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LECTURE30and31
DeflectionofBeams
Introduction:
Inallpracticalengineeringapplications,whenweusethedifferentcomponents,normallywehavetooperatethemwithin
thecertainlimitsi.e.theconstraintsareplacedontheperformanceandbehaviorofthecomponents.Forinstancewesay
thattheparticularcomponentissupposedtooperatewithinthisvalueofstressandthedeflectionofthecomponentshould
notexceedbeyondaparticularvalue.
In some problems the maximum stress however, may not be a strict or severe condition but there may be the deflection
whichisthemorerigidconditionunderoperation.Itisobviousthereforetostudythemethodsbywhichwecanpredictthe
deflectionofmembersunderlateralloadsortransverseloads,sinceitisthisformofloadingwhichwillgenerallyproduce
thegreatestdeflectionofbeams.
Assumption:The following assumptions are undertaken in order to derive a differential equation of elastic curve for the
loadedbeam
1.Stressisproportionaltostraini.e.hookslawapplies.Thus,theequationisvalidonlyforbeamsthatarenot
stressedbeyondtheelasticlimit.
2.Thecurvatureisalwayssmall.
3.Anydeflectionresultingfromthesheardeformationofthematerialorshearstressesisneglected.
Itcanbeshownthatthedeflectionsduetosheardeformationsareusuallysmallandhencecanbeignored.

ConsiderabeamABwhichisinitiallystraightandhorizontalwhenunloaded.Ifundertheactionofloadsthebeamdeflectto
apositionA'B'underloadorinfactwesaythattheaxisofthebeambendstoashapeA'B'.ItiscustomarytocallA'B'the
curvedaxisofthebeamastheelasticlineordeflectioncurve.
Inthecaseofabeambentbytransverseloadsactinginaplaneofsymmetry,thebendingmomentMvariesalongthelength
of the beam and we represent the variation of bending moment in B.M diagram. Futher, it is assumed that the simple
bendingtheoryequationholdsgood.

Ifwelookattheelasticlineorthedeflectioncurve,thisisobviousthatthecurvatureateverypointisdifferenthencethe
slopeisdifferentatdifferentpoints.
Toexpressthedeflectedshapeofthebeaminrectangularcoordinatesletustaketwoaxesxandy,xaxiscoincidewiththe
originalstraightaxisofthebeamandtheyaxisshowsthedeflection.
Futher,letusconsideranelementdsofthedeflectedbeam.Attheendsofthiselementletusconstructthenormalwhich
intersectatpointOdenotingtheanglebetweenthesetwonormalbedi
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ButforthedeflectedshapeofthebeamtheslopeiatanypointCisdefined,

Thisisthedifferentialequationoftheelasticlineforabeamsubjectedtobendingintheplaneofsymmetry.Itssolutiony=
f(x)definestheshapeoftheelasticlineorthedeflectioncurveasitisfrequentlycalled.
Relationshipbetweenshearforce,bendingmomentanddeflection:Therelationshipamongshearforce,bendingmoment
anddeflectionofthebeammaybeobtainedas
Differentiatingtheequationasderived

Therefore,theaboveexpressionrepresentstheshearforcewhereasrateofintensityofloadingcanalsobefoundoutby
differentiatingtheexpressionforshearforce

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Methodsforfindingthedeflection:Thedeflectionoftheloadedbeamcanbeobtainedvariousmethods.Theoneofthe
methodforfindingthedeflectionofthebeamisthedirectintegrationmethod,i.e.themethodusingthedifferentialequation
whichwehavederived.
Directintegrationmethod:Thegoverningdifferentialequationisdefinedas

Where A and B are constants of integration to be evaluated from the known conditions of slope and deflections for the
particularvalueofx.
Illustrativeexamples:letusconsiderfewillustrativeexamplestohaveafamiliartywiththedirectintegrationmethod
Case1:CantileverBeamwithConcentratedLoadattheend:AcantileverbeamissubjectedtoaconcentratedloadWat
thefreeend,itisrequiredtodeterminethedeflectionofthebeam

Inordertosolvethisproblem,consideranyXsectionXXlocatedatadistancexfromtheleftendorthereference,andwrite
downtheexpressionsfortheshearforceabdthebendingmoment

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TheconstantsAandBarerequiredtobefoundoutbyutilizingtheboundaryconditionsasdefinedbelow
i.eatx=Ly=0(1)
atx=Ldy/dx=0(2)
Utilizingthesecondcondition,thevalueofconstantAisobtainedas

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Case2:ACantileverwithUniformlydistributedLoads:InthiscasethecantileverbeamissubjectedtoU.d.lwithrateof
intensityvaryingw/length.Thesameprocedurecanalsobeadoptedinthiscase

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Boundaryconditionsrelevanttotheproblemareasfollows:
1.Atx=Ly=0
2.Atx=Ldy/dx=0
Thesecondboundaryconditionsyields

Case3:SimplySupportedbeamwithuniformlydistributedLoads:Inthiscaseasimplysupportedbeamissubjectedtoa
uniformlydistributedloadwhoserateofintensityvariesasw/length.

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Inordertowritedowntheexpressionforbendingmomentconsideranycrosssectionatdistanceofxmetrefromleftend
support.

Boundaryconditionswhicharerelevantinthiscasearethatthedeflectionateachsupportmustbezero.
i.e.atx=0y=0:atx=ly=0
letusapplythesetwoboundaryconditionsonequation(1)becausetheboundaryconditionsareony,ThisyieldsB=0.
Futher

Inthiscasethemaximumdeflectionwilloccuratthecentreofthebeamwherex=L/2[i.e.atthepositionwheretheloadis
beingapplied].Soifwesubstitutethevalueofx=L/2
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Conclusions
(i)Thevalueoftheslopeatthepositionwherethedeflectionismaximumwouldbezero.
(ii)Thevalueofmaximumdeflectionwouldbeatthecentrei.e.atx=L/2.
Thefinalequationwhichisgovernsthedeflectionoftheloadedbeaminthiscaseis

Bysuccessivedifferentiationonecanfindtherelationsforslope,bendingmoment,shearforceandrateofloading.

Deflection(y)

Slope(dy/dx)

Sothebendingmomentdiagramwouldbe

BendingMoment

ShearForce
Shearforceisobtainedbytaking
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thirdderivative.

Rateofintensityofloading

Case4:Thedirectintegrationmethodmaybecomemoreinvolvediftheexpressionforentirebeamisnotvalidfortheentire
beam.Let us consider a deflection of a simply supported beam which is subjected to a concentrated load W acting at a
distance'a'fromtheleftend.

LetR1 &R2 bethereactionsthen,

Thesetwoequationscanbeintegratedintheusualwaytofindy'butthiswillresultinfourconstantsofintegrationtwofor
eachequation.Toevaluatethefourconstantsofintegration,fourindependentboundaryconditionswillbeneededsincethe
deflectionofeachsupportmustbezero,hencetheboundaryconditions(a)and(b)canberealized.
Further, since the deflection curve is smooth, the deflection equations for the same slope and deflection at the point of
applicationofloadi.e.atx=a.Thereforefourconditionsrequiredtoevaluatetheseconstantsmaybedefinedasfollows:
(a)atx=0y=0intheportionABi.e.0xa
(b)atx=ly=0intheportionBCi.e.axl
(c)atx=ady/dx,theslopeissameforbothportion
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(d)atx=ay,thedeflectionissameforbothportion
Bysymmetry,thereactionR1 isobtainedas

Usingcondition(c)inequation(3)and(4)showsthattheseconstantsshouldbeequal,henceletting
K1 =K2 =K
Hence

Nowlastlyk3 isfoundoutusingcondition(d)inequation(5)andequation(6),thecondition(d)isthat,
Atx=aythedeflectionisthesameforbothportion

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ALTERNATEMETHOD:Thereisalsoanalternativewaytoattemptthisprobleminamoresimplerway.Letusconsidering
theoriginatthepointofapplicationoftheload,

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Boundaryconditionsrelevantforthiscaseareasfollows
(i)atx=0dy/dx=0
hence,A=0
(ii)atx=l/2y=0(becausenowl/2isontheleftendorrightendsupportsincewehavetakentheoriginat
thecentre)

Hencetheintegrationmethodmaybebitcumbersomeinsomeofthecase.Anotherlimitationofthemethodwouldbethatif
thebeamisofnonuniformcrosssection,

i.e.itishavingdifferentcrosssectionthenthismethodalsofails.
Sothereareothermethodsbywhichwefindthedeflectionlike
1.Macaulay'smethodinwhichwecanwritethedifferentequationforbendingmomentfordifferentsections.
2.Areamomentmethods
3.Energyprinciplemethods

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