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GEOLOGIC MAPPING

2014 EVENT OVERVIEW

PRESENTED BY:

MARK A. VANHECKE
NATIONAL SCIENCE OLYMPIAD
EARTH-SPACE SCIENCE EVENT CHAIR
mvanhecke@comcast.net

PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES:
Identify event parameters for the 2014
Geologic Mapping Event
Identify the basic features of geologic
maps
Use a geologic map diagram to
construct a cross section and project
map features
Interpret a block diagram and order
rock strata from oldest to youngest

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING

EVENT OVERVIEW

2014 EVENT OVERVIEW


Identify basic features of geologic
maps
Interpret geologic map features
including intrusions, subsurface
geometries, deformation features and
subsurface depositional features
Identify folds, fault types and erosional
patterns
Construct fault sections, topographic
profiles, projections of mapped
features

2014 EVENT OVERVIEW


Identify structural elements shown in
geologic maps including synforms,
antiforms, basins, monoclines, domes
and saddles
Determine bed thicknesses, true dip
and orientations of planes from point

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING

WHAT IS A GEOLOGIC MAP?

WHAT ARE GEOLOGIC MAPS?


A geologic map shows:

Mappable Rock Layers


Mappable sediment layers
that cover up the rocks
Geologic structures
including folds, faults and
intrusions

Mappable rock layers are


recognized consistently across a
landscape

WHAT ARE GEOLOGIC MAPS?


Mappable units of rock and sediment may be identified
using letter symbols

WHAT ARE GEOLOGIC MAPS?


Mappable units of rock and sediment may also use
colors, patterns or combinations of letter symbols and
colors/patterns

GEOLOGY AND GEOLOGIC HISTORY

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

NATURAL RESOURCES

GEOHAZARDS

GROUNDWATER

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING

BASIC FEATURES
OF GEOLOGIC MAPS

GEOLOGIC MAPS

BASIC FEATURES OF GEOLOGIC MAPS


The basic features of a geologic map are the map itself
and the legend or key used to explain the symbols,
colors/patterns

STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMNS

CROSS SECTIONS

BLOCK DIAGRAMS

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING

DRAWING A CROSS SECTION

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


A geologic map identifies different rock types
and where they can be seen on the surface

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


A cross section of a geologic map is a vertical
slice of the Earths surface that shows what
the underlying geologic structure at that
location looks like

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


A cross section of a geologic map also shows
the boundaries between different types of rock
found on the surface

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


A cross section of a geologic map also shows
the orientation of rock layers where they
intersect the surface.
The orientation or direction of rock layers is
expressed as Strike and Dip.

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


Strike refers to the compass bearing
(direction) of a line formed by the intersection
of a horizontal plane and an inclined layer of
rock.
N

NE

Angle of the strike


is from NE to SW
SW
In a strike-dip symbol, the larger line refers to the
Strike

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


Dip refers to the angle between a horizontal
plane and the inclined stratum of rock, fault or
fracture

e
rik
t
S

Horizontal Plane

45

ne
Li

Dip Direction

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


In a strike-dip symbol, the smaller line indicates Dip

45

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


The location of the dip line in relation to the strike
line indicates the direction of the dip.

24
Rock layer dips to
the west

45
Rock layer dips to the
east

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


Solve the strike and dip problems given on Worksheet 1
Section 1

WORKSHEET 1: SECTION 1 ANSWERS


East

Strike

East

Dip

40

40

35

West

35

SE
40

NW

SE

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


Strike and Dip is usually expressed in bearings
(Quadrants)

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


Writing strike and dip coordinates
Strike= N45W
24
Dip= 24SW

43

Dip= 43N

Strike= N90E

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


On Worksheet 1 Section 2 measure the angle of strike
and write out the bearings for the strike and dip
measurements given

WORKSHEET 1: SECTION 2 ANSWERS

38
52

Strike = N44W (or S44E)


Dip= 52SW

Strike= N82E (or S82W)


Dip= 38NW

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


STEP 1

On Worksheet 2, draw a horizontal line just


below the diagram as shown below

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


STEP 2

Transfer all available information from the


diagram as shown to the line you just drew.

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


STEP 3

Indicate the locations of boundaries


between layers on the horizontal line as
shown

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


STEP 4

Use a protractor to measure the direction


and angle of the dip and draw a small line
on the horizontal line for each as shown

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


How are different outcrops of the same layer
connected?
How do dip angles and directions change
above and below the surface?

DRAWING A GEOLOGIC CROSS SECTION


STEP 5

Connect the boundary lines for each layer


as shown

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING

PRINCIPLES
OF STRATIGRAPHY

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING

INTERPRETING
A BLOCK DIAGRAM

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM


Block diagrams show different rock strata and changes
that have been made over time to their layering

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM

Original Horizontality
Superposition
Fault

Igneous Intrusion
Nonconformity

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM

OLDEST

YOUNGEST

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM


Disconformity
Original Horizontality
Superposition

Angular Disconformity

Igneous Intrusions
Nonconformity

Faults

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM

INTERPRETING A BLOCK DIAGRAM

OLDEST

YOUNGEST

2014 GEOLOGIC MAPPING

RESOURCES

RESOURCES
http://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/gmap/gmap3.html
USGS Geologic Maps. An excellent discussion of strike
and dip. It also provides a good introduction to map
keys.
http://
www.wwnorton.com/college/geo/geolab/animations.aspx
This web-based Norton Publishing Lab Manual for
Introductory Geology is filled with animations that show
the movements of geologic features that are identified on
many maps
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZHgxlh0PQ4
Excellent Video Series I used for the Block Diagram
Activities (three parts to series)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vgo8Z63n60g
Excellent description of drawing a Cross Section I used
for this activity