outbreaks of emerging or re-emerging diseases. While this is a step forward
in overcoming the institutional silos that currently exist in ministries that undertake outbreak response activities,
it is obvious that the current workforce have not been sufficiently trained in the practical skills and competencies
required to work across sectors and disciplines. Thus a number of recent initiatives, in particular the USAIDfunded RESPOND and One Health Workforce programs, have focused on training a new generation of One Health
professionals at the pre-service and in-service levels. As outbreaks do not occur in the classroom, emphasis
must be placed on providing suitable opportunities for field-based, practical training, so that groups can gain

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experience in working together on real world complex problems. Educationalists use the term interdisciplinary
teaching to describe an integrative approach to teaching such issues, in contrast to the additive approach
associated with multidisciplinary teaching. One Health however, often uses the term transdisciplinary to
describe a more holistic approach to problem solving. In practice however, how do these different concepts
translate into actions for practical, field-based teaching? This presentation will discuss the educational principles
involved and will provide examples of field-based activities that have been used, or might be used, to educate
diverse student groups in the importance of systems thinking and the One Health approach to predict, detect and
respond to diseases of public health importance.

8.007
Interdisciplinary integration of One Health Core Competencies into University curricula in East
and Central Africa: OHCEAs One Health Module development process.
Hellen Amuguni1, Winnie Bikaako2, Angelina Twinomujuni2
Tufts University, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, USA.
One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA), Kololo, Uganda
Corresponding author: Janetrix.amuguni@tufts.edu
1
2

Background
The recent Ebola outbreak in the West African region demonstrated how a geographically isolated outbreak of a
zoonotic disease, can cause global disruption and underscored the need for a strong well developed workforce;
able to act as a primary barrier to infectious disease threats. What type of training should be developed to
provide professionals with the skills and competencies needed to combat these new threats? One Health Central
and Eastern African network (OHCEA) a network of 14 schools of public health and veterinary medicine has
identified and developed One Health (OH) Core Competencies that are key to delivering knowledge and skills to
a multidisciplinary workforce and building a competency framework on which OH curricula can be designed and
implemented.
Methods:
Through a week long OH module development workshop, OHCEA brought together a team of 32 subject matter
specialists from six different countries to begin the process of developing OH modules that can be incorporated into
curricula or specific courses to provide the necessary skills needed by competent interdisciplinary professionals
to respond effectively to any public health threat. A total of 17 modules were identified including core OH soft
skills such Communication and Informatics, Culture, Beliefs, Values and Ethics, Leadership, Management, Gender
and Mental Health as well core technical skills such as Ecosystem Health, Infectious Disease Epidemiology, OH
concepts and knowledge and Outbreak Investigation, and Response. Using the backward design principle the
module developers identified goals and specific learning objectives for each module, developed case studies as
well as innovative tools, activities and technologies that were learner centered.
Results
At the end of the week, a framework for OH curricula was developed. It encompasses OH soft and technical
modules combining human animal health sciences, infectious disease and outbreak response with principles
of ecology and environmental sciences. These modules will be used at both pre-service and in-service levels
either as full courses or interspersed and integrated into course materials to build the skills, knowledge and
ability of learners to effectively look for answers to public health challenges beyond ones own discipline and to
successfully function as an integral part of a larger, multi-disciplinary, team of professionals.
Conclusion
Preventing, detecting and responding effectively to these emerging pandemics requires engagement of
professionals with the right training, skill set and tools. Integrating One Health competencies into curricula is
fundamental to developing a stronger more efficient public health workforce.

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8.0018
Factors Affecting Utilization of E-learning Platforms in One Health Training in Central and
Eastern Africa: An OHCEA Case Study
Timothy Wakabi1, Amy Pekol 2, Elizabeth Kajumba1, Linda Jarvin3, Dawn Terkla3
One Health Central and Eastern Africa
University of Minnesota, USA
3
Tufts University, USA
1
2

Background:
E-learning infrastructure has been identified as a strategy to enable OHCEA members to access and share online
teaching materials, as well as aid interaction between instructors and students.
Between 2012 and 2014, the One Health Eastern and Central Africa (OHCEA) University Network, with funding
from USAIDs RESPOND project, supported the installation or improvement of e-learning infrastructure and
training of university faculty and IT staff. The assumption was that improved e-learning infrastructure and user
training would increase the use of online learning tools and platforms in OHCEA member universities, improving
access to quality, timely, and innovative training for the current and future One Health workforce. In 2015, an
international team of evaluators assessed the current usage of e-learning systems at select OHCEA member
schools. The purpose of this assessment was to determine institutional commitment and capacity for further
e-learning support, as well as to learn from past implementation experiences.
Methods:
A team comprising of staff of OHCEA, UMN and Tufts University conducted an evaluation in 7 OHCEA member
schools (4 Public Health & 3 Veterinary Medicine) in 5 countries (DRC, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) in
June and July of 2015. Qualitative methods consisted of individual interviews as well as focus group discussions.
Data were collected from university administrators, faculty, IT staff, and students at each institution. Additionally,
the assessment team observed the institutions IT infrastructure.
Results:
There is nearly universal use of basic technology tools (computer and LCD projector) during in-class (face-to-face)
instruction. The opinion that institutions should embrace e-learning is widely held by both students and faculty.
Whereas students are generally very enthusiastic about e-learning, faculty have been slow to adapt to these
new technologies. There are a number of reasons why faculty have not embraced e-learning in their classrooms,
namely severely inadequate IT infrastructure, limited individual technology skills and exposure to e-learning,
insufficient time to adapt to new teaching methods, and a lack of guidance or support from administrators. For
students, instructors, and administrators alike, the greatest challenges are inadequate IT infrastructure and
limited awareness or knowledge of e-learning tools, platforms, and possibilities.
Conclusion:
Although there is a general agreement on the need for e-learning across all universities visited, there has typically
been no supporting investment in infrastructure and policies. Utilization of e-learning platforms is still very low,
which calls for OHCEA and the partner universities to work in partnership to address the challenges to e-learning.
To ensure sustainability, efforts to support e-learning should be geared towards strengthening existing university
supported e-learning initiatives and platforms rather than building new platforms. A comprehensive and strategic
approach to e-learning (led by administrators with buy-in from students, staff, and faculty members) is necessary
if universities truly hope to take advantage of e-learning tools, resources, and capabilities.

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Session 9: Tuesday November 17th 10.30- 12.30:


Immunotoxicology, antibiotic and antiviral resistance
(Break out session 1)
Room: Sheena Conference Hall

Prof. Denis Byarugaba


COVAB, Mak

Chair: Dr. G. Tadesse.

No

Title of abstract

Author

9.001

Antibiotic Resistance Profiles and the Prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta


Lactamases (ESBLs) among Escherichia coli isolated from poultry litter and poultry
farmers in Three Regions of Ghana

Vivian E. Boamah

9.002

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Antibiotic Use, Resistance and


Containment in Animal Keeping Households in Morogoro, Tanzania

Robinson Mdegela

9.003

Isolation and Characterization of resistant bacterial pathogens from pneumoenteritic


goats

Yaovi Mahutton Gildas


Hounamnou

9.004

Diversities and similarities in fla A types among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from
chickens and humans in Tanzania

ERICK VITUS GABRIEL KOMBA

9.005

Post harvest fungi diversity and level of aflatoxin contamination in stored maize: cases of
Kitui, Nakuru and Trans-Nzoia counties in Kenya

GACHARA G.

9.006

Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Staphylococci Isolated From


Cottage Cheese (Ayib) and Yoghurt (Ergo) In Selected Districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia

Dr. Mekonnen Addis Tegegne

9.007

Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw milk collected from households in four agroecological zones in Kenya

Sirma AJ

9.008

Occurrence of listeria monocytogenes and listeria species in milk and soft cheese,
antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and associated risk factors in Debre birhan, Ethiopia

Mehret Berhanu(DVM, MSc)

9.009

The Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus


aureus Isolated from raw bovine milk in the Morogoro Municipality of Tanzania: The Role
of One Health approach

Jibril Mohammed

9.001
Antibiotic Resistance Profiles and the Prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBLs)
among Escherichia coli isolated from poultry litter and poultry farmers in Three Regions of Ghana
Vivian E. Boamah1, Christian Agyare1, and Hayford Odoi1.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
1

Background: The global threat of antibiotic resistance calls for surveillance from several angles to safeguard
the few antibiotics currently available for use in humans. Almost all antibiotics used in humans are also used in
animal production and some studies have suggested the transfer of antibiotic resistant genes from farm animals
to farmers. There is insufficient data on antibiotic resistance in farmers and their farm animals in Ghana. This study
aimed to determine the antibiograms of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry farmers and poultry litter and to
confirm or otherwise the production of ESBLs among possible isolates.
Methods: The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the broth micro
dilution method whiles ESBL production was determined using the combination disk diffusion test (CDT) following

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guidelines according to the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). MICs were
interpreted using both the EUCAST and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints. Isolates
resistant to at least three different classes of antibiotics were defined as multidrug resistant (MDR).
Results: One hundred and four (104) E. coli isolates were obtained from the poultry litter and farmers. The
isolates were mainly resistant to trimethoprime/sulpfamethoxazole (69.23%), ampicillin (62.50%), tetracycline
(62.50%), ciprofloxacin (32.69%) and ampicillin/sulbactam (11.54%). Ten isolates (9.62%) were not resistant
to any of the antibiotics whiles 61 (58.65%) isolates were multi-drug resistant. The most common antibiotic
resistance patterns were ampicillin-tetracycline-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (16.35%), ampicillinciprofloxacin-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (12.50%) and ciprofloxacin-tetracycline-trimethoprim/
sulfamethoxazole (10.58%). None of the isolates had a difference of greater than or equal to 5mm between the
zones of inhibition of cefpodoxime and cefpodoxime/clavulanic acid; indicating that there was no synergy and
hence suggesting that none of the isolates was a true ESBL producer.
Conclusions: This study showed high resistance of E. coli isolated from both poultry litter and poultry farmers
to essential antibiotics that are employed for treatment of infections in humans. Resistance to ampicillin
and ampicillin/sulbactam may be due to the presence of other beta lactamases in the E. coli isolates but not
necessarily ESBLs. The continual use of the same antibiotics in both humans and animals in Ghana should be
discouraged.
Key words: Antibiotic resistance, Poultry, Escherichia coli, Ghana.

9.002
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Antibiotic Use, Resistance and
Containment in Animal Keeping Households in Morogoro, Tanzania
Robinson Mdegela1, Rosine Manishimwa2, Ahmed Zeymudin3
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P. O. Box 3021,
Morogoro, Tanzania
2
School of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences & Veterinary
Medicine; University of Rwanda, Nyagatare campus, Rwanda
3
Jimma University, P.O. Box, 1204 Jima Ethiopia
1

The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in humans and animals is a worldwide growing problem of
public health concern. The World Health Organization, highlights the lack of comprehensive multidisciplinary
containment strategies as the major contributing factor to the problem. In Tanzania, limited studies have been
conducted to assess the containment strategies for antibiotic resistance. The main objective of this study was to
assess the knowledge, attitude and practices related to antibiotic use, resistance and containment strategies in
animal keeping households. This was a cross-sectional study that used in-depth interviews with key informants,
questionnaire survey and participant's observations to gather information required to address antibiotic resistance
using one health approach. Findings from this study demonstrated a high and indiscriminate usage of antibiotics
in animals in particular in commercial chickens and dairy cattle. In addition to high and indiscriminate use of
antibiotics, withdrawal periods are not observed, a practice driven by ignorance and perceived economic losses.
Over 95% of antibiotics used in animals are also used in humans, hence failure to observe the withdrawal period
predisposes them to un-intended exposure through consumption of contaminated eggs, meat and milk. Based on
practices related to antibiotic use in animals, factors contributing to emergence of antibiotic resistance include
informal drug delivery system; uncontrolled routine use of antibiotics in poultry by animal owners; treatment of
diseases based on clinical rather than laboratory diagnosis; and use of antibiotics as additives in poultry feeds.
There is high compliance to restrictive use of Chloramphenical in animal practice as a means of reserving it for
human practice. This study with one health orientation identified Streptomycin, an antibiotic that require one
health approach at policy and practice levels for effective. Whereas in humans, Streptomycin is among the second
line drug used for treatment of tuberculosis in USA and other parts of the world, and still considered the first line
in some instances and used in the initial treatment, there are no restrictions of its use in animal practice. This

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might have contributed to increased prevalence of resistance to streptomycin in many parts of the world leading
to decreased value for its overall usefulness. The paper presents the value of one health approach in revealing
information useful for control of antibiotic resistance using WHO recommended multidisciplinary approach.

9.003
Virulence characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae in low quality water,
fish and vegetables in Morogoro, Tanzania
Y.M. Gildas Hounmanou1,2, Robinson H. Mdegela1, Ofred J. Mhongole1, T. Victorien Dougnon2, and Anders
Dalsgaard3.
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
Research laboratory in Applied Biology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin
3
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences (UC-HEALTH), University of Copenhagen, Denmark
1
2

Corresponding Author: gilmahu@yahoo.


Cholera, one of the worlds deadliest infectious diseases, remains rampant and frequent in Tanzania and thus
thwart existing control measures. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio
cholerae in low quality water, fish and vegetables during a non-outbreak period in Morogoro, Tanzania. From
October 2014 to February 2015, 60 wastewater samples, 60 fish samples from sewage stabilization ponds and
60 vegetable samples were collected. Samples were cultured and identified for V. cholerae using conventional
bacteriological methods. Isolates were confirmed by detection of the outer membrane protein (ompW) using
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The isolates were further tested for antibiotic susceptibility and the detection
of virulence genes including, cholera enterotoxin gene (ctx), the toxin co-regulated pilus gene (tcpA), the toxin
regulatory protein (toxR) and the haemolysin gene (hlyA). The prevalence of V. cholerae in wastewater, vegetables
and fish was 36.7%, 21.7% and 23.3% respectively. Two isolates from fish gills were V. cholerae O1 and tested
positive for ctx and tcpA. One of them contained in addition the hlyA gene. Five isolates from fish intestines tested
positive for tcpA but were negative for toxR protein. The V. cholerae isolates displayed a strong resistance to
ampicillin and amoxicillin followed by a moderate resistance to Tetracycline. However, they were susceptible to
Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin. It is concluded that pathogenic, toxigenic and drug resistant V.
cholerae species are present and persist in aquatic environments and can be isolated even during non-outbreak
periods. This is of serious public health importance and a great challenge to cholera control programs.
Keywords: Cholera -low quality water - antibiotic susceptibility - Tanzania

9.004
Diversities and similarities in fla A types among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from chickens
and humans in Tanzania
E. V. G. Komba, R. H. Mdegela, P. L. M. Msoffe, G. Misinzo, H. N. Tuntufye, L. N. Nielsen and H. Ingmer
The flagellin subunit A (flaA) gene typing is one of the most commonly used genotyping methods for thermotolerant
Campylobacter species. This study adopted this technique to genotype 55 C. jejuni isolates obtained from chickens
and humans in Tanzania. Nine different flaA sequence types (7, 36, 41, 51, 61, 62, 64, 105 and 111) were detected,
with types 41, 51 and 62 being most prevalent. All the flaA types contained isolates from both chickens and
humans except for types 36 and 105 which contained broiler chicken isolates only; and 61 which contained
human isolates only. Phylogenetic analysis revealed six different clusters, with three of them containing isolates
from both chickens and humans. The observed population structure of the isolates from different sources was
diverse and weakly clonal. The flaA types containing isolates from both chicken and human sources suggest
possible interspecies transmission of C. jejuni in Tanzania.
Key words: Campylobacter jejuni, Fagellin gene, flaA Typing

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9.005
Post harvest fungi diversity and level of Aflatoxin contamination in stored maize: Cases of
Kitui, Nakuru and Trans-Nzoia counties in Kenya.
G.Gachara1, A.K. Nyamache1 ,G.J.B. Gnonlonfin2; J. Harvey2; J. Wainaina2, R. Skilton2
Department of Plant and Microbial Sciences, Kenyatta University
Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI Hub), Nairobi,
Kenya.
1
2

Background: Aflatoxin contamination of maize in Africa poses a major threat to food security and the health of
many African people. In Kenya, aflatoxin contamination of maize is high due to the environmental, agricultural
and socio-economic factors. Many studies have been conducted to understand the scope of the problem,
especially at pre-harvest level. This research was carried out to gather scientific information on the fungi
population, diversity and aflatoxin level during post-harvest period.
Methods: The study was conducted in three geographical locations of; Kitui, Kitale and Nakuru. Samples were
collected from storage structures of farmers and transported to the Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA),
International Livestock and Research Institute (ILRI) hub laboratories. Mycoflora were recovered using the direct
plating method.
Results: A total of five fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Bssyochlamys spp.) were
isolated from the stored maize samples. The most common fungal species that were isolated from the three study
sites included A. flavus at 82.03% followed by A.niger and F.solani at 49% and 26% respectively. The aflatoxin
producing fungi A. flavus was recovered in 82.03% of the samples. Aflatoxin levels were analysed on both the
maize samples and in vitro. Most of the A. flavus isolates recorded a high level of aflatoxin when they were analysed
for presence of aflatoxin B1 using ELISA. When individual samples were analysed using Vicam fluorometer
method, aflatoxin analysis revealed that most of the samples (58.4%) had been contaminated. The means were
significantly different (p=0.00<0.05) in all the three locations. Genetic relationships of A. flavus isolates were
determined using 13 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) markers. The results were used to generate a phylogenetic
tree using DARwin5 software program. A total of 5 distinct clusters were revealed among the genotypes. The
isolates appeared to cluster separately according to the geographical locations. Principal Coordinates Analysis
(PCoA) of the genetic distances among the 91 A .flavus isolates explained over 50.3% of the total variation when
two coordinates were used to cluster the isolates. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) showed high variation
of 87% within populations and 13% among populations.
Conclusion: This research has shown that A. flavus is the main fungal species infecting maize grains in Kenya.
The influence of aflatoxins on human populations in Kenya demonstrates a clear need for tools to manage
contamination of locally produced maize. Food basket surveys for aflatoxin contamination should be conducted
on a regular basis. This would assist in obtaining reliable data on aflatoxin incidence in different food crops.

9.006
Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Staphylococci Isolated From Cottage
Cheese (Ayib) and Yoghurt (Ergo) In Selected Districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia
Mekonnen Addis, Hailu Degefu and Shimelis Argaw
School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, P. O. Box 307,
Jimma, Ethiopia
Staphylococci are the main cause of food borne outbreaks worldwide. A cross-sectional study was carried out
between May 2014 and March 2015 with the aims to investigate the occurrence of Staphylococcus, determine the
prevalence of Staphylococcus and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the isolates from cottage cheese
(Ayib) and yoghurt (Ergo) collected from selected districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Identification of staphylococci
was undertaken using Gram's staining, catalase, sugar fermentation and coagulase tests on cottage cheese (n =

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200) and yoghurt (n = 200) samples collected randomly. The overall prevalence of Staphylococcus in this study
was found to be 14.3% with a specific prevalence of 22% in cottage cheese and 6.5% in yoghurt. The difference
on the prevalence of staphylococci between cottage cheese and yoghurt was found to be statistically significant
(P<0.05). Four species of staphylococci were identified and their prevalence was confirmed to be 5%, 3.5%, 3.3%
and 5.8% for S. aureus, S. intermedius, S. hyicus and coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) respectively. The
specific prevalence in cheese and yoghurt for each species respectively were 7% and 3% (S. aureus), 5.5% and
1.5% (S. intermedius), 4% and 2.5% (S. hyicus), and 9.5% and 2% (CNS). The identification results showed that the
contamination of cottage cheese with staphylococcus was more likely to occur than yoghurt (OR = 4.1, 95%, CI =
2.1-7.8). The disc diffusion assay of 70 isolates against five biogram revealed the highest resistance to penicillin G
(65.7%) followed by tetracycline (41.4%), streptomycin (37.1%), gentamycin (35.7%) and kanamycin (28.6%). The
high prevalence of Staphylococcus and their high antimicrobial resistance pattern in cottage cheese and yoghurt
in this study represent a poor keeping quality and indiscriminate use of drugs at the study area. This suggests the
need to implement sanitary measures and awareness creations to improve the hygienic conditions of cheese and
yoghurt from farm-to-table continuum as well as proper use of antimicrobials in order to guarantee the quality of
these highly popular products and to safeguard the health of the consumers.
Key words: Prevalence, Staphylococcus, Cottage Cheese, Yoghurt, Antimicrobial Resistance, Jimma Zone

9.007
Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw milk collected from households in four agro-ecological zones
in Kenya
Sirma A.J.1,2, Senerwa D.M.1,2, Lindahl J.F.1, Makita K.1,3, Kangethe E.K.2, Grace D.1
Food Safety and Zoonosis Unit, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya
Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053-00625, Nairobi,
Kenya
3
School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai Midorimachi, Ebetsu, 069-8501, Japan
1
2

* Corresponding author: Anima J Sirma; a.sirma@cgiar.org ; janimsy@gmail.com


Milk is a very important commodity in Kenya. In East Africa, Kenya has the largest dairy herd and highest per
capita milk consumption. Milk can have contaminants such as drug residues, pesticide residues, heavy metals,
and biological toxins such as aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). AFM1 is a metabolite excreted by lactating cows following
consumption of feed contaminated with aflatoxins. This metabolite is harmful to human and animal health. Kenya
has experienced multiple aflatoxicosis outbreaks in recent years, and several surveys have reported high levels of
contamination in maize. This survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of AFM1 in milk from four agroecological zones in Kenya (semi-arid, temperate, sub-humid and humid). In 2014, we surveyed 286 households
in 37 villages and in each household administered a questionnaire and collected milk samples. In all, 280 milk
samples were analyzed using competitive ELISA. The limit of detection was 2 parts per trillion (ppt). Overall, 32
per cent of samples had aflatoxin between 2 ppt and 50 ppt while 9 per cent exceeded the WHO/FAO limit of 50
ppt; 59% of samples were below the level of detection. Milk from humid zone had the highest percent (25%) of
samples testing above limits.
Keywords: Aflatoxins, livestock, dairy, East Africa

9.008
Occurrence of Listeria Monocytogenes and Listeria species in milk and soft cheese, antimicrobial
susceptibility profiles and associated risk factors in Debre Brhan, Ethiopia
Mehret Berhanu (DVM, MSc)1, Tesfaye Sisaye (DVM, MSc, PhD)2, Frehiwot Abera(BSc)3, Redwane Muzyin (BSc)2,
Tesfaye Legesse (BSc)2, Assfa Deresa (DVM, MSc)2, Yordanose Mekonnen (DVM, MSc)2, Amha Kebede(BSc,MSc, PhD)2
1

Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine

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Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Epidemiology and Public Health berhanumehret@yahoo.com


2
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Veterinary Public health College of Veterinary Medicine &
Agriculture Addis Ababa University, tesfu@yahoo.com.
3
Public Health Food microbiology laboratory of Ethiopia Health and Nutrition Research Institute (ENHRI), Addis
Ababa, Ethiopia firehiwot_a@yahoo.com
Listeria monocytogenes emergence as a food borne pathogen dates from 1980, with the occurrence of many
outbreaks and sporadic cases of listeriosis associated with the consumption of contaminated foods (Bula et al.,
1989; Faber and Peterkin, 1998).
Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of L. monocytogenes
and other Listeria species in Farm raw milk, Bulk raw milk and soft cheese. Those samples were obtained from
Farm, Collection center and Open Market, respectively. To determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of L.
monocytogenes and other Listeria isolates, and to identify the risk factors associated with contamination of cow
raw milk and soft cheese with Listeria spp.
In the period December 2012 to April 2013, a total of 338 food samples consisting of raw milk and soft cheese
samples were collected from milk collection center, farm and one open market which are located in Derebe
Birhan, Ethiopia. All the available samples were collected by using sterile plastic bags. The samples were kept in
an icebox containing ice packs and immediately transported to the ENHRI Addis Ababa and analyzed immediately.
Also questioner survey has been carried out.
Isolation and identification of L. monocytogenes were carried out according to official standard ISO procedure (ISO,
2004). Listeria pre-enrichment Fraser broth transferred to Fraser broth, cultured on OXFORD agar and PALCAM,
isolates transferred to tryptic soy agar and identified Grams staining, catalase reaction with 3% H2O2, oxidase
test, motility test , fermentation of sugars (rhamnose, xylose and mannitol), CAMP tests and antimicrobial test has
been done.
Descriptive statistics was used to summarize data and analytical methods like chi-square and regression analysis
were used to determine association.
A total of 338 samples consisting of milk samples from 10 dairy farms, 260 bulk raw milk samples and 68 soft
cheeses were collected; in addition, about 50 questionnaires were collected. According to the response, from the
total respondent (36%) of them used water to wash their hand before they milk, (58%) of them used soap and
water and (6%) of them didnt wash their hand this indicate us most of them take a good care of hygiene. About
(76%) of respondent, respond they didnt drink raw milk and (24%) of them said that they will drink raw milk.
Failure to clean udder of the cow more likely linked to contamination by the bacteria (OR-12; P<0.00); similarly,
washing hands by using only water was also an important factor or contamination with Listeria (OR-6; P<0.04).
Out of the total of 338 samples examined, 99 (29.3%) were found to be positive for Listeria. Listeria species were
isolated in 32.3% (84/260), 0.3% (3/10) and 17.6% (12/68) of raw bulk milk, farm raw milk and soft cheeses
samples respectively. L. monocytogenes was detected in 6.5% from the total sample. It was isolated mainly from
bulk raw milk (8.1%) and followed by farm raw milk samples (10%). In addition to L. monocytogenes, other Listeria
species identified were L. innocua (45.5%), L. ivanovii (10.1%), L.murrayi (0.81%), L. grayi (0.71%), L. seeligeri
(0.6%) and L. welshimeri (0.1%). The antimicrobial profile of L. monocytogenes was sensitive to most drugs except
cloxacillin which showed the highest resistance rate (100%) and also to certain extent, clindamicin (27.3%),
chloramphenicol (36.4%) and sulfisoxazole (27.3%).
It was shown that L. monocytogenes is prevalent in Debre Birhan so it needs creating public awareness through
education, need for improved food safety through the implementation of hygienic measures at all levels from
production to consumption, Such studies should be promoted to collect baseline information on the distribution
and foodborne nature of L. monocytogenes and other foodborne pathogen in Ethiopia for public health authorities
to design appropriate monitoring and surveillance programs to ensure microbiological food safety to the
consumer.
Key words: Antibiotic susceptibility, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species, prevalence,
raw milk and soft cheeses, risk factors.

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9.009
The Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Isolated from raw bovine milk in the Morogoro Municipality of Tanzania: The Role of One
Health approach
Jibril Mohammed1, Adela J. Kisanga2, Huruma N. Tuntufye2*
Department of Animal Experimentation, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research,
University of Ghana, Legon,
Accra, Ghana.
2
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; Sokoine University of Agriculture,
Morogoro. Tanzania.
1

An infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans is called zoonoses. Staphylococcus aureus
and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw milk generally comes from cows with mastitis,
from handlers or from deficient hygiene. MRSA can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice-versa. This
study was performed in a cross sectional design to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of
MRSA in raw bovine milk in the Morogoro Municipality. Raw milk samples (117) were collected from 18 Wards and
cultured on Baird-Parker agar to isolate S.aureus. Presumptive colonies were analyzed for catalase, coagulase
tube reactions and slide microscopy examination. PCR was used to detect species-specific S. aureus, mecA
and coagulase (coa) gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out for antimicrobial resistance profile
for coagulase-negative Staphylococci and S. aureus isolates. The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec
(SCCmec) types of the MRSA isolates determined by multiplex PCR. The results were 75 (64.10%) isolates positive
for catalase and coagulase reactions, and 42 (35.90%) isolates positive for catalase but negative for coagulase
reaction. Slide microscopy examination revealed all isolates were gram-positive cocci in clusters. Among these,
46 S. aureus were identified from coagulase-positve isolates and two from coagulase-negative isolates. The
antimicrobial susceptibility test for S. aureus to Oxacillin (1G), Cefoxitin (30g), Clindamycin (2g), Vancomycin
(30g), Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (25g), Tetracycline (30) and Penicillin G (10 IU) registered a resistance
of 6.52%, 4.35%, 23.91%, 2.17%, 30.43%, 41.30%, and 71.74% respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci
isolates registered resistance to Oxacillin and Cefoxitin at 19.05% and 2.40% respectively. Multi-drug resistance
was observed in 12 (26.09%) S. aureus isolates but non in coagulase-negative Staphylococci. The mecA gene was
detected in one coagulase-negative Staphylococci and two coagulase-negative S. aureus but no coa gene was
detected in all three isolates. The MRSA prevalence was 4.17% and 2.38% for methicillin-resistant coagulasenegative Staphylococci in the samples. The study reports for the first time the presence of coagulase-negative
variant of MRSA in Morogoro and multi-drug resistant S. aureus. The detection of staphylococcus aureus and MRSA
suggests the need for strict implementation and appropriate hygienic handling and processing techniques from
the farm to the sales point in order to prevent contamination. Hence, the overuse of antimicrobials in medicine and
closer interactions with farm animals facilitate the emergence or re-emergence of bacterial zoonotic infections
caused by MRSA and S. aureus. This highlights the importance of the implementation of One Health approach in
controlling and prevention of MRSA infections.

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Session 10: Tuesday November 17th 10:30am-12.30am


Social Determinants of Health. (Break-out Session 2)
Room: Meera Conference Hall

10.001
Public knowledge and attitude towards antibiotics use and resistance in human and animals in
Jimma town, Ethiopia.
Ahmed Zeynudin1, Robinson Mdegela,2 Rosine Manishimwe3, Kifle WoldeMichael,1 Daniel Dana1, Eliyas Ali1, Sultan
Suleman1, Andreas Wieser4 ,
1. Jimma, university, Ethiopia. 2. National University of Rwanda, Rwanda. 3. Sokoine University of Agriculture,
Tanzania.
4. Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Centre of the University of Munich (LMU),
Germany.
Background: Poor community knowledge and practices regarding the antibiotics use and resistance contributes
to the increasing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance both in human and animals. The objective of this
study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of antibiotic use and resistance among the general
population using a one Health approach.
Methods: A population based Cross-sectional baseline survey was conducted using structured questionnaire
among a random sample of 419 household heads representing the urban and Peri-urban community in Jimma
town, Ethiopia. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: A total of 405 household heads (27.2 % women and 72.8% men) from the urban (47.9%) and Periurban (52.1%) areas were included and among them, 63.7% (258) had at least one species of livestock at the
household. A high proportion, 84.9% (332) of the household heads reported taking antibiotics for themselves
and 75.2% (185) of the livestock owners also reported providing antibiotic treatment for their livestocks in the
past 12 months prior to the study. The human use of antibiotics is more prevalent among the respondents in
the Peri-urban areas than those in the urban (90.4% vs.79.4%, P = 0.003, AOR, 95%CI, 2.43(1.31-4.64)) and
the use of antibiotics for livestock is more common among farmers than other livestock keepers. (P = 0.0001,
AOR, 95%CI, 32.09 (10.08 to 102.22.). About 57% of the household heads were self-medicated and 81.4% of
the livestock owners reported using non-prescribed antibiotic for their animal. Only 40.4% (158) and 21.1%
(72) of the respondents had adequate knowledge of antibiotic use, action and safety and antibiotics resistance
respectively. Higher education level is significantly associated with better knowledge (P=0.008). Less than half
(44.2%, 179) of the respondents in general had poor attitude towards antibiotic use and resistance.

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Conclusion and recommendation: The survey showed a high prevalence antibiotic usage, inadequate knowledge
and poor attitude regarding antibiotic use and resistance. Effective public education initiative targeting the
household should provide practical and appropriate means to change their behavior.
Keywords: antibiotic use, Resistance, attitude, knowledge, Ethiopia. Citation: Unpublished

10.002
Community Health Seeking Behavior for suspected human and animal anthrax cases, Gomma
district, Southwest Ethiopia
*Girma A *, 1Hiko D, 1 Weldemiachael K 2Tafese W, 2 Derese B, 1Tewelde T
Departments of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University,

School of Veterinary Medicine 2-Jimma University


Background: Timely presentation of sick animals/humans from anthrax to appropriate health service providers
is important for early case/outbreak/ detection and management. However, data on communitys health seeking
practices for anthrax in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine communitys
health seeking behavior for suspected human and animal anthrax cases, Gomma district, Southwest Ethiopia
Methods: Community based cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect
data from 808 respondents using multistage sampling technique. Data about socio-demographic characteristics
and community health seeking behavior was collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire
by trained veterinary and public health epidemiology graduate level students. Edited data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.
Result: Eight hundred three (99.4%) respondents with mean age of 40.110.5 years participated in the study. The
majority of them were: male (63.8%), rural residents (94%) and farmers in occupation (49.3%). Three hundred
seventy eight (77%) and 191 (67.5%) of the respondents reported that sick family member and domestic
animals received treatment from health centers and veterinary clinics in the past 12 months respectively. Two
respondents reported that their family members were victims of anthrax for which both of them sought treatment
from hospital. More than nine in ten (98.2%) of the respondents perceived that humans suspected of anthrax
should seek help; 92.2% of them suggested modern healthcare facilities as the preferred management option for
the sick humans. Twenty four respondents reported that they had sick domestic animals from anthrax in the past
12 months, ten of these respondents reported they either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately,
visited traditional healer, given home care or done nothing for the sick domestic animals. In addition 57.4% of
the respondents believed that animals died of anthrax needs to be reported and 60% of them believed that the
report should only be to animal health care providers.
Conclusion: The majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health
care facilities for anthrax. However, significant number of them had either slaughtered for human consumption,
sold immediately, visited traditional healer or given home care for the sick domestic animals. Hence, raising
awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from anthrax and the need for reporting
to both human and animal health service providers is urgently required.

10.003
Voices from Uganda: Integrating social anthropology and public health to transferring local
experience into global health policy.

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Dr.Caroline Ryan1, University of Rwanda, Ass. Professor Fiona Larkan2, Trinity College Dublin Dr. Freddie Ssengooba,
Makerere University School of Public Health.
The term One Health assumes a universality of consensual interest in preparedness and response to outbreaks
such as Ebola. This universality is often masked by the join consensus of actors external to the actual events
on the ground. In addition responses to Ebola outbreaks remain characterized by externality in terms of foreign
expertise, response strategies and policy. The voices of those directly involved in managing and surviving Ebola
crises remain mostly absent from the research literature and almost non-existent at policy level. Against the
background of the West Africa outbreak, this research study took place in Western Uganda.
The study returned to capture the perspective of local health workers and community members who managed
Ebola outbreaks in Bundibugyo in 2000 and Kibaale in 2007. Using an epistemological approach of phenomenology
and grounded theory analysis, findings convey useful insights into lessons learned. These include the practical,
psychological and spiritual coping mechanisms employed by those who directly managed the outbreaks across
periods where no external intervention was forthcoming up to periods where international intervention support
was imported.
These findings were then categorized into lessons learned from Western Uganda and perceived risks for future
outbreaks to inform policy. Qualitative studies incorporating a multidisciplinary approach can be used to capture
local perspectives and have an important, albeit often overlooked role to informing policy in terms of designing
future response strategies.

10.004
Dog population demographics and animal bite cases in Kisumu and Siaya counties of Kenya
*Muriuki, J. 1Thaiyah, A.G. 1Kirui, G. 1Mbugua, S and 1Kitaa, J

Department of Clinical Studies,


University of Nairobi
P.O Box 29053 00625, Nairobi
*Corresponding author (jbmuriuki@gmail.com)
Background: Rabies is a neglected viral zoonotic disease that is almost invariably fatal in humans and other
mammals. It affects low and middle income countries. Domestic dogs are the main vectors of the disease
causing 94% of human rabies through bites. The prevalence of the disease is highly influenced by the density of
unvaccinated dog populations. Unfortunately, little is known about dog population demographics and dynamics
in Kenya. This is a big setback in the efforts to ensure 70% vaccination of the dog population as it is difficult
to gauge the coverage of vaccination. The main objective of this study was to establish the dog population
demographics which is a vital initial step in any rabies control program. The study also aimed at determining the
number of animal bites in humans in Kisumu and Siaya counties.
Methods: Households were randomly selected and all houses having dogs were asked to identify them for
enumeration and marking. The age and sex of the dogs were recorded. Mark-recapture studies of the roaming
populations were carried out in the selected areas. Color marks were applied using automatic spray cans. Sex and
estimated age of each dog marked were recorded. A five year retrospective data on animal bites was retrieved
from the Kenya Health Information System and analyzed.
Results: A total of 259 and 299 owned dogs were counted in Kisumu and Siaya respectively. In Kisumu, most of
these dogs (68.57%) were free to roam 24 hours a day while in Siaya, this proportion was lower at 28.57%. A total
of 196 and 190 roaming dogs were counted in Kisumu and Siaya respectively. In both counties, over 60% of the
free roaming dogs were males. The five-year data (2010-2014) revealed a total of 14058 and 17288 animal bites
in Kisumu and Siaya respectively. For the year 2014, there was an estimated 355 and 593 bites/ 100000 people
in Kisumu and Siaya respectively. The data indicated that the number of bites and their incidence were on the rise
over the years, and were higher in Siaya than in Kisumu.

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Conclusion: The high number of animal bites in humans was consistent with the high density of dog populations.
This depicts the economic burden, public health impact and social value of rabies in the study areas. The significant
number of free roaming dogs and animal bite cases calls for an urgent national action to curb them.

10.005
La menace de convivialit entre btes sauvages, humains et btails dans la chefferie de atere
en Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo."
Claude Keboy Mov Linkey Iflankoy
Prsident de long Synergie Rurale Action Paysanne (SYR-AP)
synergierurale@gmail.com
tl. : (+243) 810694811 84430386
Nous prsentons les rsultats dune exprience synergique rcolte lissue dun monitoring assur conjointement
ong SYR-AP et Zone de Sant de Bosobe, dans la province de Mai-ndombe en Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo
depuis un an sur des cas des morsures des cureuils, Sciurus, et des rats sauvages, rattus norvegicus, auprs des
humains et des btails. Il sagit des consquences socioconomiques et sanitaires engendres par cette psychose.
Patre les btails dans les savanes et frquenter les forts, seules et unique sources vitales des populations
de la contre sont devenus presque inexistants. La mthodologie de lintervention trs tardive de linstitution
provinciale en charge de la sant publique moins consquente et non approprie y sera dmontre.
Cette surveillance dnomme Comit de Monitoring de la Zoonose, CMZ, a t mis en place afin didentifier,
dencadrer et dassurer une prise en charge des victimes qui aboutirais des statistiques fiables sur ce genre de
rage constate dans ces deux espces fauniques.
Quelques cas de dcs ont t enregistrs. Des gurisons galement survenues par une simple administration
thrapeutique des antibiotiques parfois des analgsiques au regard des symptmes la maladie ntant pas
identifie et connue suite au manque des matriels de laboratoire et dune expertise vtrinaire approprie. Ces
rsultats vont permettre de formuler des propositions aux gestionnaires sanitaires, aussi dalerter les chercheurs
afin de mener une tude plus approprie sur ces cas.

10.006
Perceived challenges of human, animal and environmental interface: a qualitative study in
Kilosa Demonstration Site
Tarimo Edith1, Msalya George2, Rashid Heri1, Mlimbila Jane1, Kessy Anna1
Department of Nursing Management, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O Box 65004, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania
1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O
Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
1
Department of Community Health, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O Box 65001, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania
2
Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P O Box 3004, Morogoro
1

Background: As neglected endemic zoonotic diseases re-emerge, exploration of possible disease risks is crucial. In
Kilosa district, zoonotic diseases are endemic particularly in Ihombwe village and along river Luhende. Reducing
public health risks from zoonoses and other health threats is important particularly in areas with high humananimal interaction. However, prevention of these risks must consider the complexity of interactions among
humans, animals, and the environment they live in. Thus, we aimed to describe the challenges of human, animal
and environmental interface and re-emergence of zoonotic diseases in the Kilosa One Health Demonstration Site
(KDS) in Tanzania.

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Methods: This was a qualitative study involving four (4) focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in KDS,
two among men and two among women in Ihombwe and Mikumi villages along Ruhende River in Kilosa. Data
were collected using a FGD interview guide, recorded and analyzed manually. One theme emerged and three
categories were constructed to allow interpretation.
Results: The emerging theme was: Facing animal-human- interactions and environmental interface while the
constructed categories were as follows: The first category, Common place of animals and human interactions
underscores places where there is high human-animal interactions. The river water was shared in different ways
by both humans and animals. Respondents said villagers take bath in the river and use same water for drinking,
cooking, washing utensils and clothes while wild animals (elephants, monkeys and wild pigs) and domestic
animals such as cattle, goats and sheep use the same river. They said some people had suffered from diarrhoea
possibly due to such sharing. The second category, Perceived zoonotic diseases provides perceptions of existing
zoonotic diseases such as tuberculosis, cystcercosis and rabies which were identified as common diseases.
Through human animal interaction, several health-related problems were noted as shown in the following quotes:
In relation to drinking water, human beings and cows drink from the same source. We wash [animals]; we wait for
several minutes then we collect [fetch] water for domestic use (FGD 1, participant 1, man)
Most of us do not boil that water you may boil your water for drinking, but when you request drinking water from
neighbor, you get unboiled water. Definitely you will drink (FGD 1, participant 2, man)
Category three, Effects of animal human interactions and environment on socio-economic status highlights
possible consequences of the interface. Destruction of crops and pollution of land and water by wild animals
especially elephants, monkeys, and wild pigs were largely mentioned as having a negative effect on the economy
and health of the local people.
Conclusions: The high animal- human-environment interactions observed in Kilosa villages may lead to a double
effect of impoverishing the local people as well as putting them at risk of acquiring zoonotic diseases. Thus,
prevention of these diseases and reduction of poverty will require one health approaches by different sectors.

Session 11: Tuesday November 17th, 10:30am - 12.30pm:


The role of One Health Workforce (Break-out Session 3)
Room: Victoria Ball Room

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Session Speaker: Prof. Katey Pelican

Chair: Professor David Urassa

No

Title of abstract

Author

11.001

Generating One Health Knowledge and Improving Community Health in West


Cameroon: The One Health Program at the Universit des Montagnes

Omer T.Njajou

11.002

Interventional practices of Mekelle University College of Veterinary Medicine towards


the Control and Prevention of Rabies: One Health Approach

Abrha Bisrat Hailu

11.003

A One Health Preparedness Strategy to Address Emerging Pandemic Threats

Carolyne Porta

11.004

ROAD MAP OF THE UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA-ONE HEALTH STUDENTS CLUB

Mapendo Mindje

11.005

Benefits of One Health Approach for the investigation and response to an outbreak of
Monkeypox in Cameroon

LOUL Severin

11.006

The Role of Kenya Field Epidemiology Training Program in Promoting One Health and
Strengthening Public Health Systems in Kenya

Mark Odhiambo Obonyo

11.007

Evaluation of One Health Approach Adoption in Kenya- Case Study of the Performance
of the Zoonotic Disease Unit.

Anne Waweru

11.008

Preparedness for Epi-Zoonotic Emergencies in Rwanda: A Situational Analysis

Etienne Rugigana

11.001
Generating One Health Knowledge and Improving Community Health in West Cameroon: The
One Health Program at the Universit des Montagnes
Omer T. Njajou,Arouna N. Njayou, Jacques Kwayem,Serge T. Nzietchueng Lazare Kaptue
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universit des Montagnes, Bangangt, Cameroon.
Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, USA.
Context and Problem
Efforts have been made to embed One Health within existing global institutions since 2005. However, beyond
meetings, there has been little attempt so far to create a single designated global level institution for One Health
(Leboeuf 2011). This unique initiative at the national and regional level aims at improving health and well-being
through the prevention of risks and crises that originate at the interface between humans, animals and their
environments. In order to improve health and well-being through the prevention of risks and responding to the
crises that originate as interaction between humans, animals and their environments.
Methodology
In 2012, we have conceived an institutional framework that integrate the One Health concept and core
competencies in educational training program and research aspects, and have created a Community One Health
Program. It brings together students and faculties in various health fields, to work together for a better health. This
initiative enables them to cross professional, disciplinary and institutional boundaries, and work in a holistic and
more integrated way through cross sectional active learning across several specialties. One of the core element of
the One Health framework at the Universit des Montagnes is the Community One Health. Using problem-based
approach, the program consists of a series of didactics courses and the community practicum which objectives
of are: to describe and analyze health-related problems of a community, to study their environments and how it
can affect their health, to appraise resources available at the community level to solve their health problems and d
design and apply multi-disciplinary solution to address community health problem, to study the way communities
address their health problems, including medical visits, animal and environment health.

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Result
Regarding educational and research aspects, there are several health fields and specialties with high level
interaction including; Human Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry/dental surgery, Nursing,
Medical Laboratory Biologist. Cross disciplinary research is preferentially financed and there are several research
projects in zoonoses.
Conclusion
The One Health framework at the Universit des Montagnes is a cross-fertilizer curriculum which creates an
enabling environment and conditions for the future and current workforce to foster collaboration and sharing of
knowledge between actors involved in health issues. This is happening through courses taught, field practicum
(Community One Health Program), Cross-disciplinary research and interaction between faculties and lecturers
at the University. In perspective, we plan to bring non medical people like those involved in medical devices on
board to work on One Health Issues.

11.002
Interventional practices of Mekelle University College of Veterinary Medicine towards the
Control and Prevention of Rabies: One Health Approach
Abrha Bsrat*, Berihu Gebrekidan, Berihun Afera, Guesh Negash, Habtamu Taddele
Mekelle University (MU), College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM), Mekelle, Ethiopia
*Correspondent Address: evermam@yahoo.com; Cell Phone: +251912133383
Background: Rabies virus claims an estimated 55,000 lives each year, with major fatalities in Asia and Africa. It
is an endemic disease in Ethiopia claiming thousands of lives each year and similarly in Tigray region, Northern
Ethiopia both in humans and animals. Therefore, the objectives of the current intervention were to take role in
controlling and preventing of the disease through possible strategic options.
Materials and Methods: CVM-MU have started organizing events during the celebration of the World Rabies Day
and/or World Veterinary Day to sensitize community through public education (school children, high schools,
media, churches and meetings), organize panel discussion forums with concerned stakeholders, conduct free
dog vaccination campaigns, dog population control through birth control and pre-exposure vaccine provision for
risk groups were conducted. Dynamics of canine population and household data to determine the ratio of owned
versus stray dogs was performed. Dog population traceability and identification techniques were then planned,
developed and initiated.
Result: Through our entire journey more than 25,000 dogs vaccination, about 350 dogs birth control, about
500 pre-exposure vaccinations for risk groups and public education for 100,000 peoples were performed in
the region. Concurrently, dog vaccination coverage has upgraded to 12% from 5%, and 75% of the existing
dogs were recorded as stray dogs. Besides, challenging constraints were identified and possible solution were
recommended and performed. Through long journey, an integrated approach toward rabies control and prevention
in collaboration with 14 concerned stakeholders was established in the region. Accordingly, working documents
were drafted, discussed and implemented. Then using this collaboration, dog population tracing and recording
has been carried out. Besides, the integration has been used for communal resource mobilization and information
sharing.
Conclusion and Recommendation: The intervention indicated that the highest percentages of dog population in
the region were none vaccinated. Dog owners were not aware about taking of their pets for vaccination. Besides,
presence of high stray dog population in the region might play great role being as sources of the disease to be
endemic in the area. Therefore, integrated involvement of all responsible governmental and nongovernmental
offices and associations of multiple sectors is mandatory to solve the existing problem. Intensifying and
strengthening our activities, dissemination of best practices and looking of possible may new strategies are
believed to be alternative areas of intervention toward one health sensitization.

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Key words: Awareness, Community, Prevention, Rabies

11.003
Photovoice: A One Health Preparedness Strategy to Address Emerging Pandemic Threats
Carolyn Marie Porta, PhD, MPH, RN1
University of Minnesota School of Nursing

Background: Complex public health challenges require multi-faceted collaborative solutions that engage
professionals, researchers, policy-makers, community leaders, families and individuals. Persisting barriers to
effective partnership have limited pandemic preparedness efforts across education, practice, and government
sectors. Innovative strategies to encourage sustained collaboration and mutual understanding are needed.
OHCEA partners committed to exploring new solutions are well positioned to test and implement photovoice
strategies.
Methods: Photovoice is a community-based participatory tool that engages community, university, and/
or government partners to use photography to identify strengths and concerns in order to inform innovative
solutions and policy development (Catalani & Wang, 2010). Informed by disciplines including sociology and
visual anthropology, photovoice employs a strength-based approach to encourage equality of voice and shared
critical consciousness. Using a facilitated group process over a series of weeks, photovoice participants learn
from one another through critical dialogue about community concerns and strategies to address those concerns.
Group sessions provide opportunity to hear the meanings behind shared photographs and group discussions lead
to collaborative conclusions and recommendations.
Results: Photovoice strategies have potential to inform robust public health needs assessment (Wang & Burris,
1997), encourage awareness and critical dialogue across diverse stakeholders and decision-makers (Wang,
Morrel-Samuels, Hutchison, Bell, & Pestronk, 2004), and strengthen evaluation of intervention or policy
effectiveness over time. Consider the potential value of photovoice to complement data collected in a surveybased needs assessment, or to augment an evaluation of the effectiveness of a sensitization effort conducted by
interdisciplinary groups of students through One Health Student Club activities including Demonstration Sites.
Conclusions: Photovoice is a tool compatible with research and practice tools already in use to promote
preparedness and response to emerging pandemic threats. Used in other contexts in Africa (e.g., Musoke, EkirapaKiracho, Ndejjo, & George, 2015; Badowski, Castro, Montgomery, Pickering, Mamuya & Davis, 2011; Green &
Kloos, 2009), Europe (e.g., Warne, Snyder, & Gillander Gdin, 2013; Harper, 2009), and North America (e.g., Garcia,
Aguilera, Lindgren, Guttierez, Raniola, & Genis, 2012), photovoice approaches should be in the toolkit of resources
used by One Health partners to achieve short- and long-term goals.

11.004
Road Map of the University of Rwanda-One Health Students Club (UR-OHSC): A guideline for
the clubs success to achieve its vision of helping communities to live in a sustainable healthy
environment without zoonotic diseases through a multidisciplinary approach.
Mapendo Mindje,2, Emmanuel Irimaso1,3, Benjamin Ndayambaje1,3, Geofrey KarasanyI1,3 and Robert Kibuuka1,3,4
1. University of Rwanda-College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine.
P.O BOX: 57. Nyagatare, Rwanda.
2. Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Resource Management.
3. Department of Veterinary Medicine.
4. One Health Central and Eastern Africa-Rwanda office.
Many people in Rwanda live in utter deprivation without access to safe drinking water, food, health care, education
and decent shelter (International Federation of Red cross, 2009-20010). Guided by its mission to minimize the

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risks of spread of existing and new diseases, UR-OHSC designed activities to support these people on how risks
to get diseases can be prevented. This study aimed at assessing the clubs activities and their contribution toward
increasing community awareness about prevention of zoonoses and other diseases that can be from other factors
other than from animal-human interface.
An evaluation of the clubs activities was done through a collection of reports and evaluation forms distributed to
the targeted population during the outreach programme. Findings revealed for the first activity (Rabies campaign)
that communities living around the Akagera National park, 75% of participants did not know the source of Rabies
how to prevent it. The second activity (Malnutrition and Hygiene campaign) targeted refugees camps where
Rwandans were brought from Tanzania. Results showed that 78% of this community lived in ignorance about
consequences of lack of households and Food hygiene or did not know about disease vectors. Furthermore,
the club visited rice farmers in the eastern province of Rwanda who were seen to work in the rice plantation
unprotected. As known, Schistosomiasis and other water borne diseases risks are encountered into environments
like rice plantations. The rice farmers explained that they were not aware of risks of Schistosomiasis in Rice fields
and henceforth decided to use protective equipments while working. The last and most recent activity done
was concerning Food safety. The UR-OHSC interacted with cooperatives in charge of meat and milk production in
the eastern province of Rwanda. Results showed that all members of the cooperatives that were present did not
know about occupational diseases and how they can be prevented. The outcome from these activities were that,
following the percentages of community ignorance about practices toward prevention or minimization of risks
of diseases, the outreached communities were evaluated to have taken the given trainings into consideration as.
In conclusion, the UR-OHSC through its multi-disciplinary team plays an important role in helping communities to
change their behaviors toward safeguarding and promoting their livelihood. However, there is need to strengthen
the capacity of this club so that it outreaches more communities. We recommended the extension of the club up
to the secondary schools and partnership with private universities.

11.005
Benefits of One Health Approach for the investigation and response to an outbreak of Monkeypox
in Cameroon
LOUL Severin1. KUETE Fidele2, DIBONGUE Elisabeth3 DIFFO J. Le doux4 , FEUSSOM Jean Marc1; VIBAN Victor1,
LEBRETON Matthew4 , ETOUNDI Georges3, DJONGWE Gaston1, NZIETCHUENG Serge5
Ministry of Livestock Fisheries and Animal Industries
Ministry of Forest and Widlife,
3
Ministry of Public Health
4
Global Viral Cameroon
5
Epidmiologist Association of Veterinary Public Health
1
2

Background: Situated in Congo Basin, Cameroon is a hotspot for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.
To address the threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, Cameroon developed the One Health
national strategy and the National Program for Prevention and Fight against Emerging and Re-emerging zoonoses.
Under the framework of the National Program for Prevention and Fight against Emerging and Re- emerging
zoonoses, One Health focal persons have been appointed by the four sectoral ministries in charge of public health,
animal health and husbandry, wildlife management. In end of May 2014, a Monkeypox occurred in chimpanzee
at the interface environment-animal-human health in Minta Area, South Cameroon. As a proof of concept of the
One Health approach, One Health focal persons undertook from 4th to 7th June 2014 a multi-sectoral outbreak
investigation and response.
Objectives: This paper presents the one Health benefits: planning, organizing, investigation, response and cost of
the multi-sectoral collaboration for the investigation and response to Monkeypox outbreak.
Method: Added value of One Health of collaboration that has pooled these focal points in terms of planning,

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organizing, cost, roll out under time constraints for and effectiveness of procedures for collecting and timely
channeling of data during the monkeypox investigation among chimpanzees in Cameroon.
Results
Financially, this multi-sectoral investigation appeared one third cheaper than if each sectoral administration had
to act in isolation for such activity.
The field survey took only 4 days as compared to an average of 15 days which are usually needed solely for
administrative proceedings prior to undertaking a field investigation mission; The procedure for issuing the
certificates needed for the transport of samples were facilitated in the three administrations; Administrative
authorities and locally relevant field technical staff, personnel at risk working in the rescue centre and population
residing at the neighborhood of this site were early made aware on the dangers of the outbreak of this disease;
Conclusion: A joint planning involving all the one health focal persons Due to a contingency plan applied early
and a prompt awareness of the risky riverine population, the outbreak has been mastered in chimpanzees of
the Sanaga Yong Rescue Centre without extension to human beings. Furthermore, this intervention has allowed
veterinary services of Cameroon to notify in a matter of emergency, this zoonosis to the World Organisation for
Animal Health and the National Health observatory using the international health regulation notified the disease
to the World Health Organization.

11.006
The Role of Kenya Field Epidemiology Training Program in Promoting One Health and
Strengthening Public Health Systems in Kenya
Mark Obonyo1, 2, Z. Gura2, 3, J. Githuku2, 3, T. Galgalo2, 4 , B. Waqo2, 3, W. Arvelo2, 5 S. Amwayi2, 3,
Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries
Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Kenya (K-FELTP)
3
Ministry of Health, Kenya
4
African Field Epidemiology Network
5
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Global Health Protection
Corresponding author email: mobonyo@feltp.or.ke
1
2

Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) is a flagship training program modeled
after CDCs Epidemic Intelligence Service with an objective to strengthen country public health systems and
infrastructure. The Kenya program is the first FELTP to be started in Africa in 2004 and initially it was a regional
program enrolling trainees from Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana and South Sudan among others. The program is anchored
within the Department of Promotive and Preventive Health in the Ministry of Health (MOH) and trains field
epidemiologist for the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries (MALF). It is an
experiential based training with 30% classwork and 70% hands on field experience and service provision.
The eligible trainees of the advanced level training which culminates into a Master of Science Degree in Field
Epidemiology have to be employees of the government of Kenya (MOH or MALF), have basic degree in either
the field of health or veterinary services and worked for at least two years in their field. FELTP program has
provided such a unique platform bringing together physicians, veterinarians, laboratory scientists, Nurses and
environmental health professionals in the spirit of ONE HEALTH, who are trained together and given the skills
to effectively address the ever-growing threat of zoonotic diseases, Non communicable Diseases (NCDs) and
other emerging and re-emerging communicable diseases among others. Since inception in 2004, the program
has enrolled and trained about 131 residents. Over 80% of the graduates have been retained within the MOH or
MALF. While in training, the resident or the trainees are attached to various divisions, programs and units within
MOH and MALF and with partner organizations in order to achieve the desired competencies/skills and provide
service at the same time. The residents have contributed significantly to investigation of major outbreaks in the
country including polio, measles, cholera, rabies, Rift valley fever, anthrax, Leishmaniasis, aflatoxicosis and the
current Ebola preparedness and screening at the port of entry. In recognition of the need to increase capacity

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in epidemiology and public health surveillance among all cadres of public health/veterinary workers, FELTP-K
started 2-3 months training in basic level epidemiology and 6 months training in Intermediate epidemiology for
county human health and veterinary health care workers. This targets a larger number of health care workers/
veterinarians who will be trained to have the competency of interrogating their data and make decision based
on their data. FELTP-K also conducts pre-service training for medical and veterinary students with an objective
to expose them to public health surveillance and basic epidemiology in order to prime them to be physicians/
veterinarians with public health sense.
Key words: FELTP-K, One Health, Public Health Systems

11.007
The awareness and perception of One Health by veterinarians and public health workers in
Kenya
Anne W. Waweru1, Erastus K. Kangethe2, Hellen Amuguni3, Francis Ejobi1
Department of Biosecurity, Ecosystems and Veterinary Public Health, Makerere University
Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi
3
Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Tufts University
1
2

Background: It is increasingly recognized that establishment of inter-sectoral collaborative mechanisms is the


most efficient strategy to address existing and emerging zoonoses. Although effective models have been difficult
to attain, zoonotic Disease Unit (ZDU), Kenyas One Health office has not been evaluated for its performance as
the zoonotic disease control coordination center in Kenya. This study aimed to assess the adoption of one health
approach in Kenya by evaluating the Unit.
Methodology: A survey, carried out in seven regions of Kenya, involved both qualitative (in-depth interviews)
and quantitative (questionnaire and records review) methods. A hundred and thirty nine respondents in the
veterinary, public health and environment sectors were targeted. Analysis was done using Excel and Epi Info
software, to arrive at descriptive statistics to present the data. Gap analysis was carried out to establish the
performance of the ZDU in relation to its five year strategic plan.
Results: The results showed that zoonoses are a problem, and Kenya has made tremendous progress in the
adoption of One Health. More veterinarians (93%), than PHO (54%) had heard of the One Health concept and
more veterinarians (49%) than public health officers (41%) had a very good knowledge of One Health Concept.
Eighty six percent (86%) of the veterinarians and 44% of the PHO responded that One Health was very important
to their profession. Half of the respondents had encountered conflicts while working with professionals different
from theirs including policies and guidelines differences. The ZDU has maintained strong and close links with the
stakeholders of One Health and was rated to have performed well. Fifty nine percent (59%) of the respondents
had heard about ZDU. Of these, 15.5% had a very good knowledge about it. The ZDU was rated ad as very useful
by more veterinarians (64%) than PHO (46%). and ZDU, with the collaboration of other bodies that advocate
One Health has played a major role in ensuring that the gap between the veterinary and public health sectors is
bridged.
Conclusions: There is wide knowledge and acceptance of the one health concept by the professionals in animal
and human health, although environment and wildlife sectors have not featured as they should. The ZDU, despite
facing major financial challenges, has performed well in achieving the objectives set for the first year of the fiveyears-strategic plan. There is need for more sensitization to publicize the one health agenda.

11.008
Preparedness for Epi-Zoonotic Emergencies in Rwanda: A Situational Analysis

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Etienne RUGIGANA1; William Roy MAYEGA 2; Jean Baptiste KAKOMA1; William BAZEYO2
1: National University of Rwanda School of Public Health
2: Makerere University School of Public Health
Background
The Eastern Africa Region and the Congo Basin form a hot-spot for emergence of new infectious diseases and
some have caused deadly epidemics at different foci. In Rwanda, epidemic prone zoonotic diseases (epi-zoonotics)
continue to remain major public health challenge. However, capacity for response to zoonotic emergencies is
often inadequate. Thus, a situational analysis of institutional capacity for early warning, detection, prevention and
control of zoonotic diseases of epidemic potential was conducted in the framework of the Health Emergencies
Management Project (HEMP) of the HEALTH Alliance, a network of 7 schools of Public Health in the region.
Objective: to assess the pattern of epidemic prone zoonotic diseases in Rwanda and capacity for response to
zoonotic emergencies using a one health approach.
Methods
The assessment was descriptive and used mainly qualitative methods. These included review of records (country
policies and policy briefs, programme documents), interviews with key informants, and interviews with key
informants from stakeholder agencies. The assessment targeted the following institutions: The lead agencies for
disaster management at the national level, Ministries for Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Ministries for Health,
Inter-sectoral coordinating agencies for animal health, Schools of Veterinary Medicine and Schools of Public
Health, civil society organizations (especially the Red Cross) and districts.
Findings
The major epi-zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Rwanda are: Influenza A Viruses; salmonellosis,
rabies, viral hemorrhagic fevers; brucellosis foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis. Risk factors for
epidemic prone zoonotic diseases are related to the socio-economic practices and behaviors of communities
that includes the consumption of raw animal milk and unchecked animal-human social interaction in tourist zones
and conservation areas. Epi-zoonotic emergencies are mostly handled by the line sector ministries (health and
agriculture) depending on whether they occur in animals or humans.
In order to cope with health emergencies, the ministry of health developed an outbreak preparedness and
response plan; district hospital rapid response team was established and trained in diseases surveillance and
response. An Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system was set up and IDSR focal persons were
nominated at all district hospitals. However, gaps still remain and constitute obstacles for putting in place an
effective IDSR strategy including poor data analysis and feedback at all levels among others. In addition, the MOH
does not have a veterinary public health office.

Session 13: Tuesday, November 17th 14:00- 16:00


Innovative translation of research methods to policy and

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community: success stories (Break-out Session 1)


Room: Sheena
Innovative translation of research methods to policy and community: Success stories
Session Speaker: Prof. Jean Jacques Muyembe

Chair: Elisabeth BETSI NONA


DIBONGUE

No

Title of abstract

Author

13.001

Developing the Next Generation Tent to Support Treatment Units for Highly
Virulent Epidemics and Humanitarian Service Delivery in Hot Climatic Conditions

Roy Mayega

13.002

The One Health Approach to Transforming District Outbreak Rapid Response


Teams

Joseph Ojwang

13.003

Cultural rationale and architectural design for isolation centres: A case of


dangerous pathogens such as Ebole

Nakibaala Grace

13.004

Strategic Plan for Elimination of Human Rabies 2014 - 2030

Austin Bitek Orinde

13.005

One Health and Community engagement: A case of students field attachment in


Bwera, Kasese district

Samson Udho

13.006

Development and evaluation of recombinant Ls25 protein latex agglutination


test for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis

Shabani Kililwa Muller

13.007

Multi-Disciplinary Cross-border Surveillance Committees: an Important Addition


to Surveillance Systems in the East African Community (EAC)

Willy Were Abwoka

13.008

Interventional practices of Mekelle University College of Veterinary Medicine


towards the Control and Prevention of Rabies: One Health Approach

Abrha Bsrat

13.001
Developing the Next Generation Tent to Support Treatment Units for Highly Virulent Epidemics
and Humanitarian Service Delivery in Hot Climatic Conditions
Roy William Mayega*, Doreen Tuhebwe, Grace Mongo Bua, Harriet Adong, Deborah Natujuna, Dorothy Okello,
Julius Ssentongo Nathan Tumuhamye, William Bazeyo
ResilientAfrica Network (RAN), Makerere University School of Public Health, Uganda
*Corresponding author: Roy William Mayega (rmayega@ranlab.org)
Background
Frontline healthcare workers involved in management of suspected and confirmed Ebola cases in humid subtropical, tropical, and equatorial climates work under very stressful conditions characterized by extreme heat
and humidity predisposing them to heat stress and its associated complications. This is because the traditional
tent super-structure used to house Ebola Treatment Unites (ETU) has extreme heat buildup and discomfort. These
extreme environmental conditions also affect quality of care for patients. Although attempts to improve the
traditional or standard tent have been made such as placing ventilator outlets and windows, the tents still have
quite poor heat and air exchange when fully enclosed.
Objective
We propose to modify the traditional tent to create the next generation ergonomic tent that will revolutionalize
working conditions for humanitarian workers and first responders working in camps in hot climates where the use
of temporary structures is vital.
Methodology
We used Design Thinking Co-Creation, a powerful approach to sourcing innovations to develop our proposed
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solution. It is a trans-disciplinary initiative that brings together multidisciplinary experts drawn from academia,
development agencies, public and private sectors in a room for a one-day brainstorming session on a complex
challenge. Ideas are generated. Points of divergence and convergence are identified; key priority solutions are
voted on and developed into innovative solutions.
Proposed Solution
The proposed next generation ergonomic tent is a modification of the traditional tent and maintains the current
tent design in simplicity, affordability and structural stability. The new design offers a revolutionalized mechanism
for heat and air exchange in two ways: 1) creating a system for convectional currents to cool the tent interior using
ambient air and 2) creating porous walls that allow air-exchange to cool the tent interior. These modifications will
make the current design more suited to human habitation in hot climates. It is hypothesized that these designs
will singly or in combination reduce the ambient temperatures within the tent cavity by between 5 to 10 0C in
situations of extreme heat.
We believe that the proposed new tent design will also substantially impact on the humanitarian community
working in hot and humid conditions since tents, which were primarily designed for humanitarian warehousing
will now be re-customized and recalibrated to more humanoid applications. It will then be more possible to
establish rapidly deployable hospitals and other forms of emergency service delivery points.
Keywords: Ebola, Tent, Temperature, Air Exchange, Humanitarian

13.002
The One Health Approach to Transform District Rapid Response Teams
Joseph Ojwang- CDC, Bernard Lubwama- MoH, Juliet Namugga Kasule -CDC, and Jeff Borchert - CDC
Introduction
An operational workforce is an important pillar to implement Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR),
International Health Regulations (IHR), and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA). For IDSR/ IHR and GHSA to
become satisfactorily functional, there is a common objective of redeveloping the capacity of health workers to
quickly detect, report and respond to disease outbreaks and other public health emergencies. To transform the
current District Rapid Response Teams (DRRTs), from 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
and METABIOTA started supporting the Epidemiology of Surveillance Division (ESD) at the Ugandan Ministry of
Health (MoH) to implement the District Level Epidemiology Training (DLET). The DLET material were designed by
ESD, CDC and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. DLET integrated concepts of One-Health related disease
outbreaks in her lectures, with the knowledge that 70% of infectious diseases are of zoonotic nature.
DLETs goal is to enhance the theoretical understanding and basis for One-Health, Public Health Surveillance,
Outbreak Investigation and Response, at the District level.
Methodology and Results
DLET offers a two time-one didactic module, and a 6-8 weeks field mentorship. Sessions are delivered in cohorts
of 5 districts to 5 positions of DRRTs. These include health and veterinary officers, surveillance, and laboratory
focal persons, a clinician or community health personnel at a Regional Hospital. A data-base of personnel and
districts that have benefited is maintained. DLET relies on ESD to identify facilitators, gaps, and outcomes.
Using the one health approach, DLET is enhancing the knowledge and skills of Rapid Response Teams through inservice trainings. In 3 years, 178 rapid responders were trained from 29 epidemic prone districts in Uganda. DRRTs
are more prepared and involved in detecting and reporting disease outbreaks in their districts. They also provide
reliable and timely investigations of public health emergencies. Since 2013, DRRTs have detected, investigated
and reported 12 disease outbreaks. Preliminary reports were independently sent to MoH in time, enabling their
districts to reduce morbidity, mortality, and costs of disease detection, investigation and response by MoH.
Conclusion and Recommendation.
In-service capacity training has increased the number of first-line outbreak responders in Uganda, with
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improvements in quality of investigation, timeliness, reporting and response. The GHSA in Uganda should be
designed to sustain the One -Health approach.

13.003
Cultural impact on the design for isolation centres for especially dangerous pathogens e.g Ebola
Nakibaala Grace
Makerere University, College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology
NAKIBAALA GRACE, gnakibaala@gmail.com, 0700843349, 0792223918
Culture is a way of life of a group of people the behavior, beliefs, values and symbols that they accept, generally
without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the
next.
Background and rationale: Culture defines us it is who we are, what we believe in, what we consider right or wrong,
what we do and how we do it. Our African culture we treat the day with utter most respect with prepare them
for their next life. We maintain a bond with them and we believe their spirits live with us. From the recent Ebola
outbreak in West Africa we realized that culture played a very significant role to the spread of the disease. The
cultural activities for the dead and also the sick exposed many to Ebola. Isolation Centres that were initially set
up did not put into consideration these cultural aspects thus the sick were hidden at their home preferring to die
there with their families so they can have proper care in their last days and burial. There was no communication
with their families and even no saying farewell to the dead. Male, female and children were put in the same space.
Cremation instead of burial when we believe that one would resurrect in their flesh.
Objectives: To Design spaces within the Isolation Centre that allow for visiting of the patients and communication
with their loved ones. These spaces should be well designed to prevent infection but also to allow for as much
interaction as possible depending on the nature of the infection means of transmission. Also come up with an
innovation to have the relatives bid farewell to their loved ones. They cannot touch them, then let them see them
and can also use an object to touch them like a stick or place their cultural objects. Allow for care from loved ones,
one savior said they missed the human hand.
Methods: I interviewed and discussed with the key sources of information like the users and administrators, I also
physically visited and inspected some of the facilities at Entebbe and Mulago. I did desk study of the drawings
and documentations for the existing designs. I took part in VHF and EDPs trainings.
Key results: I came up with appropriate way to have the culture incorporated by appropriately designing visitors
flow and area making sure there is no risk of infection. Also the morgue has a facility where relatives can bid
farewell to their loved ones without risk of infection. I came up with a recommendable way to allow for burial
without risk of infection instead of crimination. Also I proposed for better design of the isolation spaces to allow
for easy waste disposal, cleaning and facilitation.

13.004
National Strategy for the Elimination of Rabies in Kenya 2014 - 2030
A. Bitek*1, K. Ngeiywa1, Eric Osoro2, I. Njeru2 T. Mwangi3, E. Ogola3, P. Munyua4 , D. Onyango5, M. Nanyingi6, K.
Njenga3
Zoonotic Disease Unit, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, 2Zoonotic Disease Unit, Ministry of
Health, 3Kenya Medical Research Institution, 4Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5County Government of
Kisumu, 6Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA;
*Corresponding author Tel: +254 721 606 743. E-mail: abitek@zdukenya.org
1

Introduction:
Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease which is almost invariably fatal in humans, livestock and other mammals. It
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kills up to 60,000 people a year, mainly in developing countries. More than 95% of human deaths occur in Africa
and Asia. Elimination is achievable through mass dog vaccination because dogs are known to be responsible
for transmission of over 98% of all human rabies. It is estimated that up to 2,000 human deaths due to rabies
occur annually in Kenya. Rabies has been ranked as one of the priority zoonotic diseases for the country. Success
in rabies elimination has been demonstrated in developing countries including Latin Americas and Asia, where
sustained mass vaccination of dogs has been shown to be the single most cost effective intervention to control
and eliminate canine rabies and consequently human rabies. It is for this reason that Kenya has developed this
strategy to eliminate dog mediated human rabies by the year 2030.
Methods: The strategy for the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies has been based on the Stepwise Approach
to Rabies Elimination (SARE) developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Global Alliance for Rabies
Control (GARC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The SARE is a comprehensive risk based model that
proposes a graduated approach in the reduction of disease risk, allowing for regional or synchronized activities
towards disease elimination. The Rabies SARE consists of six stages (stage 0 to 5). Each stage has a set of activities
that build on each other to continuously reduce the risk of disease, with the country being declared completely
free of dog mediated human rabies when it reaches stage 5. Implementation of the synchronized activities will
be first conducted in pilot counties (Machakos, Makueni Kisumu, Siaya and Kitui Counties) to demonstrate success
before rolling out to the rest of the counties of the counties.
Results: Kenya is in stage 2 of the rabies SARE and currently preparing for implementation of the strategy in Makueni
County. National and County Rabies Elimination Coordination Committees have been launched to coordinate
implementation of the plan at national and county level respectively. A number of national guidelines (rabies
surveillance, rabies prophylaxis and mass dog vaccinations) have been developed to ensure standardization of
activities across the pilot counties.
Conclusions: The success of implementation of this strategy will require a multi-sectoral, collaborative approach
(One Health) with involvement and support of all stakeholders.
Key words: Stepwise Approach (SA).

13.005
One Health and Community Engagement: A case of students field attachment in Bwera, Kasese
district.
Samson Udho, BSN1; Shamilah Namusisi, BVM, MPH2; Cheryl Robertson, RN, MPH, PhD3
1Lira Regional Referral Hospital, P.O. Box 2, LiraUganda
2Makerere University, School of Public Health, P.O. Box 7072, KampalaUganda
3University of Minnesota, P.O. Box 55455, MinneapolisUSA
Corresponding Authour's Email: udhson10@gmail.com; Tel: +256785588257
Background: Well as One Health concept is gaining popularity among health practitioners, thereis still a gap
among students. Multidisciplinary field attachments have proved very useful in this area as it stimulates the
mind of the students through community activities that serve as a blue print of why collaboration is necessary.
With initial support from OHCEA and later Makerere University, University of Minnesota, and Conservation and
Ecosystem Health lliance, a second joint One Health field attachment was held in Bwera, Kasese district because
of its unique challenges that reflect the One Health concept. Students from the disciplines of nursing, veterinary
medicine, rural Innovations and development, economics, agricultural engineering and environmental health
sciences from the two universities were involved. The objective of the One month long attachment was to
allow students identify community One Health challenges and using social entrepreneurship skills to turn the
challenges into business opportunities.
Methodology: With coordination from the different faculty members, student who had worked together through
social entrepreneurship class conducted online by the University of Minnesota were selected. Pre-field activities
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involved bringing selected students for introduction to community engagement among other basics. Field
activities included pre-visits to the local government offices and discussions with department heads among
other activities. Community needs assessment was done and four intervention areas identified; the sex workers,
children and mothers, pastoral and fishing communities as high impact groups that affect both food security and
health. Interventions were limited to community health education and community clean up of Bwera town.
Results: The attachment allowed students to appreciate the roles and challenges of a Multidisciplinary setting
and why community engagement is Key in One Health. Community assessment revealed: the ever growing
humanwildlife conflict, rejection of female condom by sex workers; high level of malnutrition; myths about
contraceptives; sex addiction among underage girls in fishing villages; lack of knowledge on mother to child
transmission of HIV among mothers. Out of the attachment, projects and concepts have been developed such as
Chilgrow that focuses on infant nutritional feeds, Easy Water for pastoralist and Erikula. Conclusion: Innovative
multidisciplinary One Health field attachment is central to understanding community challenges from which
innovative projects can be derived to offer long term solutions to meet the ever growing community challenges
and needs.
Key Words: Multidisciplinary; Field Attachment & Community Engagement of treatment making it easier for staff
to interact with the patients. Also I outlined designs clearly separating male, female and pediatrics.
Conclusion and recommendation: For all space that are designed including isolation centres, it is important that
yes infection prevention and control is number one consideration but without putting into consideration the
culture of the area then people will run away and hide away from the facility. Culture plays a big role in epidemic
control therefore it should be well considered. Looking at the case of West Africa, patients and their families were
reluctant to have them taken to ETU.

13.006
Development and evaluation of recombinant Ls25 protein latex agglutination test for
serodiagnosis of leptospirosis
S.K.Muller, S.Veena, T. Sushma, S.Kumar, V.Balamurugan and H.Rahaman
Leptospirosis is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic disease with public health importance worldwide.
However, diagnosis of the diseases is challenging due to multiple circulating pathogenic serovars, confusion
of the disease to other febrile-causing illness and lack of reliable diagnostic tools. The main objective of the
present study was to develop and evaluate a recombinant Leptospira surface antigen (rLsa25) based on latex
agglutination test for rapid diagnosis of human and animal leptospirosis in endemic area including Tanzania. In
this study we hypothesized that the new recombinant Lsa25 latex agglutination test (LAT) will be more sensitive,
more accurate and cost effective compared to available serological tests.
Lsa25 gene was cloned in pGMT-easy vector. Colony PCR and sequencing were done for confirming accuracy of
the clones. After sub cloning of this gene into pET 32a expression vector, and subsequent expression in BL-21 E.
coli cells, recombinant protein was produced, purified and coated with latex agglutination beat for performing
LAT. A total of 81 human and bovine sera were tested for leptospirosis using MAT the serological standard test and
recombinant Lsa25 LAT (rLsa25 LAT).
Colony PCR and sequencing confirmed the accuracy of Lsa25 gene cloning by obtaining the exact band size
(648 kb) and sequences of the insert in the backbone of the vector. Clone expressing Lsa25 gene coding protein
obtained in BL 21 host using pET32a expression vector. The expressed protein with fusion taq thioredoxin was
purified through NiNTA column and characterization of protein was carried out in SDS-PAGE and Western blot,
which .showed the expected band size (43 kDa) clone gene product with fusion taq. Using purified Lsa25 protein,
latex beads were prepared for doing LAT for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis. Out of 81 samples tested, 42 were
positive using MAT while 45 samples were positive by rLsa25 LAT. The specificity, sensitivity and k-value of
rLsa25 LAT were 92.4%, 97.6%, and 90% respectively.
The present study found that rLsa25 LAT is specific, sensitive, effective and easy to perform. This study also

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revealed that the use of rLsa25 LAT for diagnosis of leptospirosis in human and animal may be an additional
necessary tool for diagnosis and surveillance of leptospirosis in endemic area.

13.007
Multi-Disciplinary Cross-border Surveillance Committees: an Important Addition to Surveillance
Systems in the East African Community (EAC)
Willy Were1, Martin Matu1, Benedict Mushi1, Stanley Sonoiya2, Miriam Schneidman3
East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP), of East, Central and Southern Africa Health
Community (ECSA-HC);
2
East African Community (EAC)
3
World Bank
Corresponding Author: Willy Were; e mail: werew@ecsa.or.tz. Tel +255787548393
1

Introduction: Borders in the East African community (EAC) are potentially easy conduits for the spread of infectious
diseases. Factors favouring disease transmission include the numerous epidemics and increasing cross-border
trade and regional migration. The World Bank funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project
(EAPHLNP) of the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC) was established to improve
diagnostic and disease surveillance systems in the region by strengthening the inadequate health services in
peri-border zones. In collaboration with the East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) of
EAC, the EAPHLNP supports establishment of multi-disciplinary Cross-Border Surveillance Committees (CBSC) to
bolster disease surveillance. The process has been endorsed by statutes and policies of EAC.
Objectives: to create a vehicle for sharing disease outbreak information in cross-border areas; establish a pool of
officials trained in IDSR-IHR practices; and conduct jointly-developed work plans.
Methods: The ECSA-HC together with the EAC request countries to invite multi-disciplinary teams and organize
interventions at an agreed border town. Health Ministries invite 35-50 human, animal health and environmental
management experts from 5-15 districts on either side of the border. IDSR-IHR training is conducted. The teams
select a CBSC. A work plan with budget is formulated.
Key results: Eight CBSCs were formed between 2012 and 2014 in cross-border meetings attended by 99 districts in
EAC, with the following personnel attending: 184 (82%) health, 19 (9%) administration/data, 18 (8%) veterinary/
agriculture and 2(1%) environmental management. The committees hold quarterly meetings. A pool of experts
to support IDSR-IHR activities in their zones is readily available. They participated in response to numerous
outbreaks, including the cholera outbreaks at Kenya-Uganda border (2012) and Tanzania-Burundi border (2013,
2014-15). No SBSC were formed on borders between EAC countries and non-EAC countries.
Conclusion: Multi-stakeholder CBSCs can be easily formed and constitute an important component of disease
control systems in cross-border areas in the EAC.
Recommendation: The linkage of CBSC with community resource persons and national surveillance systems should
be strengthened. Additional CBSC would contribute to expanding the scope and scale of disease surveillance in
the EAC.

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Session 14: Tuesday November 17th 2015: 14:00-16.00


Clinical research on emerging diseases (Break out Session 2)
Meera Hall

Session speaker: Professor Saul Tzipori

Chair: Prof. Christopher Garimoi


Orach

No

Title of abstract

Author

14.001

Health monitoring; prevention and control of gastrointestinal helminths at the


human-wildlife interface

Caroline Asiimwe

14.002

Probiotic potentials of Amakamo (Locally fermented milk delicacy) against


Recurrent Gastroenteritis in Uganda

John Nnamdi Ejekuwada

14.003

Ethno-medicine Paradox in One health concept and practices for reducing


health threats

Faith Mabiki

14.004

Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from


tuberculosis patients in Bahir Dar City and its surroundings, northwest
Ethiopia

Anwar Nuru

14.005

Ethno-botanical survey and Ecological study of Plants resources used in Folk


medicine to treat symptoms of Tuberculosis in Kinshasa City, Democratic
Republic of the Congo

Gedeon N. Bongo

14.006

In vivo antirabies activity evaluation of hydroethanolic extract of roots and


leaves of Phytolacca dodecandra

Petros Admasu

14.001
Health monitoring; prevention and control of gastrointestinal helminths at the human-wildlife
interface
Caroline Asiimwe1, Timothy Mugabe1, Paul Zziwa1, Andrew Wange1, Geoffrey Muhanguzi1, Fred Babweteera1,2
1
2

Budongo Conservation Field Station, Masindi, Uganda


Makerere University, Kampala Uganda

Background
Infectious diseases pose a significant threat in habitats where humans and animals overlap. Transmission is
higher in closely related species such as humans and chimpanzees. As encroachment and degradation of natural
habitats increases due to anthropogenic demands, human-wildlife interactions inevitably increase, facilitating
cross-transmission of disease causing pathogens. Some anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases are caused by
gastrointestinal helminths (GIH). Consequently, monitoring human and non-human populations health in areas
with high interaction is necessary for effective disease control strategies. We aimed at establishing prevalence
and associated factors for GIH in chimpanzees and humans in and around Budongo forest reserve (BFR) to generate
information for effective control and health promotion strategies.
Methods:A cross sectional survey was conducted in two chimpanzee communities (n=182) and humans
(n=123) living in and around BFR in 2014. The study utilized faecal tests, structured pretested questionnaire
and observations to generate quantitative data on prevalence and associated factors (in humans). Floatation,

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sedimentation and microscopy were used for faecal analysis. Data was analysed using STATA, to obtain appropriate
descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression models.
Results: Results showed that, 73.63% of the chimpanzees and 65.04% of the humans were positive for atleast one
GIH. Five GIHs were isolated; hookworms, Ascaris, Strongyloides, Enterobius, and Trichuris. Among chimpanzees,
hookworms were the most prevalent, 68.13% (124/182) and the least prevalent were Enterobius and Trichuris,
with 0.55% (1/182). In humans, Ascaris was the most prevalent, 46.34% (57/123) and Enterobius the least
prevalent, 9.02% (11/123). There was a significant difference in the distribution of GIH between chimpanzees
and humans; Ascaris (OR = 0.03; 95% CI; 0.02, 0.10), Enterobius (OR = 0.06; 95% CI; 0.01, 0.44) and Trichuris
(OR = 0.05; 95% CI; 0.006, 0.362) were significantly higher in humans than in chimpanzees. Hookworms were
significantly higher in chimpanzees (OR =11.7, 95% CI; 6.55, 20.90) than in humans. Polyparasitism was common in
both species, with higher prevalence in humans (35%) than chimpanzees (11.9%). Hand washing (OR = 0.02, 95%
CI; 0.004, 0.136) and deworming history (OR = 0.01, 95% CI; 0.001, 0.058) were significantly associated with GIHs.
Conclusions and recommendation: Gastrointestinal helminths are prevalent in chimpanzees and humans living
in and around BFR. Improvement in sanitation, hygiene and health promotion including massive deworming in
humans should be included in preventive and control strategies.

14.002
Probiotic potentials of Amakamo (Locally fermented milk delicacy) against Recurrent
Gastroenteritis in Uganda
John Nnamdi Ejekwumadu1 & Sunday Magaji2 & Adaku .V. Iwueke, PhD
1. Department of Biochemistry, Kampala International University Western Campus, Bushenyi
2. Microbiology Laboratory, Kampala International University Teaching Hospital, Bushenyi
3. Department of Biochemistry, Imo State Polythechnic, Umuagwo, Nigeria
Background: Gastro-intestinal tract infections pose a major health threat to Ugandans. In March 2015, a total of
1,940 cases of typhoid were reported in Kampala alone and by April 2015, up to 12,000 cases had been reported
countrywide. Abuse of broad spectrum antibiotics has ushered in an era of antibiotic related diarrhea as well
as antibiotic resistance. More worrisome is the fact that the normal bacterial flora is destroyed alongside the
pathogenic bacteria by these antibiotics, leading to an increased fungal load. The implications among others
include opportunistic infections such as candidiasis. In such a situation, a readily available and affordable source
of probiotic bacteria becomes necessary. Amakamo is a traditional fermented milk delicacy native to Western
Uganda. It is widely consumed by the Banyankole people of the region. Like other fermented milk products,
it contains lactic acid bacteria. This class ofbacteria has been proven to possess probiotic properties against
enteric pathogens. In the presentstudy, the efficacy of Amakamo as a potential source of probiotic bacteria was
investigated.
Methods: Isolation oflactic acid bacteria was carried out using MRS /Clindamycin/Ciprofloxacin and M17 agar
media and the species identified by microscopy as well as biochemical tests. Enteric pathogens were isolated
from patients at the Kampala International University Teaching Hospital using MConckey agar at 37C followed
by serological confirmatory tests. The probiotic isolates from Amakamo were cultured in nutrient broth at 37C
for production of bacteriocins while the cell free supernatants were obtained by centrifugation and subsequent
microfiltration as well as alkali neutralization. The cell free supernatants were then utilized in inhibition
assays against selected enteric pathogens. Growth inhibition accruing from the supernatant was calculated
spectrophotometrically using the bacterial growth inhibition equation.
Results: Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were isolated from the fermented milk
samples while Salmonella typhi and pathogenic Escherichia coli were selected isolates from stool samples. In
the inhibition assay, bacteriocins contained in cell free supernatants from both species of probiotic bacteria
significantly inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi (41%, 45%) and Escherichia coli (47%, 50%). A combination
of supernatants from both species proved more potent (30%).

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Conclusion: The results from the present study suggest that Amakamo is a potentially active source of probiotic
bacteria capable of inhibiting the growth of pathogens that cause gastro intestinal problems in Uganda.

14.003
Ethno-medicine Paradox in One health concept and practices for reducing health threats
Faith Mabiki1, Robinson Mdegela2, Vitus Nyigo1&3, Hamisi Malebo3
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Physical Sciences, P .O Box 3038, Morogoro, Tanzania
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, P .O Box 3021
Morogoro, Tanzania
3
Department of Traditional Medicine Research, National Institute for Medical Research, 3 Barack Obama Drive,
P.O Box 9653, 11101 Dar es salaam, Tanzania
1
2

Since ancient times, human beings have been using natural products as cheap and accessible source of medicines,
pesticides, food and many other life supporting services. In developing countries, the majority of the population
relies on traditional healers (TP) as fist point contact for their primary health care. However due to increasing
civilization and religion beliefs, the practice and value of traditional healing has received negative connotation
and to a certain extent associated with witchcraft. Being marginalized, this workforce has not been considered as
an important entity in strengthening its capacity for detection, prevention and response to Emerging Pandemic
Threats (EPT). Ironically, this workforce has been practicing one health since time immemorial. This is evidenced
by the fact that, TH manages diseases in both human and animals, and in case of ignorance or poor practices,
they may have the potential of spreading zoonotic diseases. They are at risk of contracting deadly emerging
diseases such as Ebola as well as transmitting the same diseases to their patients and other healthy people in
the community. Similarly, they may save as the entry point of emerging diseases in the communities. Some of
the practices by traditional healers that have the potential to spread diseases include use of communal cups for
drinking, communal pots for handwashing, practice invasive procedures with shared non-sterilized traditional
instruments and non-use of personal protective gears. In view of the existing practices and critical roles they play
in health care, it is argued that, measures to strengthen one health practices should take into account capacity
building and strengthening for traditional healers. This is evidenced from studies that have demonstrated the
value of indigenous knowledge and technologies in bio-prospecting plants used in treating both animal and
human diseases. If ethno-medicine and ethno veterinary practices are integrated in one health initiatives, they
can be explored to reduce health risks resulting from EPTs. This paper presents a case study on the value of one
health practices under traditional settings and in transitional research from animal to human models for validating
plant extracts claimed to be effective for the management of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania and challenges associated with
the management of Ebola in West Africa. It presents compiled findings from ethnomedical survey, in ovo animal
antiviral tests, deCIPhRTM for HIV efficacy test and in vitro test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) efficacy tests.

14.004
Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from tuberculosis patients in
Bahir Dar City and its surroundings, northwest Ethiopia
Anwar Nuru, 1,4 Gezahegne Mamo,2 Adane Worku,1 Aschalew Admasu,3 Girmay Medhin,1 Rembert Pieper5 and
Gobena Ameni1
Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2College of
Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; 3Bahir Dar Regional
Health Research Laboratory Centre, P.O. Box 641, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of
Gondar, P.O. Box 346, Gondar, Ethiopia; 5J. Craig Venter Institute, 9704 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland,
United States.
1

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The knowledge of the genetic diversity of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) species in a
specific geographical region can contribute to the control program of tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted
to identify the MTBC isolates to the species and spoligotype international type (SIT) level by spoligotyping. A
total of 168 MTBC isolates were recovered from TB patients, spoligotyped and their patterns were compared with
those of the strains registered in the SITVIT2 database. Out of 168 clinical isolates spoligotyped, 89 patterns
(strains) were identified. Ninety-eight isolates were clustered into 19 strain groups with an overall clustering
percentage of 58.3%. Forty-four strains matched to the pre-existing SITs in the SITVIT2 database. The dominant
strains were SIT289, SIT134 and SIT3411, comprising of 16.7% (28/168), 7.14% (12/168) and 4.76% (8/168) of the
total isolates, respectively. Euro-American (51.2%), East-African-Indian (34.5%) and M. africanum (9.52%) were
the major lineages identified. Two strains of M. bovis were isolated from human TB lymphadenitis cases. The high
percentage of clustered strains of M. tuberculosis could suggest that a small number of lineages of M. tuberculosis
are causing the disease in the area and isolation of M. bovis could suggest its zoonotic potential in the study area.
While identification of M. africanum requires further confirmation by molecular tools with a better discriminatory
power.
Keywords: Genetic diversity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, spoligotyping, Strain, lineage, Bahir Dar City,
Ethiopia

14.005
Ethno-botanical survey and Ecological study of Plants resources used in Folk medicine to treat
symptoms of Tuberculosis in Kinshasa City, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua1,3, Gdon N. Bongo1,2, Masengo Ashande3, Djolu Djoza1, Pius Mpiana4 , Virima Mudogo4 ,
Lassa Kanda1, Huruma Tuntufye2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190 Kinshasa XI, D.R. Congo
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Chuo Kikuu,
Morogoro, Tanzania
3
Scientific Committee for the Research, the Conservation and the Development of Biodiversity, Faculty of
Science, University of Kinshasa, D.R. Congo
4
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 190 Kinshasa XI, D.R. Congo
1
2

Background: Medicinal plants represent the key product for the Congolese population. In order to preserve the
ethno-medical cultural heritage of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the present study was undertaken with
the aim of identifying and characterizing ecological status of plant species used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis
in Kinshasa city.
Methodology: The ethno-botanical study was conducted in Kinshasa city between January-March 2013 through
questionnaire and personal interviews with traditional healers and their responses were documented.
Results: Twenty-six plant species found in 20 families and 25 genera which belong to the Magnoliophyta
taxonomic group were identified out of which phanerophytes predominate. The family of Apocynaceae, Fabaceae,
Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae are represented each one by two species and the remainders with only
one species each one. 88.46% of herbal remedies used to treat symptoms of TB in Kinshasa city are prepared by
aqueous decoction. All recipes are administered to patients by oral route. 26.92% of used medicinal plants are
Guinea-Congolese species. Leaves are the most used part (69.23%).
Conclusion: The large distribution of inventoried medicinal flora in Africa means that the protection of their
ecosystems should be a common effort at national, sub-regional and regional levels. Advanced phytochemical,
pharmacological and toxicological investigations of some inventoried plants are in progress and might lead to
the development and standardization of interesting anti-TB remedies.

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14.006
In vivo antirabies activity evaluation of hydroethanolic extract of roots and leaves of
Phytolacca dodecandra
Petros Admasu1*, Asefa Deressa2 and Yalemtsehay Mekonnen3
Jigjiga University College of Veterinary Medicine, P.O.Box 1020, Jigjiga Ethiopia
*Corresponding Author: Email: petrosadmasut@gmail.com
2
Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
3
Addis Ababa University, College of Natural Science, Department of Microbial Cellular and Molecular Biology,
P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
1

Background: Rabies remains a major cause of death and severe economic impact in Ethiopia regardless of the
availability of effective vaccines for its control. Where rabies vaccines are physical inaccessible and economically
unaffordable, folk drugs is an option for rabies treatment in different areas of Ethiopia. Phytolacca dodecandra
(P.dodecandra) is used widely for traditional treatment of rabies. The study was undertaken to evaluate antirabies
activity of hydroethanolic extract of roots and leaves of P.dodecandra by using mice model.
Methods: All groups of mice challenged with rabies virus (CVS-11) containing 50-200MIMLD50 at day 0. Treatment
groups of mice were orally administered with dose of 300, 600 and 1000mg/kg of both parts of the plant extract
dissolved with 1ml distilled water for seven consecutive days after an hour of CVS challenge. Control group
of mice only administered with distilled water as placebo. Comparison of group of mice made based on the
difference in survival rate and period (days).
Results: The result showed all doses of roots and, 300 and 600mg/kg doses of leaves of the plant extract didnt
significantly (P>0.05) increase the survival period of mice compared to the control group. However, 1000mg/kg
dose of leaves of the plant extract was significantly (P<0.05) increased the survival period of mice as compared
to control group.
Conclusions: Though the finding indicated the existence of some antirabies activity in extract of leaves of
P.dodecandra at higher dose, the plant didnt safe mice from deaths. Further research (elucidating its active
principles) is needed before using the plant to treat rabies.
Key words: Antirabies, Hydroethanolic extract, In vivo, Phytolacca dodecandra

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Session 15: Tuesday November 17th 2015: 14:00 - 16.00


Novel case studies (Break Out Session 3)
Victoria Ball Room

Session speaker: Dr. Roy Mayega

Chair: Jonna Mazet (PREDICT)

No

Title of abstract

Author

15.001

One Health System Mapping and Analysis Resource Toolkit: Government- university
partnerships to advance cross-sectoral collaboration

Katey Pelican- also key note

15.002

The tripartite 4-way linking platform for A/H5N1 HPAI serve to establish a robust One
Health (OH) system in Egypt

Yilma J. Makonnen

15.003

Eliminating human dog-mediated rabies in Kenya

Thumbi Mwangi

15.001
One Health System Mapping and Analysis Resource Toolkit: Government- university partnerships
to advance cross-sectoral collaboration
Katey Pelican1, Wiku Adisasmito2, Heidi Kassenborg1, Tracey Lynn4, Ong-Orn Prasarnphanich, Kaylee Myhre
Errecaborde1
Ecosystem Health Division, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, MN
Indonesia One Health University Network (INDOHUN), Indonesia
3
One Health Coordination Center, USDA-APHIS, Minnesota
1
2

Background:
Coordination and collaboration across human, livestock and wildlife health sectors are essential to meet the
Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) targets for a world safe and secure from global health threats posed
by infectious diseases. Approximately 75% of emerging infectious disease threats originate in livestock and
wildlife populations. Dynamic changes and destabilization of the interfaces of humans, livestock, and wildlife are
driving increased risk of emerging disease threats across the globe. One Health is an approach that brings crosssectoral and trans-disciplinary groups together to manage complex health challenges like emerging disease that
are beyond the scope of one discipline. Currently, evaluation and assessment of government efficacy is typically
focused on individual agency processes and workforce issues, and rarely considers systems and activities that do
(or should) cut across agency lines. New tools and approaches can help stakeholders review existing cross-sectoral
interactions, identify areas of improvement and institutionalization, and strengthen workforce development.
Methods:
To analyze and strengthen cross-agency collaboration in government, academic and private sectors around OH
challenges, the University of Minnesota (UMN), in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
One Health Coordination Center, has been piloting a One Health Systems Mapping and Analysis Resource Toolkit
(OH-SMART) in the United States. This OH-SMART toolkit provides a standardized approach to the creation of
systems-based maps of agency and stakeholder interactions around OH challenges, providing information and
awareness to host countries to analyze and strengthen cross-agency coordination and, ultimately, creating best
practices and standardized operating procedures for infectious disease response in the country.

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Results:
UMN and USDA have now piloted OH-SMART in the United States both in the state of Minnesota and at a USDA
led conference with over 30 U.S. states participating resulting in One Health implementation plans at the state
and district level. A pilot TOT workshop has also been held in Indonesia with the Indonesia One Health University
Network (INDOHUN) in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia that included over 60 university and
government representatives from 5 provinces. Workshops in the US and Indonesia resulted in cross-agency
process maps and implementation plans for attending states and provinces.
Conclusions: This successful university-government partnership has the potential to be replicated globally
to strengthen cross-sectoral coordination around infectious disease. One opportunity for such work comes
through One Health University Networks recently developed in Africa and Asia as with the INDOHUN network in
Indonesia. We will present the outcomes of these initial analyses and discuss progress in application of the OHSMART tool to improve cross-agency systems and outbreak response at a provincial, national and international
level.

15.002
The tripartite 4-way linking platform for A/H5N1 HPAI serve to establish a robust One Health
(OH) system in Egypt
Yilma J. Makonnen1 Heba Mahrous and Ahmed Saad
1
Corresponding author, Email: yilma.makonnen@fao.org; Skype: yilma.makonnen1; Tel.: +202 3331 6022
Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO); 11 Al Eslah ElZerai St., P.O.Box 2223, Cairo, Egypt.
A/H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Egypt was reported in February 2006. The disease is endemic
and widespread all over the country. Despite huge efforts and investment made to strengthen the capacity
of the veterinary services, laboratory diagnosis and establishment of epidemiological networking across the
country, there is an apparent lack of progress in HPAI control and the disease remains a public and animal health
threat. Recently (2014-15), there was unprecedented upsurge of A/H5N1 in both animals and humans. Egypt has
reported the highest A/H5N1 human cases in the world. Controlling A/H5N1 at its animal source remains the best
strategy to prevent exposure and disease in humans.
In November 2010, a tripartite (FAO, OIE and WHO) Four-Way Linking (4-WL) platform was established in Egypt.
The model was essentially based on bringing together the epidemiology and laboratory units/wings of the animal
and public health sectors to work and collaborate on issues of mutual interest. At the beginning, there was an
apparent enthusiasm. Both sides agreed to establish a taskforce with clear ToRs and plan. However, absence of
such an experience and prevailing mistrusts between the two sectors was the major hurdles. These challenges
were overcome by their continued engagement facilitated through FAO, WHO and OIE, confidence building efforts
and the realization of the diverse benefits to all involved parties.
Through the 4-WL platform, A/H5N1 epidemiological and genetic/sequence data are regularly shared and
discussed. To a lesser extent, a limited number of joint investigations were also conducted. The trust between
the two sectors has improved leading to joint planning and implementation of projects. Despite its valuable
contribution, the 4-WL is still an informal arrangement. There is a compelling need to institutionalise the
platform to serve as a robust technical advisory body in key decision-making processes. In the context of the
USAID-funded EPT-2 project, based on the solid foundation of the 4-WL platform, FAO and its partners plan to
establish a robust, national broad-based multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral OH system which will serve as an
instrument in shaping the national preparedness and response plans, reviewing and adoption of sound policies
and practices and instituting of risk-based disease surveillances in the understanding of drivers of diseases, spill
over, amplification and spread of emerging and re-emerging pathogens.
Keywords: A/H5N1 HPAI, Four-Way Linking, Emerging pandemic threats, institutionalization, One Health systems

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15.003
Eliminating human dog-mediated rabies in Kenya
Thumbi SM1, 2, Osoro E3, Bitek A 3
Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University
Center for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute
3
Zoonotic Disease Unit, Ministry of Health & Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries
1
2

Rabies has been endemic in Kenya since the first case was reported in a dog in 1912, and in human in 1928.
Domestic dogs are the principal reservoir of the rabies virus and the source of infection for at least 98% of
human rabies cases. To-date, rabies is estimated to cause up to 2000 deaths every year in Kenya, most of these
occurring among poor rural communities and in children below 15 years of age. Here we review data to dispel
three misconceptions about rabies that have encouraged inaction against the disease; rabies is a low priority
public health problem, stray dogs are the main drivers for rabies transmission, and wildlife play a significant role
in rabies transmission hindering its elimination. Encouraged by success in dog rabies elimination in countries
like Malaysia, Philippines, Kenya has launched a strategy for the elimination of human dog-mediated rabies by
the year 2030. This strategy provides a guide for the systematic reduction of the risk of rabies through sustained
mass dog vaccinations, pre and post-exposure prophylaxis and public education until the country is free of
human dog-mediated rabies. The strategy is based on a six stage (stage 0 to 5) Stepwise Approach (SA) that
proposes a graduated progression towards becoming a rabies-free country. Each stage has a set of activities
and targets that must be attained and confirmed before moving to the next stage, and that build on each other
to continuously reduce the risk of disease. The rabies elimination activities will be first conducted in pilot areas
(Makueni-Machakos, Kitui, Kisumu and Siaya counties) selected based on the current burden of rabies disease,
availability of natural barriers to aid elimination efforts, before the elimination campaign is rolled-out to the rest
of the country. The success of this elimination campaign is hoped to stir action in neighbouring countries, and the
rest of Africa, and demonstrate the utility of the One-Health approach of close collaboration between human and
animal health sectors in reducing the threat of zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases.

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Day 3: Wednesday November 18th, 2015

Theme: Innovative Multidisciplinary


Interventions

Session 18: Plenary; Wednesday, November 18th, 2015:


8.00 - 10.00
Room: Victoria Ball Room
Innovative Communication Strategies/ Data collection systems

Session Speaker: Jack Woodall


Co-Founder PROMED
Jack Woodall: ProMED and Early Warning of One Health Outbreaks

Chair: Professor James


Gashumba

No

Title of abstract

Author

18.001

Performing arts as entertainment-education method for health communication:


Reflections from Rift Valley fever project in Kongwa, Tanzania

Robert Hizza

18.002

Health improvement and disease prevention using ICT in RWANDA.

Carmel SHEKA

18.003

Social media and One Health (OH). A case study of the OH student club social
media activities in Rwanda, Kenya and Uganda

Angelina Twinomujuni

18.004

Students experience with Facebook as a One Health digital learning environment

Samuel G.Okech

18.005

EMPOWERING COMMUNITIES AND TECHNICAL STAFF IN EMERGING AND REEMERGING ZOONOTIC DISEASES CONTROL: THE UGANDA EXPERIENCE

Bernard Ngago

18.006

ProMED and early warning of One Health outbreaks

John "Jack" Woodall

18.007

Electronic one health surveillance in Uganda; findings and recommendations for


action

Atek Kagirita

18.008

One health and cancer: A ten year comparative human and canine cancers in
Nairobi

Kelvin Momanyi

18.009

Evaluation of disease surveillance systems in Rwanda, using Rabies as case study

Emmanuel Irrimaso

18.001
Performing arts as entertainment-education method for health communication: Reflections
from Rift Valley fever project in Kongwa, Tanzania
Robert Hizza 1*, Mangi J. Ezekiel1, Switbert R. Kamazima1 & Candida S. Moshiro2
1. Department of Behavioural Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania
2. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania
*Correspondence: Robert Hizza
Behavioural Sciences Department, School of Public Health & Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health &
Allied Sciences (MUHAS) Po Box 65015, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
E-mail: roberthizza@gmail.com
Background: Rift valley fever (RVF) is a re-emerging vector-borne disease with rapid socio-economic impact. We
conducted a baseline study to assess RVF outbreak preparedness as well as knowledge, attitudes and practices
regarding RVF in Kongwa and Kilombero districts. As entertainment-education method, performing arts has

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proven to be an effective method for health promotion and disease prevention for various health interventions
targeting rural and urban populations. However, its application in addressing outbreak preparedness for zoonotic
diseases such as RVF is not well documented. In this article, we document how the approach has been used for
conveying information, education and communication messages to promote outbreak preparedness for RVF while
highlighting some of the key lessons learned from the intervention.
Methods: As communication tool, performing arts comprised indigenous songs and dances used to raise
awareness, mobilize communities and promote practices favourable for timely response and preparedness for
RVF outbreak in six villages in Kongwa.
Results: Findings suggest that using local theater troupes enhances a sense of ownership of intervention and also
acts as a strategy for recognition of local talents and resources in improving health and disease control. A rapid
assessment of the intervention reveals that entertainment-education efforts for RVF hold the potential for being
integrated into routine social and cultural lives of the community members as a strategy to promote knowledge
and reduce risks of transmission of RVF during outbreaks. Furthermore, findings indicate that edutainment
interventions require active participation of local power brokers from project inception stage in order to enlist
public support and engagement.
Conclusion: RVF intervention highlights the need to focus on the use local performing groups to enhance
continuity and sustainability of edutainment interventions.

18.002
Health improvement and disease prevention using ICT in RWANDA.
SHEKA Carmel1
1. Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Rwanda Huye-Campus.
The Rwandan economy is based on two important sectors namely agriculture and animal production. However,
they are most of the time affected by different factors like bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic diseases, climate
change and air pollution which have negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the community. Moreover, a
recent study conducted by National Institute of Statistics and Ministry of health in Demographic health survey
conducted in 2014 proved that 48.6/1000 die under 5 years, and a lot are struggling of malnutrition even
dying not because of lack of food but because they are not aware of how to improve their wellbeing or health
in preventing diseases. This result in a lot of expenditure to repair the damages caused by this ignorance. By
using technology means to teach and train them like using documentary may be helpful. But still, something is
missing. Even though we have Television and Radio to broadcast the information but not everyone has access to
them especially those in the countryside or rural areas. But fortunately, up to 90% of Rwandan population has
Mobile Telephone. Creating a system which may send an updating news via SMS to the communities or creating
an application which may run on smartphones as well as on MAC (From Apple Company) Operating system and
android platforms (Phone and Tablet) may help to update the community about health improving and
disease prevention affecting them and also there animals.
A trial was done in 2014 by Mrs. FURAHA Francine from INILAK and me where we developed the system which
helped a big number of communities by sending short messages where the receiver could communicate to
us freely and directly. This became successful and the program is still operational. Disseminating One health
information using Technology can be a very crucial and rapid model to help various organizations dealing with
health to achieve their vision such as living in a sustainable healthy environment without zoonoses simply using
technology to rapidly reach a big number of communities. I recommend Health clubs to use this platform (MAC) at
a planned basis to talk to a number of communities directly which can even reduce on their financial costs.

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18.003
Social media and One Health (OH). A case study of the OH student club social media activities in
Rwanda, Kenya and Uganda.
1

Angelina Mwesiga M. Twinomujuni, 2,1 Mapendo Mindje, 3,1 Momanyi Kelvin Nyariaro, 2,1 Robert Kibuuka.

One Health Eastern and Central Africa (OHCEA), Kampala, Uganda


National University of Rwanda
3
University of Nairobi
1
2

Background
Traditionally, information within educational institutions in East Africa has been passed on in a classroom
setting in one geographical location or through university websites for official information. However, this trend
is changing in higher institutions of learning in Africa with the introduction of online courses, distance learning
tracks and webinars among others. Globally, social media channels continued to show strong growth with top
social networks adding more than 135 million new users in the course of 20131. As might be expected, mobile
is playing an increasingly important part in the social media landscape. According to Facebook reports, three
quarters of its 1.2 billion monthly active users around the world access the platform through mobile.
Methods
Using mobile devices, One Health student clubs are actively engaged in promoting One Health content through
a variety of social media platforms such as Facebook posts, Twitter, Whatsapp, Snapchat and Instagram among
others. These platforms have been used to announce training programmes, advertise scholarship opportunities,
showcase student One Health related activities, transmit information taught through regular lectures, share links
to case studies, encourage debate and schedule events.
Results
While information on trainings and upcoming courses and events were traditionally written on boards or flip
charts, posted on university websites and university notice boards located in singular geographic locations; this
information is now circulated widely to a multi-disciplinary group of students and faculty through social media
platforms in real time. These platforms are very attractive, highly interactive and constantly evolving.
Conclusion or implications
The intent of this paper is to describe the trend of social media usage within One Health student clubs and the
potential that these platforms hold as a medium for information exchange within multi-disciplinary groups of
people in real time across wide geographical locations.

18.004
Students experience with Facebook as a One Health digital learning environment
Samuel George Okech
Makerere University implemented the maiden One Health Field Attachment (service learning)
activity in 2013. It involved deploying multi-disciplinary teams of students of veterinary medicine, nursing and
environmental health to live in and work with rural communities in selected sites in western Uganda. This was an
effort to contribute to building a workforce with OH competencies. A total of six student teams spent four weeks
in their respective sites of deployment. They assessed community challenges and together with the communities
designed and variously implemented solutions to common public health, animal health, animal production
and environmental problems through the concepts of service-learning. In order to enable quick, simple and
affordable sharing of information to enhance intergroup learning, a closed social media group was created in
Facebook. Through this group, students shared information, multimedia learning materials, experiences and
held discussions among themselves and between them and faculty. This quick, simple and affordable approach

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facilitated interactive and collaborative learning. Despite some of the challenges experienced, the students
appreciated this innovation inenhancing learning and recommended its continued use. The students realized
that Facebook is useful for formal learning activities and not just for social networking. These experiences form a
basis for improving the use of Facebook as a virtual/digital learning environment especially for community-based
(off-campus) digital native students.

18.005
Empowering communities and technical staff in emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases
control: The Uganda experience.
Benard Ngago2,&, Herbert Kazoora2
African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET), Lugogo House,Plot 42, Lugogo By-Pass, Kampala, Uganda &
Corresponding Author: Benard Ngago, African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET), Lugogo House, Plot 42,
Lugogo By-Pass, Kampala, Uganda P.o.Box 12874, Kampala, Uganda. Mobile: +256(702)696926;
Email: bngago@yahoo.co.uk
2

Background
Following recurring outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses such as Ebola, Marburg, and Congo-crimean
fever in Uganda, and Avian Influenza in other parts of the world, organizations such as Ministry of Health-Uganda,
Makerere University, USAID-RESPOND, United States Africa Command-Djibout and African Field Epidemiology
Network (AFENET), collaborated and undertook to empower communities and technical staff with knowledge on
common zoonotic diseases in the region. The main objective was to prepare communities and technical staff to
promptly respond and control zoonoses in case of feature outbreaks
Methods
A two-week One Health training was conducted in districts of Luweero, Kibaale, Kabaale, and Kaabong of Uganda.
The training targeted Village health teams, Community based animal health workers, Wildlife staff, Uganda
Peoples Defence Forces, medical and veterinary personnel. One of the major activities during the training was
conducting a pretest and posttest among participants on aspects of zoonoses. The pretest was administered
before the training to find out the level of knowledge of participants regarding zoonoses and the posttest was
administered after they were trained on selected zoonoses to assess whether the training had any improvement
on knowledge. Both tests consisted of self-administered questionnaires with identical questions
Results
There were 125 and 144 participants in the pretest and posttest respectively. The variables assessed in the
pretest and posttest included; mentioning correctly six diseases transmitted from domestic animals to humans,
four diseases transmitted from wild animals to humans, naming domestic and wild animal reservoirs, how humans
acquire these diseases, how humans can avoid them and actions which can be taken in case of an outbreak. Data
was analyzed in EPIINFO version 3.3.2 to get the pretest and posttest knowledge scores. The mean scores on the
assessed variables for the pretests in all districts ranged from 6.1%-20.3% and the mean scores for the posttests
were in the range of 40%-72.1%. In all cases pretest to posttest knowledge of the participants on the assessed
variables showed significant increases with p-values of < 0.05
Conclusions
The pretest findings revealed low level of knowledge of the participants regarding zoonoses before the training.
The posttest results indicated that the training improved on the knowledge of participants on various aspects on
the selected zoonoses.
This training should be conducted in other districts for these cadre of personnel to equip them with the necessary
knowledge and skills to enable them identify, report, prevent, control and sensitize communities on these
diseases.

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18.006
ProMED and early warning of One Health outbreaks
John Jack Woodall 1 & Lawrence Madoff 2
1 Co-founder & Assoc. Ed. ProMED-mail
2 Editor ProMED-mail
ProMED-mail is one of the earliest, free online services giving early warning of outbreaks of infectious diseases,
toxins and environmental contamination affecting humans, animals and food and feed crops worldwide,
24/7/365. Its unique feature is that it provides expert commentary from its team of mostly volunteer specialists,
that informs both health workers and the public about the outbreaks, their severity and available prevention and
control measures. It cuts through sensational reporting by the media, enabling both residents and visitors to the
affected area to make informed decisions about how to protect themselves and society. It frequently reports
outbreaks days before official sources, enabling both health services and the public to take precautions and, if
necessary, modify travel plans, and has been credited by WHO with stimulating official sources to expedite their
own reporting. ProMED sometimes even receives reports direct from the ministries or laboratories concerned.
ProMED currently has subsidiary lists in English covering anglophone Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, the
Mekong Delta and Southeast Asia, and in French for francophone Africa, Portuguese for Brazil and the lusophone
countries, Russian for Russia and the Newly Independent States and Spanish for Spain and Latin America, all with
expert commentary in their respective languages. Examples will be presented, also a blueprint for starting a
national system on the ProMED model for resource-poor countries.

18.007
Electronic one Health surveillance assessment in Uganda; findings and recommendations for
action
Atek Kagirita1, Noelina Nantima2, Carolyne Kyozira1, Noordin Mulumba1, Jacinta Sabiiti1 Herbert Kazoora3, Okot
Charles4 , Meeyoung Park 5
1.Ministry of Health, 2. Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries, 3. Afenet, 4.World Health Organisation.
5. Public Health practice LLC
Introduction: The International Health Regulations (IHR [2005] and the Integrated Disease Surveillance and
Response (IDSR) frameworks guide human public health surveillance. While, MAAIF coordinates the Veterinary
Surveillance systems with support from AU-IBAR and FAO. Despite difference in surveillance and reporting
strategy, both health sectors have utilized One-health initiatives to solve common problems. However, these
strategies lack interoperability and real time cross communication mechanisms that are essential for current
public health threat surveillance and response. This study was aimed at assessing the current national one health
electronic surveillance mechanism with aim of creating an interoperable real time electronic data sharing and
describing the workforce capacity related to health information systems
Methodology: A total of 58 sites were assessed; 8 at national level, 14 at district level and 2 at local level. Both
randomizations at district level and Stratification by IDSR indicator for epi weeks 1 26 in 2014 were employed.
Twenty-one (9%) districts of Uganda including a cross-section of health facility levels (RRH, GH, HCIV, and HCIII),
laboratories, and district and national surveillance structures were selected
Results: Uganda has a well-defined national human and veterinary public health priorities and surveillance
reporting hierarchy. ICT infrastructure and the use of electronic tools are weaker in the veterinary sector, no
established processes or agreements for data exchange. There is lack of electronic surveillance support at
health facilities and electronic LIMS at district and local laboratories. There were no identified procedures for
communicating surveillance data between human and veterinary public health surveillance offices at the national
level.

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Recommendations
Invest in the procurement of ICT equipment
Strengthen use of ICT in periphery sites, such as health facilities and labs
Strengthen veterinary surveillance system leveraging ICT
Improve ICT training for surveillance offices and data managers
Establish standards for interoperability
Strengthen governance structure for ICT in surveillance
Country work groups for planning, development, and governance of specific domains for e-Surveillance
should be established.
Conclusion
Improved electronic surveillance and report sharing between veterinary and human health sectors is very
important for early detection and response to possible public health threats and global health security.

18.008
One health and cancer: A ten year comparative human and canine cancers in Nairobi
Kelvin Momanyi1, Ann Korir2, Erastus Mutiga1
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Nairobi Cancer Registry, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya

1
2

Background
Recent trends in comparative animal and human research inform us that collaborative research plays a key role in
deciphering and solving cancer challenges[5] . Globally, the burden of cancer is continually increasing [3] and Africa
is now awake to address cancer, evident with the recent increasing publicity and sensitization campaigns such as
the 9th Stop Cervical, Breast & Prostate Cancer in Africa conference [4] . In Kenya, cancer ranks as the number three
killer in the country, with a 7% total national mortality every year [1] and an average annual age standardized
incidence rate of 161 and 231 in men and women respectively [2] . To our knowledge, no current studies have
evaluated the comparative analysis of cancer in both humans and animals concurrently in Kenya. This study aimed
to provide comparative information on the cancers affecting humans and animals.
Methods
Records from the Nairobi Cancer Registry-KEMRI, five veterinary clinics and two diagnostic laboratories, between
the years 2002-2012, all in Nairobi were studied. Dog data collection was by active case finding from the veterinary
clinics and laboratories while the human dataset was from the Nairobi Cancer Registry database. Analysis was
achieved using IBM SPSS Statistics v.20 (Dog data) and CanReg5 (human data).
Results
A total of 367 dog and 15558 Human cases were abstracted. In humans, females had higher cancer cases 57.8%
compared to 42.2% in males. This order was reversed in dogs where males had higher cases 54.0% compared to
46.0% in females. The cancer cases increased steadily over the ten years to nearly five-fold in both species. In
humans the prostate (6.5%) and breast (15.3%) cancers were the highest while, mammary gland (7.1%) and skin
(4.6%) cancers were the highest in males and females respectively. Of the ten most common single organ cancers
in each species, Breast/mammary gland (15.3%, 10.9%), prostate (6.5%, 5.2%), respiratory (3.5%, 6.8%) and
liver (4.0%, 6.5%) cancers occurred in both humans and dogs respectively. Common morphological diagnosis
was Adenocarcinoma (26.0%) and unspecified types of cancer (49.9%) in humans and dogs respectively.
Conclusions
The commonality of some of the cancers in both humans and dogs fortifies that it may be possible to use canines
as animal models and sentinels in the study of human cancers in Africa. We further infer that developing joint
animal-human cancer registries and integrated surveillance systems may possibly lead to accelerated detection
of risks of cancer in Africa.

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18.009
Evaluation of human and animal disease surveillance systems in Rwanda, using Rabies as case
study
Emmanuel Irimaso1, Samuel George Okech3, Serge Nzietchueng4 , Frank N. Mwiine2
1
Department of veterinary medicine, College Agriculture, Animal resources and Veterinary Medicine University of Rwanda
2
Department of Biomolecular Resources & Biolab Sciences, Makerere University
3
Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Clinical and Comparative Medicine, Makerere University
4
School of Public Health, Ecosystem Health Initiative, USAID RESPOND project regional technical advisor,
University of Minnesota
Contact person: irimasoemmy@gmail.com
Background: In Rwanda animal rabies surveillance system is weak and unstable characterised by lack of rabies
surveillance data. The human rabies surveillance system is at advanced level although rabies information is
scanty yet country has a political will. This study set out to evaluate rabies surveillance systems so as to inform
policy makers and improve the rabies surveillance systems in Rwanda.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2014 and June 2014 among 251 animal and
human health workers working in Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal resources and Wildlifes
disease surveillance units and community consented to the study. Ten health personnel at central level, 43
district disease surveillance animal and human health personnel, 49 nurses, 85 veterinarians and 73 community
members were purposively selected to participate in this study. Rabies surveillance systems were evaluated
using CDCs updates public health surveillance and SERVAL attributes. Both qualitative and quantitative data was
collected entered into Epiinfo and exported to SPSS for analysis
Results: There was a well-structured useful, stable and flexible human rabies surveillance system, in MoH. A weak
and unstable rabies surveillance system characterised by lack of rabies surveillance guidelines in MINAGRI was
reported. Rabies surveillance system in wildlife department was still at infant stage. Rabies surveillance systems
was influenced by an association between mandatory rabies report with the employment category among
veterinarians p=0.001 and physicians and nurses p=0.047 and FET=0.024 (Odds ratio = 0.67, CI = 0.540 and 0.845).
Majority (91.2%) of district disease surveillance personnel reported immediately rabies cases encountered. Only
14.7% (5/34) analysed their rabies data according to the person, place and time. There were weak information
shares among veterinarians and physicians, (55.9%). Surprisingly there was no rabies laboratory test carried out
to confirm rabies cases in both animal and health ministries. Community preferred to report rabies cases to the
nearest health centre (43.8%) compared to (9.6%) reported their cases to veterinary practitioners.
Conclusion: Policy makers should consider revealed factors and improve the rabies surveillance systems in
Rwanda. One health approach could be an effective and consistent way to alleviate the found challenges.
Keywords: Rabies, disease surveillance system, evaluation, surveillance attributes and Rwanda

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Poster Abstracts
Posters will be displayed during the coffee breaks. Presenters are expected to be with their
posters during this period

94

21.001

The plight of Ebola in Africa: Ebola cases in Kikwit in DRC

MUMPONO MISIAKILA

21.002

Analysis of Microbiological Quality of Raw Meat Purchased in Musanze District

Jean Paul Habimana

21.003

Prevalence of neurocysticercosis among epileptic patients in Kinondoni Dar es Salaam

Stanley S Lyimo

21.004

Prevalence and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in bovine calves and its implication in
children around Jimma, Ethiopia

Feyissa Begna

21.005

Prevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and Associated Risks Factors in Cattle Of Rwempasha and
Karangazi Sectors - Nyagatare District-Rwanda

Jean Paul MUSHAYIJA

21.006

Study on Prevalence and Assessment Community Awareness of Bovine Tuberculosis in And


Around Mizan Tefferi

Kassaw Amssalu Tedesse

21.007

Assessment of Zoonotic Disease Surveillance systems at the human-domestic and wildlife


Interface in Kilosa district and Mikumi NP, Tanzania: A Case Study of Rabies

Jairos Mdegela

21.008

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices regarding Rabies and One Health Approach among
General practitioners of Quetta City Balochistan Pakistan 2015

Ehsan Ahmed

21.009

Recent Serological Evidence of the Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Virus in Select Areas in Uganda

Ndumu Deo

21.010

Occurrence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in roadside slaughtered meat along the
Lyantonde- Mbarara Highway, Uganda

Nasaka Joelia

21.011

Rabies and community risk factors in a human-animal interface in Kilosa District, Tanzania
(2015)

Bakari, G.G

21.012

Transmission and malacological survey on Schistosomiasis mansoni: Direction for ONE


HEALTH intervention approach

Nigus Abebe Shumuye

21.013

A survey of cystic echinococcosis and hydatidosis in the pastoralist production system in


Karamoja region, Uganda.

B A Demelash

21.014

Prevalence of cattle and human hydatidosis in jimma town, southwest ethiopia

Daniel Dana

21.015

CYSTICERCOSIS AND EPILEPSY IN BANDJOUN - WEST REGION OF CAMEROON

Domngang Noche

21.016

In-vitro Antibacterial Activity of Acacia etbaica against Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) Bacteria

Belayneh Getachew

21.017

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotics, their use and resistance among
the public community in Rwanda.

Rosine Manishimwe

21.018

Antibiogram of Escherichia coli strains isolated from food of Bovine origin in selected
Woredas of Tigray, Ethiopia

Abebe Mekuria Shenkutie

21.019

Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw milk collected from households in four agro-ecological


zones in Kenya

Anima J Sirma

21.020

Molecular and Phenotypic characterization of Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC) and


Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) from piglets and infants associated with diarrhoea in
Mizoram, India

Jubeda Begum

21.021

Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus species isolated in cheese from different


markets of Kigali City

Kizito NISHIMWE

21.022

Une analyse de droit participatif li la sant dans la Ville Province de Kinshasa/ RDC

Grard ELOKO EYA


MATANGELO

21.023

Knowledge and Practices Related to Dog Rabies Vaccination at Household Level in a


Community with High Burden of Dog Bites in Kenya- 2013

Gerald Mburu Mucheru

21.024

A Reflective Enquiry on the Initiatives toward the Prevention of Emerging Diseases in SubSaharan Africa: Tanzanian Experience

Mwakasitu Tuhobwike

21.025

The demographic and socioeconomic profile on one Health dimensions: A case of Kilosa
District in Tanzania

Mohamed H

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21.026

Tuberculose humaine, tuberculose bovine: un problme de sant publique

KASONGO ASEKE
MUKANGA Grgoire

21.027

Effect of specifics Nanobodies on the development of trypanosomes in the tsetse fly.

Clemence K. KALEMEKO

21.028

Dterminants de la couverture vaccinale antirabique des chiens dans la Commune de


Lemba, Kinshasa, 2014

Kazadi Kawaya

21.029

Impact of Biorisk Management Training at National Public Health Laboratories

Joseph Nkodyo

21.030

One Health Students Club at Makerere University: Building a broad foundation for the One
Health Workforce

Kato Charles Drago

21.031

Low Participation of Female Students in One Health Student Activities: A Case of University
of Rwanda Nyagatare Campus

Turinimigisha Innocente

21.032

Awareness Creation and Mass Vaccination against Rabies: A Field Experience of One Health
Approach in Kilosa District, Morogoro, Tanzania

Mgeni YL

21.001
The plight of Ebola in Africa: Ebola cases in Kikwit in DRC
Mumpono Misiakila Jean-Louis (Ph.D)
Research, Treatment and Promotion Medicine and Health Center (CRPM)
-mail:crpmumpono@yahoo;fr,Mumpono@gmail.com
In 1995, the city of Kikwit in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, was marked by a dual epidemic:
bloody diarrhea and a red Ebola hemorrhage. The population of Kikwit did not know exactly the cause of this
epidemic.
The Ministry of Health in the Democratic Republic of Congo, had sent epidemiologist, a specialist in public health
Kinshasa to Kikwit to 525 Km. This specialist, had identified all of the clinical signs of this epidemic red diarrhea,
weakness throughout the body, digestive anorexia, blood bleeding in the mouth and nostril, breathing disorder
and digestive, etc.
This epidemiologist had drawn some clinical signs and had stored the test tubes for Belgium and attractant, and
then a portion sent in Britain. The three laboratories had confirmed to this professor, it was Ebola as the case of
Yambuku to Ecuador in the DRC, in order to control the population of Kikwit leaflets: "that everyone stays in his
house, do not say hello by hands, everyone reported to the hospital sick individuals. After the leaflets, an ethno
therapist had asked Professor administer flowing by peros to patients with Ebola and they have found the cure.
Indeed, of 724 patients, 437 died and 297 cured. Today, Africa can to vaccinate because Ebola is really critical
in Africa.

21.002
Analysis of microbiological quality of raw meat purchased in Musanze district
J.P. Habimana
Universisity of Rwanda-Nyagatare Campus - College ge of Agriculture,
Anim mal Science and Veterinary Medicine.
Meat is a nutritious food for human being, and is one of the most important food products with livestock origin
which enjoys special significance in term of its nutritional properties such as protein, fat, minerals and vitamins
but it also serves as a good medium for the growth of many micro-organisms. In order to provide good quality
meat, the condition of animal slaughter, the spread of contamination during slaughter and processing, the
temperature, time and other condition of storage and distribution must be monitored in order to put on market
meat products, which fulfill certain quality standards as required nationally or internationally. This study aimed
generally a at analyzing the microbiological quality of raw meat and was carried out in Four of Musanze district

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; specifically we counted different microorganisms, as an indication of the degree of meat contamination and to
identify those very microorganisms responsible for meat contamination. To analyze the microbiological quality of
raw meat, twelve meat samples were collected from 4 different butchers where 3 samples were taken at each site
in interval of five day and then brought to the laboratory for analysis.
The study established the overall mean count ranged from 2.41 to 5.40 log CFU/g, 1.85 to 4.50 log CFU/g, 1.79
to 2.8282 log CFU/g, 0.74 to 2.53 log CFU/g, 2.55 to 3.60 log CFU/g respectively for total count, Staphylococcus,
total coliformes, Salmonella and finally yeast and mould. Many analyzed meat samples showed the average values
that are in acceptable range of the standards recomm mended by different international standards a agency and
Rwanda Bureau of Standards (RBS), for total count, total coliforme, and yeast and moulds except site D for total
count. The study also revealed that many meat samples analzed for Salmonella and Staphylococcus were not in
acceptable range of the standards recommended by different international standards agency and RBS except
site B for Staphy aphylococcus. Hence, I recommended the district veterinary officer to evaluate all butchers and
recommend them to respect the meat inspection required equipment in meat storing. Furthermore, meat sellers
should have further formation on the policy for quality and safety of meat, knowledge of good slaughtering and
storing practices of meat, good practices of hygiene.
Key words: Salmonella, Staphy aphylococcus, meat inspection, butcher, standard

21.003
Prevalence and associated risk factors, of neurocysticercosis among epileptic patients in
Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam Tanzania
Stanley Lyimo1, Charles Kihamia1, William Matuja1, Zul Premji2, Andrea Winkler3
1
2

Muhimbili University for Health and Allied Sciences Dar es Salaam Tanzania
Aga Khan University Nairobi Kenya, 3Technical University of Munich, Munich Germany

Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestode and is an important
cause of preventable epilepsy Worldwide. Human infection with larval stage occurs primarily after ingestion of
food or contaminated water with human faeces containing T. solium eggs.
Objective:The study was conducted to determine seroprevalence, imaging and risk factors of human T.solium
infections among epileptic patients in Kinondoni district.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinondoni between 2013 and 2015, on patients aged 6 to
75 years. Questionnaires were used to assess risk factors. Blood samples were drawn and tested for circulating
T. solium antigens and antibodies by ELISA. Computed tomography was used to establish presence of cysticerci
cysts in their brain.
Results: A total of 303 people with epilepsy were studied: Mean SD age 25.94.3 years, Confidence Interval
24.5 27.4). The age range was 6-80 years. 143 (47.2%) were males, 160 (52.8%) were females. Seroprevalence
of T. solium was 5 (1.7%) and 28 (9.2%) by antigen/antibody-ELISA respectively and for Western blot assay 14
(4.6), while CT-scan lesions, suggestive of neurocysticercosis was 8 (2.6%). Associations between factors were
analyzed using multiple logistic regression to obtain prevalence, odds ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals.
Pork meat consumption/positive western blots, local antigen were 8 (2.6%) OR 2.01 (95%CI; 0.68-5.97), Eat fried
pork meat 7 (2.3) OR 1.36 (95%CI; 0.46-3.99), Wash hands before eat 13 (4.3%) OR 0.17 (95%CI; 0.02-1.4), Drink
boiled water 14 (4.6), OR 0.05 (95%CI; 0.03-0.08), Tap water 14 (4.6%) OR 0.05 (95%CI; 0.03-0.08), Pig keeping
1 (0.3%) OR 3.63 (95%CI; 0.41-32.4), Pig slaughter 2 (0.7%) OR 10.64 (95%CI; 1.74-65.14), Latrine use 14 (4.6%)
OR 0.31(95%CI; 0.13-0.34)
Conclusion: The finding indicates that NCC has prevalent among people living in Kinondoni district.
Immunodiagnosis can be used as an alternative method for screening NCC in endemic areas. This study suggests
the need for further studies in order to design and implement effective prevention and control measures for
neurocysticercosis.

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21.004
Prevalence and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in bovine calves and its implication in children
around Jimma, Ethiopia
Feyissa Begna, Klaas Frankena
This study was conducted on Cryptosporidium species, a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution and
vast host range. These organisms are known as causal agents of cryptosporidiosis in young animals and humans.
Clinical cryptosporidiosis is more common in immunocompromised individuals. Most clinical cases are presenting
diarrhea.
A cross-sectional study was carried out in several cattle farming systems in Jimma town, Ethiopia, and its vicinity
districts with the objective to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocyst-shedding and the associated
risk factors for its distribution and assess its zoonotic implication in farming society of the study area. Districts
and households were selected by convenience. Calves, less than or equal to 2 years, within herd were selected
by simple random sampling if more than 3 eligible animals were present; elsewise all calves were sampled.
Households calves were included from house to house. Stool samples were also taken from household members.
A total of 391 fecal samples of calves were collected which were processed on the day of sampling to examine the
presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Modified (cold Kinyoun) acid-fast staining was performed to increase the
optical contrast and to counter stain yeasts.
The overall point prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocyst shedding was 143/391 (36.6% 95% CI: 31.8 - 41.3). All
herds (n=15) sampled had at least one positive sample. For statistical analysis the risk factors like age, sex, breed,
body condition scores, multi-age mix, multi-species mix, consistence of feces, fecal color, farming system, floor
type, feed and drinking water sources, hygiene factors, medication history and presence or absence of clinical
case were considered. Age of the calves was the most important risk factor for shedding oocysts (P=0.003). Very
young age (<6 months) was significantly associated with oocyst excretion (OR=1.94) followed by middle age calves
(6-12months) (OR=1.12) compared to older (>12months). Medication history was also a significant risk factor.
Calves not treated for diarrhea showed highly increased odds of oocyst excretion (OR=6.01). Other variables
were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The prevalence of oocyst shedding in stool of children of the farmers
amounted to 20% (4/20). This result calls for further work to be done using molecular typing of Cryptosporidium
in the area and assess the risk of calves to children and immunocompromised individuals.
Key words: Cryptosporidium, prevalence, risk factors, bovine calf, children

21.005
Prevalence of bovine brucellosis and associated risks factors in cattle of Rwempasha and
Karangazi sectors, Nyagatare district-Rwanda
J.P Mushayija1, MM. Mapendo2, R. Muvunyi 1, J. Kagarama1and R.Manishimwe1
Department of Veterinary medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda Nyagatare-Campus.
P.O. Box 57-Nyagatare, Rwanda
2
Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Resources and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of
Rwanda Nyagatare-Campus, P.O. Box 57-Nyagatare, Rwanda
1

Bovine brucellosis is a highly contagious bacterial disease with a significant hindrance to the economic potential
of cattle production. The main objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of Bovine
brucellosis and associated risk factors in cattle of Rwempasha and karangazi sectors of Nyagatare district. A
total of 203 blood samples were collected from cattle of Rwempasha and Karangazi sectors. All positive tested
samples with Rose Bengal plate test were confirmed by Indirect-ELISA test. The results revealed that bovine
brucellosis is endemic in the cattle of Rwempasha and Karangazi sectors as the overall prevalence was 12.3%

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in the study area. The prevalence in cattle from Karangazi sector was higher than that of cattle from Rwempasha
(18.6% in Karangazi and 7.6% % in Rwempasha). A higher prevalence of Bovine brucellosis was found in female
animals (12.52.5%; 23/184). The parity was found to be the m mostly associated risk factor to the prevalence of
the disease. A higher prevalence was found in animals having 6 number of parity (50%)). Breeding method was
also found to be associated with the prevalence of the disease. The result showed that a high prevalence was
found in cattle where the owners practice the natural breeding method (17%; 19/111). However the sex and the
breed of animals were found not to be statistically associated to the prevalence of Bovine brucellosis in the study
area. The c current study results confirm that the Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nyagatare district especially in
Rwempasha and Karangazi sectors. There is a need to put much emphasis on the control of the disease in order
to minimize its occurrence.
Key points: Brucella, Breeding method, Abortion, Repeated breeding, Infertility, Parity.

21.006
Study on prevalence and assesement community awareness of bovine tuberculosis in and
around Mizan Tefferi, Southern Ethiopia
Kassaw Amssalu1, Assamench Girma 2, Hagos Asgdom3, Elsabeth Solomon 1, Zewdu Dagnew2
Mekelle University, College of veterinary medicine, Mekelle, Ethiopia
Mizan Teferi, veterinary regional Laboratory, Mizan Tefrei, Ethiopia
3
National animal health diagnostic center, Sebeta, Ethiopia
1
2

Background:
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is important zoonotic disease of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. Mizan Teferi town and its
surrounding is one of the areas of southern Ethiopia where small scale diary production is commonly practiced.
However the prevalence of BTB and associated risk factor in the area in is not well documented. Therefore the
study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine tuberculosis and to assess
the awareness of livestock owners about the disease.
Methods:
A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014 at Mizan Tefferi and its surroundings. A
total of 384 cows were selected by simple random sampling technique and tested using comparative intradermal
tuberculin. In addition, 52 households were interviewed using semi structured questionnaire.
Result:
The overall prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was 2.3%. Risk factors like; Herd size (X2 = 8.833, P = 0.001), body
condition (X2 = 10.31, P = 0.007), presence of coughing animal in the herd (X2 = 139.36, P = 0.0001) and farming
system (X2 = 16.264, P = 0.0001) were found significantly associated with the occurrence of tuberculosis in dairy
cattle. The current study also revealed that 30.8% of the respondents have heard about tuberculosis in general,
however only 42.3 % of the respondent knew and 69.2% of the respondent did not know that BTB was transmitted
by livestock. Raw milk was consumed by 44.2% of the respondents.
Conclusions:
The results of this study suggested the importance of bovine tuberculosis in the study area and signify the
importance of collaboration between the smallholder farmers, medical and veterinary professional to evaluate
control the disease.
Key words: Comparative Intradermal tuberculin test, Mizan Teferi, Prevalence, risk factors, Tuberculosis

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21.007
Assessment of Zoonotic Disease Surveillance systems at the human-domestic and wildlife
Interface in Kilosa district and Mikumi NP, Tanzania: A Case Study of Rabies
Jairos Mdegela1, Maulilio J. Kipanyula2, Innocent B. Rwego3, 4 , Samuel George Okech5
Department of Biosecurity, Ecosystem and Veterinary Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
3
College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
4
Ecosystem Health Division, University of Minnesota, MN, USA
5
School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
1
2

Background
The human-domestic and wildlife animal interface is globally expanding and poses threats to both humans,
animals and the environment. Surveillance of diseases and conditions in wildlife might exhaust the answers
needed to bridge the gap in the epidemiology of novel zoonotic pathogens. Rabies is such an example and an
endemic neglected disease in Tanzania that provides a good example to study surveillance systems that can be
used jointly be done by the different three sectors.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kilosa District and Mikumi National Park. Semi Structured Interview to
collect data from District Medical and Veterinary Officers and the Mikumi National Park Veterinary Officer using
CDC guideline for evaluating disease surveillance systems. Focus Group Discussions were conducted for policymakers and questionnaires administered to rural and urban community members.
Results
A total of 354 people from rural (Kiduhi, Twatwatwa villages; n = 70) and urban (Mikumi town; n = 284) areas
were interviewed. There were similarities in surveillance structures between human and animal sectors but with
poor timeliness, poor representativeness of data (surveillance system coverage) and no collaboration among
sectors in collecting and sharing of data. Majority of respondents from communities (84%) had knowledge about
Rabies. Approximately 40% of the respondents prefer to report suspected Rabies cases to local leaders. Urban
respondents were more likely to report suspected Rabies cases to local leaders, vet officers, police, dog owners, or
to hospital (p <0.000). Respondents in communities would either report to the local leaders (34.2%) or kill (33.9%)
wildlife animals suspected to be sick or misbehaving. Respondents from the rural areas were more likely to kill
Rabies suspected cases of domestic and wildlife animals rather than reporting to authorities (p <0.000). Most
respondents (64.4%) reported to hospital when humans were bitten by a dog or animal and respondents from the
rural area were more likely to do so (p <0.00).
Conclusion
The study shows gaps on quality of data collected using existing surveillance systems. Rabies endemicity might
be exacerbated by wildlife scavengers feeding on thrown away carcasses and/or maintained by wild carnivores.
The weak surveillance can be strengthened if different sectors shared information and surveillance systems for
zoonotic diseases.

21.008
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices regarding Rabies and One Health Approach among General
practitioners of Quetta City Balochistan Pakistan
Ehsan Ahmed, Zubair Khosa, Aamir Baig
Pakistan FELTP
Introduction: Rabies in is highly fatal zoonotic disease in human and transmitted by animal bites. Pakistan has
highest number of deaths due to rabies, ironically a disease preventable by modern prophylactic measures.

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Zoonoses constitute 868 (61%) of all known infectious diseases, 75% of infections considered emerging are
zoonoses. Developed nations have national programmes; adjoining One Health concept to combat zoonoses,
whereas inadequacies exist in developing nations. Post-exposure prophylaxis is a life-saving treatment in a
definite rabid animal bite. General Practitioners (GPs) act as first line care-givers for treatment of animal bite and
they are also easily approachable by the victim for rabies treatment.
Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices regarding rabies and One Health approach among general
practitioners.
Methodology:A cross sectional study was conducted in Quetta City from MarchMay 2015 among general
practitioners using a semi structured tested questionnaire. Study population was composed of 270 GPs. Data
was entered and analyzed using Epi Info 7.1 version. Frequencies were tabulated for demographic variables and
association between variables was tested using Chi-square test.
Results:Out of total 270 general practitioners, 223 were male and 47 female doctors. Mean age of GPs was 39
years. Mean duration of practice was 16.6 years. Majority (81%) of GPs knew cause of rabies, but only 31% knew
about incubation period. Only 41% GPs had appropriate knowledge about first line treatment. 71% GPs had
knowledge about types of anti-rabies vaccine and only 26% knew about anti-rabies serum. 9% knows about
WHO wound classification for animal bites. Only 3.6% knows Multi-sectorial (One Health) approach for Rabies.
19% knows about dog licensing rules. 31% know about dog vaccination.
Conclusion: Knowledge about various aspects of rabies was comparatively better among GPs. Knowledge
regarding vaccine and One Health approach was very poor among GPs. Main issue was lack awareness and training
or updating knowledge of GPs regarding wound management, vaccines and their administration. We recommend
continued medical education on prevention of Rabies and one health approach and framework. A successful One
Health programme should be implemented in Pakistan in environment with strong political will, evidence-based
policy innovations, clearly defined roles and responsibilities of agencies, coordination mechanisms at all levels,
and a culture of open information exchange.
Keywords: Knowledge, Rabies, One Health, General Practitioners

21.009
Recent Serological Evidence of the Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Virus in Select Areas in Uganda
Ndumu Deo, 3Winyi Kaboyo, 1Mugabi Kenneth, 1Mwebe Robert, 4Meunier Natascha, 1Martin Esau, 1 Rutebarika
Chris and 2Downing Robert
1

Division of Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) P. O. Box 213,
Entebbe.
2
Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) P. O. Box 49, Entebbe.
3
Veterinary Public Health Division, Ministry of Health, P. O. Box 7272, Kampala.
4
Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU
Corresponding Author: Deo B. Ndumu: Email: ndumudb@gmail.com, Tel: +256-751902283
1

Although there is no official record of a Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreak in Uganda, previous studies have shown
serological evidence of the disease. In fact the Smithburn Modified Live Virus Vaccine (SMLVV) is made from
isolates obtained from the Semuliki Forest in Uganda way back in 1944.
Recently too, sero-survey results for RVF in some select areas in Uganda have shown evidence of antibodies to the
RVFV in the cattle and shoats populations. The districts studied include Hoima, Masindi and Kibaale.
Sera specimen were analyzed using an inhibition Elisa and test results show a study prevalence of 18.6% (12.526.7%) in cattle population and 2.3% (0.4-12.1%) in the shoats population. District study prevalences were
12.1% (4.8-27.3%), 10.0% (2.8-30.1%), and 25.0% (15.8-37.2%) in cattle in the districts of Hoima, Kibaale and
Masindi respectively. In shoats the district study prevalence in Masindi was 3.1% (0.5-15.7%) while no antibodies
could be detected in Hoima district.

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Further, during the investigation of the then undiagnosed illness of 2011 in Agago and Kitgum districts, that
turned out to be Yellow Fever; a RVF antibody sero-prevalence of 4.7% (1.3-15.5%) was detected in the cattle
sampled while that in the shoats population in Agago district was 9.4% (3.2-24.2%). Both IgG and IgM antibodies
to the RVF virus were detected at the time. These findings are synonymous to occurrence of disease during the
inter-epizootic periods in countries experiencing cyclic outbreaks.
Additionally, this data points to the need for a One Health based surveillance in the human, animal and vector
populations, for the presence of antibodies and the virus. In the vector this should be done as in an interepizootic period with predisposing factors. This might help prevent outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in Uganda.
Also, contingency plans should be developed for preparedness and response.
Key words; Rift Valley Fever, Cattle and Shoats populations, Heamorrhagic Fever Outbreak Investigation and
Response, One Health.

21.010
Occurrence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in roadside slaughtered meat along the
Lyantonde- Mbarara Highway, Uganda
Nasaka, J1, Masembe, C2, Rwego, B. I3
Makerere University, Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
E-mail: njoelia@vetmed.mak.ac.ug Tel: +256772 585312
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
(MTC). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of BTB in roadside slaughtered cattle along
the Lyantonde - Mbarara Highway and risk factors that may predispose the consumers to BTB. Ninety seven (97)
suspicious tuberculosis meat samples were collected and cultured on both solid and liquid media for 8 weeks.
Speciation was done using PCR genomic deletion (Regions of difference) analysis and the HAIN Life science
Genotype Mycobacterium (CM and AS) kits. One hundred and twenty respondents purposively selected, were
interviewed using structured questionnaires. Overall, (13/97; 13.4%) of the samples tested positive for TB on
culture media and out the 13, (7/13; 53.8%) were positive for MTC while the rest (6/13; 46.2%) tested positive
for Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. bovis was approximately 4.12% and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis was 2.1%. The majority of respondents (101/120); 84% associated cough in animals and humans
as the main symptom of tuberculosis. Bovine tuberculosis transmission routes to humans identified included
contact with TB patients (23/120; 19%) and eating meat from a TB infected animal (5/120; 4.2%). Only 9%
(11/120) respondents wore protective gear at the abattoirs and butcher shops. Negative attitudes towards meat
condemnation due to BTB, normal association with TB patients and shallow roasting or undercooking meat on
sticks may predispose consumers to BTB and human TB pathogens hence a need for vigilant meat inspection and
sensitization programs to safeguard the health of the general public.
Key words: Bovine tuberculosis, occurrence, risk factors and roadside meat

21.011
Rabies and community risk factors in a human-animal interface in Kilosa District, Tanzania
(2015)
Bakari G.G1, Lyimo S.S.2, Mamuya S.2, Moshiro C., Mdegela R.H.1, Killewo, J.2
1
2

Faculty of veterinary Medicine.


School of Public Health and Social Sciences.

Increased animal-human interactions coupled with poor human and animal health service delivery systems
including disease surveillance have led to increased transmission and perpetuation of emerging and re-emerging
communicable diseases. Prevention of emerging and re-emerging communicable diseases is very crucial through

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early detection and response to disease threats using multidisciplinary approach particularly in areas where
human- animal interaction is high. Therefore this study assessed the risk factors associated with zoonotic diseases
using a multidisciplinary approach in Kilosa One Health demonstration site.
The study was conducted at Kilosa which was selected as the demonstration site for One Health issues. Seven
villages were selected from three wards based on the experienced challenges of the human, animal, environmental
interface bordering Mikumi National park. A total of 37 students, (19 from SUA and 18 from MUHAS) were involved
during the period of four (4) weeks for the attachment. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to
collect data which were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Wealth index was calculated using dimension
reduction method on variables of household assets and utilities, land and cattle ownership. Categorical variables
were analyzed in terms of proportions and measures of association were analyzed by cross tabulation where Chi
square test and P-values less than 0.05 were used for statistical significance. Ethical clearance was obtained from
the MUHAS ethical committee.
A total of 1076 households were visited from three divisions; four wards and 7 villages. The commonly reported
human diseases in the study area were; Malaria 825(76.7%), respiratory diseases 200(18.6%), diarrhea 106(9.9%),
eye infections 61(5.7%) and TB 33(3.1%). Diseases affecting domestic animals (cattle) were respiratory conditions
- 31.7%; east coast fever - 17.8%; trypanosomiasis - 22.1%; and skin conditions 22.1%. The pattern of infections
was similar but lower for both goats and sheep. The diseases reported among dogs were rabies 412(38.3%),
worms 40(3.7%), skin conditions 27(2.5%) and venereal diseases 12(1.1%). The study found Rabies to be most
frequently reported among the poorest community members as compared to the richest ones (P value <0.001);
and was also found to be more frequently reported among the Maasai 267(68.5%) community from two villages
of Twatwatwa and Kiduhi. In addition, reported rabies vaccination of dogs was directly proportional to the wealth
in the community such that the poorest were less likely to vaccinate their animals than the richest (P value =
0.001). It appears that rabies is a risk marker of zoonosis in human and animals interface. Therefore immunization
campaigns and community awareness raising on its importance should be the mainstay for disease prevention.
Keywords: One Health, Socioeconomic status, Rabies, Kilosa District

21.012
Transmission and malacological survey on Schistosomiasis mansoni: Direction for One Health
intervention approach
Nigus Abebe, Nega Berhe, Berhanu Erko, Girmay Medhin
Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Medicine, P.O.Box 2084, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia E-mail: nigabeshu@
yahoo.com
Schistosomiasis, caused by digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, is most prevalent water related
disease that cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Although Prevalence of infection in school children
is documented in various part of the country, information is scarce at a community level on the epidemiology
of infection in the study area. Therefore, a community based cross sectional study was conducted from
December 2011 to March 2012 to determine the prevalence of S.mansoni and find out if active transmission of
schistosomiasis exists in Waja-Timuga, Northern Ethiopia. A total of 371 randomly selected participants were
included in the study. A pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collect socio-demographic data and
associated risk factors of S.mansoni infection. Fresh stool samples were collected from study participants and
processed by kato-katz method for examination. Snail survey was conducted in human water contact site and
was checked for schistosome cercariae and schistosomiasis transmission was established using laboratory bred
mice. Analysis was done using STATA 11 statistical software. P-value <0.05 was reported as statistical significant.
The present study revealed that the overall prevalence and mean intensity of S.mansoni infection in the study
population was 73.85% and 234 EPG, respectively. Bathing and washing clothes in the river had high risk of
acquiring the infection (p<0.001). Of the collected snail species, 77.4% were Biomphalaria pfeifferi with 5.42% of
natural infection shedding schistosome cercariae. Eggs as well as adult S.mansoni were harvested from enmass

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infected laboratory bred mice, confirming existence of active schistosomiasis transmission. In conclusion, the
high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and natural infection shedding schistosome cercariae from
the snails observed in the study area calls for a periodic deworming program to reduce disease transmission.
Preventive chemotherapy complemented with other control measures is highly required for sustainable control
of schistosomiasis in the study area where ONE HEALTH intervention approach will play a great role.
Key words: Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Schistosoma mansoni, Waja-Timuga, Ethiopia

21.013
A survey of cystic echinococcosis and hydatidosis in the pastoralist production system in
Karamoja region, Uganda
F.O. Inangolet1, B.A. Demelash1 , J.Lemukol 2 , T.Teko2, E.Skjerve1
Norwegian School of Veterinary Medicine
Napak District Local Government
Corresponding Author: drinangolet@yahoo.com
1
2

Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococccus spp and is one of the most important helminthic
diseases worldwide. In Karamoja region the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in the dog population was
recorded to be 66.3% (F.O. Inangolet et al 2007). Cystic Echinoccocosis (CE) is highly endemic among the nomadic
pastoralists of Karamoja region in Uganda. A recent hospital records among the Karimojong community has shown
an average of 20 surgical cases of CE all the hospitals in Karamoja (Siefert et al 1999). This condition is rare
amongst the agricultural based communities of Uganda. These findings indicate that CE is a Public Health and
economic problem in the pastoralist production system of Karamoja in Uganda.
In an attempt to establish the epidemiology of CE, a study was conducted between March 2011 and December
2012 in a 19-month period in six districts of Karamoja region of Uganda. During the study period all the slaughter
slabs and slaughterhouses were visited. A total of 5105 goats, 4675 sheep, 1006 cattle, 612 donkeys and 112
Camels which had been slaughtered had their internal organs (liver, lungs, spleens and hearts) examined for the
presence cysts responsible for CE. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association between the
prevalence of disease in the livestock and the different risk factors and the number of CE human surgical cases in
the different hospitals in the region
It was found that 0.9% of camels, 0.4% of donkeys, 28.6% of sheep, 22.5% of goats and 18.7% of cattle were
infected with the disease. The prevalence of CE was higher in the wetter areas compared to the drier areas. The
number of cysts per animal also increased with age, with the oldest animals having the largest number of cysts.
Geographical locations, environmental conditions, age, sex, grazing patterns, livestock stocking intensity,
civil strife and dog populations were observed to have effects on prevalence. We observed also here that the
pastoralist production system had a significant impact on sheep and goat prevalence and those pastoralists were
at a higher risk of being infected. This paper discusses strategies that could be used to control CE given the
enormous challenges associated with the pastoralist production system in Karamoja region and how the ONE
HEALTH APPROACH could be a promising solution to this very difficult Public Health Problem.
Keywords. Echinoccocus granulosus, Echinoccocosis, pastoralist production system, Karamoja, epidemiology,
public health importance, Uganda

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21.014
Prevalence of cattle and human hydatidosis in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia
Daniel Dana1, Zeleke Mekonnen1, Sultan Suleman2, Netsanet Workneh3, Desalegn Massa4 , Tsegabirhan
Kifleyohannes5 , Bruno Levecke6
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Pathology, College of Health Science, Jimma University
Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University
3
Department of Pediatrics, College of Health science, Jimma University
4
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University
5
College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle University
6
Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University
1
2

Background:
Cystic hydatidosis is an emerging and re-emerging neglected tropical parasitic disease caused by E.granulosus.
Even though high prevalence of animal cystic hydatidosis reported from different studies in Ethiopia, the
epidemiology of the disease in human is not well investigated. Due to the lack of control programs in Jimma
districts, there could be higher prevalence of the disease among the animal and human population. Therefore, we
investigated the epidemiology of human and cattle hydatidosis in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.
Methods:
An abattoir based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 389 cattle slaughtered in Jimma Town municipal
abattoir from December, 2014 February, 2015. During antemortem examination, any acute illness, geographical
origin of the cattle, body condition, breed and age of the cattle were determined. During postmortem examination,
organs suspected for hydatid cysts were inspected by visual, palpation and incision. Fertility and viability of the
hydatid cyst was determined by microscopic examination.
Moreover, a community based cross-sectional survey was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence human
hydatidosis in 348 randomly selected participants living in the proximity to Jimma Town municipal abattoir.
Sociodemographic variables of the study participants were determined by semi-structured questionnaire
and sero-status of hydatidosis was determined by detecting anti-E.granulosus serum antibody by indirect
haemagglutination.
Results:
The overall prevalence of hydatid cyst among the cattle slaughtered in Jimma Town municipal abattoir was 52.9%
(206/389).Among different organs inspected for hydatid cyst, lung is the major affected organ 71.8% (148/206)
.From the total of 206 hydatid cysts detected, 29.6% (61/206) was fertile, 45.6% (94/206) sterile and 24.75%
(51/206) calcified. From the fertile cysts, 67.2% (41/61) were viable.
The sero-prevalence of human hydatidosis among the study participants was 9.5% (33/348). Dog ownership
showed statistically significant association with E.granulosus infection (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:
The prevalence rate of cystic hydatidosis in the study area is higher than majorities of previous reports from
Ethiopia and increasing trend of prevalence observed when compared to previous reports in Jimma Town. Since
the majorities of fertile cysts are viable, there will be high probability of disease transmission to the dogs and other
canids feeding infected offals. There is an evidence of human cystic hydatidosis among the participants living in
the proximity to the Jimma Town municipality abattoir. Dog ownership showed statistically significant association
with E.granulosus infection. An integrated prevention and control strategies from different stakeholders and
professionals by one health approaches are crucial to tackle the human and cattle hydatidosis.

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21.015
Cysticercosis and epilepsy in Bandjoun - west region of Cameroon
Domngang Noche C1, Kamdem Kamga Thierry 1, Moyou Somo R 2, Kaptue L1.
Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Universit des Montagnes, Bangangt, Cameroon
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Universit de Yaound 1, Cameroon

1
2

Background:
Cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Taenia solium cysts following ingestion of poorly cooked pork meat
or bad sanitation practices. It is the most frequent cause of adult-acquired epilepsy worldwide. Despite little
information about its etiologies, epilepsy is described to be common in many parts of Cameroon, such as the
West region. Therefore, the present work was to determine the prevalence of cysticercosis and that of Taenia
solium within a population of Famla II in the West region Cameroon.
Materials and methods:
A descriptive study was conducted in Famla II (6376 inhabitants) from January through September 2014. I Famla 2
is located in the health district of Bandjoun (West region of Cameroon). In this area, pigs are raised as a food source
and very often, they are in close proximity to houses. The target population consisted of families in which people
suffering of epilepsy could be identified. Blood samples were collected from participants fulfilling the inclusion
criteria. Indirect ELISA test for immunoglobulin detection (RIDASCREEN Tnia solium IgG of r- biopharm) on sera
was carried out in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis.
Results:
A total of 93 participants was included in the study (53 men and 40 women; sex ratio M / F = 1.3) and the average
age recorded was 43 20 years (range: 7 - 80 years). About 51.6% (48/93) of participants were epiletic (average
age: 31 13 years). Taenia solium antibodies were detected in 16.1% of cases (males: 13.2%; females: 20%).
Within the epileptic and non-epileptic groups, they were respectively found in 22.9% [11/48] and 8.9% [4/45] of
cases, [p=0.06].

21.016
In-vitro Antibacterial Activity of Acacia etbaica against Multidrug Resistant (MDR) Bacteria
Belayneh Getachew1 and Rabo Gemeda1
Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Medicine, POBOX 231, Tigray, Ethiopia
Corresponding Author: Email: belaygeta1999@yahoo.com; Mobile: +251-914158840
1

Acacia etbanica, a native plant in East African, has been used traditionally to treat various diseases of humans
and domestic animals by local communities of Ethiopia. However, study on the in-vitro antibacterial activity
of the plant against Multi drug resistant bacteria, global health challenge, is scanty. In this study, methanol
extracts of leaf of Acacia etbaica was tested to screen its In-vitro antibacterial activity against Multidrug resistant
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica using agar disc diffusion method. The Minimum
Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the plant was also determined using micro-dilution method in 96-well plates.
Acacia etbaica showed significant antibacterial activity with mean zone of inhibition of 16.9(0.80) mm,
14.91(0.44) mm and 14.39(0.17) mm in diameter at a concentration of 1000g of plant extract per disc against
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica respectively. The MIC of the crude extracts of the
plant was determined to be 0.03mg/ml, 0.01mg/ml and 0.05mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia
coli and Salmonella respectively. The results suggest that methanol extracts of Acacia etbaica could be a rich
source of antibacterial compounds against Multidrug Resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and
Salmonella enterica. Further studies are recommended to identify and purify the active compounds of the plant
against resistant bacteria. Studies using different extractor on different parts of the plant are also recommended.
Key words: Acacia etbaica, E.coli, S.aureus, S. enterica, Minimum inhibitory concentration

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21.017
Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antibiotics, their use and resistance among the
public community in Rwanda
Manishimwe Rosine1, Zeynudin Ahmed3, Musafiri Sanctus2, Mushayija Jean Paul1, Mushimiyimana Kelly1, Umuhire
Odile 1, Nshimirimana Emmanual1, Mdegela Robison4
University of Rwanda, College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine-Rwanda
University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences- Rwanda
3
imma University- Ethiopia
4
Sokoine University of Agriculture - Tanzania
1
2

Background:
Emergence of antibiotic resistance (ATBR) is a public health challenge worldwide and it is associated with
inappropriate use of antibiotic. In Rwanda, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of the public
regarding antibiotic (ATB) use and resistance in humans and animals in not well known. The purpose of this study
is to determine the current baseline information on the above mentioned KAP in the country.
Methods:
A Cross-sectional survey was conducted in the five provinces of Rwanda. Using questionnaires, 226 adults were
interviewed about antibiotics use in humans and 229 farmers were interviewed about antibiotics use in farm
animals. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Depending on if the given responses were correct or false, KAP were
classified into low, moderate and high level.
Results:
Regarding the KAP of antibiotic use and resistance in humans, it was found that 93.4% respondents (211/226)
had some knowledge about antibiotics though most of them had a moderate level of knowledge (90.5%).
Penicillin was highly known (91.6%) while, Gentamicin was not (14.6%). About 64.5% (136/211) of respondents
agreed that antibiotics are effective against bacteria. Among 174 respondents who reported to have used ATB,
self medication was noticed in 28 (16.1%) respondents. The level of practices was high in most of respondents
(56.9%). ATBR was recognized by 32.23% (68/211) of respondents and most of them (70.6%) had a moderate
level of knowledge on ATBR. Concerning the KAP of antibiotic use and resistance in farm animals, it was noticed
that 99.1% (227/229) of farmers had some knowledge on antibiotics used in animals and many of them had a
moderate level of knowledge (66.5%). Peni-streptomycin was highly known (94.63%) while, Gentamicin was not
(26.2%). About 66.5% (151/227) of farmers agreed that antibiotics are effective against. The use of antibiotics
as growth promoters was reported by 26.5% (59/223). Most of farmers (69.1%) had a moderate level of practices
regarding antibiotics use in farm animals. It was noticed that 49.7% (113/227) of farmers reported that they were
aware of ATBR though, few of them had a high level of knowledge regarding ATBR.
Conclusion:
The level of KAP of the public regarding ATB use and resistance in humans and animals is moderate. Hence this
implies a non negligible risk of ATBR increase in the country. One health approach should be used to tackle and
limit the expansion the challenge in the country.

21.018
Antibiogram of Escherichia coli strains isolated from food of Bovine origin in selected Woredas
of Tigray, Ethiopia
Abebe M1**, Hailelule A 2, Abrha B2 , Nigus A 2, Genene T3 ,Daniel H2, Getachew G2 , Adane H4 , and Haftay A 2
Arsi University , College of Health Sciences,
Mekelle University, College of Veterinary Medicine
3
Institute of Biodiversity, Addis Ababa
4
. Wachamo University
1
2

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Corresponding author email: abebemekuria28@yahoo.com, Phone no: +251912260385


Background: Escherichia coli is food borne pathogen causing a major public health problems. The use of
antimicrobials in food animals creates resistant bacteria.
Objectives: To determine antibiogram of E.coli species isolated from food of Bovine origin
Method: A total of 384 of Milk samples (n=192) and meat samples (n=192) were collected different sources in
1:1 ratio in selected Woredas of Tigray, Ethiopia. Then cultured on sheep blood agar and sub-cultured on Eosin
Methylene and further sub-cultured on Biolog Universal growth Agar(BUG media). Pure colonies were taken
and suspension was made and inoculated into micro plates. The identified bacteria were identified by BiOLOG
Identification system Antimicrobial resistance of E.coli isolates was done by disk diffusion method using twenty
antimicrobials and Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for resistant isolates .
Results: The study revealed that out of 384 samples of milk and meat samples, 10.4% E.coli 0157:H7, E.coli, 2.6%
Non 157 STEC and 10.7% E.coli enterotoxigenic were isolated. Antibiogram pattern of total E.coli isolates(n=91)
revealed high resistance against cephalothin (84.6%), Chloroamphenicol (83.3%), tetracycline(88.9%),
gentamicin(65.9%) whereas low resistance for sulphoxazole-trimethoprim (16.5%), Neomycin(15.4%),
streptomycin(29.7%), Kanamycin(30.8%), Ciprofloxacin(10%), Nitrofurantoine(3.3%), Norfloxon(3.3%),and
Ciftriaxone (9.9%). Multidrug resistance observed in 82(93.2%) of E.coli species.
Conclusion: The high prevalence E.coli 0157:H7 and E.coli enterotoxigenic and high rates of multiple drug resistance
there is a need for timely designing of prevention and control strategies
Keywords: Antimicrobial, E.coli, Meat, Milk,

21.019
Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw milk collected from households in four agro-ecological
zones in Kenya
Sirma AJ1,2, Senerwa DM1,2, Lindahl, JF1, Makita, K1,3, Kangethe EK 2, Grace, D1
Food Safety and Zoonosis Unit, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya
Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053-00625, Nairobi,
Kenya
3
School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai Midorimachi, Ebetsu, 069-8501, Japan
* Corresponding author: Anima J Sirma; a.sirma@cgiar.org ; janimsy@gmail.com
1
2

Milk is a very important commodity in Kenya. In East Africa, Kenya has the largest dairy herd and highest per
capita milk consumption. Milk can have contaminants such as drug residues, pesticide residues, heavy metals,
and biological toxins such as aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). AFM1 is a metabolite excreted by lactating cows following
consumption of feed contaminated with aflatoxins. This metabolite is harmful to human and animal health. Kenya
has experienced multiple aflatoxicosis outbreaks in recent years, and several surveys have reported high levels of
contamination in maize. This survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of AFM1 in milk from four agroecological zones in Kenya (semi-arid, temperate, sub-humid and humid). In 2014, we surveyed 286 households
in 37 villages and in each household administered a questionnaire and collected milk samples. In all, 280 milk
samples were analyzed using competitive ELISA. The limit of detection was 2 parts per trillion (ppt). Overall, 32
per cent of samples had aflatoxin between 2 ppt and 50 ppt while 9 per cent exceeded the WHO/FAO limit of 50
ppt; 59% of samples were below the level of detection. Milk from humid zone had the highest percent (25%) of
samples testing above limits.
Keywords: Aflatoxins, livestock, dairy, East Africa

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21.020
Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus species isolated in cheese from different markets of
Kigali City
Kizito Nishimwe*, Jean Claude Nizeyimana* and Marie Fausta Dutuze*
*School of veterinary medicine, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine University of
Rwanda
Background: Staphylococcus sp have been associated with food-borne diseases and potent zoonosis with the
main source of contamination improper handling of cooked or processed foods. They can also be present in
animal products and dairy products particularly if affected by subclinical mastitis, are likely contaminants of milk.
The mastitis treatment requires the usage of different classes of antibiotics. The same classes of antibiotics are
used in human health management. Their indiscrimination and mismanagement have led to the development of
resistance with ineffective treatment. Milk and dairy products present an excellent bacteriological medium for
bacteria growth particularly Staphylococcus sp. The main objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial
resistance of different staphylococcal species isolated from cheese to various antimicrobial agents from different
markets of Kigali City.
Methods: Forty five samples of cheese were randomly collected from different shops in Kigali city and dispatched
to Rubilizi National Veterinary Laboratory for microbial evaluation of different staphylococcal species and their
drug sensitivity test. Isolation of different species of bacteria were carried out by using Bair Parker agar, the
Mueller-Hinton Agar and API Staph system identification. The antibiogram test has been conducted by using
diffusion plate method and identify strains resistant to different antibiotics of five groups namely penicillin
(penicillin G, oxacillin), tetracycline (tetracycline), chloramphenicol (chloramphenicol), macrolides (erythromycin)
and aminoglycosides (gentamicin, streptomycin).
Results: Sixteen strains have been isolated belonging in 4 species with 43.75%, 31.25%, 18.75% and 6.25% for
Staphylococcus aureus, S. xylosus, S. lentus, and S. caprae respectively. The most staphylococcal strains tested were
resistant to six of seven antibiotic tested (100%) but slightly sensitive to gentamicin with 28%. Only two isolates
of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to gentamicin.
Conclusion: Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections.
The misuse of antimicrobial agents may cause problems in infections therapy by promoting resistance among
pathogenic bacteria not only in animal but also in human health management. In this study, all Staphylococcus
strains identified have multi-drug resistant to the antibiotics tested except gentamycin which show to be slightly
sensitive. This is a critical situation as antibio-resistance is a major public health concern. These finding suggest
that more researches are needed for a better understanding of antibio-resistance context in Rwanda.

21.021
Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus species isolated in cheese from different markets
of Kigali City
Kizito Nishimwe*, Jean Claude Nizeyimana* and Marie Fausta Dutuze*
*School of veterinary medicine, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine University of
Rwanda
Background
Staphylococcus sp have been associated with food-borne diseases and potent zoonosis with the main source of
contamination improper handling of cooked or processed foods. They can also be present in animal products
and dairy products particularly if affected by subclinical mastitis, are likely contaminants of milk. The mastitis
treatment requires the usage of different classes of antibiotics. The same classes of antibiotics are used in human
health management. Their indiscrimination and mismanagement have led to the development of resistance with

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ineffective treatment. Milk and dairy products present an excellent bacteriological medium for bacteria growth
particularly Staphylococcus sp. The main objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial resistance of
different staphylococcal species isolated from cheese to various antimicrobial agents from different markets of
Kigali City.
Methods
Forty five samples of cheese were randomly collected from different shops in Kigali city and dispatched to
Rubilizi National Veterinary Laboratory for microbial evaluation of different staphylococcal species and their
drug sensitivity test. Isolation of different species of bacteria were carried out by using Bair Parker agar, the
Mueller-Hinton Agar and API Staph system identification. The antibiogram test has been conducted by using
diffusion plate method and identify strains resistant to different antibiotics of five groups namely penicillin
(penicillin G, oxacillin), tetracycline (tetracycline), chloramphenicol (chloramphenicol), macrolides (erythromycin)
and aminoglycosides (gentamicin, streptomycin).
Results
Sixteen strains have been isolated belonging in 4 species with 43.75%, 31.25%, 18.75% and 6.25% for
Staphylococcus aureus, S. xylosus, S. lentus, and S. caprae respectively. The most staphylococcal strains tested were
resistant to six of seven antibiotic tested (100%) but slightly sensitive to gentamicin with 28%. Only two isolates
of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to gentamicin.
Conclusion: Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections.
The misuse of antimicrobial agents may cause problems in infections therapy by promoting resistance among
pathogenic bacteria not only in animal but also in human health management. In this study, all Staphylococcus
strains identified have multi-drug resistant to the antibiotics tested except gentamycin which show to be slightly
sensitive. This is a critical situation as antibio-resistance is a major public health concern. These finding suggest
that more researches are needed for a better understanding of antibio-resistance context in Rwanda.

21.022
La non participation des relais communautaires aux activits des Soins de Sant Primaires. Une
analyse de droit participatif li la sant dans la Ville Province de Kinshasa/RDC
Grard Eloko Eya Matangelo
1, Jean KANGA KALEMBA VITA, Guillaume KIYOMBO MBELA 3 1. Institut Suprieur des Techniques Mdicales
de Kinshasa, Section de Sant Communautaire, 2. Facult de Psychologie et des Sciences de lEducation, 3.
Facult de Mdecine, Ecole de Sant Publique, Universit de Kinshasa.
Introduction: La participation aux activits de sant permet la population dtre acteur et donc partenaire
incontournable dans la production des soins dont elle est bnficiaire. Elle doit tre comprise comme une
dimension importante dans lamlioration de la gestion du Centre de Sant et de la qualit des soins et des
services offerts par ce dernier ainsi que celle de la couverture universelle de la population aux soins de sant.
Mthodes: Une tude descriptive transversale passage unique et analytique de droit participatif dont lenqute
sest ralise auprs de 533 relais communautaires rencontrs, soit dans 287 Centres de sant, soit dans les 35
Bureaux Centraux des Zones de Sant de la Ville-Province de Kinshasa.
Rsultats: 248 sur 533 relais communautaires, soit 46,5% des enquts savent quils ont le droit et le devoir
de participer aux activits de soins de sant primaires dans leur communaut. En plus, 244 sur 533 relais
communautaires, soit 45,8 % des sujets enquts savent quils ont un droit dgalit daccs aux soins dispenss
par les services de sant. La non participation prdominait chez ceux qui considraient leur mtier comme
exerant en qualit de bnvole que les autres (68,7% contre 31,3%). Ainsi, elle tait donc statistiquement lie
au caractre bnvole de la fonction (RR:2,1; : [1,6-2,7] ; X2=39,1 ;p=0,000). Elle tait statistiquement lie aussi
la charge du travail, la faible motivation de ce dernier, au changement de logement (X2>3,84 ; p<0,05). Cela tait
aussi statistiquement lie linjustice faite par lquipe cadre de la Zone de Sant leur gard (RR:1,5; :[1,2-1,9]
; X2=12,0 ;p=0,001).

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Discussion: Les droits la sant promouvoir taient les droits daccs aux soins essentiels, aux soins disponibles
et aux soins de qualit, les droits de choisir le fournisseur des soins, les droits linformation en matire de sant,
les droits de participer aux activits des soins de sant primaires, etc. Labandon des activits des soins de sant
primaires est li la faible motivation de ces derniers, au caractre bnvole, la charge de travail, etc.
Conclusion: Des efforts doivent tre entrepris pour un accs quitable aux services de sant offrir la
population avec leur pleine participation. La faible motivation, la non description des tches prcises, le travail
non rmunr, le manque de formation sur les droits la sant voire en Droits de lhomme, en sont la rsultante.
Mots cls: Participation, Relais Communautaire, Soins de Sant Primaires, Droit la sant.

21.023
Knowledge and Practices Related to Dog Rabies Vaccination at Household Level in a Community
with High Burden of Dog Bites in Kenya- 2013
Gerald Mucheru1&3, Gideon Kikuvi2, Samuel Amwayi3, Mark Obonyo1&3, Jane Githuku1&3
Field Epidemiology and Lab Training Program (FELTP), Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya,
College of Health Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi,
3
Kenya Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya
1
2

Background: An estimated 55,000 people die from rabies annually. Factors promoting dog vaccination, estimates
of vaccination coverage and knowledge on rabies are important for effective rabies control. We sought to establish
these estimates at household (HH) level and whether rabies knowledge is associated with proper rabies control
practices.
Methods: Cross-sectional cluster survey with two-stage sampling employed in Kakamega County to enroll 390
HH members >18 years. We used a structured questionnaire with a set of questions related to rabies knowledge
and practice to score participant response. Analysis was done using Epi Info version 7.0. Score above the sample
mean was equated to adequate knowledge and proper practices respectively. We used independent t-test
to evaluate the differences of sample mean scores based on dog vaccination status and bivariate analysis to
associate knowledge to practices.
Results: Three hundred and ninety HHs enrolled with a population of 754 dogs. Dog owning HH were 338 and out
of this, only 35 % (119/338) had vaccinated dogs within past 12 months. Overall mean score for knowledge was 7.0
2.8 SD and 6.3 1.2 SD for practice There was a statistically significant difference in mean knowledge (DF=288,
p<0.001) and practice (DF=283, p=0.001) of HH with vaccinated dogs compared to ones with unvaccinated dogs.
There were 261 (67%) participants with adequate rabies knowledge out of which 139 (80%) (OR=3.0, 95%
CI=1.4-6.8) were more likely to have proper health seeking practices and 327 (88%) (OR=5.4, 95% CI=2.7-10.6)
with proper handling practices of suspected rabid dog compared to those with inadequate knowledge.
Conclusion: Rabies vaccination was <70% recommended for herd immunity. Though the community had good
knowledge on rabies, this did not translate into proper practices.
Implications: A high dog density combined with low vaccination coverage pauses a great public health risk in the
event of a rabies outbreak.
We recommended mass rabies vaccination campaigns for dogs and more innovative ways of translating knowledge
into proper rabies control practices.
Key words: rabies, dog, vaccination, household, survey

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21.024
A Reflective Enquiry on the Initiatives toward the Prevention of Emerging Diseases in SubSaharan Africa: Tanzanian Experience
Mwakasitu, Tuhobwike (Tanzania), P.O.Box 46343, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
E-mail: tmwakasitu@gmail.com
Tanzania and the rest of Sub-Saharan African countries are experiencing the challenges created by emerging
diseases (pandemics). Given the persistence of this problem, initiatives toward its prevention have been in
place. This is a library-based research paper which aims at providing a critical and a holistic understanding of the
initiatives toward the prevention of emerging diseases in Tanzania. A critical review of existing literature including
published and non-published articles, technical reports, and proceedings from national and international
meetings has been carried-out.
Three questions are addressed in this paper: 1) what are the initiatives toward the resolution of emerging diseases
in Tanzania?; 2) are the current initiatives viable enough to overcome the challenges created by emerging
diseases?; and 3) what other initiatives can be incorporated to resolve the problem of emerging diseases?
This paper discloses that apart from the emergence of diseases such as Ebola and Flu in most of Sub-Saharan
African countries including Tanzania, measures toward their resolution have always remained the same for a long
time: the enactment of laws and policies, provision of basic health infrastructure, treatments and sensitization
campaigns. Although they seem to be good measures, there has been an increasing trend of problems and
challenges resulting from emerging diseases in Tanzania including death. Experience shows that the poorest,
often those living close with livestock and wild animals are the most vulnerable because of weak veterinary and
human public health system that fails to detect diseases and allow them to spread easily. The challenge with
these current initiatives in Tanzania are for instance high costs of drugs amidst of poverty in many of the families,
and disparities in service provision whereby urban areas are better serviced than rural areas.
Since Tanzania and the rest of Sub-Saharan African countries are still ravaged by challenges resulting from
emerging diseases, it is obvious that the current initiatives have not been effective in mitigating the problem.
Thus, this paper concludes that addressing the issue of poverty (in both rural and urban areas) would significantly
resolve the situation. However, it needs a strong back-up of political will and cross-national support.
Keywords: Emerging Diseases, Initiatives and Sub-Saharan Africa

21.025
The demographic and socioeconomic profile on one Health dimensions: A case of Kilosa District
in Tanzania
Mohamed H1, Mbunde, M.N2, Nonga, H. E3 and Batamuzi, E.K4
Department of Natural Products Development and Formulations, Institute of Traditional Medicine Muhimbili
University of Health and Allied Sciences.
1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili
University of Health and Allied Sciences.
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of
Agriculture.
4
Department of Veterinary Surgery and Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of
Agriculture.
2

Introduction: There is evidence that many complex issues like emerging and re-emerging infectious disease are
a global challenge to economic, social, health and environment that need interdisciplinary approaches to solve
them. One health is a contemporary approach to addressing environmental, human and animal health threats
resulting from their interactions.
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Objectives: The study was designed to determine the demographic and socioeconomic profiles of selected
communities in Kilosa district and their influence on animal and human health
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted across three wards in Kilosa District in Tanzania involving
heads of households from randomly selected households. Respondents were interviewed using a structured
questionnaire on issues related to demographic and socio-economic profiles as well as animal and human
health. Interviews were conducted by students having a multidisciplinary background from Sokoine University
of Agriculture and Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. Economic status was determined using
household assets, land and cattle ownership and access to water and sanitation. Focus group discussion and
walkthrough observations were used to complement the questionnaire data. The qualitative data were analysed
manually while the quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software.
Results: A total of 1076 heads of households were interviewed. Main sources of water used by households were
piped water (50.2%) and surface water (49.8%). Observations show that drinking water including piped water
was from surface water sources, distributed in untreated form. About 45% of households had no latrines. Even
those who had latrines, observations revealed that some were not being used. Among households with latrines,
most of them (66 %) were unimproved. Furthermore, amongst studied communities, majority of the households
in Kiduhi village (87%) had no latrines. The study further revealed that the households with high socioeconomic
status were more likely to have latrines than those in the low socio-economic status. Results also show that
Maasai tribe were less likely to have latrines of any type as compared to other tribes (13%; versus 70%). Majority
of respondents (83%) reported to have interacted with wild animals at one point or another. The Maasai were
revealed to have higher human-animal interaction rates compared with the rest of the tribes. People living in
Ihombwe village reported to have high interactions with wild animals (93%) and therefore at higher risk of
zoonotic diseases than those living elsewhere.
Conclusion and recommendation: The study has revealed that the general sanitation of the communities in the
study area is poor. There is also high interaction between human, domestic, and wild animals. This means that
the surveyed communities are likely to suffer from waterborne and zoonotic diseases. This calls for immediate
intervention involving multidisciplinary approaches through the one health model.
Key words: One health, demonstration site, Kilosa, sanitation, wild animals

21.026
Tuberculose humaine, tuberculose bovine: un problme de sant publique
Kasongo Aseke Mukanga Grgoire, Tshiasuma Kedi Alain, Ngona Idi Abdallah
University of Lubumbashi
Background: La tuberculose svit dans les communauts pour lesquelles les conditions socio-conomiques
sont prcaires. Labsence dducation relative la consommation de lait cru et produits laitiers non traits et le
manque dinspection vtrinaire dans les tueries caprine et bovine contribuent galement lamplification de la
tuberculose. La maladie est en extension croissante, surtout dans les zones en conflit et post conflit comme la R
D Congo. La tuberculose bovine avait tu environ 30 millions de personnes en une dcennie (1990-1999), moins
que la tuberculose humaine (80 millions). La prsente tude poursuit lobjectif dvaluer le niveau de tuberculose
humaine dans des centres de sant, de tuberculose bovine dans des exploitations de btail et de tuberculose
caprine dans des tueries de caprins de Lubumbashi.
Methods: En tude rtrospective, les donnes taient prleves dans 4 centres de sant pris au hasard au cours
des 3 dernires annes (2012, 2013, 2014). Une investigation sur les pratiques de diagnostic de la tuberculose
animale tait conduite dans 3 exploitations bovines.
Resultats and conclusion: Les rsultats ont montr que dans les centres de sant, journellement, 3 personnes
sont diagnostiques positives de TB. Dans les exploitations bovines, linvestigation a prsent un important
chantillon des cas positifs chez les bovins (n=405). La lutte contre la tuberculose chez lhomme et chez les

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animaux semble tre nglige quoique la RDC organise des programmes de lutte contre la tuberculose humaine.
A ce titre la tuberculose animale devrait apparaitre comme un problme de sante publique. Ceci est valable
pour la tuberculose caprine. Le mode dabattage des caprins ncessiterait que des investigations prcisent la
prsence ou labsence de cette zoonose. En effet, le personnel des tueries, les femmes vendeuses de viande
caprine et les consommateurs, savoir les mnagres, sont exposs cette contamination.
Mots cls : tuberculose, humain, bovin, caprin, sante publique, Lubumbashi, DRC

21.027
The Epidemiological risk associated to the fish value chain: The case of the Edward lake, DRC.
Clemence Kalemeko1 and Diafuka Daila-Ngita2
1
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kinshasa, 2Cummings School of Veterinary
University.

Medecine, Tufts

Background
This study is registered as part of the sustainable management of fisheries resources and the epidemiological
surveillance of aquatic and water-borne diseases of fish value chain. This is a brief analysis of the fish value chain
that allows different actors to obtain the necessary information which could be used for possible improvement
of the economic circuit. It also helps to better understand the opportunities for contamination and infections
present in different stages of this sector. This study is justified by the need to solve the problem of poverty of the
local population of lake Edward. The lake is for them the main source of income and it is an example of ecosystem
facing a serious ecological and environmental crisis, complex and multi sectoral whose implications may affect
human health. Mismanagement of the lake environment results in a decrease in productivity of the lake and a
reduction in the income of all actors in the fish value chain. From this stems the need to assess the contribution
of the fish sector in improving the living conditions of populations of Vitshumbi and Kyavinyonge, two official
fisheries of Lake Edward. The discovery of oil in the Albertine Graben Block V, near the lake is a pollution threat
that not only impoverish the population, but also affect the ability to sell fishery products on the international
market like the neighbor countries who exploit lake Victoria.
Method:
We conducted a descriptive and systemic approach of the different actors of the fish value chain, determining
their strategies and interactions. The main technique used is direct observation supported by interviews (focus
group) and individual interviews.
Results
The technique used allowed us to determine the quantity and quality of fish consumed and evaluate the risk to
which consumers are exposed at every stage of the value chain. Similarly, there is deterioration in the health
of women who make the smoking fish. They work hard and are exposed to smoke and fire (25 - 30C). We also
determined the income of actors with a focus on women: $ 107only for wholesalers compared to men doing the
same job with at least $ 356.02 per month.
Conclusion
The actors of the fish sector require support in the form of credit or grant. There is need for development of
fisheries policies: co-management, Monitoring, Control and Surveillance etc.
A control of human activities and biological agents at every level of the value chain, as well as a monitoring of
pollutants in the lake are of paramount importance in the fight against all potential waterborne diseases and dirty
hands like typhoid fever.
Keywords: fish chain, disease surveillance, zoonoses, Lake Edward, fisheries.

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21.028
Dterminants de la couverture vaccinale antirabique des chiens dans la Commune de Lemba,
Kinshasa, 2014
Kazadi Kawaya1, Zakariaou Njoumemi 2, Justin Masumu3
1. Facult de Mdecine Vtrinaire, Universit de Kinshasa
2. Ecole de Sant Publique, Universit de Yaound I
3. Facult de Mdecine Vtrinaire, Universit Pdagogique Nationale/D.R.C
Introduction
La rage est une zoonose causant 55.000 dcs par an dans le monde dont 24.000 en Afrique. Son contrle
ncessite une couverture vaccinale antirabique de 70%. En Afrique, sans subvention tatique, la couverture
vaccinale atteint 18%. En Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo, la rage est endmique. La Zone de Sant (ZS) de
Lemba situe dans la Ville de Kinshasa a enregistr 164 morsures dont 17 cas de rage (2009 -2013) et na jamais
bnfici dune campagne de vaccination antirabique. Lobjectif de ltude est destimer la couverture vaccinale
antirabique des chiens et didentifier les dterminants qui influencent la vaccination des chiens Kinshasa.
Mthodologie
Etude transversale effectue de dcembre 2014 Fvrier 2015. La population dtude tait constitue de tous les
mnages avec et sans chiens de la ZS de Lemba. Au total, 305 mnages taient slectionns par chantillonnage
alatoire en grappes plusieurs degrs. Les variables dintrt taient collectes par interview (questionnaire) et
entretien approfondi. Lanalyse des donnes tait effectue avec les logiciels Epi Info 7. Les hypothses taient
testes avec le test de Chi-carr 5% et la force de lassociation mesure avec le RP (rapport de prvalence).
Rsultats
Le ratio chien/homme tait de 1/11. Sur 218 chiens, la couverture vaccinale antirabique non certifie tait de
48,2% (IC 95% : 40,4-56,6) et la couverture certifie de 27,8% (IC 95% : 20,8-35,7). Le service vtrinaire
communal tait sans moyens pour le contrle de la rage. Le niveau de connaissance de la communaut sur la
rage tait de 11% et sur lexistence de services vtrinaires de 33%. Les principaux canaux dinformation taient
la tlvision, soit 34,1% (IC 95% :25,1-35,7) et le voisin, soit 30,2% (IC 95% : 25,1-35,7). La vaccination
antirabique des chiens tait dtermine par : Niveau socio-conomique du mnage (RP=1,8, p<0,05) , type de
parcelle (RP=1,9, p<0,05), fait d avoir entendu parler de la rage (RP=1,9, p<0,05), connaissance de l existence des
services vtrinaires (RP=1,3, p<0,05), sexe du chien (RP=1,27, p<0,05), race du chien (RP=1,75, p<0,05) et mode
dacquisition du chien (RP=1,35, p<0,05).
Conclusion
La couverture vaccinale antirabique dans la ZS est faible comme dans la plupart de pays Africains non
subventionns. Cette couverture est dtermine par : Caractristiques du mnage, connaissance de la rage et de
lexistence du service vtrinaire et les caractristiques du chien. Il est imprieux que lEtat revitalise les services
vtrinaires, subventionne la vaccination antirabique de masse et sensibilise la communaut.
Mots-cls: Rage canine; Couverture vaccinale ; Dterminants socio-dmographiques; Kinshasa

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training.

Drafted a tool and shared with my twin

Shared it with Mentors

Administered the evaluation tool, and analysis done using excel.

In applying the Knowledge/skill gained

Do you think the BRM training enhanced

To what extent have you been able to

From your personal perspective rate the

Protective Equipment (PPEs)?

(BRM) on the proper use of Personal

overall value of Biorisk Management Training

1.

BRM training particularly in the area of PPEs?

apply the knowledge and skills gained from

3.

PPEs? If so how?

your skills and knowledge on proper use of

4.

your colleagues, supervisors, and the

have you received necessary support from

from BRM training on proper use of PPEs,

6.

Needs
Attention

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Training Analysis

Approval from administration

Results

BRMA Training

Good
Condition

3.5

and decontamination and proper use a biosafety cabinet as a result of Biorisk management

after the training and it was specifically looking at proper use of PPEs, proper waste segregation

To develop a written survey tool to evaluate knowledge and skills retention by laboratory personnel

Method/Approach

Objective

force, the survey target to measure the knowledge and skill retention after the training

to all the laboratories in the respective institutions, this being a very important aspect to the work

The National laboratories of both Kenya and Uganda conducted out biorisk management trainings

Introduction

In applying the Knowledge/skill gained

Do you think the BRM training enhanced

To what extent have you been able to

Do you feel that in the area of waste

From your personal perspective rate the

Do you think the BRM training enhanced

your skills and knowledge on proper use of

5.

training particularly in the area of proper BSCs

apply the knowledge and skills gained from BRM

To what extent have you been able to

To what extent have you been able to

Do you feel that in the area of proper use

From your personal perspective rate the

Needs
Attention

1.5

2.5

Participants thought their skills have been enhanced


Participants felt got most value of BRM on PPEs and BSCs
Application of knowledge still remain a challenge. This could possibly be due to Attitude, no

Biosafety cabinet to use skills, or no opportunity for practice

Participants obtained support

Good
Condition

3.5

3.0

2.5

3.5
Good
Condition

Generally the objectives were met

2.0

3.0

Conclusion for Quantitative data

(BRM) on the proper use of Biosafety Cabinets

overall value of Biorisk Management Training

1.

If not why?

of BSCs, the BRM training objectives were met?

2.

training particularly in the area of proper BSCs

apply the knowledge and skills gained from BRM

4.

BSCs? If so how?

2.0

Biosafety Cabinets Training Analysis


In applying the Knowledge/skill gained

you received necessary support from your


6.

1.5
Needs
Attention

from BRM training on proper use of BSCs, have

7.

Training (BRM) on the proper waste

overall value of Biorisk Management

1.

training objectives were met? If not why?

segregation and decontamination the BRM

2.

BRM training particularly in the area of waste

apply the knowledge and skills gained from

4.

and decontamination? If so how?

your skills and knowledge on waste segregation

5.

decontamination, have you received

from BRM training on waste segregation and

7.

Waste Segregation and Decontamination Training Analysis

Results (continued)

2 Years

Annual

6 Months

Positive

Category

More application through refresher training

Favourable attitude

Training being utilized

16

11

96.9%

procedures.

SOPs

14

81.2%

Decontamination.

principles and

Doffing

BSC

managements & BSCs use

Follow ups to identify gaps contributing to poor application of skills and knowledge in waste

Review participants selection criteria to enroll more participants from lab facilities with BSCs

17

75%

Location of BSC

with BSC operations.

Classes of BSCs. SOPs

Future trainings to be reviewed to provide more opportunities for practice/applications

Colleagues.

NHPL

CPHL twin

BEP

Sandia mentors; Lora &Eric.

Acknowledgements

Next steps (mitigation)

Waste
management

Waste
Donning and

PPE

Overall Conclusion and Next Steps

Relating proper use of (PPEs,


Waste, BSC), do you think
there is need for refresher
training? If so how long after
attending BRM training?

What is your attitude and that


of your colleagues on proper
use of (PPEs, Waste, BSC)
particularly after undergoing
BRM training?

Most Valuable Content

Results (continued)

Joseph Nkodyo, Uganda Central Public Health Lab (CPHL) | email: jnkodyo@yahoo.com
Kennedy Yatich, Kenya National Public Health Lab Services (NPHLS) | email: kenyatich@gmail.com

Impact of Biorisk Management Training at National Public Health Laboratories

21.029

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115

21.030
One Health Students Club at Makerere University: Building a broad foundation for the One Health
Workforce
Charles Drago Kato 1., Andrew Tamale 1., Irene Naigaga 1., Juliet Kiguli 2., Viola Kasone 1., Samuel Majalija 1., Jimmy
Osuret 2., Francis Ejobi 1., Kabasa J D1., William Bazeyo 2
College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity, 2School of Public Health Makerere University
Email: katodrago@yahoo.com, Tel: 0712959954
1

Due to the increasing world population with unlimited global migration and movement, a number of human,
animal and zoonotic diseases are emerging or re-emerging. This points to a need to motivate and train the next
generation of young one health leaders from diverse backgrounds into one health champions to work as frontline
fighters for global health equity. In order to achieve this, with support from OHCEA, the One Health Students
Club (OHSC) was launched at Makerere University in 2013. The club has engaged in a number of activities that
are aimed at building the future work force of one health champions. With its multidisciplinary nature, the
OHSC provides an organized network for students to engage in one health activities. The club has engaged in a
number of one health community seminars that have improved society understanding of zoonotic diseases and
food/meat hygiene among abattoir workers. The club was engaged in a university wide one health sensitization
seminar so as to create awareness about one health to students and staff of Makerere University. After this
seminar, students from the different university disciplines organized a symposium to debate about one health
concepts and how their disciplines could contribute to one health. Recently, with support from OHCEA, the club
held a multidisciplinary training on disease outbreak investigation and rapid response at Makerere University. As
a result of these trainings and one health engagements, the club has worked with the Ministry of Health to send
volunteers to the national taskforce during disease outbreaks in the country. Therefore, the OHSC provides an
organized interdisciplinary student network to enable creation of a one health workforce to respond to infectious
disease threats.
Key words: One Health Students Club, Makerere University, OHCEA, One Health

21.031
Low Participation of Female Students in One Health Student Activities: A Case of University of
Rwanda Nyagatare Campus
Turinimigisha Innocente1
1. University of Rwanda-Nyagatare Campus-College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
Background
As the One Health approach gains momentum in Africa a number of interventions have been implemented aimed
at ensuring collaborative and multi-disciplinary approach to addressing complex health challenges. University
of Rwanda- One Health Students club (UR-OHSC) is a multidisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate
students formed in 2012 whose aim is to sustain health equity to all communities using a One Health approach.
For the One Health approach to be successful, consideration must be taken not only in terms of multi-disciplines
but also in gender responsiveness. There has been a declining trend in the participation of female students in the
student clubs activities. This study was aimed at finding out factors that affect participation of female students
in the clubs activities.
Methods
In order to determine participation by gender, we used attendance lists for the clubs activities such as meetings,
seminars and community based activities. Additionally, we surveyed 62 female students from different faculties
at the University of Rwanda-Nyagatare Campus. Students from different faculties were randomly selected to
participate in the survey. We used SPSS PC Ver 17 to analyze the data.

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Results
In 2012 when the club was formed, 32.8% of the 300 members of the club were female. The percentage of female
members has over time been declining and now stands at only 10%. Only 1 out of the 6 current club leaders is
female. Majority of the respondents (73%) felt could not work well with their male counterparts and did not see
any need to participate in the club activities while 17% conceived One Health to be for the Veterinary, Nursing
and Environmental Health students only. 10% of the respondents were not aware of the club and hence could
not join it.
Conclusion
There is declining female involvement in the club not only in terms of joining the club but also participation in
the club activities. Sensitization of the general student community on gender issues and One Health should be
stepped up to ensure more meaningful participation in the student club activities.
Affirmative action such as ring fencing of some leadership positions for female students should be considered to
address the gender imbalance.

21.032
Awareness Creation and Mass Vaccination against Rabies: A Field Experience of One Health
Approach in Kilosa District, Morogoro, Tanzania
Mgeni YL1, Mdegela RH2, Nonga HE2 and Batamuzi EK 3
Department of Livestock and Fisheries Development, Kilosa District Council P.O. Box 164, Kilosa, Morogoro,
Tanzania.
1

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of
Agriculture, P.O. Box 3015, Morogoro, Tanzania.
2

Department of Surgery and Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture,
P.O. Box 3020, Morogoro, Tanzania.
3

Corresponding author: Mgeni YL. Email: mgeniyuda@yahoo.com


Kilosa district is a hotspot for Human Domestic Wildlife interaction as Mikumi National Park covers 22.7%
and Forest 7.4% of total land. The district occupies an area of 12,393.7 sq.km with a population of 438,175
people, 14,978 dogs and 8,748 cats. Rabies is endemic in Kilosa and more so in rural areas. Kiduhi and Mbamba
villages which are predominately pastoralist communities do not give much attention to dogs since their priority
is cattle. Dogs are poorly fed, stray and maltreated, they survive on garbage. Both villages despite of being
hundred metres closer to Mikumi national park, there are no specific rabies control strategies to prevent spillover
of rabies from the wildlife to domestic animals and human. The Kilosa district normally covers only 24% of dog
vaccination against rabies per annum and vice versa. In both villages no dog vaccination history for more than
five years past. A field visit of One Health students from SUA at Kiduhi in 2012 enabled to witness a 5th dog in
a week killed by villagers after it was suspected to be rabid. This life threatening situation called upon special
attention and thus OHCEA Tanzania selected Kiduhi village as demonstration site for One Health activities. In
2013, OHCEA initiatives bridged Government officials, Lecturers, University students with different disciplines
(public health, veterinary and wildlife) all together worked with the community for almost a month at Kiduhi and
Mbamba villages to control rabies. Creating awareness of rabies to villagers and school children motivated them
to participate in vaccination as they fear of dying like a mad dog. The achievement was 496/551 dogs were
vaccinated (90% coverage) despite the challenges of sparsely spaced households, catching dogs using baits and
shifting pastoralists. Villagers have acknowledged reduced rabid dog incidences. One Health Approach (OHA)
has been proven to be a solution to challenges as it provides an avenue for efficient and effective utilization of
meager resources (human, financial and infrastructural) thus need to be scaled up to eliminate rabies.
Keywords: Rabies control in Kilosa, Zoonoses, One-health approach; Human-domestic animal-wildlife interface,
Kilosa district Council

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117

Members of the Scientific Committee and additional reviewers


Scientific Committee Members

Additional Reviewers

Prof. Benon Asiimwe (Chair)

Professor Robinson Mdegela (Sokoine University of Agriculture)

Prof. J. Kakoma

Dr. Irene Naigaga (Makerere University)

Prof. Katey Pelican

Prof. Lawrence Mugisha (Makerere University)

Dr. Hellen Amuguni (Deputy)

Dr. Diafuka Saila-Ngita (Tufts University)

Dr. Mbaabu Mathiu

Prof. Melissa Mezan (Tufts University)

Prof. Henry Mutembei

Prof. J. Killewo (Muhimbili)

Prof. David Urassa

Prof. W. Kiffle (Jimma University)

Prof. Mugisha Anthony

Prof. Theonest Ntakirutimana (University of Rwanda)

Prof. Charles Mulei

Prof. Cheryl Robertson

Dr. Etienne Rugigana

Prof. John Deen

Prof. Kiyombo Mbela

Ms Angelina Twinomujuni

Mr. Timothy Wakabi

Dr. Roy William Mayega

Dr. Innocent Rwego

Dr. Kato Drago

Dr. Serge Nzietchueng

Prof. Prince Kimpanga

Amy Pekol

Dr. Geoffrey Kabagambe

Ms Catherine Kansiime

Dr. Fred Rose

Kaylee Myhre Errecaborde

Prof. Carolyn M. Porta

One Health Conference Committees and their membership

118

1. Overall organizing committee

2. Logistics and finance committee

Prof. David Kabasa (Chairman)

Ms Deborah Nakisuyi (Chair)

Prof. Charles Mulei (Deputy)

Dean Deborah Kochevar

Dr. Gebrehiwot Tadesse

Ms Diana Njambi Muta

Dr. Juvenal Kagarama

Dr. Andrew Thaiyah

Dr. John Deen

Lillian Leku

Prof. John Finnegan

Prof. William Bazeyo

Prof. Philemon Wambura

Dr. Hellen Amuguni

Prof. David Urassa

Dr. Kabagambe Geoffrey

Ms Deborah Nakisuyi

Dr. Roy Mayega

Dr. Innocent Rwego

Dr. Grace Ettyang

Prof. Mwanthi Mutuku

Ms. Agnes Yawe

Dean SUA

3. Communication and Public Relations

Ms. Agnes Yawe (Chair)

Dr. Moti Yohannes Gemechu

Dr. Thaiyah Andrew

Dr. Daifuka Saila Ngita

Prof. Ngona Idi Abdallah

Dr. Etienne Rugigana

Dr. Juliet Kiguli

Prof. Robinson Mdegela

Ms. Angelina Twinomujuni

Prof. Henry Mutembei- UON- Vet

2nd One Health International Conference: Strategic Approach to


Global Health Security through One Health Innovations: Vision 2035

4. Fundraising committee

Prof. William Bazeyo (Chair)

Prof. Philemon Wambura

Dr. Geoffrey Kabagambe

Dr. Andrew Thaiyah

5. Exhibitions committee

Ms. Yawe Agnes

Dr. Roy Mayega (MakSPH) (Chair)

Dr. Dismas Ongore

Mr. Daniel Kakunya ((UoN

Prof. Saul Tzipori

Dr. Irene Naigaga

Dr. Katey Pelican

Dr. Lawrence Mugisha

Prof. Anthony Mugisha

Ms Harriet Adong

Dr. Jeanine Condo

Dr. Koskei Peter

Dr. Maurice Byukusenge

Ms Winnie Bikaako

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119

Makerere University School of Public Health


ResilientAfrica Network (RAN)
Introduction
The ResilientAfrica Network (RAN) - www.ranlab.org is a partnership
of 20 sub-Saharan African universities led by Makerere University
in Uganda, together with Tulane Universitys Disaster Resilience
Leadership Academy (DRLA), Stanford University, and the Center for
Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in the United States. RAN
is one of the eight development labs under the Higher Education
solutions Network (HESN) in the US Global Development lab (http://
www.usaid.gov/hesn).
Supported by USAID, the architecture of RAN in Africa consists of
four Resilience Innovation Labs (RI Labs) that are centers for tapping
into the wide resource of students, faculty and the community for
ideation, development and testing of innovations. The RI Labs are

also focal points of technology innovation and commercialization of


university research attracting local and national resources, sustainably
funded, with replication potential across sub-Saharan African cities
as well as other university partners in other sub-Saharan African
countries. RANs RILabs are the Eastern Africa RILab (EA RILab) hosted
by Makerere University in Uganda, West Africa RILab (WA RILab)
hosted by the University for Development Studies in Ghana, Horn
of Africa RILab (HoA RILab) hosted by Jimma University in Ethiopia,
and Southern Africa RILab (SA RILab) hosted by University of Pretoria
in South Africa. By applying science, technology, innovation and
partnerships, and using evidence-based approaches, RAN seeks to
identify, develop and scale innovative solutions that will strengthen
the resilience of African communities afflicted by natural as well as
man-made shocks and stresses.

Photo1: Makerere University School of Public Health ResilientAfrica Network (RAN) Innovation Lab on Plot 30, Upper Kololo Terrace, Kampala Uganda
Photo 2: One of the innovations under incubation in the RAN Eastern Africa Resilience Innovation Lab is the KUNGULA! Thresh It: A low cost
technology for mechanized threshing of maize. The technology will improve post-harvest handling of produce in rural low income settings through
substantial increase in output efficiency and substantial reduction in losses, contamination and excessive physical exertion that rural farmers (mostly
women) experience with manual threshing and winnowing. This prototype has been locally fabricated by the innovators with mentorship from the
Innovation Consortium Limited Team in the RAN monthly Innovation Garage. Details accessible here http://www.ranlab.org/innovations, http://
www.ranlab.org/innovations/riap-grantees and http://www.ranlab.org/innovations/ric4ace-grantees

Find us on Social Media and join the team to develop solutions to address communities most pressing challenges that present as shocks and stresses
in form of disasters

f ResilientAfricaNetwork (https://www.facebook.com/ResilientAfricaNetwork)

i ResilientAfrica Network (RAN)

T @AfricaResilient

Y ResilientAfrica Network (RAN)

120

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