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104

Materials Science and Engineering I

Introduction
Chuenhou(Hao) Ouyang

(houyang@mx.nthu.edu.tw)
A411
Time:
W7W8Th7
Th8

English course
Presentations & Discussions

Based on the note of Prof. An-Chou Yeh/Andrew()

(Course Description)
The lecture schedule of Materials Science and Engineering I is every
week at W7W8Th7 sessions, and the Th8 session is flexible for lectures
and recitation classes.
The course content consists of the most fundamental aspects of
materials science; it provides you necessary prerequisite knowledge to
understand properties of various materials, including metals, ceramics,
polymers, composites, semiconductors, magnetic materials, optical
materials, and biomaterialsetc.
It is also an introduction course, which can lead you to various core
courses for further studies such as thermodynamics of materials,
diffusion and phase transformation, crystallographyetc. So I urge you
to pay the most attention in this class, since this course lays out the
foundation of your study in the field of materials science and
engineering for the following four years.

(Text Book)
:
William F. Smith and Javad Hashemi, "Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering," Fifth
SI Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2011. ISBN:978-007-131114-4
(References)
Charles Kittel,Thermal Physics, (free download)
Paul Shewmon,Diffusion in Solids 2/e, ISBN : 0-87339-105-5
R.W.Cahn, P. Haasen,Physical Metallurgy,4 /e ISBN(free download) : 978-0-444-89875-3
Charles Kittel,Introduction to Solid State Physics 8/e, ISBN : 0-471-68057-5
(Teaching Method)
- PowerPoint Slides/Class notes/Hand-writings
(Class Rules)
-NO Eating/NO Drinking/BE Punctual
(How will you be graded in this course?)
-Mid Term Exam (twice) : 50%
-End of Term Exam : 30%
-Recap Questions (QUIZ) ,: 20%
(Teaching Assistants)
: ken810304@gmail.com
: orange3058@yahoo.com.tw
Office hours:
students)

Tuesday pm19:00~pm21:00 or by appointment (Th8, if more than 20

The Mars Rovers - Spirit and


Opportunity

Spirit and Opportunity are made up of materials such as


* Metals * Ceramics * Composites * Polymers * Semiconductors
4

www.nasa.gov

Introduction
What are materials?
Materials may be defined as substance of which something is
composed or made, and we can obtain materials from earth crust and
atmosphere.
For examples :
Silicon and Iron constitute 27.72 and 5.00 percentage of weight of
earths crust respectively. Nitrogen and Oxygen constitute 78.08 and
20.95 percentage of dry air by volume respectively. How can Nitrogen
and Oxygen be considered as materials? Think about various forms of
nitrides () and oxides () being used for engineering
applications; Nitrogen and Oxygen are main constituent elements in
these phases.
Everything around you are materials, by studying materials science and
engineering(+physics, chemistry), you will become the master of all
things in life!

Why the study of Materials Science and Engineering is important? (Apart from getting good
exam mark in this course^^)
Production and processing of materials constitute a large part of our economy, especially in
Taiwan (electronic industries/metal industries/ chemical industries/secondary processings
industriesetc). Engineers choose materials to suite their design (e.g. what types of materials
are used to build cars?).
New materials are always needed for some new applications, for examples:
High temperature resistant materials for more efficient jet engines.
Lighter and stronger materials space applications.
Antibacterial materials for medical applications: against superbug.
Semiconductor
Magnetic Films
Modification of properties might be needed for some applications, i.e. properties of materials
can be fine-tuned for specific application, for example: Application of heat treatment to modify
properties of materials.

The study of Materials Science is a triangle relationship between Structure-ProcessingProperties, which is called the golden triangle of Materials Science, Figure 1.

Figure 1. The Golden Triangle of Materials Science

Property (electronic structures)


Interface property by Nano-scaled EELS
5500

Intensity (a.u.)

5000

P1
P2
P3
P4
P5

L edge

4500
4000

1nm

3500

E H
2

2
H

i
2me i
2
1
ZI e
1
e2


n i , I ri RI 2 i j ri rj

0 .2 n m

3000
2500
2000
1500

1000
600

700

800

900

1000

Energy Loss (e.V.)

2
Z
Z
e
2
1
2

I I J
2 I J RI RJ
I 2M I

Processing

Electrons: by lower case subscripts


Nuclei: by upper case subscripts

Microstructure

1100

1st-principles calculation(Input: atomspositions)


Property

n i,I

E H 1st-principles analysis
2

i
2me i
2
2
ZI e
1
e

ri RI 2 i j ri rj

2
Z
Z
e
2
1
2

I I J
2 I J RI RJ
I 2M I

Processing

Microstructure

CrO2-half metal

Fermi level

10

CrO2 spin up
CrO2 spin down

DOS(states/energy)

8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

Band gap

-8
-10
-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

Energy(ev)

10

CrO2-half metal

APL, 91, 252506, 2007

Materials science deals with basic knowledge about the internal structure, properties
and processing of materials.
Materials engineering deals with the application of knowledge gained by materials
science to convert materials to products.
The relationship between Materials Science and Materials Engineering is illustrated as
the following Figure 2:

Figure 2

Why do we need to merge these two fields together?


Only materials science with no application, the materials have no value.(only few
scientists)
Only system design with no knowledge of materials, the system can not be practical!

Types of Materials
Metallic Materials
It can be pure element or Alloys (composed of more than one elements), the
classification is shown in Figure 3.
Example: Iron, Copper, Aluminum, Magnesium alloys, Superalloysetc.
Metallic element may combine with nonmetallic elements.
Example: Niobium carbides for strengthening
Metals are inorganic and mainly have crystalline structures (crystalline structures
are how atoms or molecular can be arranged in materials).
Metals are generally good thermal and electrical conductors. (Why?)

Figure 3. The classification of Metallic Materials.

Polymeric (Plastic) Materials


It has organic giant molecules and mostly noncrystalline. Some are mixtures of
crystalline and noncrystalline regions.
It is poor conductors of electricity and hence used as insulators.
Its strength and ductility can vary significantly.
It has low densities and decomposition temperatures, i.e. low meting temperatures.
Example: polyethylene (PE): applications include bottles and packaging,
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): .applications include wire insulation and floor mats.
Ceramic Materials
Its composition can have metallic and nonmetallic elements chemically bonded
together (Al2O3, MgAl2O4, CaTiO3, SiC, Si3N4etc). It is inorganic, can be either
crystalline, noncrystalline or mixture of both (e.g. glass). It has high hardness, strength
and wear resistance.
Ceramics can be very good insulator, hence it can be used for furnace lining for heat
treatment and melting metals. Other applications include construction materials,
abrasive materialsetc.
Composite Materials
Its structure consists of mixture of two or more materials. It consists of a filler
material and a binding material. These constituent materials only bond to each other
at the interfaces, they are not dissolved in each other.
There are mainly two types of composite materials:

Fibrous: Fibers in a matrix, and Particulate: Particles in a matrix (Matrix can be metals,
ceramic or polymer)
Examples : Fiber Glass ( Reinforcing material in a polyester or epoxy matrix), Concrete
(steel rods reinforced in cement and sand), Applications: Aircraft wings, construction.
Electronic Materials
For example, silicon (Si) is a common electronic material (semiconductor). Its
characteristics can be modified by adding impurities.
Examples: silicon chips, transistors. Applications include computers, integrated
circuitsetc.
Smart Materials
It can change its properties by sensing external stimulus.
Examples: Shape memory alloys used in the artery stents (Figure 4).

Figure 4

Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials are defined by size less than 100 nm. For examples: nano grain
structure, nano particles, nano fibresetc.
Materials with nanostructure have special properties, such as very hard, strong.
Competition Among Materials
Different types of materials compete with each other to exist in the new market. Over
a period of time, usage of different materials changes depending on cost and
performance. New, cheaper or better materials replace the old materials when there is
a breakthrough in technology. For example, car body and frame (Figure 5), Al alloys are
replacing Steels.

Case Study Material Selection


Select suitable material from the followings for the bicycle frame application:

Steel and
alloys

Wood

Carbon fiber
Reinforced
plastic

Homework:1.5, 1.9, 1.15, 1.20, 1.26, 1.31

Aluminum
alloys

Ti and Mg
alloys