Introduce the subject of geometry to you or your student or a kid. An in-depth, second to none introductory material made by an expert mathematician and founder of myMath.pk. This introduction to geometry includes everything from it's meaning to its existence in the past. Reasons of discovery of the subject. An interesting Historical Story and a related Pun Note included.

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Introduce the subject of geometry to you or your student or a kid. An in-depth, second to none introductory material made by an expert mathematician and founder of myMath.pk. This introduction to geometry includes everything from it's meaning to its existence in the past. Reasons of discovery of the subject. An interesting Historical Story and a related Pun Note included.

© All Rights Reserved

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Lets do start from the basic introduction.

In the Indian subcontinent, the diggings at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, etc. reveal that

the Indus Valley Civilization ( 3000 BC) used to apply geometry extensively. As a highly

organized culture, the houses had many rooms of several kinds, the cities were highly

developed, very well-planned and the roads were parallel to each other. They setup an

underground drainage system. This shows that the town dwellers were skilled in

mensuration and practical arithmetic. The bricks used for constructions were kiln

fired, moreover the ratio length: breadth: thickness, of the bricks was found to be 4 :

2 : 1.

(Credit)

Lets now step in the Egyptians era (well study this era in a separate section),

whenever the river Nile flooded, it wiped out the boundaries between the adjoining fields

of several land owners. After such overflowing, these boundaries had to be re-drawn.

For this purpose, the Egyptians established a number of geometric procedures and

rules for calculating simple areas and also for doing simple constructions. These

geometric rules were also used by them for computing volumes of granaries, and for

building pyramids and canals. They were well familiar with formula that helps in finding

the volume of a truncated pyramid (Figure Below).

Infact, geometry was studied in various forms in every ancient society, e.g. in India,

Egypt, China, Greece, the Incas and Babylonia, etc. (well study these eras in

respective dedicated sections). The people of these societies faced different practical

problems which needed the advancement of geometry in different ways.

"What does an acorn say when it grows up?" and answer's, "Geometry".

From the study of above examples (and few more in History Section), we're now

inclined to verdict that at the beginning of civilization, people discovered two

mathematical ideas namely: space and multiplicity. Later involved counting (of

animals, days, etc.), and the former dealt with areas and volumes (of water, land, crop

productions, etc). These grew into two major divisions of mathematics: Geometry and

arithmetic.

The word geometry comes to us from ancient Greek words: geos _ Land or

Earth and metron _ Measurement, literally Geometry means Land

Measurement. Geometry seems to have originated from the need for measuring land.

Here's the Greek translation of the word "Geometry":

It seems that the subject of geometry initiates from the kind of problems that worried the

civilizations since ancient times And in the start it was all about taking a modern

equivalent of a measuring tape and finding out. All measuring tools are finely unlike,

though, while all scientists have the same unstoppable tendency to abstractify the

problems they anticipate. By the Hellenistic time; geometry had well developed itself like

a science about the principles of land measuring. It studies the properties (size, shape,

etc.) of the common notions such as points, lines and other idealized versions of real

world objects and the characteristics of their positions with respect to each other (angle,

distance, etc.).

Subject Matter

Remember, every object which occurs in nature has numerous properties; to facilitate

the investigation of which, one preliminarily endeavors to consider one at a time,

independently of the others; the different investigations of the same kind are then

collected, and thus the different sciences, natural sciences, are formed. Thus, if we

examine a piece of chalk, we might ask about its origin and occurrence, its

specific gravity and colour, the combination of its elements, its form etc. and these

questions will be answered respectively by Geology, Physics, Chemistry, and Geometry

and is one of the most ancient of all sciences and arts.

(Credit)

Geometry treats of the form without regard to the substance; when we speak of a

sphere, we do not consider of what it is made, but only of the space which it occupies;

every object occupies a space, which has extension in all directions; this is a

geometrical body. In the history and origin section of geometry, we shall see several

interesting examples happening in the past that caused the birth of geometry.

Motivation

Geometry is used to shape the world around us. If you see the roofs of houses, youll

observe rectangles, triangles, trapezia etc. On the other hand problems like tiling

patterns in bathrooms, floors and pavements use shapes of squares, hexagons,

triangles and pentagons. Professionals like architects, tilers, builders, designers and

graphic designers use geometric ideas in their routine work

(Credit)

Ordering such geometric things and investigating their properties are very essential.

When it comes to art, again, geometric concepts step in. Just as arithmetic, being the

science of numbers, uses numbers as its basic objects of study, similarly the notions of

points, lines and planes are the elementary building blocks of the plane geometry.

In secondary school geometry, we study different geometric terms (points, lines and

angles) which are not at all easy to precisely define, followed by some definitions

(parallel lines, and vertically opposite angles, etc.) and from these we deduce significant

facts, which are often referred to as propositions or theorems. During studies, these

geometric concepts stimulate intuitive ideas for the advancement of the industry, youre

working in.

A legendary story

Menaechmus (ca. 380 320 B.C.), a student of Eudoxus, discovered the conic sections.

There is a fabulous story told about Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) who is said to

have asked his tutor, Menaechmus, to teach him geometry concisely, to which the latter

replied,

O king, through the country there are royal roads and roads for common citizens, but in

geometry there is one road for all.

Conclusion

In a nutshell, geometry offers a chance for students to develop their geometric intuition,

which has uses almost in every realm of life, and also to understand how to build logical

arguments and make deductions in a setting which is, for the most part, free of

numbers.

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