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Bus Differential Protection Seminar

June 2015 AB/BC


JC Theron

Presentation Outline
Introduction to Bus Protection
Bus Arrangements and Components
Protection Techniques
CT Saturation
High Impedance Bus Differential Protections
Low Impedance Bus Differential Protections

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 2
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Presentation Outline
GEs Multilin Bus Protection Portfolio
B30, B90 & B95Plus Application Considerations

Advanced Application Topics


B90 & B95Plus Application Examples

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Introduction to Bus Protection

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Challenges to Bus Zone Protection


High Fault Current Levels
Large dynamic forces can place mechanical stress on busbars and result in
physical damage to equipment therefore fast clearing times are required.
High fault currents can lead to CT saturation, particularly for external faults,
which may lead to mal-operation of the bus protection.

Mal-Operation of Bus Protections Have Significant Impact


Loss of customer loads may damage both customer assets as well as
customer perception of the utility.

Detrimental impact on industrial processes


System voltage levels and corresponding system stability may be adversely
affected.
Best Case: Remedial Action Schemes (load shedding)
Worst Case: Partial or Total System Collapse (wide-spread blackout)

Bus Protection Must be Dependable and Secure, With


Emphasis on Security
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 5
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Challenges to Bus Zone Protection Continued


Many Different Bus Topologies
Many switchyard configurations possible.
Many different CT placements possible.
Single Bus, Double Bus (Single and Double Breaker), Main and Transfer Bus,
Breaker-and-a-Half and hybrids

Buses may Reconfigure at Any Time


Different apparatus may be connected/disconnected from a given bus.
Switching may happen from any number of sources

Manually from human operator action (e.g. equipment maintenance)


Automatically from other protections, Wide-Area Special Protections,
Remedial Action Schemes, Auto-Restoration/Auto-Transfer Schemes

Bus Protection Must Adapt Automatically (No User


Intervention) and in Real-Time, Based on Bus
Configuration
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 6
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

High-Speed Bus Protection Advantages


Arc flash energy reduction:
Relay operating times of 12 24 mS will reduce energy to
level 2 in most MV cases
No impact on system coordination
Always in operation without any special action required by
workers
Faster return to service following a bus fault:
Fast operating time minimizes physical damage
Shorter repair times

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 7
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Low Voltage Bus Differential


Seeing increased specification of bus differential on LV
switchgear for arc flash mitigation

CT performance is usually too poor for true bus differential


Limited space for hi C-rated CTs
Very high available SC currents (50 60 KA typical)
No notable advantage of high versus low impedance differential
Zone selective interlock is best current solution

May see non-iron core current sensor technology in


future

Rogowski coils
Fiber optic sensors

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 8
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Bus Arrangements and Components

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Single bus - single breaker


ZONE 1

----

n-1

Distribution and lower


transmission voltage levels
No operating flexibility
Fault on the bus trips all circuit
breakers

Multiple bus sections - single breaker with bus tie


ZONE 2

ZONE 1

Lower transmission voltages


Limited operating flexibility

Double bus - single breaker with bus tie


ZONE 1

ZONE 2

Very common arrangement at US


West Coast substations
Transmission and distribution
voltage levels
Breaker maintenance without
circuit removal
Fault on a bus disconnects only the
circuits being connected to that
bus
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 10
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Typical Industrial Single Bus

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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Typical Industrial Double Bus

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Main and Transfer buses

MAIN BUS

ZONE 1

Increased operating flexibility


A bus fault requires tripping all
breakers
Transfer bus for breaker
maintenance
TRANFER BUS

Double bus single breaker with transfer bus


ZONE 1

ZONE 2

Very high operating flexibility


Transfer bus for breaker
maintenance

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 13
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Double bus - double breaker


ZONE 1

High operating flexibility


Line protection covers the part
between two CTs
Fault on a bus does not disturb
the power of the circuits

ZONE 2

Breaker-and-a-half bus
ZONE 1

Used on higher voltage levels


More operating flexibility
Requires more breakers
Middle sections covered by the
line protection

ZONE 2

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 14
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Ring bus
L1

L2

TB1

B1

Higher voltage levels


High operating flexibility with
minimum breakers
Separate bus protection not
required, as the line protections
cover overlap bus parts

B2

TB1

L3

L4

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 15
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Bus Components
Feeder isolators
Feeder breaker
BUS 1
ISO1

ISO4

ISO25

CB 10

CT10

CB 11

CT11

ISO28

CT12

CB 1

ISO 3

CB 2

CT1

ISO2

CT2

ISO5

C1

CB 9

ISO 6

CT9

Feeder CTs

CB 12

CT13

ISO29

ISO26

C2

ISO27

BUS 2

C9
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Bus Components
Section breaker CTs
Section breakers
Coupler breaker CTs
BUS 1
ISO1

ISO4

ISO25

CB 10

CT10

CB 11

CT11

ISO28

CT12

CB 1

ISO 3

CB 2

CT1

ISO2

CT2

ISO27

CT9

ISO5

C1

CB 9

ISO 6

CT13

ISO29

ISO26

C2

CB 12

BUS 2

C9
Coupler breaker
Coupler breaker isolators

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 17
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Protection Techniques

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 18
2014-09-15 Rev. 1 JCT

Bus Zone Protection Techniques


All Bus Zone protections essentially operate based on Kirchoffs
Law for Currents:
The sum of all currents entering a node must equal zero.
The only variation is on how this is implemented.

Various existing implementations:

Unrestrained Differential
Interlocking/Blocking Schemes
High Impedance Differential
Low Impedance Percent Differential

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 19
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Unrestrained Differential (Overcurrent)

51

Differential current created by


physically summing CTs
CT ratio matching required
(auxiliary CTs)
External faults may cause CT
saturation, leading to spurious
differential currents in the bus
protection
Intentional time delay added to cope
with CT saturation effects

Unrestrained differential function


useful for microprocessor-based
protections (check zone)

Intentional Time Delay means No Fast Zone Clearance


GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 20
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Interlocking/Blocking Schemes

BLOC K

50

50

50

50

50

50

Blocking signals generated by


downstream protections (usually
instantaneous overcurrent)
Simple inst. overcurrent protection
with short intentional time delay
Need to wait for blocking signals
Usually inverse timed backup
provided

Timed backup may be tricked by


slow clearance of downstream
faults.
Blocking can be done via hardwire
or communications (e.g
GSSE/GOOSE, dedicated
communications)

Technique Limited to Radial Circuits with Negligible Backfeed


GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 21
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

High Impedance Differential (Overvoltage)


Operating signal created by
connecting all CT secondaries in
parallel
CTs must all have the same ratio
Must have dedicated CTs

59

Overvoltage element operates on


voltage developed across resistor
connected in secondary circuit
Requires varistors or AC shorting
relays to limit energy during faults

Accuracy dependent on secondary


circuit resistance
Usually requires larger CT cables to
reduce errors higher cost

Cannot Easily be Applied to Reconfigurable Buses and Offers


no Advanced Functionality (Oscillography, Breaker Fail).
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 22
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

High Impedance
Bus Protection General Philosophy
CB 1

CB 2

CB 3

i1

CB n

id = 0

i3
in

i2

I1

+
I2

I3

vd = 0

High
Impedance Bus
Differential
Relay

+
In

I1 + I2 + I3 + + In = Id = 0

The vectorial sum of all primary currents in and out of the bus equals zero

i1 + i2 + i3 + . + in = id = 0

The vectorial sum of all CT secondary currents (assuming same CT ratio


and no CT saturation) in and out of the bus equals zero

v1 +v2 + v3 + + vn = vd = 0

The vectorial sum of all voltages induced on all CT secondary windings


during normal load or external fault (no CT saturation) equals zero
GE Digital Energy

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Page 23

None of the above equations hold true during internal fault or external fault with CT saturation2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

High Impedance Differential (Overvoltage/current)


Operating signal created
by connecting all CT
secondaries in parallel
CTs same ratio, class,
saturation curve and burden
(including same CT leads)
Must have dedicated CTs

Overvoltage element
operates on voltage across
resistor in secondary circuit

B30 Relay

Model HID32
or HID31

Requires varistors and/or AC


shorting relays to limit
energy during faults

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 24
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

High Impedance Differential (Overvoltage/current)


Settings Calculations
Operating signal measured can be Voltage or Current:
Voltage:
Current:

Where

VS =
IR =
RS =
RL =

P=
IF =
N=
1.6 =
RE =

pickup setting of voltage element (if voltage is used)


pickup setting of the current differential element (if current is used)
DC Resistance of fault CT secondary windings and leads to terminals.
single conductor DC resistance of CT cable for one way run from CT housing
terminal to measuring element
1 for three phase faults; 2 for single phase to ground faults
external fault current primary RMS value
CT ratio
margin factor
stabilizing resistance (2000 Ohm if the HID is used)

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 25
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Low Impedance Percent Differential


Individual currents sampled by protection and summated digitally
CT ratio matching done internally (no auxiliary CTs)
Dedicated CTs not necessary

Additional algorithms improve security of percent differential characteristic


during CT saturation
Dynamic bus replica allows application to reconfigurable buses
Done digitally with logic to add/remove current inputs from differential computation
Switching of CT secondary circuits not required

Low secondary burdens


Additional functionality available without additional devices
Digital oscillography
Time-stamped event recording
Breaker Failure

Can be Applied to Reconfigurable Buses and Secure from CT


Saturation, with Additional Useful Functionality.
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 26
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Digital Differential Algorithm Goals


Improve the main differential algorithm operation
Better filtering

Faster response
Better restraint techniques
Switching transient blocking

Provide dynamic bus replica for reconfigurable busbars


Dependably detect CT saturation in a fast and reliable manner, especially
for external faults
Apply additional security to the main differential algorithm to prevent
incorrect operation
External faults with CT saturation

CT secondary circuit trouble (e.g. short circuits)

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 27
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

CT Saturation

GE Digital Energy

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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

CT Saturation Concepts
CT saturation depends on a number of factors
Physical CT characteristics (size, rating, winding resistance, saturation
voltage)
Connected CT secondary burden (wires + relays)
Primary current magnitude, DC offset (system X/R)
Residual flux in CT core

Actual CT secondary currents may not behave in the same manner


as the ratio (scaled primary) current during faults
End result is spurious differential current appearing in the
summation of the secondary currents which may cause differential
elements to operate if additional security is not applied

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 29
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

CT Saturation

No DC Offset
Waveform remains fairly
symmetrical
Ratio Current

CT Current

With DC Offset
Waveform starts off being
asymmetrical, then
symmetrical in steady state
Ratio Current

CT Current

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 30
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

differential

CT Saturation External Fault with Ideal CTs

t1
t0

restraining

Fault starts at t0
Steady-state fault conditions occur at t1

Ideal CTs have no saturation or mismatch thus produce no


differential current
GE Digital Energy
Multilin
Page 31
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

differential

CT Saturation External Fault with Actual CTs

t1

t0

restraining

Fault starts at t0
Steady-state fault conditions occur at t1

Actual CTs do introduce errors thus produce some differential


current (without CT saturation)
GE Digital Energy
Multilin
Page 32
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

CT Saturation External Fault with CT Saturation


fault inception
CT saturation time
CT saturated

differential

t2

t0
t1
t2

t1

restraining
Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1
CT fully saturated at t2
t0

CT saturation causes increasing differential current that


may enter the differential element operate region.
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 33
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Some Methods of Securing Bus Differential


Block the bus differential for a period of time (intentional delay)
Increases security as bus zone will not trip when CT saturation is present
Prevents high-speed clearance for internal faults with CT saturation or evolving
faults

Change settings of the percent differential characteristic (usually


Slope 2)
Improves security of differential element by increasing the amount of spurious
differential current needed to incorrectly trip

Difficult to explicitly develop settings (Is 60% slope enough? Should it be 75%?)

Apply directional (phase comparison) supervision


Improves security by requiring all currents flow into the bus zone before
asserting the differential element

Easy to implement and test


Stable even under severe CT saturation during external faults
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 34
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

High Impedance vs Low Impedance Bus


Protection

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 35
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Bus
Protection
MDS
WiYZ TM Applications
High Impedance
Pros

Used for years wide familiarity (Setting &


Testing)
Exceptional performance External faults with CT
Saturation
Low Cost
Simple to Set
Easy to expand scheme
Fast Operating Times for Internal Faults
Better in cases with High range of Fault Current

Cons

Identical CT ratios, class required (Same B/H &


knee-point voltage) (Cost)
CTs not to be shared with other higher-VA devices
dedicated CTs (Potential Cost)
Stabilizing resistors and/or Varistor Metrosils
required (Cost & Safety)
Zone selection/switching (Bus Replica) not possible
External contact multiplication required
No IED-functionalities eg. No capture of Separate
waveforms, events, no communications
Mostly Unmonitored E/M relays without selfchecking more regular maintenance required

Low Impedance
Pros

Different CT ratios and classes can be used


CTs can be shared with other devices
With CT Saturation Detection & Directionality
check; Robust on External Faults with CT
Saturation
CT Supervision/monitoring available
Additional protection functions available on perfeeder basis (50/51/50N/51N, 59 and Breaker Fail)
Multiple tripping contacts available
No Stabilizing Resistors or Varistor/Metrosils
needed
Dynamic Bus Replica Available
IED-functionalities eg SOE, waveform capture
Always self-monitored; less maintenance required

Cons

Slower than High Impedance, however sub-cycle


Dedicated CT Saturation Detection required
Settings more complicated
Schemes can get very complicated for
large/double busses with Breaker Fail

GEs Multilin Bus Protection Portfolio

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 37
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

GE Multilin Bus Differential Relays


High Impedance Differential
PVD (Electromechanical)
MIB II (single function digital relay)
HID (high impedance module with UR-series (B30))

Low Impedance Digital Differential


B30
B90
B95Plus

B30, B90 and B95Plus have a great deal in common, but


do have some significant differences as well
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 38
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

High Impedance Bus Protection (PVD)

Electro-mechanical Work-horse:

Fast: typical operating time of 16 30 mS


Phase packaged (3 required)
100s of thousands in service
Still available (expensive)
Aging fleet will need replacing due to capacitor failures
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 39
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

High Impedance Bus Protection (MIB)

Comprised of the following:

High-Speed overcurrent module: Differential protection for up to 3


differential currents (phases).
High Impedance Module (HID) with Stabilizing Resistors and Voltage Limiters
The high speed overcurrent relay connected in series with the stabilizing
resistors provides high speed operation for bus faults involving highmagnitude currents. A voltage limiting element (MOV) is connected in
parallel to avoid excessively high CT secondary voltages that can damage
the current inputs after relay operation.
Lockout Relay & Push Button: Mechanical lockout after relay operation and
Reset Button. Lockout contacts short CT secondaries. Four additional
normally open contacts available for use
GE Digital Energy
Multilin
Page 40
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

High Impedance Bus Protection (B30 + HID)

+
B30 Relay

HID Module

Comprised of the following:


B30 Relay (alternate: 850)- high speed overcurrent relay (check sensitivity).
High Impedance Module (HID) with Stabilizing Resistors and Voltage Limiters
The B30 relay (high speed overcurrent relay) connected in series with the
stabilizing resistors provides high speed operation for bus faults involving
high-magnitude currents. A voltage limiting element (MOV) is connected in
parallel to avoid excessively high CT secondary voltages that can damage
the current inputs after relay operation.
Lockout Relay & Push Button: Mechanical lockout after relay operation and
Reset Button. Lockout contacts short CT secondaries. Four additional
normally open contacts available for use.
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 41
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Low Impedance Protection: B30 & B90 vs B95Plus


B30 & B90 are members of the Universal Relay (UR) family
Common hardware & software
Common added features
Common communications interfaces & protocols
User Programmable Logic (FlexLogic)

B95Plus based on URPlus hardware platform

High Performance (All)


Typical Response Time: 12 msec + output contact
Max. Response Time: 16 msec + output contact
Secure for external faults with severe CT saturation

All use the same proven algorithms for ratio compensation, dynamic bus
replication, differential calculations, CT saturation detection and differential
element security

Proven Hardware. Proven Algorithms.


GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 42
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B30 & B90 What is Different


B30 provides three-phase bus differential protection in a single hardware
chassis
All three phase currents from all feeders are connected to a single chassis with multiple
DSPs (1 zone), with phase segregation done in software only.

Limited to 6 three-phase current sources (or five current sources and one three-phase
voltage source)
Up to six breaker failure elements included

B90 provides hardware-segregated bus differential protection in one or


more hardware chassis
DSP modules configured for up to 8 currents (7 currents & 1 voltage) for a single phase
Phase segregation by hardware and software configuration
Minimum configuration: 8 feeders in a single chassis with three DSP modules (4 zones)
Maximum configuration: 24 feeders in three chassis, each with 3 DSPs (4 zones)
Additional I/O, additional Logic, optional breaker failure available

B30 Cost effective protection & metering.


B90 Comprehensive and scalable protection.
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 43
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Bus Protection
Centralized architecture
52

52

52

Distributed Architecture
52

52
DAU

CU
copper

52
DAU

DAU

CU
copper
fiber

Centralized Architecture (B30, B90):

Central Unit processing all the data

Traditional copper cables

CT lead length limitation

Distributed Architecture (B95+):


Data Acquisition Units in the bays
Central Unit processing all the data
Fiber for communication
Sampling synchronization by CU
Easily expanded
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 44
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B30 Protection Features (up to 6 circuits)


MAIN PROTECTION
Two Bus Differential (87B) zones:
Restrained and Unrestrained
(instantaneous)
Dynamic Bus Replica
Phase IOCs (2 elements only for external
check zone and supervision)

VOLTAGE SUPERVISION
Phase Undervoltage (27P)
Neutral & Auxiliary Overvoltage (59N & X)

BACKUP
Phase, Neutral & Ground TOCs (per feeder)

OTHER
Breaker Failure per breaker
CT Trouble (50/74)
FlexElementsTM
Power metering (FW 7.3x)
GE Digital Energy

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Page 45
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B30 Bus Differential Protection - Wiring

GE Digital Energy

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Page 46
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Low Impedance Bus Protection

Up to 24 circuits in a single zone without voltage


supervision

Multi-IED architecture with each IED built on modular


hardware (single to multiple chassis)
24 Circuit Applications
Up to 96 digital inputs
per B90 IED

Up to 48 output
contacts per B90 IED

Flexible allocation of
AC inputs, digital inputs
and output contacts
between the B90 IEDs

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 47
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Protection Features


MAIN PROTECTION
Four Bus Differential zones:
Restrained (87B)
Unrestrained/instantaneous (50/87)
Dynamic Bus Replica

VOLTAGE SUPERVISION
Phase Undervoltage (27P)

BACKUP
Phase TOC (51) - per feeder
Phase IOCs (50) - per feeder

OTHER
Breaker Failure per breaker (50BF)
CT Trouble (50/74)
GE Digital Energy

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Page 48
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Low Impedance Bus Protection


8 Circuit Applications

24 Current Inputs
4 Zones
Zone 1 = Phase A
Zone 2 = Phase B
Zone 3 = Phase C
Zone 4 = Not used

Different CT Ratio Capability for


Each Circuit
Largest CT Primary is Base in
Relay
GE Digital Energy

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Page 49
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Low Impedance Bus Protection


12 Circuit Applications
Relay 1 - 24 Current Inputs
4 Zones
Zone 1 = Phase A (12 currents)
Zone 2 = Phase B (12 currents)
Zone 3 = Not used
Zone 4 = Not used

Relay 2 Up to 24 Current Inputs


4 Zones
Zone 1 = Not used
Zone 2 = Not used
Zone 3 = Phase C (12 currents)
Zone 4 = Possibly used for ground TOC
backup

CB 11

CB 12

Different CT Ratio Capability for Each Circuit


Largest CT Primary is Base in Relay
GE Digital Energy

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Page 50
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Bus Differential Protection - Wiring

GE Digital Energy

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Page 51
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B95Plus Protection Features


Reconfigurable multi-section busbar - up to 24 feeders in one
chassis
MAIN PROTECTION
Uses Merging Units (BRICKs)
Six Bus Differential zones:

Restrained (87B)
Unrestrained/instantaneous (50/87)
Dynamic Bus Replica

VOLTAGE SUPERVISION
Phase Undervoltage (27P)
BACKUP
Phase TOC (51)- per feeder
Phase IOCs (50)
OTHER
Breaker Failure per bkr (50BF)
CT Trouble (50/74)

GE Digital Energy

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Page 52
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B95Plus System Architecture

GE Digital Energy

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Page 53
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B95Plus Bus Differential Protection - Wiring

GE Digital Energy

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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B95Plus Bus Differential Protection - Wiring

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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B95Plus Bus Differential Protection - Wiring

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Page 56
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Configuration of Bus Differential (87B)

Configuring the Bus Differential Zone


Bus Zone settings defines the boundaries of the Differential
Protection and CT Trouble Monitoring.

1. Configure the physical CT Inputs

CT Primary and Secondary values


Both 5 A and 1 A inputs are supported by the UR hardware (NOT by Brick!)
Ratio compensation done automatically for CT ratio differences up to 32:1

2. Configure AC Signal Sources (B30 and B95Plus)


3. Configure Bus Zone with Dynamic Bus Replica
GE Digital Energy

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Page 58
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

The Dynamic Bus (Example 1)


C-3

C-5
NORTH BUS

S-1

B-1
CT-1

S-5

S-3

B-5
CT-2

B-2

CT-3

CT-4

B-3

CT-7

B-4

CT-5
B-7
CT-6
CT-8
B-6

S-2

S-6

S-4

SOUTH BUS
C-1

C-2

C-4

GE Digital Energy

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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

The Dynamic Bus Replica B30 Configuration


(Example 1)
Bus Zone Source A

CT-1

Bus Zone Status A

On (Always Included in Bus Zone)

Bus Zone Source B

CT-2

Bus Zone Status B

S-1 (Only Included in Bus Zone if S-1 Closed)

Bus Zone Source C

CT-3

Bus Zone Status C

S-3

Bus Zone Source D

CT-4

Bus Zone Status D

S-5

Bus Zone Source E

CT-5

Bus Zone Status E

On

Bus Zone Source F

CT-8

Bus Zone Status F

On

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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Bus Differential Block Diagram

GE Digital Energy

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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Definitions of Restraint Signals

iR i1 i2 i3 ... in
1
iR i1 i2 i3 ... in
n
iR n i1 i2 i3 ... in

iR Max i1 , i2 , i3 ,..., in

sum of

scaled sum of

geometrical average

maximum of
GE Digital Energy

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Page 62
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Sum Of Versus Max Of Restraint Methods


Sum Of Approach
Max Of Approach
More restraint on external faults;
Less restraint on external faults;
less sensitive for internal faults
more sensitive for internal faults
Scaled-Sum Of approach takes
Breakpoint settings for the percent
into account number of connected
differential characteristic easier to
circuits and may increase
set
sensitivity
Better handles situation where one
Breakpoint settings for the percent
CT may saturate completely (99%
differential characteristic more
slope settings possible)
difficult to set

B30, B90 (and UR in General) and B95Plus Use the Max Of


Definition for Restraint Quantities.
GE Digital Energy

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Page 63
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Bus Differential Adaptive Approach


Region 1 (DIFL)

differential

Low current magnitudes

Region 2
(high differential
currents)

CT saturation unlikely, due to DC


offset

Region 2 (DIFH)
High current magnitudes Quick CT
saturation likely

Region 1
(low differential
currents)

CT saturation easy to detect

restraining
GE Digital Energy

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2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Bus Differential Adaptive Logic Diagram

AND

DIFL
OR

OR

DIR
AND

SAT

87B BIASED OP

DIFH

GE Digital Energy

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Page 65
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Phase Comparison Principle Continued


No Voltages are required or needed
External Fault Conditions

Ip
imag
ID I p

Ip
imag
ID I p

OPERATE

BLOCK
ID - Ip

Internal Fault Conditions

Ip

Ip
real
ID I p

OPERATE

BLOCK
ID - Ip

Ip
real
ID I p

Ip
BLOCK

BLOCK
OPERATE

Secondary Current of
Faulted Circuit
(Severe CT Saturation)

OPERATE

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 66
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

CT Saturation Redux

differential

t2

t1

t0

restraining

Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1


CT fully saturated at t2
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 67
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

CT Saturation Detector Operating Principles

The 87B SAT flag WILL NOT be set during internal faults,
regardless of whether or not any of the CTs saturate.
The 87B SAT flag WILL be set during external faults, regardless
of whether or not any of the CTs saturate.
By design, the 87B SAT flag WILL force the relay to use the
additional 87B DIR phase comparison for Region 2

The Saturation Detector WILL NOT Block the Operation of the


Differential Element it will only Force 2-out-of-2 Operation
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 68
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CT Saturation Detector - Examples


The oscillography records on the next two slides were
captured from a B30 relay under test on a real-time digital
power system simulator

First slide shows an external fault with deep CT saturation


(~1.5 msec of good CT performance)
SAT saturation detector flag asserts prior to BIASED PKP bus
differential pickup
DIR directional flag does not assert (one current flows out of zone), so
even though bus differential picks up, no trip results

Second slide shows an internal fault with mild CT saturation


BIASED PKP and BIASED OP both assert before DIR asserts
CT saturation does not block bus differential

More examples available (COMTRADE files) upon request


GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 69
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

CT Saturation Example External Fault


200
150

current, A

100

~1 ms

50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.11

0.12

time, sec
The bus differential
protection element
picks up due to heavy
CT saturation

The
directional flag
is not set

The CT saturation flag


is set safely before the
pickup flag

The element
does not
maloperate

Despite heavy CT
saturation the
external fault current
is seen in the
opposite direction

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 70
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

CT Saturation Internal Fault Example

The bus differential


protection element
picks up

The saturation
flag is not set - no
directional
decision required

All the fault currents


are seen in one
direction

The element
operates in
10ms

The
directional
flag is set

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 71
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B30, B90 & B95Plus Application Considerations

GE Digital Energy

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Page 72
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Applications for Large Busbars


ZONE 1

B90-A
1

23

24

B90-B
B90-C

Single Bus Single Breaker

ZONE 1

B90-A

ZONE 2

B90-B

B90-C
23

24

B90-Logic
1

21

22

Double Bus Single Breaker


GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 73
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Applications for Large Busbars Continued


ZONE 1

23

ZONE 2

24

B90-A

B90-B
1

11

12

13

22

B90-C

Single Bus Single Breaker with Bus Tie

ZONE 1

B90-A

B90-B
1

21

23

B90-C
2

22

24

ZONE 2

Double Bus Double Breaker


GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 74
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Applying the B30 or B90 for Busbar Protection


Basic Topics
Configure physical CT Inputs
Configure Bus Zone and Dynamic Bus Replica
Calculating Bus Differential Element settings
Advanced Topics
Isolator Monitoring

More on Dynamic Bus Replica Blind Spots & End Fault


Protection
Differential Zone CT Trouble
Additional Security for the Bus Differential Zone
B90 Application Example
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 75
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Configuring CT Inputs
For each connected CT circuit enter Primary rating and select
Secondary rating.

For the B30, each 3-phase bank of CT inputs must be assigned to a


Signal Source (SRC1 through SRC6) which are then assigned to the
Bus Zone and Dynamic Bus Replica
For the B90, the CT channels are assigned directly to the Bus Zone
and Dynamic Bus Replica (no Signal Sources)

Both the B30 and B90 define 1 p.u. as the maximum


primary current of all of the CTs connected in the given
Bus Zone
GE Digital Energy

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Page 76
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B90 Per-Unit Current Definition - Example

DSP Channel Primary Secondary

Zone

CT-1

F1

3200 A

1A

CT-2

F2

2400 A

5A

CT-3

F3

1200 A

1A

CT-4

F4

3200 A

1A

CT-5

F5

1200 A

5A

CT-6

F6

5000 A

5A

For Zone 1, 1 p.u. = 3200 Apri

For Zone 2, 1 p.u. = 5000 A pri

GE Digital Energy

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Page 77
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Configuration of Bus Zone (Dynamic Bus Replica)


Dynamic Bus Replica associates a status signal with each current in
the Bus Differential Zone
Status signal can be any FlexLogic operand
Status signals can be developed in FlexLogic to provide additional
checks or security as required
Status signal can be set to ON if current is always in the bus zone or
OFF if current is never in the bus zone

For the B30, each Signal Source (SRC1 SRC6) must be assigned a
status signal to be included in the three-phase Bus Zone
For the B90, the CT channels are assigned status inputs directly in
the respective Bus Zone(s) and the CT direction must also be
configured for all current inputs in each bus zone
In or Out, depending on CT polarity
GE Digital Energy

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Page 78
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Bus Differential Characteristic Settings

6 key 87B settings to


ensure correct
differential
characteristic for
dependable and secure
operation

differential

|ID|

OPERATE
HIGH
SLOPE

BLOCK

LOW BPNT

PICKUP

HIGH BPNT

LOW
SLOPE

IR

restraining

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 79
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Calculating Bus Differential Settings Pickup

Pickup
Defines the minimum differential current required for operation of the
Bus Zone Differential element
Must be set above maximum leakage current not zoned off in the bus
differential zone (VTs for example)
May also be set above maximum load conditions for added security in
case of CT trouble, but better alternatives exist
Range: 0.050 p.u. to 2.000 p.u. in 0.001 p.u. increments
GE Digital Energy

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Page 80
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Calculating Bus Differential Settings Low Slope

Low Slope
Defines the percent bias for the restraint currents from IREST=0 to
IREST=Low Breakpoint
Setting determines the sensitivity of the differential element for lowcurrent internal faults
Must be set above maximum error introduced by the CTs in their
normal linear operating mode
Range: 15% to 100% in 1%. increments
GE Digital Energy
Multilin
Page 81
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Calculating Bus Differential Settings Low Breakpoint

Low Breakpoint
Defines the upper limit to restraint currents that will be biased
according to the Low Slope setting
Should be set to be above maximum load but not more than maximum
current where CTs still operate linearly (including residual flux)
Assumption is that CTs will be operating linearly (no significant
saturation up to 80% residual flux) up to the Low Breakpoint setting
Range: 1.00 to 4.00 p.u. in 0.01 p.u. increments
GE Digital Energy

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Page 82

2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Calculating Bus Differential Settings High Breakpoint

High Break Point


Defines the minimum restraint currents that will be biased according
to the High Slope setting
Should be set to be below the minimum current where the weakest CT
will saturate with no residual flux
Assumption is that CTs will be operating linearly (no significant
saturation effects up to 80% residual flux) up to Low Breakpoint setting
Range: 4.00 to 30.00 p.u. in 0.01 p.u. increments GE Digital Energy
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Page 83
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Calculating Bus Differential Settings High Slope

High Slope
Defines the percent bias for restraint currents larger than high breakpoint
Setting determines stability of differential element for high current
external faults
Should be high enough to tolerate spurious differential current during
saturation of CTs on heavy external faults
Setting can be relaxed in favor of sensitivity and speed as CT saturation
and directional principle is used for security
Range: 50% to 100% in 1% increments
GE Digital Energy
Multilin
Page 84
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Calculating Bus Differential Settings Unrestrained


Unrestrained Differential

Unrestrained
Defines the minimum differential current for unrestrained operation
Should be set to be above the maximum differential current under
worst case CT saturation
Range: 2.00 to 99.99 p.u. in 0.01 p.u. increments
Can be effectively disabled by setting to 99.99 p.u.
GE Digital Energy

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Page 85
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Summing External Currents


Not Recommended

If additional circuit needed


Relay becomes combination of
restrained and unrestrained elements

CT-1

I1 = Error

CT-2

I2 = 0

CT-3

I3 = 0

CT-4

IDIFF = Error
IREST = Error

Maloperation if
Error > PICKUP

In order to parallel CTs:


CT performance must be closely
matched
Any errors will appear as
differential currents
Associated feeders must be radial
No backfeeds possible
Pickup setting must be raised to
accommodate any errors
Rather change to B90 or B95Plus

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 86
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Advanced Topics

GE Digital Energy

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Page 87
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Advanced Topics
Isolators and Isolator Monitoring
More on Dynamic Bus Replicas
Blind Spots
End Fault Protection

Differential Zone CT Trouble


Additional Security for the Bus Differential Zone
External Check Zone
Undervoltage Supervision
Overcurrent Supervision

B90 Application Examples


B95Plus Application Examples

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 88
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Isolators
Reliable Isolator Closed signals are needed for the Dynamic Bus
Replica
In simple applications, a single normally closed contact may be
sufficient
For maximum security:
Both N.O. and N.C. contacts should be used
Isolator Alarm should be established and non-valid combinations (open-open,
closed-closed) should be sorted out
Switching operations should be inhibited until bus image is recognized with
100% accuracy
Optionally block 87B operation from Isolator Alarm

Each isolator position signal decides:


Whether or not the associated current is to be included in the differential
calculations
Whether or not the associated breaker is to be tripped
GE Digital Energy

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Page 89
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Isolator Typical Open/Closed Connections

GE Digital Energy

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Page 90
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Full-Featured Isolator Monitoring


Isolator
Open Aux.
Contact

Isolator
Closed Aux.
Contact

Isolator
Position

Isolator Alarm

Block Switching

Off

On

CLOSED

No

No

Off

Off

LAST VALID

On

On

CLOSED

After time delay


until reset

Until isolator
position valid

On

Off

OPEN

No

No

For the B30, this needs to be implemented using FlexLogic


For the B90 & B95Plus, there are 48 dedicated Isolator Position
monitoring elements

GE Digital Energy

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Page 91
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Switching An Isolator Closing Sequence

GE Digital Energy

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Page 92
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Dynamic Bus Replica Changing the Bus Zone


Bus Tie Breaker with Two CTs

Z1

TB

Z2

Overlapping zones no blind spots


Both zones trip the Tie-Breaker
No special treatment of the TB required in terms of its status
for Dynamic Bus Replica (treat as regular breaker)
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 93
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Dynamic Bus Replica Changing the Bus Zone


Bus Tie Breaker with Single CTs

Z1

TB

Z2

Both zones trip the Tie-Breaker


Blind spot between the TB and the CT
Fault between TB and CT is external to Z2
Z1: no special treatment of the TB required (treat as regular CB)

Z2: special treatment of the TB status required:


The CT must be excluded from calculations after the TB is opened
Z2 gets extended (opened entirely) onto the TB
GE Digital Energy

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Page 94
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Dynamic Bus Replica Changing the Bus Zone


expand

Z1

TB

Z2

Sequence of events:

1. Z1 trips and the TB gets opened


2. After a time delay the current from the CT shall be removed
from Z2 calculations
3. As a result Z2 gets extended up to the opened TB

4. The Fault becomes internal for Z2


5. Z2 trips finally clearing the fault
GE Digital Energy

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Page 95
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Dynamic Bus Replica Changing the Bus Zone


CT

Blind spot for


bus protection

CB

Blind spot exists between the CB and CT


CB is going to be tripped by line protection
After the CB gets opened, the current shall be removed from
differential calculations (expanding the differential zone up to the
opened CB)
Identical to the Single-CT Tie-Breaker
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 96
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Dynamic Bus Replica Changing the Bus Zone

contract

CB

Over-trip spot for


bus protection

CT
Over-trip spot between the CB and CT when the CB is opened
When the CB opens, the current shall be removed from differential
calculations (contracting the differential zone up to the opened CB)

Identical as for the Single-CT Tie-Breaker, but

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 97
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Dynamic Bus Replica Changing the Bus Zone

CB

Blind spot for


bus protection

CT
but
A blind spot created by contracting the bus differential zone
End Fault Protection required to trip remote end circuit breaker(s)

GE Digital Energy

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Page 98
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

End Fault Protection (EFP)


Instantaneous overcurrent element enabled when the associated
CB is open to cover the blind spot between the CB and line-side CT
Pickup delay should be long enough to ride-through the ramp down
of current interruption (1.3 cycles maximum)
EFP inhibited from circuit breaker manual close command

For the B30, the End Fault Protections need to be implemented


using FlexLogic

For the B90 & B95Plus, there are 24 dedicated End Fault Protection
elements
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 99
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Differential Zone CT Trouble

Each Bus Differential Zone (2 for the B30, 4 (6) for the B90 and
B95Plus) has a dedicated CT Trouble Monitor

Definite Time Delay overcurrent element operating on the zone


differential current, based on the configured Dynamic Bus Replica

Three strategies to deal with CT problems:


1. Trip the bus zone as the problem with a CT will likely evolve into a bus
fault anyway
2. Do not trip the bus, raise an alarm and try to correct the problem
manually
3. Switch to setting group with 87B minimum pickup setting above the
maximum load current.

GE Digital Energy

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Page 100
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Differential Zone CT Trouble


Strategies 2 and 3 can be accomplished by:
Using undervoltage supervision to ride through the period from the
beginning of the problem with a CT until declaring a CT trouble
condition
Using an external check zone to supervise the 87B function
Using CT Trouble to prevent the Bus Differential tripping (2)
Using setting groups to increase the pickup value for the 87B
function (3)

DO NOT use the Bus Differential element BLOCK input:


The element traces trajectory of the differential-restraining point for
CT saturation detection and therefore must not be turned on and off
dynamically
Supervise the trip output operand of the 87B in FlexLogic instead

GE Digital Energy

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Page 101
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Differential Zone CT Trouble Strategy #2 Example


87B operates
Undervoltage condition
CT OK

CT Trouble operand is used to rise an alarm


The 87B trip is inhibited after CT Trouble element
operates
The relay may misoperate if an external fault occurs
after CT trouble but before the CT trouble condition is
declared (double-contingency)
GE Digital Energy

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Page 102
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Additional Security for The Bus Differential Zone


No matter how high the reliability, any relay may fail. For bus
applications, any MTBF will never be high enough
Consider securing the application against reasonable contingencies

CT problems, AC wiring problem


Problems with aux. switches for breakers, isolators
DC wiring problems involving the Dynamic Bus Replica
Failure of relay hardware (single current input channel, single digital
input)

Security above and beyond inherent security mechanisms in the


B30/B90/B95Plus
CT Saturation Detector
Directional (Phase) Comparison
Isolator monitoring
GE Digital Energy

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Page 103
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External Check Zone


Principle:
Develop an independent copy of the
differential current for the entire bus
regardless of dynamic zones for
individual bus sections
Use the check zone to supervise the
tripping zone(-s)
Use independent CTs / CT cores if
possible to guard against CT and
wiring problems
Use independent relay current inputs
to guard against relay problems
Alarm on spurious differential

Guards against:
CT problems
AC wiring problems
Problems with aux switches for
breakers and disconnectors
DC wiring problems for dynamic bus
replica
Failures of current inputs

GE Digital Energy

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Page 104
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Application of the External Check Zone to the B30


With only six 3-phase inputs the B30 handles up to 2 zones of
protection
Actual (tripping) zone shall be configured to reflect dynamic
image of the bus
External check zone can be configured in some
circumstances as an unrestrained zone that (ideally) uses
separate CTs or CT cores

An IOC function may be configured if needed to operate on


the externally summated currents (From different IED)
For external zone identical CT ratios or matching transformers are
required
Make use of three ground CT inputs (IG) and Ground IOC or unused 3phase bank & Phase IOC elements to provide check zone
GE Digital Energy

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Page 105
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Application of the External Check Zone to the B30


87B phase A supervised by IOC1
phase A; the IOC responds to the
externally formed differential
current

Three-phase trip command

GE Digital Energy

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Page 106
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Application of the External Check Zone to the B90


to B90-C
B1a

to B90-C

B2b

Digital Input

F1b

F2c

Place the supervising zone in


a different chassis

AND

BUS DIF 4
(SUPERVISING
PHASE C)

F2b

DSP, Slot L
...

F8c

F8b

L1c

L1b

L2c

L2b

DSP, SSot S
...

L8c

L8b

Phase A

S1c

S1b

S2c

S2b

...

S8c

S8b

from
phase-C CT

from B90-C
B1a

B2b

Digital Input

Critifal Failure

BUS DIF 1
(TRIPPING
PHASE B)

F1b

TRIP B

B90-B

BUS DIF 4
(SUPERVISING
PHASE A)

DSP, Slot F
F1c

Digital Input

AND

Use fail-safe output to


substitute for the permission
if the supervising relay fails /
is taken out of service

B90-A

OR

Strong security bias,


practically a 2-out-of-2
independent relay scheme

TRIP A

DSP, Slot F
F1c

OR

BUS DIF 1
(TRIPPING
PHASE A)

Version 1

Digital Input

Critifal Failure

Use two different CTs / CT


cores

F2c

F2b

DSP, Slot L
...

F8c

F8b

L1c

L1b

L2c

L2b

DSP, SSot S
...

L8c

L8b

S1c

S1b

S2c

S2b

...

S8c

S8b

Phase B
to B90-C

GE Digital Energy

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Page 107
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Application of the External Check Zone to the B90

BUS DIF 1
(TRIPPING
PHASE A)

F1b

F2c

F2b

BUS DIF 4
(SUPERVISING
PHASE A)

AND

DSP, Slot F
F1c

B90-A

TRIP A

DSP, Slot L
...

F8c

F8b

L1c

L1b

L2c

L2b

DSP, SSot S
...

L8c

L8b

S1c

S1b

S2c

S2b

...

S8c

S8b

Phase A

Version 2
Use two different CTs / CT cores
Place the supervising zone in the same chassis, different DSP module
Strong security bias, almost 2-out-of-2 independent relay scheme
Simpler panel wiring compared with version 1 (No inter chassis wiring needed)
GE Digital Energy

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Page 108
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Application of the External Check Zone to the B90


to B90-C
B1a

to B90-C

B2b

Digital Input

F1b

B90-A

BUS DIF 4
(SUPERVISING
PHASE C)

F2c

F2b

DSP, Slot L
...

F8c

F8b

L1c

L1b

L2c

L2b

DSP, SSot S
...

L8c

L8b

Phase A

S1c

S1b

S2c

S2b

...

S8c

S8b

from
phase-C CT

from B90-C
B1a

B2b

Digital Input

Critifal Failure

AND

BUS DIF 1
(TRIPPING
PHASE B)

F1b

TRIP B

B90-B

BUS DIF 4
(SUPERVISING
PHASE A)

DSP, Slot F
F1c

Digital Input

OR

Use fail-safe output to


substitute for the permission
if the supervising relay fails /
is taken out of service

TRIP A

DSP, Slot F
F1c

Place the supervising zone in


a different chassis
Guards against relay
problems and bus replica
problems

AND

BUS DIF 1
(TRIPPING
PHASE A)

Version 3

OR

Critifal Failure

Use a single CT (simpler


wiring)

Digital Input

F2c

F2b

DSP, Slot L
...

F8c

F8b

L1c

L1b

L2c

L2b

DSP, SSot S
...

L8c

L8b

S1c

S1b

S2c

S2b

...

S8c

S8b

Phase B
to B90-C

GE Digital Energy

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Page 109
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Application of the External Check Zone to the B90

BUS DIF 1
(TRIPPING
PHASE A)

F1b

F2c

F2b

BUS DIF 4
(SUPERVISING
PHASE A)

AND

DSP, Slot F
F1c

B90-A

TRIP A

DSP, Slot L
...

F8c

F8b

L1c

L1b

L2c

L2b

DSP, SSot S
...

L8c

L8b

S1c

S1b

S2c

S2b

...

S8c

S8b

Phase A

Version 4
Use a single CT
Place the supervising zone in the same chassis, different DSP module
Guards against relay problems and bus replica problems
No inter chassis wiring needed
GE Digital Energy

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Page 110
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Undervoltage Supervision
Principle:
Supervise all differential trips with
undervoltage
Set high (0.85-0.90pu) for speed and
sensitivity
Need 3 UV elements per bus per phase
(undervoltage functions AG, AB, CA
supervise differential trip for phase A)
Alarm on spurious differential

Guards against:
CT problems
AC wiring problems
Problems with aux switches for
breakers and disconnectors
DC wiring problems for dynamic bus
replica
Failures of current inputs

GE Digital Energy

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Page 111
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Application of Undervoltage Supervision to the B90


to B90-C
B1a

to B90-C

B2b

Digital Input

Use fail-safe output to


substitute for the permission
if the supervising relay fails /
is taken out of service

OR

UV-1

F2c

F2b

DSP, Slot L
...

F8c

F8b

L1c

L1b

L2c

L2b

UV-2

UV-3

DSP, SSot S
...

L8c

L8b

...

Phase A

S6a

S6c

S7a

VCG

S7c

VBC

S8a

S8c

VCA

from B90-C
B1a

B2b

Digital Input

Critifal Failure

BUS DIF 1
(TRIPPING
PHASE B)

F1b

OR

TRIP B

UV-1

DSP, Slot F
F1c

B90-B

Digital Input

AND

Does not need any extra ac


current wiring

F1b

TRIP A

DSP, Slot F
F1c

B90-A

OR

Guards against relay


problems and bus replica
problems

AND

BUS DIF 1
(TRIPPING
PHASE A)

Place the supervising voltage


inputs in a different chassis

OR

Critifal Failure

Version 1

Digital Input

F2c

F2b

DSP, Slot L
...

Phase B

F8c

F8b

L1c

L1b

L2c

L2b

UV-2

UV-3

DSP, SSot S
...

L8c

L8b

...

S6a

S6c

VAG

GE Digital Energy

S7a

S7c

VAB

S8a

S8c

VCA

Multilin
Page 112
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Application of Undervoltage Supervision to the B90


c

BUS DIF 1
(TRIPPING
PHASE A)

F1b

F2c

F2b

OR

UV-1

AND

DSP, Slot F
F1c

B90-A

TRIP A

DSP, Slot L
...

F8c

F8b

L1c

L1b

L2c

L2b

UV-2

UV-3

DSP, SSot S
...

L8c

L8b

Phase A

...

S6a

S6c

VAG

S7a

S7c

VAB

S8a

S8c

VCA

Version 2
Place the supervising voltage inputs in the same chassis
Guards against relay problems and bus replica problems
Does not need any extra ac current wiring
No inter chassis wiring needed
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 113
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Overcurrent Supervision
Principle:

Guards against:

Supervise trips to breakers with OC


condition set above maximum load

CT problems
AC wiring problems

Loads will not get tripped; facilitates


bus transfer applications
With a single CT / wiring / relay input
problem, only up to one breaker will
get tripped, not the entire bus

Problems with aux switches for


breakers and disconnectors
DC wiring problems for dynamic bus
replica
Failures of current inputs

Danger that very weak sources


feeding a bus fault will not get tripped,
solution possible via logic

Typically, no trip will occur on CT and


wiring problems
A single CB may get tripped on specific
relay problems (sees spuriously high
current)

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 114
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90/B95Plus Application Examples

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 115
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Example Reconfigurable Bus


ZONE 3=CHECK ZONE
L7

ISO31

CB1-2
L8

ISO32

ZONE 1=BUS1

L1

ISO29

ISO28

ISO26
CB9

ISO30

F8

ISO25

ISO23
CB8

ISO27

F7

ISO22

ISO20
CB7

ISO24

F6

ISO19

ISO17

ISO16

ISO13

ISO14
F5

CB6

ISO21

F4

CB5

ISO18

CB4

ISO15

ISO11

ISO10

ISO7

ISO8
F3

ISO12

F2

CB3

ISO9

F1

CB2

ISO6

ISO3

CB1

ISO5

IOS4

ISO2

ISO1

ZONE 2=BUS2

CB10
L2

Double bus, single breaker with bus-tie


10 feeders with single CT

Circuit breaker bypass switches per feeder CB


Current inclusion in bus zone depends on isolator switch position (ISO x)
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 116
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Example Architecture


Phase A AC signals
and trip contacts

Rx Tx

Direct I/O Ring (Ch. 1)

Phase C AC signals
and trip contacts

Direct I/O Ring (Ch. 2)

Phase B AC signals
and trip contacts

Digital Inputs for


isolators and
breakers monitoring
Breaker Failure
inputs and outputs
Tx Rx

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 117
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Example Dynamic Bus Replica Logic


INCLUSION OF FEEDER CTs INTO BUS 1(ZONE 1), OR BUS 2(ZONE 2) PROTECTION

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 118
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Bus Zone Definitions (Dynamic Bus Replica)


DIFFERENTIAL ZONE 1 (BUS 1)

Differential current: Id = F1 + F3 + F8 + L2 + L8
Restraint current:
Ir = max(F1, F3, F8, L2, L8)

DIFFERENTIAL ZONE 2 (BUS 2)

Differential current: Id = F2 + F4 + F5 +F6 +F7 +L1 + L7


Restraint current:
Ir = max(F2, F4, F5, F6, F7, L1, L7)

DIFFERENTIAL ZONE 3 (CHECK ZONE = BUS 1 + BUS 2)

Differential current: Id = F1 +F2 + F3 +F4 +F5 +F6 +F7 + F8 + L1 +L2 +


+ (L7 OR L8) WHEN FEEDER CT BY-PASSED
Restraint current:
Ir = max(F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, L1, L2,
(L7 OR L8) WHEN FEEDER CT BY-PASSED)
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 119
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Direct I/O Communications Configuration


B90-1 A PHASE

B90-5 BKR FAIL

B90-2 B PHASE

B90-3 C PHASE

Isolators and breakers


positions

B90-4 STATUS

Fiber Optic
channels
Direct outputs on IED4

Direct inputs on IED1, 2, and 3


ZONE 1

ZONE 2

ZONE 3

Differential zones
configuration on
IED1, 2, and 3

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 120
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Example AG Fault on Bus 1

ZONE 3=CHECK ZONE


L7

ISO31

CB1-2
L8

ISO32

ZONE 1=BUS1

L1

GE Digital Energy

ISO29

ISO28

ISO26
CB9

ISO30

F8

ISO25

ISO23
CB8

ISO27

F7

ISO22

ISO20
CB7

ISO24

F6

ISO19

ISO17

ISO16

ISO13

ISO14
F5

CB6

ISO21

F4

CB5

ISO18

CB4

ISO15

ISO11

ISO10

ISO7

ISO8
F3

ISO12

F2

CB3

ISO9

F1

CB2

ISO6

ISO3

CB1

ISO5

IOS4

ISO2

ISO1

ZONE 2=BUS2

CB10
L2

Multilin
Page 121
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Example AG Fault on Bus 1 Trip with BF Logic


AG Undervoltage
AB Undervoltage

BF Trip Zone1
TIMER
80ms

CA Undervoltage
Trip 87B Zone1

Trip Zone1 87B or


BF

BUS1 OP
BUS3 BIASED PKP

AG Undervoltage
AG Undervoltage

BF Trip Zone2
TIMER
80ms

AG Undervoltage
Trip 87B Zone2

Trip Zone2 87B or


BF

BUS2 OP
BUS3 BIASED PKP

* Denotes a binary signal received from an external B90 via communications (Direct I/O,
GOOSE/GSSE)
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 122
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B90 Example AG Fault on Bus 1 Trip Logic


*
*

ISO 31 ON
ISO32 ON
TRIP CB1-2

Trip Zone1 87B or


BF

Trip Zone2 87B or


BF

* F1 in Zone1
* F1 in Zone2

* F6 in Zone1
TRIP CB1

* F2 in Zone1
* F2 in Zone2

TRIP CB2

TRIP CB3

TRIP CB7

* F8 in Zone2

TRIP CB8

* L1 in Zone1
TRIP CB4

* F5 in Zone1
* F5 in Zone2

* F7 in Zone2
* F8 in Zone1

* F4 in Zone1
* F4 in Zone2

TRIP CB6

* F7 in Zone1

* F3 in Zone1
* F3 in Zone2

* F6 in Zone2

* L1 in Zone2

TRIP CB9

* L2 in Zone1
TRIP CB5

* L2 in Zone2

TRIP CB10

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 123
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B95Plus Large Double Bus


Two Double Buses tied
together
20 Feeders
4 Bus Couplers
Requirements:
Differential Protection
Isolator Position Monitoring
Supervision for Isolator
position monitoring failure
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 124
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

One Solution: (1) B95Plus


B26

B24

B22

B20

B28

One Solution
v One B95Plus
v 14 Bricks (10 shared
between feeders, 4 for
bus couplers)
v 4 bus zones
v Check zone possible

B19

B20

B10

B12

B21

B8
B6
B4
B2
B19

B23

B9

B25

B7

B27

B5

B31

B3

B32

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 125
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

B95Plus Shared Brick


3 currents

3 currents
Brick wired for both circuits

B28

2 status
2 control

2 status

One circuit

B26

2 status
2 control

v
v
v
v

Source currents (3)


Breaker control (2 outputs)
Breaker status (2 inputs)
Isolator status (2 inputs each)

2 status

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 126
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Better solution: (2) B95Plus Systems

B26

B24

B22

B20

B28

Better Solution
v
v
v
v

B19

B20

B10

B12

B21

B8
B6
B4
B2
B19

B23

B9

B25

B7

B27

B5

B31

B3

B32

Two B95Plus
24 Bricks
2 bus zones per B95Plus
Check zone not possible

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 127
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Breaker-and-a-half

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 128
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Conclusions

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 129
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Conclusions
B30

For smaller busbars (up to 6


feeders, 2 Zones)
Single chassis providing threephase bus differential protection,
logic and I/O capabilities
Isolator monitoring may be done in
FlexLogic if required
End Fault Protection may be
provided using FlexLogic if
required
Additional security can be
provided (fewer feeders in zone)
Inter-relay communications
supported for additional I/O

B90 and B95Plus

For large, complex busbars (up to


24 feeders, 6 Zones)
(B90)Multiple chassis for singlephase bus differential, plus extra
IEDs for dynamic bus replica,
breaker fail
Internal full-feature isolator
monitoring provided
24 End Fault Protection elements
provided (B90 and B95Plus)
Additional security can be
provided (fewer feeders in zone)
Inter-relay communications
supported for additional I/O
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 130
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Conclusions
B30 is limited in scope to small busbars, therefore application is
fairly simple and straightforward
B90 designed to be applied to large complex busbars, therefore
application can be quite complicated:
Multiple B90s:
Protection Algorithm processing
Dynamic Bus Replica logic
Isolator monitoring
Breaker Failure
Inter-relay Communication schemes for I/O transfer, inter-tripping

GE Multilin can provide a complete engineered B90


System Solution, based on specific customer
application & requirements
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 131
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Conclusions
B30, B90 and B95Plus provide secure, high performance bus
differential protection for reconfigurable busbars using the same
proven algorithms
Both B30 and B90 are members of the Universal Relay (UR) family,
with common configuration and management tools for all relays:
EnerVista UR Setup: Universal configuration tool
EnerVista ViewPoint: software suite for all GE Multilin IEDs
Launchpad: Device Setup & Document Management
Engineer: Advanced Logic Design & Monitoring (Optional)
Maintenance: Troubleshooting & Reporting Tools (Optional)
Monitoring: Monitoring & Data Recording for Small Systems
(Optional)
www.GEMultilin.com
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 132
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Conclusion: B95Plus as Centralized DFR


DFR functionality includes an Event Recorder and Transient Recorder
Event Recorder
8,192 events on Main Card
8,192 events on each process card
Events viewable on HMI window or retrievable through setup software

Transient Recorder
Up to 50 records, up to 128 samples / cycle
Re-trigger capability to extend recording as additional triggers are
asserted
128 digital channels and triggers for Main card, each process card

Captures all bus source currents, voltage sources, differential and


restraint currents
All data reviewable through EnerVista B95Plus Setup Software
GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 133
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

Q&A

GE Digital Energy

Multilin
Page 134
2015-01-15 Rev. 2 JCT

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