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1.

Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of constant current and constant voltage
characteristics.

In the welding process, we need the power source to give electric power for the machine.
And then, we need to adjust the suitable the power to get good performance and important in
the parameter of the welding. So, there are two basically different types of welding power are
constant current (CC) or constant voltage (CV).
Welding
process
Output type

SMAW

GTAW(TIG)

GMAW(MIG)

Plasma arc

MAG

CC

CC

CV

CC

CV

Constant voltage characteristics is when voltage is set at the machine and amperage is
determined by the speed that the wires is fed to the welding gun and usually are used in
welding with solid and flux cored electrodes

Constant voltage
Advantage

Disadvantage

The weld voltage on a CV power


supply will sustain a constant arc
length, because arc length is directly
proportional to weld voltage.

Wire feed speed was dont longer


maintain, but sort of it continually
rises and declines in try to retain
current at a constant output.

Wire feeders for CV machine has


extra electric circuit. It can reduce
speed the wire feeder speed reaction to
changes in voltage, in seek a stabile
the arc.

Amperage was determine by the


speed that the wire was fed to the
welding gun and the voltage is was at
the machine.

Voltage variations experienced with


constant current productivity a less
sensitive to gas-shielded flux cored
and spray arc or pulse spray arc
GMAW because voltage differs with
constant current output, that methods
commonly work at upper voltages.

Methods such as GMAW and gasshielded flux cored, that standard


work at lower voltage settings are
more sensitive to voltage
variations. While arc stability is much
worse and generally considered
unacceptable.

When the wire was fed at constant


speed in an automatic process, a selfregulating system can be determined

Arc Current was proportional to feed

speed.
The arc stability a good through the
GMAW method, gas-shielded flux
cored (FCAW-G) method, the MAG
and MIG.

Potentially result in weld porosity and


a sharp decrease in the weld metals
low temperature impact toughness due
to FCAW-S electrodes taking place
constant current productivity was that
excessive arc voltages.

Constant current characteristics are variant of the voltage through an electronic circuit to
sustain a constant electric current and have a moderately little difference in amperage and arc
power for a equivalent moderately large difference in arc length and arc voltage. Usually are
being used largely with covered electrodes.
Constant Current
Advantages

It is can vary the arc voltage


somewhat by raising or lowering
the arc length.
Arc stability would be good with
GMAW methods whenever in a
sprayed pulse arc or spray arc type
of metal transfer and the gas
sheltered flux cored FCAW-G
methods.
Less sensitive to voltage variations,
so that the arc stability is good
when voltage differs with constant
current output, methods that mostly
run at greater voltages, for example
24V or more, thereby you can fit it
into the joint on a steady ratio.
Suitable for manual methods
(SMAW and GTAW methods).
This means that all welding
variables such as, travel speed ,
travel angle, and work angle.

Disadvantages

Weld with the GMAW or FCAW


methods, as voltage lowered, the
electrode can be stub through the
plate and arc length can be shorter.

Arc length can be very elongated and


the electrode could burn near the tip
contacted as the voltage rose.

Arc stability is worse in methods such


as minor circuit FCAW-S and MIG
that are normally run at lesser voltage
sets such as 22V or lower are extra
complex to voltage differences.

FCAW-S electrodes can cause


extreme arc voltages and causes
elongated arc can in fact be expressed
arc into the atmosphere, thus can
possibly effect in porosity welded and
a severe fall in the metals wear little
heat impact hardiness.

2.

How magnetic pinch occurred and how it effects to the welding qualities?

Magnetic pinch effect is a constriction of electrical flow created by the magnetic field at
the tip of an electrode which is produced by a parallel stream of electricity. It is a necking of
current flow on parallel conductors due to attracting force between the conductors that makes the
arc shrink. The magnetic pinch is useful for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) due to it can give
cleaner metal transfer with little spatters by short circuiting of the current to a moderate value.
The pinch effect can be control depends on the current and area. Make sure the slope is not too
steep as the current will become low and the unmelted filler will attach to the base metal. The
pinch effect regulate the metal transfer to be use as dip transfer, spray arc transfer or pulse arc
transfer of welding feature.
The magnetic pinch can affect welding quality if the pinch is not correctly controlled. The
pinch effect cause one drop of filler electrode detaches from the electrode to the base metal. It
controls the size of the droplet which affects the weld area. Pulse arc welding is one type of
welding that optimizes the magnetic pinch effect to create a good quality welding. Besides that,
the magnetic pinch effects can give high current droplets to be able to penetrate deep enough at
the weld pool. Thus, give the ability to create a strong welding joint due to the molten metal able
to penetrate deep inside the base metal. Usually, if the parameters are well controlled, the quality
of the welding is high. Therefore, the best setting to obtain good quality welding is depend on the
current as the current is the one which cause the magnetic pinch. The design of the nozzle also
affects the quality of the welding.
As a conclusion, the magnetic field is caused by increment of amperage where current
density and radial constriction also increase. Thus, create a pinch that constricts the parallel
current flow at the tip of the electrode that produce droplet of molten metal. The value of the
current supply affects the magnetic pinch and also the droplet of filler electrode.

3. Discuss the polarity of GTAW which are DCEN, DCEP, DCSP as well as AC. When it is
suitable to use this characteristic?

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) contains Tungsten Electrode which can have a
contact with Direct Current (DC) power supply. It is connected to the positive (+) or at the
negative (-) terminal. First, the connection is for the Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) or
called reverse polarity. Second, the connection is for the Direct Current Electrode Negative
(DCEN) or called straight polarity.
In DCEP, 30% of the heat is concentrated at the workpiece while another 70% of the heat
goes to the tungsten electrode. DCEP has shallow penetration but wide weld area. In DCEN,
reverse of DCEP, 70% of heat is concentrated to the workpiece while 30% is concentrated at the
tungsten electrode. DCEN has deeper penetration than DCEP but narrow weld area.
The heat generated in electric arc is not uniformly distributed. For the heat distribution,
using same current, one has to use larger electrode in DCEP rather than in DCEN. DCEP is used
to weld thin sheet metal where low current is needed. DCEN can be used in weld for all metal
except aluminium and magnesium. This is because DCEN cannot do cleansing action or cathodic
etching due to oxide coating.
In conclusion, DCEN is widely used for most other applications with higher current due
to the deeper penetration with narrow weld area. DCEP is used for welding sheet metal due to
the electrode limited current carrying capacity which gives shallow penetration but wide weld
area.