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# Designing A Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchanger

## Cheresources.com Community -> Student -> Problem On Designing A Sheel-And-Tu

Kogara
Posted 30 December 2010 - 08:09 PM

Hello, I'm a third year chemical engineering student and i have to desig
exchanger.
My two fluids are:
Tube side: Acetic acid at 8.90kg/s (from 303 to 343K).
Shell side: Water at 2.5kg/s (from 350 to 310K).

## This is my problem: When i want to find the correlation factor F, I do th

found R = 1 and S = 0.85.

When i have a look to the chart , i can see that this value of S is after th
lecture of my teacher who said: If F>0.75 inachievable, use single tub
use this F = 1 and Np = 1.
I found an area A = 125.208 m.

The problem is when i do the calculation of the tube side velocity, i fou
0.234m/s and the suggested range is between 1 and 2 m/s.

## This is because i use Np = 1 because when i use Np = 6 or 8, my heat e

So I really don't know what can i do for finding my tube side velocity b
single tube side pass.

I hope someone is going to help me about that and if i'm not clear, I ca
want.

breizh
Posted 31 December 2010 - 01:05 AM

HI ,
Let you try this resource ,it should help you : F calculation versus type
heat exchanger.
http://www.chemsof.com/exch/exch.htm
Hope this helps

Kogara
Posted 31 December 2010 - 12:59 PM

Breizh:

Thanks for your answer, I try the software but its saying "temperature c
data". And I dont know how can i avoid this problem.

Zauberberg
Posted 31 December 2010 - 01:55 PM

## If temperature cross is occurring, there is a heat balance issue and you

Temperature cross means that the cold fluid outlet temperature is highe
temperature, and if you look at your process data there is imbalance be
For given process information, calculated duty on the hot side (acetic a
side duty is 419 kW.
In simple words, you need to increase the hot fluid (water) flow if you
stream up to 343 degK.

As for the FT correction factor, you have to take into account what type
you are considering for this application. If you are designing for 7 deg
will not do the work.

Art Montemayor
Posted 31 December 2010 - 05:03 PM

Kogara:

Besides not communicating well, you are failing to state what specific
other words, you fail to state and identify your problem in a concise and
than anything else is probably leading you astray and confusing you in
logical, engineering manner. I am being frank and candid with you beca
to identify yourself as a 3rd year student and I am concerned that you s
communicating your work problems in a correct manner. You may bas
you are trying to do, but your inability to describe it thoroughly is also
makes you do unnecesary and incorrect decisions. Do not misinterpret
your work up to now. My intention is to clearly show you how you are
statements and analyses and going down the wrong road to a solution
get a correct orientation and definition of what you are trying to do:

## Refer to Donald Q. Kerns famous classic textbook on the subject: Proc

Hill Publishers, 1950; page 139, the true temperature difference of a
derriving in detail the Correction Factor parameters, R and S, Kern
detail - explain: Accordingly it is not advisable or practical to use a
correction factor FT is computed to be less than 0.75. Instead, some
which more closely resembles counte rflow.

statements and analyses and going down the wrong road to a solution
get a correct orientation and definition of what you are trying to do:

## Refer to Donald Q. Kerns famous classic textbook on the subject: Proc

Hill Publishers, 1950; page 139, the true temperature difference of a
derriving in detail the Correction Factor parameters, R and S, Kern
detail - explain: Accordingly it is not advisable or practical to use a
correction factor FT is computed to be less than 0.75. Instead, some
which more closely resembles counte rflow.

You have failed to tell us the basic data straight up-front: you are trying
pass tube side heat exchanger. You have also failed to state which TEM
applying. (you obviously have not used our SEARCH engine and found
where I list all the TEMA heat exchanger configurations and types. Yo

## What you are obviously trying to avoid is A TEMPERATURE CROS

your post. I dont know whether you are aware of this important fact or
should be well aware of a temperature cross effect in a heat exchanger.

Of course a tubeside fluid velocity of 0.234 m/s is much too low and yo
suggested velocity of 1 to 2 m/s. You do this just as Kern suggests: US
CONFIGURATION . I would try a BFM type. I personally do not usu
shell in real applications, but this is an academic exercise. You could a
heat exchangers in series, one mounted on top of the other. If you used
sketches and calculations, I could easily sketch you the actual configura
more a thousand words of trying to describe what I mean.

When you discover that you have to increase your tubeside velocity, yo
number of tubes you use per pass. but you can also LENGTHEN THE
length of the tubes). This effect gives you more area per pass which m
REDUCE THE NUMBER OF TUBES! So, as you can see, you have
the problem. There are more ways than one to skin a cat.

## But it is basically a need to master the knowledge and description of wh

in doing that, you have to develop your communicating skills in describ
urge you to obtain a copy of Don Kerns classic book and study it well
you. You do not have a difficult problem. You have a difficulty in descr

Kogara
Posted 01 January 2011 - 03:11 PM

communicating about what i want and explain it well and my other one

First, english is not my native language (I'm french) and I'm really sorry
this my first year in chemical engineering, I was studying materials e
I'm not aware of some specifications like "temperature cross".
My aim is to build a shell- and-tube heat exchanger with two fluids:
Water (350 310 K and 2.5 kg/s)
Acetic acid (303 343 K and flowrate unknown ).
For finding the properties I need, I use different sources:
Perryschemical engineers handbook 7th ed,

First, english is not my native language (I'm french) and I'm really sorry
this my first year in chemical engineering, I was studying materials e
I'm not aware of some specifications like "temperature cross".
My aim is to build a shell- and-tube heat exchanger with two fluids:
Water (350 310 K and 2.5 kg/s)
Acetic acid (303 343 K and flowrate unknown ).
For finding the properties I need, I use different sources:
Perryschemical engineers handbook 7th ed,
Thermodynamicsand transport properties of fluids (Fifth edition) and
Coulson& Richardsons Chemical Engineering Vol. 6.
The result on my researches is this one:
Water (shell side) from 350K to 310K:
- k = 0.650 W/mK. - Pr = 3.126.
- = 0.000485 Pa.s. - Rf = 0.00020 mK/W.
- Cp = 4183.07 J/kg.K. - m = 2.5 kg/s.
- = 984.45 kg/m 3.

Duty is Q = 2.5 4183.07 (350310) = 418 307 Watts -> Aim to tra
Acetic acid (tube side) from 303K to343K:
- k = 0.167 W/mK. - Pr = 5.59.
- = 0.000795Pa.s. - Rf = 0.00018 mK/W.

## For finding the flowrate of acetic acid:

m' = Q'/Cp (Tout- Tin) = 418307/1174.61(343-303) = 8.90 kg/s.

I can found a problem here now because in your excel file Zauberberg,
J/kgK. I use a formulae with 4 differents coefficients in Coulson & Ric
Vol. 6. for finding this Cp value (and the Pr value) but maybe it's not rig
value, it's sure that I can't achieve it.

## After that, I found a DeltaTlm = 7, a R = 1 and a S = 0.85, F is inachiev

to use a single tube-side pass (Np = 1) :"This is directly coming of the

## I found after that I have to use a BEM exchanger (a fixed tubesheet de

I do the calculation for A = Q'/Usugg.F.DeltaT = 460138/530 x 1 x 7 =
Usuggested = 530 W/mK.

## We started the design with L = 4.88 m, do = 20 mm:

Area of one tube = 4.88 0.020 = 0.3066 m
Number of tubes needed = 124.03 0.3066 = 405
Uestimate = Q'/Nt.At.F DeltaT = 460138/405x0.3066 x 1 x 7 = 529.37W

## Now, it's the time for the tubeside velocity:

ut = (4.m't.Np)/(rhot.pi.di.Nt) = (4 x 8.90 x 1)/(1018 x pix 0.016x405)
Suggested ranges: 1 to 2 m/s. I built an excel spreadsheet with all those
but with this number of passes = 1 the maximum tubeside velocity that
maybe have errors on my original date but i don't think its going to cha
description is more clear for you and you're understanding where is my

## We started the design with L = 4.88 m, do = 20 mm:

Area of one tube = 4.88 0.020 = 0.3066 m
Number of tubes needed = 124.03 0.3066 = 405
Uestimate = Q'/Nt.At.F DeltaT = 460138/405x0.3066 x 1 x 7 = 529.37W

## Now, it's the time for the tubeside velocity:

ut = (4.m't.Np)/(rhot.pi.di.Nt) = (4 x 8.90 x 1)/(1018 x pix 0.016x405)
Suggested ranges: 1 to 2 m/s. I built an excel spreadsheet with all those
but with this number of passes = 1 the maximum tubeside velocity that
maybe have errors on my original date but i don't think its going to cha
description is more clear for you and you're understanding where is my
help again.

Heat Exchanger

m 303 to 343K).
0 to 310K).

## this value of S is after the "R=1" curve. Following the

achievable, use single tube-side pass; then F become 1

1 and 2 m/s.

## g my tube side velocity between 1 and 2 if I have to use a

and if i'm not clear, I can add all the informations you

problem.

## utlet temperature is higher than the hot fluid inlet

data there is imbalance between hot- and cold-side duties.
y on the hot side (acetic acid) is 775 kW, while the cold
fluid (water) flow if you want to heat the Acetic acid

## ke into account what type/configuration of heat exchanger

u are designing for 7 degC temperature approach, E-shell

## ng to state what specifically you are trying to do. In

r problem in a concise and accurate manner. That, more
ray and confusing you in attacking your problem in a
and candid with you because you have been kind enough
am concerned that you should already be organizing and
ect manner. You may basically know and understand what
ribe it thoroughly is also a weakness that confuses you and
ons. Do not misinterpret my comments as derrogatory of
ly show you how you are making wrong engineering
wrong road to a solution. Lets go back to pure basics to
t you are trying to do:

book on the subject: Process Heat Transfer, McGrawmperature difference of a 1-2 heat exchanger. After
meters, R and S, Kern goes on to carefully - and in
able or practical to use a 1-2 exchanger whever the
han 0.75. Instead, some other arrangement is required

## wrong road to a solution. Lets go back to pure basics to

t you are trying to do:

book on the subject: Process Heat Transfer, McGrawmperature difference of a 1-2 heat exchanger. After
meters, R and S, Kern goes on to carefully - and in
able or practical to use a 1-2 exchanger whever the
han 0.75. Instead, some other arrangement is required

ht up-front: you are trying to apply a 1-pass shell with a 2failed to state which TEMA configuration you are
EARCH engine and found my heat transfer workbook
figurations and types. You should do this ASAP)

## EMPERATURE CROSS. Yet, you fail to identify this in

e of this important fact or not, but I highly stress that you
ffect in a heat exchanger.

## /s is much too low and you should be applying the

just as Kern suggests: USE A DIFFERENT TEMA
pe. I personally do not usually recommend an F type of
mic exercise. You could also design the system to have two
of the other. If you used an Excel Workbook to do your
h you the actual configuration which would save us both
what I mean.

## your tubeside velocity, you are forced to reduce the

n also LENGTHEN THE SHELL (and consequently the
e area per pass which means you can guess what?
as you can see, you have other tools you can use to solve
skin a cat.

## dge and description of what you are trying to apply. And

unicating skills in describing what you are trying to do. I
ic book and study it well particularly the pages I cited to
have a difficulty in describing your problem and that is

## montemayor, now I think I've got two problems, one is

it well and my other one is maybe my initials data.

ench) and I'm really sorry for the mistakes and secondly,
I was studying materials engineering in France, it's for that
mperature cross".

## anger with two fluids:

own ).

nt sources:

ench) and I'm really sorry for the mistakes and secondly,
I was studying materials engineering in France, it's for that
mperature cross".

own ).

nt sources:

g Vol. 6.

## ur excel file Zauberberg, you insert a Cp value of 2180

ficients in Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering
alue) but maybe it's not right. So if I start with wrong

## d a S = 0.85, F is inachievable so it becomes 1

s is directly coming of the lecture of my teacher".

## T = 460138/530 x 1 x 7 = 124.03 m. I found before that

0 mm:
m
405
x0.3066 x 1 x 7 = 529.37W/mK.

## )/(1018 x pix 0.016x405) = 0.107 m/s.

spreadsheet with all those points plus Re plus
um tubeside velocity that i can found is 0.229 m/s. I
on't think its going to change my velocity to 1. I hope this
nderstanding where is my problem. Thanks you for you

0 mm:
m
405
x0.3066 x 1 x 7 = 529.37W/mK.

## )/(1018 x pix 0.016x405) = 0.107 m/s.

spreadsheet with all those points plus Re plus
um tubeside velocity that i can found is 0.229 m/s. I
on't think its going to change my velocity to 1. I hope this
nderstanding where is my problem. Thanks you for you

Area of a tube
1.83
2.44
3.66
4.88
6.1
7.32

0.016
0.0920
0.1226
0.1840
0.2453
0.3066
0.3679

0.02
0.1150
0.1533
0.2300
0.3066
0.3833
0.4599

0.025
0.1437
0.1916
0.2875
0.3833
0.4791
0.5749

0.03
0.1725
0.2300
0.3449
0.4599
0.5749
0.6899

1.83
2.44
3.66
4.88
6.1
7.32

0.016
1348
1011
674
506
405
337

0.02
1079
809
539
405
324
270

0.025
863
647
431
324
259
216

0.03
719
539
360
270
216
180

1.83
2.44
3.66
4.88
6.1
7.32

0.016
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98

0.02
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98

0.025
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98

0.03
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98

Nt

Uest

0.038
0.2185
0.2913
0.4369
0.5826
0.7282
0.8739

0.05
0.2875
0.3833
0.5749
0.7665
0.9582
1.1498

0.038
568
426
284
213
170
142

0.05
431
324
216
162
129
108

0.038
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98

0.05
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98
529.98

d0
di

0.016
0.012

Np

ut

0.02
0.016

1.83
2.44
3.66
4.88
6.1
7.32

0.016
0.057
0.076
0.115
0.153
0.191
0.229

0.02
0.040
0.054
0.081
0.107
0.134
0.161

1.83
2.44
3.66
4.88
6.1
7.32

0.016
881
1175
1762
2349
2936
3524

0.02
826
1101
1652
2202
2753
3304

1.83
2.44
3.66
4.88
6.1
7.32

0.016
10.9
13.5
18.3
22.7
26.8
30.7

0.02
10.6
13.1
17.7
21.9
25.9
29.6

1.83
2.44
3.66
4.88
6.1
7.32

0.016
152.18
188.56
255.05
316.01
373.17
427.46

0.02
110.12
136.44
184.56
228.67
270.05
309.32

Re

Nu

hi

0.025
0.021

0.03
0.026

0.038
0.034

0.05
0.046

0.025
0.029
0.039
0.059
0.078
0.098
0.117

0.03
0.023
0.031
0.046
0.061
0.076
0.092

0.038
0.017
0.023
0.034
0.045
0.057
0.068

0.05
0.012
0.016
0.024
0.033
0.041
0.049

0.025
787
1049
1573
2097
2622
3146

0.03
762
1016
1525
2033
2541
3049

0.038
738
985
1477
1969
2461
2954

0.05
718
958
1436
1915
2394
2873

0.025
10.3
12.8
17.3
21.4
25.3
28.9

0.03
10.2
12.6
17.0
21.1
24.9
28.5

0.038
10.1
12.5
16.9
20.9
24.7
28.2

0.05
10.0
12.4
16.8
20.8
24.5
28.1

0.025
81.91
101.48
137.27
170.08
200.84
230.06

0.03
65.28
80.89
109.41
135.57
160.08
183.37

0.038
49.39
61.19
82.78
102.56
121.11
138.73

0.05
36.30
44.98
60.84
75.38
89.01
101.96

Shell Side

Tube Sice

Water

Acetic Acid

Inlet T, K
Outlet T, K
m, kg/s
Cp, kJ/kgK
dT, K

350
310
2.5
4.183
40

303
343
8.9
1.175
40

Q, kW

418.3

418.3

310.0 K

## Recalculated inlet temperature of water

350.0 K

or
Calculated outlet temperature of acetic acid

R =

1.0000

P =

0.8511

343.0 K

These parameters do not yield a workable F Correction Factor (as seen in F Graph)

QH = mH CPH(Tin -

Tout

## QC = mC CPC (tout - tin)

For perfect balance, QH = QC
OK

as seen in F Graph)

( T 1 T 2 ) Range
R=
=
t
t
( 2 1 ) Range

of Shell Fluid
of Tube Fluid

( t 2 t 1 )
Range of Tube F
P=
=
( T 1t 1 ) Maximum Temperature

hell Fluid
ube Fluid

ge of Tube Fluid
Temperature Difference

## 2.5 kg/s Water, 36.85

Kogara calculates the required total heat transfer area, A =
Recommended tubeside fluid velocity =

125.2
1.5

## Using 3/4" OD tubes, 14 BWG (2.1mm wall thickness)

Flow area per tube =

0.268 in2 =

1.72903

Surface area =

0.1963 ft =

182.369

8.9 kg/sec

1,049 kg/m3 =

8,484 cm3/sec

0.001049 kg/cm3

57 tubes

103,151 cm2 =

10.3

## Heat transfer area in 20-ft long shell =

206,302 cm =

20.6

From these preliminary calculations, it can be established that a BEM TEMA type of heat exchanger is
appropriate type because of the Temperature Cross that takes place and the multiple exchangers qua
required to make the total area, stacked as shown in the above sketch is SIX units.
Each shell diamter is estimated as 12". Allowing 12" for the nozzles, this makes the height of each she
This means that if six BEMs are stacked as shown, the total height of the assembly would be 6 x2 = 12

This type of configuration is frequently found in MEA heat exchangers in order to avoid a temperature
In that application, normally two BEMs are stacked together and suffice to avoid the temperature cross
However, in this application, the quantity of units is 3 times that and the height might be a deterrent to
BEM type of exchanger in this application.

m2
m/sec

cm2
cm2

10 feet

16 feet
m2
m

## pe of heat exchanger is not the

ultiple exchangers quantity

## s the height of each shell 24".

mbly would be 6 x2 = 12 feet = 3.7 meters.

## to avoid a temperature cross.

d the temperature cross.
might be a deterrent to use the

20 feet

## 2.5 kg/s Water, 36.85 oC

The BFM TEMA type of heat exchanger allows for a single shell to have multiple shell passes by introd
(or multiple horizontal baffles). This type of construction allows the designer to incorporate the pre-set
yield the desired tube fluid velocity in each tube pass.
If the tube side fluid velocity is set at 1.5 m/sec (4.92126 ft/sec) and the tubes are also set as 3/4"OD,
heat exchanger can be estimated, based on the total heat transfer area calculated.
Kogara calculates the required total heat transfer area, A =
Quantity of 3/4" tubes for 1.5 m/sec =
Heat transfer area in 20-ft long tubes =

125.2
57 tubes

206,302 cm2 =

20.6

## Quantity of tube passes required in one heat exchanger shell =

Note that in order to maintain the specified fluid velocity in the tubes, the quantity of tube passes is fixe
It is possible to fabricate a BFM type of exchanger with 6 tube passes, but in a practical sense this see
be too much welding within one shell. Two duplicate BFMs stacked together would be a much more p
and workable solution.

85 oC

85 oC

## e shell passes by introducing a horizontal baffle

incorporate the pre-set number of tubes that

m2
m2/pass
6

## ity of tube passes is fixed at 6.

practical sense this seems to
ould be a much more practical