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C H A P T E R 1 0

Topics in Analytic Geometry


Section 10.1 Lines

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904

Section 10.2 Introduction to Conics: Parabolas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912


Section 10.3 Ellipses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922
Section 10.4 Hyperbolas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932
Section 10.5 Rotation of Conics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945
Section 10.6 Parametric Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 963
Section 10.7 Polar Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975
Section 10.8 Graphs of Polar Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985
Section 10.9 Polar Equations of Conics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995
Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005
Problem Solving
Practice Test

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027

C H A P T E R 1 0
Topics in Analytic Geometry
Section 10.1

Lines

The inclination of a nonhorizontal line is the positive angle , ( < 180) measured counterclockwise from
the x-axis to the line. A horizontal line has an inclination of zero.

If a nonvertical line has inclination of  and slope m, then m  tan .


If two nonperpendicular lines have slopes m1 and m2, then the angle between the lines is given by
tan  

m2  m1
.
1  m1m2

The distance between a point x1, y1 and a line Ax  By  C  0 is given by


d

Ax1  By1  C.


A2  B2

Vocabulary Check
2. tan 

1. inclination

3.

m2  m1
1  m1m2

4.

Ax1  By1  C
A2  B2

1. m  tan

 3

6
3

2. m  tan


1
4

3. m  tan

3
 1
4

4. m  tan

2
  3
3

5. m  tan


 3
3

6. m  tan

3
5

6
3

7. m  tan 1.27  3.2236

8. m  tan 2.88  0.2677

9.

m  1
1  tan 

  180  arctan(1)

11. m  1

10. 2  tan 



tan1

2  

 2.034 radians  116.6

3
13. m  4
3
4

 tan 

  arctan34   0.6435 radian  36.9

904

12. 2  tan 

1  tan 



3
radians  135
4

  tan1 2


radian  45
4

 1.107 radians  63.4

14.  52  tan 

  tan1 52     1.9513 radians  111.8

Section 10.1

16. m 

15. (6, 1), (10, 8)


m

7
81

10  6 4

11
 0.6023 radian  34.5
16

  tan1

4  1.0517 radians  60.3


7

17. (2, 20), (10, 0)


m

8  3
11

12  4 16

11
 tan 
16

7
 tan 
4

  arctan

Lines

18.

0  20
20
5
 
10  (2)
12
3

m

100  0
 2
0  50

2  tan 

  tan12    2.0344 radians  116.6

5
  tan 
3

 3  2.1112 radians  121.0

    arctan 

19. 6x  2y  8  0

20. 4x  5y  9  0
y   45 x  95 m   45

y  3x  4 m  3

 45  tan 

3  tan 

  tan1 45   

  arctan 3  1.2490 radians  71.6

 2.4669 radians  141.3


21. 5x  3y  0

22. x  y  10  0
y  x  10 m  1

5
5
y x m
3
3

1  tan 

5
  tan 
3

  tan1 1  45 

 3  2.1112 radians  121.0

    arctan 

23. 3x  y  3 y  3x  3 m1  3
xy2 yx2
tan  

m2  1

1  3
2
1  31

  arctan 2  1.1071 radians  63.4

24. x  3y  2

2
1
1
y   x  m1  
3
3
3

1
3
x  2y  3 y  x 
2
2
tan  

xy0

yx

m1  1

3
1
3
3x  2y  1 y  x  m2 
2
2
2
tan  

3
2

1
1

3
5
1  2 1

  arctan

1
 0.1974 radian  11.3
5

m2 

1
2

12  13
1
1  1312

  tan1 1  45 

25.


radian
4

26. 2x  y  2


radian
4

y  2x  2

m1  2

4
4
4x  3y  24 y   x  8 m2  
3
3
tan  

43  2
2
1  243

  tan

1

2  63.4  1.1071 radians

905

906

27.

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

1
7
x  2y  7 y  x 
2
2
6x  2y  5 y  3x 
tan  

3  12

1   (3)
1
2

m1 

1
2

5
5
28. 5x  2y  16 y   x  8 m1  
2
2
3
1
3x  5y  1 y  x 
5
5

5
m2  3
2

tan  

7

1
1
29. x  2y  8 y   x  4 m1  
2
2

tan  

  12 

1
2

1

  arctan

 12

 
1
2

m2 

1
2

tan  

m1 

 72   53 
1  53  72 

  arctan

31
29

5
3

32.

33. Let A  (2, 1), B  (4, 4), and C  (6, 2).

35  35
15

1  3535
8
15
 61.9  1.0808 radians
8

0.03x  0.04y  0.52

3
3
y   x  13 m2  
4
4

34  25
23

1  2534
14

  tan1

14  58.7  1.0240 radians


23

34. Let A  3, 2, B  1, 3, and C  2, 0.

Slope of AB:

m1 

14 3

24 2

Slope of AB : m1 

1
23

3  1 4

Slope of BC:

m2 

42
 1
46

Slope of BC : m2 

30
 3
12

Slope of AC:

m3 

12 1

26 4

Slope of AC : m3 

2
20

3  2
5

tan A 

1
4

 32

1

A  arctan
tan B 

3
2

3
2

 
1
4

5
4
11
8

10
11

tan A 

11  42.3
10

 (1)

1  (1)

3
2

5
2
1
2

B  arctan 5  78.7
tan C 

1  14

1   (1)
1
4



tan C 

18  35.8

5
C  arctan
 59.0
3

5
3

13

3  25
135 13


1  325
115 11

C  tan1
5
4
3
4

14  25
1320 13


1  2514
1820 18

A  tan1
5

3
5

2
19
2
0.02x  0.05y  0.19 y  x 
m1 
5
5
5

tan  

29  0.8187 radian  46.9


31

  tan1

7
7
0.07x  0.02y  0.16 y   x  8 m2  
2
2
tan  

m1 

3
12
3
3x  5y  12 y   x 
m2  
5
5
5

4
3

5
31. 0.05x  0.03y  0.21 y  x  7
3

52  35
31

1  5235
5

3
3
30. 3x  5y  3 y  x 
5
5

3  0.9273 radian  53.1


4

3
5

31
 80.8  1.4109 radians
  tan1
5

  arctan 7  1.4289 radians  81.9

1
x  2y  2 y  x  1
2

m2 

11  49.8
13

B  180  A  C  180  35.8  49.8


 94.4

Section 10.1
35. Let A  (4, 1), B  (3, 2), and C  (1, 0).

36. Let A  3, 4, B  2, 1, and C  2, 2.

Slope of AB:

m1 

1  2 3

4  3 7

Slope of AB : m1 

41
3

3  2
5

Slope of BC:

m2 

20
1
31

Slope of BC : m2 

12
1

2  2
4

Slope of AC:

m3 

1  0 1

4  1 5

Slope of AC : m3 

42
 2
3  2

tan A 

1
5

 37

1

A  arctan
tan B 

3
7

 
1
5

8
35
38
35

4
19

19  11.9
4

1  37

1   (1)
3
7

B  arctan

4
7
10
7

tan A 

tan B 

5  21.8
2

4x  3y  0 A  4, B  3, and C  0

4(0)  3(0)  0  0  0
4  3

4(2)  3(3)  (10)  7


42  32

d

41. (6, 2) x1  6 and y1  2


x  1  0 A  1, B  0, and C  1

1(6)  0(2)  1  7
12  02

43. (0, 8) x1  0 and y1  8


6x  y  0 A  6, B  1, and C  0

d

6(0)  (1)(8)  0


(1)2

8
8 37

 1.3152
37
37

and y1  0

20  10  4


22  12

4
5

45
 1.7889
5

x  y  2  0 A  1, B  1, and C  2
d


62

40. 2, 1 x1  2 and y1  1

4x  3y  10  0 A  4, B  3, and C  10

d

23  16.9

2x  y  4  0 A  2, B  1, and C  4

39. (2, 3) x1  2 and y1  3

d

 130.6

Note: The point is on the line.

d

38. 0, 0 x1  0

37. (0, 0) x1  0 and y1  0

11  32.5

C  180  A  B  180  32.5  16.9

 180  11.9  21.8  146.3

35  14
7

1  3514
23

B  tan1

C  180  A  B

d

35  2
7

1  352
11

A  tan1
2
5

Lines

12  11  2


12  12

5
2

52
 3.5355
2

42. 10, 8 x1  10 and y1  8


y  4  0 A  0, B  1, and C  4
d

010  18  4  4  4


02  12

44. 4, 2 x1  4 and y1  2


x  y  20  0 A  1, B  1, and C  20
d


14  12  20


12  12

18
2

 92  12.7279

907

908

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

45. A  0, 0, B  1, 4, C  4, 0


(a)

(b) The slope the line through AC is m 

y
6

00
 0.
40

The equation of the line through AC is y  0.

The distance between the line and B  1, 4 is

3
2

d

C
1 A

01  14  0  4.
02  12

x
5

(c) The distance between A and C is 4.


1
A  44  8 square units
2

46. (a)

(b) The slope of the line through AC is m 

02
2
 .
05
5

2
The equation of the line is y  0   x  0 2x  5y  0.
5

4
3
2

The altitude from vertex B to side AC is the distance between the line
through AC and

2 1
1

B  4, 5 d 

24  55  0 
22  52

33
29

3329
.
29

(c) The distance between A and C is d  0  52  0  22  29,


which is the length of the base of the triangle. So,
1
33
3329
A  29

square units.
2
29
2

 

1 1
5
47. A   , , B  2, 3, C  , 0
2 2
2
(a)

y
5
4

3
2

2 1
1

C
1

x
4

(b) The slope of the line through AC is m 

1
2

0

 
 12

5
2

The equation of the line through AC is y  0  

1
 .
6

The distance between the line and B  (2, 3) is d 


(c) The distance between A and C is d 
A

 2x  12y  5  0.

2(2)  12(3)  (5) 


22  122

  21  52
 12  0

 35 74 37  358 square units

1 37
2 2

1
5
x
6
2

35
148

37

3537
.
74

Section 10.1
48. (a)

Lines

y
12
10

8
6
4
x

6 4

8 10

(b) The slope of the line through AC is m 

12  5 17
 .
6  4
10

The equation of the line through AC is y  12 

17
x  6 17x  10y  18  0.
10

The altitude from vertex B to side AC is the distance between the line through AC and
B  3, 10 d 

173  1010  18 


172  102

31
389

31389
.
389

(c) The distance between A and C is d  6  42  12  52  389, which is the length of the base of the triangle.
A


1
389  31389389
2

  312

49. x  y  1 (0, 1) is a point on the line x1  0


and y1  1

50. 3x  4y  1
3x  4y  10

5
A point on 3x  4y  10 is 0,  2 . The distance
5
between 0,  2  and 3x  4y  1 is:
5
A  3, B  4, C  1, x1  0, y1  
2

x  y  5 A  1, B  1, and C  5
d

1(0)  1(1)  (5) 


12  12

4
2

 22

d

51. Slope: m  tan 0.1  0.1003


Change in elevation: sin 0.1 

es
2 mil
0.1 radian

x
25280

30  452  1  9
32  42

Not drawn to scale

x  1054 feet

52. Slope: m  tan 0.2  0.2027

53. Slope 

Change in elevation:
x
x  5280 sin 0.20  1049 feet
sin 0.20 
5280

(b) m 

54. (a)
1m

3m

1
3

1
 tan 
3
tan1

13  

or   18.4

3
5

Inclination  tan1

3
 31.0
5

(c) Use similar triangles:


10 m

1m

x
5m

3m
Not drawn to scale

10
x

5
1

x  510  15.8 m

909

910

Chapter 10

55. tan  

Topics in Analytic Geometry

6
9

  arctan

23  33.69

6 ft

 90    56.31

6 ft

9 ft
36 ft

Also, since the right triangles containing  and are equal,     33.69.
m  tan

56. (a)

0.709  tan 

600
500

tan1 0.709  

400
300

  0.6167 radian, or 35.34

200

elev

sin  
896.5

(b)

(d)

100
x
100 200 300 400 500 600

896.5 sin   elev

elev
 896.5 sin 0.6167  518.5 ft
(c) m  0.709 and y-intercept  0, 0, so y  0.709x.
58. False. Substitute m1  tan 1 and m2  tan 2 into the
formula for the angle between two lines.

57. True. The inclination of a line is related to its slope by


m  tan . If the angle is greater than 2 but less than
, then the angle is in the second quadrant where the
tangent function is negative.
59. (a) (0, 0) x1  0 and y1  0

(b)

y  mx  4 0  mx  y  4

6
5

m(0)  (1)(0)  4
4
d

m2  (1)2
m2  1

2
1

(c) The maximum distance of 4 occurs when the slope


m is 0 and the line through (0, 4) is horizontal.

m
4 3 2 1

(d) The graph has a horizontal asymptote at d  0.


As the slope becomes larger, the distance between
the origin and the line, y  mx  4, becomes
smaller and approaches 0.
60. Slope m and y-intercept 0, 4
(a) x1, y1  3, 1 and line: y  mx  4

(b)

A  m, B  1, C  4
d

8
6

m3  11  4  3m  1


m2  12

m2  1

(c) From the graph it appears that the maximum distance


is obtained when m  1.
(d) From the graph it appears that the distance is 0 when
m  1.
(e) The asymptote of the graph in part (b) is d  3. As the
line approaches the vertical, the distance approaches 3.

m
2

2
4

Section 10.1
61. f x  x  72

Lines

911

62. f x  x  92

x-intercept: 0  x  72 x  7

7, 0

f x  x  92  0 x  9
x-intercept: 9, 0

y-intercept: y  0  7  49
2

0, 49

f 0  0  92  81
y-intercept: 0, 81

63. f x  x  52  5

64. f x  x  112  12

x-intercepts: 0  x  52  5
5  x  52

f x  x  112  12  0

x  112  12

5  x  5

No solution

5 5  x

x-intercept: none

5 5, 0

f 0  0  112  12  133

y-intercept: y  0  52  5  20

y-intercept: 0, 133

0, 20
65. f x  x2  7x  1

66. f x  x2  9x  22

x-intercepts: 0  x2  7x  1
x

7 53
by the Quadratic Formula
2

7 53
,0
2

y-intercept: y  02  70  1  1

0, 1
67. f x  3x2  2x  16
 3x2  23x  16

f x  x2  9x  22  0

x  11x  2  0
x  11, 2
x-intercepts: 11, 0, 2, 0
f 0  22
y-intercept: 0, 22

68. f x  2x2  x  21


1
1
1
21
2
 2 x2  12x  21
2  2 x  2 x  16  16  2

 3x2  23x  19   13  16

 2 x  14   169
16

 3x  13   49
3

 2x  14   169
8

Vertex:  13,  49
3

Vertex:

69. f x  5x2  34x  7

14,  1698 

70. f x  x2  8x  15

 5x2  34
5 x  7

  x2  8x  15   x2  8x  16  16  15

289
289
 5x2  34
5 x  25   5  7

  x  42  1   x  42  1

324
 5x  17
5  5
2

Vertex:

 17
5,

 324
5

71. f x  6x2  x  12


 6x2  16x  12
1
 6x2  16 x  144
  241  12
1
 6x  12
  289
24
2

Vertex:

121 ,  289
24 

Vertex: 4, 1

72. f x  8x2  34x  21


21
 8 x2  17
4 x  8

289
289
21
 8 x2  17
4 x  64  64  8
121
 8 x  17
8   64
2

121
 8x  17
8  8
2

121
Vertex:  17
8, 8 

912

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

73. f x  x  42  3

74. f x  6  x  12

Vertex: 4, 3

Vertex: 1, 6

12
9

y-intercept: 0, 19

x-intercept: None

4

3

2

1

gx

3

3

x
3

12

3
4
2
6

2
4

75. gx  2x2  3x  1

76. g x  x2  6x  8

b
6

 3 Vertex  3, g3  3, 1
2a
21

3
9
9
 2 x2  x 
 1
2
16
8

2 x
Vertex:

3
4

3 1
,
4 8

1
8

6
5

gx

8

3

3

8

y-intercept: 0, 1

x-intercept:

 

1
, 0 , 1, 0
2

x
4 3 2 1
1

4
6
8

Section 10.2

Introduction to Conics: Parabolas

A parabola is the set of all points x, y that are equidistant from a fixed line (directrix) and a fixed point
(focus) not on the line.

The standard equation of a parabola with vertex h, k and:


(a) Vertical axis x  h and directrix y  k  p is: (x  h)2  4p(y  k), p  0
(b) Horizontal axis y  k and directrix x  h  p is: ( y  k)2  4p(x  h), p  0

The tangent line to a parabola at a point P makes equal angles with:


(a) the line through P and the focus.
(b) the axis of the parabola.

Vocabulary Check
1. conic

2. locus

3. parabola; directrix; focus

4. axis

5. vertex

6. focal chord

7. tangent

Section 10.2

Introduction to Conics: Parabolas

913

1. A circle is formed when a plane intersects the top or


bottom half of a double-napped cone and is perpendicular
to the axis of the cone.

2. An ellipse is formed when a plane intersects only the top


or bottom half of a double-napped cone but is not
perpendicular to the axis of the cone, not parallel to the
side of the cone, and does not intersect the vertex.

3. A parabola is formed when a plane intersects the top or


bottom half of a double-napped cone, is parallel to the
side of the cone, and does not intersect the vertex.

4. A hyperbola is formed when a plane intersects both halves


of a double-napped cone, is parallel to the axis of the
cone, and does not intersect the vertex.
7. x2  8y
Vertex: 0, 0
Opens downward since p
is negative; matches graph (d).

6. x2  2y

5. y2  4x
Vertex: 0, 0
Opens to the left since p
is negative; matches graph (e).

Vertex: 0, 0
p  12 > 0
Opens upward; matches graph (b).
9. ( y  1)2  4(x  3)

8. y2  12x

Vertex: 3, 1
Opens to the right since p
is positive; matches graph (a).

Vertex: 0, 0
p  3 < 0
Opens to the left; matches graph (f).

x2  2y

1
p  2 < 0

Opens downward; matches graph (c).

Vertex: 0, 0

 4 y h  0, k  0, p 
1
2

1
2

Focus:

Vertex: (0, 0)
Focus: 0,

Vertex: 3, 1

12. y  2x2 x2  4 18y

11. y  12 x2

x2

10. x  32  2 y  1

1
2

Directrix: y 

1
8

3
4

 12

4 3 2 1

Directrix: y 

0, 18

2
1
x

14. y2  3x 434 x

13. y2  6x
y2  4 32  x h  0, k  0, p   23

Vertex: 0, 0

Vertex: 0, 0

Focus:

3
Focus:  2, 0

34, 0

Directrix: x   34

4
3

Directrix: x  2

y
4
2

6 5 4 3 2 1

x
1

2
2

3
4

914

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry


16. x  y2  0

15. x2  6y  0
x2  6y  4

 32

y

h  0, k  0, p 

Focus: 0,  32 

Focus:

1
4 3

3
2

Vertex: 0, 0

3
2

y2  x  4 14 x

Vertex: 0, 0

Directrix: y 

 32

 14,

0

Directrix: x  4

x
1
1
2

3
4
5
6

17. (x  1)2  8( y  2)  0

18. x  5   y  12  0

 y  12  4 14 x  5

(x  1)2  4(2)( y  2)
h  1, k  2, p  2

Vertex: 5, 1

Vertex: (1, 2)

Focus: (1, 4)

1
21
Focus: 5   4 , 1  4 , 1

1
19
Directrix: x  5   4    4

Directrix: y  0

3 2 1

x
1

5
6

4
2
6

2
2
4

3
19. x  2   4 y  2
2

20. x  12   4 y  1  41 y  1
2

x  32 2  41 y  2

1
Vertex:  2, 1

8
7
6
5
4
3

h   32, k  2, p  1
3
Vertex:  2, 2
3
Focus:  2, 3

1
1
Focus:  2, 1  1  2, 2

Directrix: y  1  1  0

1
x

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Directrix: y  1

1 2 3

21.

y  14x2  2x  5

4y  x2  2x  5
4y  5  1 

x2

22.

4x  y2  2y  1  1  33   y  12  32

 2x  1

 y  12  41x  8

4y  4  (x  1)2

Vertex: 8, 1


2

(x  1)2  4(1)( y  1)
h  1, k  1, p  1
Vertex: 1, 1
Focus: 1, 2
Directrix: y  0

x  14 y2  2y  33

x
2

Focus: 9, 1

Directrix: x  7

2
x
2
2
4
6

10

Section 10.2

915

24. y2  4y  4x  0

23. y2  6y  8x  25  0

y2  4y  4  4x  4

y2  6y  9  8x  25  9
h  2, k  3, p  2
Vertex: (2, 3)
6

4
2

Directrix: x  0

Focus: 0, 2

2
8

Vertex: 1, 2

10

 y  22  41x  1

( y  3)2  4(2)(x  2)

Focus: (4, 3)

Introduction to Conics: Parabolas

Directrix: x  2

4
6
8

26. x2  2x  8y  9  0

25. x2  4x  6y  2  0

x2  2x  1  8y  9  1

x2  4x  6y  2

x  12  8 y  1  42 y  1


3
Vertex: 1, 1
Focus: 1, 3
8
10
Directrix: y  1

x2  4x  4  6y  2  4

x  22  6 y  1
x  22  4 32  y  1
h  2, k  1, p   32
Vertex: 2, 1

4
14

10

1
Focus: 2,  2 
5
Directrix: y  2

12

On a graphing calculator, enter:


1
y1   6x2  4x  2

27. y2  x  y  0
y2

1
4

 y   x 

y  12 2  4 14 x  14 

y2  4x  4  41x  1
10

h  14, k   12, p   14
Vertex:
Focus:

28. y2  4x  4  0

1
4
2

Vertex: 1, 0

Focus: 0, 0

Directrix: x  2

14,  12 
0,  12 

20

1
Directrix: x  2

To use a graphing calculator, enter:


y1   12  14  x
1
1
y2   2  4  x

29. Vertex: 0, 0 h  0, k  0


Graph opens upward.
x2  4py
Point on graph: 3, 6
32  4p(6)
9  24p
3
8

p

Thus, x2  438 y x2  32 y.

30. Point: 2, 6

31. Vertex: (0, 0) h  0, k  0

x

3
3
Focus: 0,  2  p   2

ay2

2  a62
1
 18
a
1 2
x   18
y

y2  18x

x2  4py
x2  4 32 y
x2  6y

916

Chapter 10

32. Focus:

52, 0

Topics in Analytic Geometry

p  52

33. Vertex: (0, 0) h  0, k  0

y 2  4px

Focus: (2, 0) p  2

y 2  10x

y2  4px

34. Focus: 0, 2 p  2


x2  4py
x2  8y

y2  4(2)x
y2  8x
35. Vertex: (0, 0) h  0, k  0

36. Directrix: y  3 p  3

37. Vertex: (0, 0) h  0, k  0

Directrix: y  1 p  1

x2  4py

Directrix: x  2 p  2

x2  4py

x2  12y

y2  4px

x2  41y

y2  42x

x2  4y

y2  8x

38. Directrix: x  3 p  3
y2

 4px

y2

 12x

39. Vertex: (0, 0) h  0, k  0


Horizontal axis and passes through
the point (4, 6)
y2

 4px

x2  4py

32  4p3
9  12p

62  4p(4)
36  16p p 

40. Vertical axis


Passes through: 3, 3

9
4

y2  494 x

p   34
x2  3y

y2  9x
41. Vertex: 3, 1 and opens downward.
Passes through 2, 0 and 4, 0.
y  (x  2)(x  4)
 x2  6x  8
 (x  3)2  1
(x  3)2  ( y  1)

42. Vertex: 5, 3 h  5, k  3


Passes through: 4.5, 4

 y  k2  4px  h
 y  32  4px  5
1  4p4.5  5
p   12

 y  32  2x  5
44. Vertex: 3, 3 h  3, k  3
Passes through: 0, 0

x  h2  4p y  k
x  32  4p y  3
0  32  4p0  3
9  12p
p  34

x  32  3 y  3

45. Vertex: 5, 2


Focus: 3, 2
Horizontal axis
p  3  5  2

 y  2  42x  5
2

 y  22  8x  5

43. Vertex: (4, 0) and opens to


the right.
Passes through 0, 4.
(y  0)2  4p(x  4)
42  4p(0  4)
16  16p
1p
y2  4(x  4)
46. Vertex: 1, 2 h  1,
k2
Focus: 1, 0 p  2

x  h2  4p y  k
x  12  42 y  2
x  12  8 y  2

Section 10.2
47. Vertex: 0, 4
Directrix: y  2
Vertical axis

Introduction to Conics: Parabolas


49. Focus: 2, 2
Directrix: x  2
Horizontal axis
Vertex: 0, 2

48. Vertex: 2, 1 h  2,


k1
Directrix: x  1 p  3

p422

 y  k2  4px  h

x  02  42y  4

p202

 y  12  43x  2

x2  8 y  4

( y  2)2  4(2)(x  0)

 y  12  12x  2

50. Focus: 0, 0

( y  2)2  8x

51. ( y  3)2  6(x  1)

Directrix: y  8 p  4

52.  y  12  2x  4


y  1  2x  4

For the upper half of the parabola:


y  3  6(x  1)

h  0, k  4

y  1 2x  4

y  6(x  1)  3

x  h2  4p y  k

917

Lower half of parabola:


y  1  2x  4

x2  44 y  4
x2  16 y  4
53. y2  8x  0 y  8x

1 2
54. x2  12y  0 y1   12
x

10

x  y  3  0 y2  3  x

xy20 yx2
5

25

10

1
2

x2  4

Point: (4, 8)

 12

 2 y  x
1

1
b
2

d2 

4  0  8  21

Focus:

17
2

d1 

1
b
2

d2 

3  0  92  21

p
2

d1  d2 b  8
Slope: m 

8  8
4
40

y  4x  8 0  4x  y  8
x-intercept: (2, 0)

10

12y

d1 

12

x 2  2y

56.

Focus: 0,

12

Using the trace or intersect


feature, the point of tangency is
6, 3.

The point of tangency is (2, 4).

55. x2  2y p 

1
2

0, 2
1

5

1
b5
2
9
2
 92  92
 3
m
03
9
Tangent line: y  3x  6x  2y  9  0
2
3
x-intercept:  , 0
2
b

918

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

1
1
57. y  2x2 x2   y p  
2
8
Point: (1, 2)

1
 y  x2
2


 

1
8
1
1
d1  b    b 
8
8

Focus: 0, 

d2 


 81y  x

4 

Focus:

17
8

d1  d2 b  2
2  2
4
1  0

1
8
1
0, 
8

d1 

1
b
8

d2 

2  0  8   81


2

65
8

65
1
b
8
8

y  4x  2 0  4x  y  2
1
x-intercept:  , 0
2

p

1  0  2   81

Slope: m 

y  2x2

58.

b


m

64
8
8

8  8
 8
20

Tangent line: y  8x  8 8x  y  8  0


x-intercept: 1, 0

x  1062   45R  14,045

59.

x2  212x  11,236 

 45R

60. Maximum revenue occurs at x  135.

 11,236

30,000

R  265x  54x2
The revenue is maximum
when x  106 units.

15,000
0

275
0

225
0

61. Vertex: 0, 0 h  0, k  0


Focus: 0, 4.5 p  4.5
(x  h)2  4p(y  k)
(x  0)2  4(4.5)(y  0)
1 2
x2  18y or y  18
x

62. (a)

(b) Vertex: 0, 0; opens upward

y  0  ax  0

(640, 152)

(640, 152)

152  a6402
152
a
6402
x

19
a
51,200
An equation of the cables is
y

19
x2.
51,200

(c)

Distance, x

Height, y

250

23.19

400

59.38

500

92.77

1000

371.09

Section 10.2
63. (a) Vertex: 0, 0 h  0, k  0
Points on the parabola:  16, 0.4

919

(b) When y  0.1 we have


1 2
0.1   640
x

x2  4py

64  x2

 162  4p0.4

8  x.

256  1.6p

Introduction to Conics: Parabolas

Thus, 8 feet away from the center of the road, the


road surface is 0.1 foot lower than in the middle.

160  p
x2  4160y
x2  640y
1

y   640x2
64. Vertex: 0, 0

65. (a) V  17,5002 mihr

 y  0  4px  0
2

 24,750 mihr

y2  4px
At 1000, 800: 8002  4p1000 p  160
y2  4160x

x  02  44100 y  4100


x2  16,400 y  4100

y2  640x

66. (a)

(b) p  4100, h, k  0, 4100

67. (a) x2  

12

322
 y  75
16

x2  64 y  75
(b) When y  0, x2  6475  4800.
0

18

Thus, x  4800  403  69.3 feet.

(b) Highest point: 6.25, 7.125


Range: 15.69 feet

68.

540 mi
1 hr

5280 ft
1 mi

1 hr

 60 min 

1 min
 792 fts
60 s

s  30,000

69. False. It is not possible for a parabola to intersect its


directrix. If the graph crossed the directrix there would
exist points closer to the directrix than the focus.

The crate hits the ground when y  0.


x2 

v2
 y  s
16

x2  

7922
0  30,000
16

x2  1,176,120,000
x  34,295
The distance is about 34,295 feet.
70. True. If the axis (line connecting the vertex and focus) is horizontal, then the directrix must be vertical.

920

Chapter 10

71. (a)

p=3

p=2

Topics in Analytic Geometry


(b) 0, 1, (0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4

21

p=1

(c) 4, 8, 12, 16. The chord passing through the focus


and parallel to the directrix has length 4p .
18

 

p=4

(d) This provides an easy way to determine two additional


points on the graph, each of which is 2p units away
from the focus on the chord.

18

 

As p increases, the graph becomes wider.

72. (a) A 

642
8 12 32 8
2 4  2 8 
square units
3
3
3

73. y  y1 

(b) As p approaches zero, the parabola becomes narrower


and narrower, thus the area becomes smaller and smaller.

x1
x  x1
2p

Slope: m 

x1
2p

74. Sample answer: Any light ray (or other electromagnetic radiation) that enters a parabolic reflector (a surface for
which any cross section containing the axis is a parabola) in a direction parallel to the axis of the surface will be
reflected to the focus of the surface (the focus of any of the cross-sectional parabolas). Conversely, any ray projected
from the focus in a direction that intersects the parabolic surface will be reflected in a direction parallel to the axis.
75. f x  x3  2x2  2x  4

76. f x  2x3  4x2  3x  10

Possible rational zeros: 1, 2, 4

p
Rational zeros : p  factor of 10, q  factor of 2
q
1
5
Possible rational zeros: , 1, 2, , 5, 10
2
2
78. f x  3x3  12x  22

77. f x  2x5  x2  16


Possible rational zeros: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16,

p
Rational zeros : p  factor of 22, q  factor of 3
q

1
2

1 2
11 22
Possible rational zeros: , , 1, 2, , ,
3 3
3
3
11, 22
79. f (x)  (x  3) x  (2  i)
x  (2  i)

80. f x  2x3  3x2  50x  75

 x  3 x  2  i
x  2  i

3
2

 (x  3)x2  4x  5

3
3

50
0

75
75

50

 x3  7x2  17x  15

2x2  50  0 x2  25 x  5i
Zeros: x  32, 5i
2

81. g(x)  6x4  7x3  29x2  28x  20


Possible rational roots: 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20,
1

10

20

2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3 , 3 , 6, 6

x  2 are both solutions.

2

7
12

29
38

28
18

20
20

19

10

19
12

9
14

10
10

5

g(x)  (x  2)(x  2)6x2  7x  5


 (x  2)(x  2)(2x  1)(3x  5)
1

The zeros of g(x) are x  2, x  2, x   3.

Section 10.2
82. hx  2x4  x3  19x2  9x  9
20
5

Introduction to Conics: Parabolas

921

83. A  35, a  10, b  7


sin B sin 35

sin B  0.4015 B  23.67
7
10
C  180  35  23.67  121.33
10
c

c  14.89
sin 121.33 sin 35

50

Zeros: x  3, 1,

1
2

84. B  54, b  18, c  11


Because B is acute and 18 > 11, one triangle is possible.
sin C 

c sin B 11 sin 54

 0.49440 C  29.63
b
18

A  180  B  C  180  54  29.63  96.37


a

b
18
sin A 
sin 96.37  22.11
sin B
sin 54

86. B  26, C  104, a  19


A  180  B  C  180  26  104  50
b

a
19
sin B 
sin 26  10.87
sin A
sin 50

c

19
a
sin C 
sin 104  24.07
sin A
sin 50

85. A  40, B  51, c  3


C  180  40  51  89
a
3

a  1.93
sin 40 sin 89
b
3

b  2.33
sin 51 sin 89

87. a  7, b  10, c  16
cos C 

sin B sin 139.84



sin B  0.4031 B  23.77
10
16
A  180  B  C A  16.39

88. a  58, b  28, c  75


cos A 

b2  c2  a2 784  5625  3364



 0.725 A  43.53
2bc
22875

cos B 

a2  c2  b2 3364  5625  784



 0.943103 B  19.42
2ac
25875

C  180  A  B  180  43.53  19.42  117.05


89. A  65, b  5, c  12
a2  5 2  122  2512 cos 65 a  10.8759  10.88
sin B
sin 65

sin B  0.4167 B  24.62
5
10.8759
C  180  A  B C  90.38
90. B  71, a  21, c  29
b2  a2  c2  2ac cos B
b2  441  841  22129 cos 71  885.458
b  29.76
cos A 

b2  c2  a2 29.762  841  441



 0.74484 A  41.85
2bc
229.7629

C  180  A  B  180  41.85  71  67.15

7 2  102  162
 0.7643 C  139.84
2710

922

Chapter 10

Section 10.3

Topics in Analytic Geometry

Ellipses

An ellipse is the set of all points x, y the sum of whose distances from two distinct fixed points (foci) is constant.

The standard equation of an ellipse with center h, k and major and minor axes of lengths 2a and 2b is:
(a)

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

 1 if the major axis is horizontal.
a2
b2

(b)

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

 1 is the major axis is vertical.
b2
a2

c2  a2  b2 where c is the distance from the center to a focus.

c
The eccentricity of an ellipse is e  .
a

Vocabulary Check
1. ellipse; foci

2. major axis, center

3. minor axis

4. eccentricity

1.

4.

7.

x2 y2
 1
4
9

2.

x2 y2
 1
9
4

3.

x2
y2

1
4
25

Center: 0, 0

Center: 0, 0

Center: 0, 0

a  3, b  2

a  3, b  2

a  5, b  2

Vertical major axis

Horizontal major axis

Vertical major axis

Matches graph (b).

Matches graph (c).

Matches graph (d).

y2 x2
 1
4
4

5.

(x  2)2
 ( y  1) 2  1
16

6.

x  22  y  22

1
9
4

Center: 0, 0

Center: 2, 1

Center: 2, 2

Circle of radius: 2

a  4, b  1

a  3, b  2

Matches graph (f).

Horizontal major axis

Horizontal major axis

Matches graph (a).

Matches graph (e).

x2
y2

1
25 16

8.

x2
y2

1
81 144

15

a  12, b  9,

Ellipse
Center: 0, 0
a  5, b  4, c  3
Vertices:  5, 0
Foci:  3, 0
e

3
5

9
6
3

c  63  37

2
x

12

Ellipse

6
9

Center: 0, 0
6

15

Vertices: 0, 12


Foci: 0, 3 7 
Eccentricity: e 

6 3

7

3 6

12 15

Section 10.3

9.

x2
y2

 1 x 2  y 2  25
25 25

10.

Circle

x2 y2
  1 x2  y2  9
9
9
5
4

Center: 0, 0

2
1

Radius: 5
6

5 4

Radius: 3

923

Circle

Center: 0, 0

Ellipses

2 1

1 2

4 5

2 4 6

10

2
x
2

4
5

2
4
6

11.

x2 y2
 1
5
9

12.

y2
x2

1
64 28

10
8
6
4
2

a  8, b  28  27,

Ellipse
2

a  3, b  5, c  2
Center: 0, 0

c6

1
x

4 3

Ellipse

6 4 2
4

Vertices: 0, 3

Center: 0, 0

Foci: 0, 2

Vertices:  8, 0

e

8
10

Foci:  6, 0

2
3

Eccentricity: e 

13.

x  32  y  52

1
16
25

14.

12

Ellipse
a  5, b  4, c  3

Center: 3, 5

2
1

Foci: 4, 1, 4, 5

3
e
5

e

x2
 y  12
4

 1 x 2   y  12 
49
49
9

16.

2 3 4 5 6

2 1

4 2

x  52
  y  12  1
94

Circle
Center: 0, 1
2
Radius:
3

Ellipse
1

1
1
2

2
1

5
3
a  , b  1, c 
2
2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1
2

Center: 5, 1
Vertices:

Foci:
e

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Vertices: 4, 1, 4, 7

2 1

Center: 4, 3

Foci: (3, 8)(3, 2)

x  42  y  32

1
12
16

Ellipse

8 6 4

3
4

a  4, b  23, c  2

Vertices: (3, 10)(3, 0)

15.

5 

5



7
13
 ,1 ,  ,1
2
2
5



, 1 , 5 

5

,1

924

17.

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

x  22  y  42

1
1
14

18.
3

3
1
a  1, b  , c 
2
2

e

Circle

Center: 3, 1

 

, 4 

4 3
, 4
2

3

2
9x2  4y2  54x  40y  37  0

20.

9x2  6x  9  4 y2  10y  25  37  81  100

9x2  4x  4  4 y2  6y  9  36  36  36
9x  22  4 y  32  36

x  32  y  52

1
16
36

(x  2)2 ( y  3)2

1
4
9

a  6, b  4,

Ellipse

Center: 2, 3

Center: 3, 5

Vertices: 2, 6), (2, 0

Vertices: 3, 1, 3, 11


Foci: 3, 5 25 

5

Eccentricity: e 

3
x 2  y 2  2x  4y  31  0

21.

6 4 2

a  3, b  2, c  5

Foci: 2, 3 5 

c  20  25

Ellipse

e

1
1

9x2  4y2  36x  24y  36  0

19.

5
Radius: 2

Vertices: 1, 4, 3, 4


3

5
4

Center: 2, 4

2

Ellipse

Foci:

x  32 y  12

1
254
254

10
12

5

x2  8x  16  5 y2  6y  9  39  16  45

x 2  2x  1   y 2  4y  4  31  1  4
x  12   y  22  36

x  42  5 y  32  100

x  12  y  22

1
36
36

x  42  y  32

1
100
20
Ellipse

Center: 1, 2

a  10, b  20  25,

2
8 6

2
2
4
6
10

14
12
10
8

Center: 4, 3

Radius: 6

x
2

x2  5y2  8x  30y  39  0

22.

Circle

4
2

c  80  45
Foci: 4 45, 3
Vertices: 14, 3, 6, 3
e

45 25

10
5

64
4
6
8
10

10

14

Section 10.3
3x2  y2  18x  2y  8  0

23.

925

3x2  6x  9   y2  2y  1  8  27  1
3x  32   y  12  36

4
2

x  3
 y  1

1
12
36
2

Ellipses

10 8

4 2

Ellipse
6

a  6, b  12  23, c  24  26


Center: 3, 1
Vertices: 3, 7, 3, 5
Foci: 3, 1 26 
Eccentricity: e 

6

6x2  2y2  18x  10y  2  0

24.

6 x2  3x 

9
25
27 25

 2 y2  5y 
 2 
4
4
2
2

6 x

3
2

2 y

5
2

x2  4y2  6x  20y  2  0

25.

 24

x  32  4 y 

x  32 2  y  52 2  1
4

Foci:

Vertices:

 23, 52 23

Center:

5
4
3
2
1

1 2 3 4

Foci:

2
3

22 6

e
3
23

3, 

5
2

9, 



5
5
, 3, 
2
2

3 33,  25

Eccentricity: e 

x2  y2  4x  6y  3  0

26.

Vertices:
x

6 5 4 3

27.

x
2
2
4

10

3

4
9

x  12  y  12

1
49
49

2
2

x  12   y  12 

9x  12  9 y  12  4


y

Radius: 4

9x2  9y2  18x  18y  14  0

x  22  y  32

1
16
16
Center: 2, 3

9x2  2x  1  9 y2  2y  1  14  9  9

x2  4x  4   y2  6y  9  3  4  9

Circle

 36

a  6, b  3, c  27  33

3 5
 , 22
2 2

Ellipse

 23, 52

a  12  23, b  2, c  8  22

Center:

5
2

x  32  y  52 

1
36
9

12

Ellipse

25
 2  9  25
4

x2  6x  9  4 y2  5y 

Circle
3

Center: 1, 1

2
8

Radius:

2
3
3

1
1

926

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry


y

16x2  25y2  32x  50y  16  0

28.

16x  2x  1  25 y  2y  1  16  16  25


2

16x  1  25 y  1  25
2

x  12
  y  12  1
2516

2
3

25
9
a  , b2  1, c2 
16
16
2

Ellipse
Center: (1, 1)

4, 1, 4, 1


9
1
Vertices:  , 1,  , 1
4
4
7

Foci:

e

3
5
9x2  25y2  36x  50y  60  0

29.

16x2  16y2  64x  32y  55  0

30.

9x2  4x  4  25 y2  2y  1  60  36  25

16x2  4x  4  16 y2  2y  1  55  64  16

9x  22  25 y  12  1

16x  22  16 y  12  25

x  22  y  12

1
19
125
1
1
4
a ,b ,c
3
5
15

Center: 2, 1

Vertices:

  
5
7
,1 , ,1
3
3

Circle

Radius:
1

y2
5

1

a  5, b  3, c  2
Foci: 0, 2
Vertices: 0, 5
10

2
1
2

x
2

1
2

4
5

Center: 0, 0

e

5
4

32. 3x2  4y2  12

31. 5x2  3y2  15


x2

Center: 2, 1

26
,1 ,
,1
34
15   15 

Eccentricity: e 

25
16

(x  2)2 ( y  1)2

1
2516
2516

Ellipse

Foci:

x  22   y  12 

To graph, solve for y.


y2 

15 
3

y1 

y2  

x2
4

5x2

y
1
3

a2  4, b2  3, c2  1
Center: 0, 0

15  5x2
3

15 3

Vertices:  2, 0
Foci:  1, 0

5x2

Section 10.3
12x2  20y2  12x  40y  37  0

33.

To graph, solve for y.

1
12 x2  x 
 20 y2  2y  1  37  3  20
4

12 x 

1
2

( y  1)2  3 1 

 20 y  12  60

x  12 

( y  1)2
1
3

a  5, b  3, c  2

Foci:

y1  1 

31  x 50.5 

y2  1 

31  x 50.5 

2 2, 1

2 5, 1
1

Vertices:
e

(x  0.5)2
5

2, 1

Center:

Ellipses

10

5
35. Center: 0, 0

36x2  9y2  48x  36y  72  0

34.

a  4, b  2

4
4
36 x2  x 
 9 y2  4y  4  72  16  36
3
9

x  

2 2
3

31
9

a2 

 y  2
124
9

124 2 31 2 31
,b  ,c 
9
9
3

Center:

 32, 2

Vertices:
Foci:

 32, 2

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
b2
a2

1

231
3

93

x2
y2

1
4
16

 32, 2

Vertical major axis

36. Vertices:  2, 0 a  2

37. Vertices:  6, 0

38. Vertices: 0, 8 a  8

a  6, c  2 b  32  42

Foci: 0, 4 c  4

0, 2 b  2

Foci:  2, 0

b2  a2  c2  64  16  48

Horizontal major axis

x2
y2
 21
2
a
b
y2
x2

1
22 322

Center: (0, 0)

x2
y2
 1
b2 a2
y2
x2

1
48 64

Endpoints of minor axis:


3

x2 4y2

1
4
9

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2
y2
x2

1
36 32

927

928

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

39. Foci:  5, 0 c  5

40. Foci:  2, 0 c  2

Center: 0, 0

Major axis length: 8 a  4

Horizontal major axis

b2  a2  c2  16  4  12

Major axis of length 12 2a  12

x2
y2
 21
2
a
b

a6

x2
y2

1
16 12

62  b2  52 b2  11
(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2
x2
y2

1
36 11
41. Vertices: 0, 5 a  5
Center: 0, 0
Vertical major axis

Point: 4, 2
42
22

1
b2 25

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
b2
a2

21
16
4

1
b2
25 25
400  21b2

y2
x2

1
2
b
25

400
 b2
21
x2
y2

1
40021 25
y2
21x2

1
400
25

42. Major axis vertical


Passes through: 0, 4 and 2, 0
a  4, b  2
y2
x2
 21
2
b
a
x2
y2

1
4
16

44. Vertices: 4, 4 a  4


Center: 4, 0 h  4, k  0
Endpoints of minor axis: 1, 0, 7, 0 b  3

x  h2  y  k2

1
b2
a2
x  42
y2

1
9
16

43. Center: 2, 3


a  3, b  1
Vertical major axis
(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
b2
a2
(x  2)2 ( y  3)2

1
1
9
45. Center: 2, 3
a  4, b  3
Horizontal major axis
(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2
(x  2)2 ( y  3)2

1
16
9

Section 10.3

Minor axis of length 2 b  1


Center: 2, 4  h, k

x  h2  y  k2

1
a2
b2

x  h2  y  k2

1
a2
b2
x  22  y  42

1
4
1

x  22  y  12

1
4
1

49. Foci: 0, 0, 0, 8 c  4

48. Foci: 0, 0, 4, 0 c  2, h  2, k  0


Major axis length: 8 a  4

Major axis of length 16 a  8

b2  a2  c2  16  4  12

b2  a2  c2  64  16  48

x  h2  y  k2

1
a2
b2

Center:0, 4  h, k
(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
b2
a2
2
2
x
( y  4)

1
48
64

x  22
y2

1
16
12

50. Center: 2, 1 h  2, k  1


1
3
a
Vertex: 2,
2
2
Minor axis length: 2 b  1

51. Center: 0, 4

 

Vertices: 4, 4, 4, 4 a  4


a  2c 4  2c c  2
22  42  b2 b2  12

x  h  y  k2

1
b2
a2

Horizontal major axis

x  2
 y  1

1
1
32 2

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2

4 y  12
1
9

( y  4)2
x2

1
16
12

x  22 

53. Vertices: 0, 2, 4, 2 a  2

52. Center: 3, 2 h  3, k  2


a  3c

Center: 2, 2

Foci: 1, 2, 5, 2 c  2, a  6

Endpoints of the minor axis: 2, 3, 2, 1 b  1

b2  a2  c2  36  4  32

Horizontal major axis

x  h2  y  k2

1
a2
b2

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2

x  32  y  22

1
36
32
54. Vertices: 5, 0, 5, 12 a  6
Endpoints of the minor axis:

1, 6, 9, 6 b  4


Center: 5, 6 h  5, k  6

x  h2  y  k2

1
b2
a2
x  52  y  62

1
16
36

929

47. Vertices: 0, 4, 4, 4 a  2

46. Vertices: 0, 1, 4, 1 a  2


Center: 2, 1 h  2, k  1
Endpoints of minor axis: 2, 0, 2, 2 b  1

Ellipses

(x  2)2 ( y  2)2

1
4
1
55. Vertices:  5, 0 a  5
Eccentricity:

3
3
c a3
5
5

56. Vertices: 0, 8 a  8


e

1
c
1
 ,c4
2
a 2

b2  a2  c2  25  9  16

b2  a2  c2  64  16  48

Center: 0, 0  h, k

Center: 0, 0

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2
y2
x2

1
25 16

x2
y2
2  2  1
b
a
x2
y2

1
48 64

930

Chapter 10

57. (a)

Topics in Analytic Geometry


(b) a  25, b  10

(c) When x  4:

x2
y2
 1
a2 b2

42
y2

1
625 100

y2
x2

1
625 100

(0, 10)

y 2  100 1 

(25, 0)

(25, 0)

y

16
2436

625
25

9.87 feet > 9 feet


2436
25

Yes. If the truck travels down the center of the tunnel,


it will clear the opening of the arch.
58. The tacks should be placed at the foci and the length of the string is the length of the major axis, 2a.
Center: 0, 0
a  3, b  2, c  5
Foci (Positions of the tacks):  5, 0
Length of string: 6 feet

59. (a) a 
e

35.88
 17.94
2

(b)

c
 0.967
a

14

21

c  ea 17.35

14

b2  a2  c2 20.82
x2
a2
2

y2
b2

21

(c) The suns center is at a focus of the orbit, 17.35 astronomical units
from the center of the orbit.

1

Apogee 17.35  1235.88  35.29 astronomical units

y2

x

1
321.84 20.82

Perigee 1235.88  17.35   0.59 astronomical units

60. a  c  6378  947  7325


a  c  6378  228  6606
Solving this system for a and c yields a  6965.5 and c  359.5.
e

c
359.5

0.052
a 6965.5

61. (a) The equation is the bottom half of the ellipse.

(b)

y
0.4

2
y2

1
0.22 1.62

0.8 0.4

0.4

0.8


1  0.04

y  1.6

 80.04  2
1.6

(c) The bottom half models the motion of the pendulum.

Section 10.3

62. For

x2
y2
 2  1, we have c2  a2  b2.
2
a
b

When x  c:

63.

( 49 , 7 )
2
x

( 49 , 7 )

( 49 , 7 )

2b2 232 9


a
4
2

a
2b2
a

Additional points:

9
4



9
4

,  7 , , 7

65. 5x2  3y2  15

a  2, b  1, c  3

3, 12

3, 12

3, 12

x2 y2
 1
3
5

 2, 0, 0, 1

3, 12

a  5, b  3, c  2

Points on the ellipse:

Length of latera recta:

Points on the ellipse:

( 3 5 5 ,

(3 5 5 , 2)
x

( 3 5 5 , 2 )

 3, 0, 0, 5 

2b 2 21 2

1
a
2

(3 5 5 , 2 )
4

Length of latus recta:



1
1
Additional points:  3, , 3,
2
2

2b2 2  3 65


5
a
5
Additional points:

66. 9x2  4y2  36

35
, 2
5

( 43 ,

x2 y2
 1
4
9

( 43 , 5 )
2

a  3, b  2, c  5

Points on the ellipse:  2, 0, 0, 3


Length of latera recta:

2b2 2  2 2 8


a
3
3

( 43 , 5 )

( 43 , 5 )

 3,  5,  3, 5
4

x2
 y4  1 is not an ellipse.
4
The degree on y is 4, not 2.

67. False. The graph of

69.

( 94 , 7 )
4

Length of latus recta:

x2 y2
 1
4
1

Additional points:

 3, 0, 0, 4

b2

Length of latus rectum: 2y 

64.

931

Points on the ellipse:

a2  b2
b4
y2  b2 1 
 2
2
a
a
y

x2
y2

1
9
16
a  4, b  3, c  7

c2
y2
 21
2
a
b

Ellipses

68. True. If e is close to 1, the ellipse is elongated and the


foci are close to the vertices.

y2
x2
 21
2
a
b
(a) a  b  20 b  20  a
A  ab  a(20  a)

(b) 264  a(20  a)


0   a2  20a  264
0  a2  20a  264
By the Quadratic Formula: a 14 or a 6. Choosing the larger value of a,
we have a 14 and b 6. The equation of an ellipse with an area of 264 is

CONTINUED

x2
y2

 1.
196 36

932

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

69. CONTINUED
(c)

8.00

9.00

10.00

11.00

12.00

13

301.6

311.0

314.2

311.0

301.6

285.9

(d)

The area is maximum when a  10 and the ellipse is a circle.

350

20
0

The area is maximum (314.16) when a  b  10


and the ellipse is a circle.
70. (a) Length of string  2a
(b) By keeping the string taut, the sum of the distances from the two fixed points is constant (equal to the length of the string).
71. 80, 40, 20, 10, 5, . . .

72. 66, 55, 44, 33, 22, . . .

Geometric, r  12
6

75.

 3

Arithmetic, d  1

Arithmetic sequence

 1  3  9  27  81  243  729

74. 14, 12, 1, 2, 4

73.  12, 12, 32, 52, 72, . . .

76.

n0

3

n0

3

n1

Geometric sequence
a1  1, r  3

n1

 547

4
4 n 1  3 
5
3
1  43

11

 
10

77.

n0

S7 

n1

a1  4, r 

n1

3
4

3
41  4 

10

 340.15

Section 10.4

 4 4 
10

78.

11  37
 1093
13

S10 

1  34

 15.10

Hyperbolas
x, ydifference of whose distances from two distinct fixed points (foci)
the

A hyperbola is the set of all points


is constant.

The standard equation of a hyperbola with center h, k and transverse and conjugate axes of lengths 2a and 2b is:
(x  h)2 (y  k)2

 1 if the traverse axis is horizontal.
a2
b2
(y  k)2 (x  h)2
(b)

 1 if the traverse axis is vertical.
a2
b2
(a)

c2  a2  b2 where c is the distance from the center to a focus.

The asymptotes of a hyperbola are:


b
(a) y  k (x  h) if the transverse axis is horizontal.
a
a
(b) y  k (x  h) if the transverse axis is vertical.
b
c
The eccentricity of a hyperbola is e  .
a
To classify a nondegenerate conic from its general equation Ax2  Cy2  Dx  Ey  F  0:
(a) If A  C (A  0, C  0), then it is a circle.
(b) If AC  0 (A  0 or C  0, but not both), then it is a parabola.
(c) If AC > 0, then it is an ellipse.

Section 10.4

Hyperbolas

933

Vocabulary Check
1. hyperbola

2. branches

3. transverse axis; center

4. asymptotes

5.

1.

4.

Ax 2

Cy 2

 Dx  Ey  F  0

x2
y2

1
9
25

2.

y2
x2
 1
25
9

3.

Center: 0, 0

Center: 0, 0

Center: 1, 0

a  3, b  5

a  5, b  3

a  4, b  2

Vertical transverse axis

Vertical transverse axis

Horizontal transverse axis

Matches graph (b).

Matches graph (c).

Matches graph (a).

x  12  y  22

1
16
9

5. x2  y2  1

Center: 1, 2
a  4, b  3

7.

5
4
3
2

a  3, b  5
c

 34

Center: 0, 0

5 4

Vertices:  3, 0

2 1

x2
y2
 1
36
4

1 2

5
Asymptotes: y  x
9

9.

Center: 1, 2

4
x
12
4
8
12

(x  1)2 ( y  2)2

1
4
1
a  2, b  1, c  5

12

10
8
6
4
2
x

8 6

10

y
3
2
1
x
1

Vertices: 1, 2, 3, 2


Foci: 1 5, 2

1
Asymptotes: y  2 x  1
2

6 8 10

2
4
6

Foci: 0, 106 

12

c  36  4  210

1
Asymptotes: y  x
3

y2
x2

1
25 81

Vertices: 0, 5

4 5

a  6, b  2,

Foci:  210, 0

Center: 0, 0
x

5
Asymptotes: y  x
3

Center: 0, 0
Vertices:  6, 0

a  5, b  9, c  106

3
4
5

Foci:  34, 0

8.

Center: 0, 0

Asymptotes: y  x

x2
y2

1
9
25

52

a  1, b  1, c  2

Foci:  2, 0

Matches graph (d).

32

Vertices:  1, 0

Horizontal transverse axis

6.

(x  1)2 y2
 1
16
4

4
5

934

10.

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

x  32  y  22

1
144
25

18
15
12
9
6

a  12, b  5
c  144  25  13
Center: 3, 2

Asymptotes: y  2

Vertices:
Foci:

2,  173, 2,  193

13

9x  22   y  32  9

(x  2)2 ( y  3)2

1
1
9

1
1

a  1, b  3, c  10

Center: 2, 3


Foci: 2 10, 3

5

14. x2  9y2  36y  72  0


x  9 y  2  36

x2
 y  22

1
36
4

Center: 0, 2

4
6
8

(x  1)2  9( y  3)2  0

12

y  3  13 (x  1)

Degenerate hyperbola is two lines intersecting at (1, 3).

4
8

x
4

4
4

12

Vertices:  6, 2

Foci:  210, 2

2
2
4

1
Asymptotes: y  2 x
3
16.

x
2

x2  2x  1  9 y2  6y  9  80  1  81

c  36  4  210

6 4 2

x2  9y2  2x  54y  80  0

15.

 4y  4  72  36

a  6, b  2,

Asymptotes:
y  3 3x  2

Center: 3, 1

12
14

Vertices: 1, 3, 3, 3

 9

10

9x2  4x  4   y2  6y  9  18  36  9

y2

9x2  y2  36x  6y  18  0

x2

2, 6

13.
y

1
1
a ,b
2
4

14  161 

2
Asymptotes: y  6 x  2
3

 y  12 x  32

1
14
116

c

Center: 2, 6

5
x  3
12

6 5

6
9
12

Foci: 10, 2, 16, 2

 y  62 x  22

1
19
14
13
1
1
a ,b ,c
3
2
6

6 3

Vertices: 9, 2, 15, 2

12.

11.

16y2  x2  2x  64y  63  0
16 y2  4y  4  x2  2x  1  63  64  1
16 y  22  x  12  0
y  2  14x  1
Degenerate hyperbola
The graph is two lines intersecting at 1, 2.

y
x

1
1
2
3
4

Section 10.4
17. 2x2  3y2  6

Hyperbolas

To use a graphing calculator, solve for y first.

x2 y2
 1
3
2

y2 

a  3, b  2, c  5

2x2  6
3

2x 3 6
2x  6
 
3
2

y1 

Center: 0, 0

Vertices:  3, 0

y2

Foci:  5, 0

Asymptotes: y 

23 x  36x


y3 

6

y4  

6

Hyperbola
12

12

Asymptotes

18. 6y2  3x2  18


y2 x2
 1
3
6
a  3, b  6, c  3  6  3
Center: 0, 0

Vertices: 0, 3 

Foci: 0, 3
2

Asymptotes: y 

9y2  x2  2x  54y  62  0

19.
9

y2

 6y  9  

x2

 2x  1  62  1  81

To use a graphing calculator, solve for y first.


9(y  3)2  18  (x  1)2

9 y  32  x  12  18

y  3

 y  32 x  12

1
2
18

18  (x9  1)

1
y1  3  18  (x  1)2
3

a  2, b  32, c  25


Center: 1, 3

1
y2  3  18  (x  1)2
3

Foci: 1, 3 25 

1
y3  3  (x  1)
3

Vertices: 1, 3 2 
1
Asymptotes: y  3 (x  1)
3

1
y4  3  (x  1)
3
2
8

10

10

Hyperbola

Asymptotes

935

936

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry


21. Vertices: (0, 2) a  2

9x2  y2  54x  10y  55  0

20.

9x  6x  9   y  1 0 y  2 5   55  81  25
2

x  32  y  52

1
19
1

b2  c2  a2  16  4  12
Center: 0, 0  h, k

10
1
a  , b  1, c 
3
3

( y  k)2 (x  h)2

1
a2
b2

Center: 3, 5
Vertices:
Foci:

 



1
10
8
3 , 5  , 5 ,  , 5
3
3
3

3

10

,5

Foci: (0, 4) c  4

y2
x2

1
4
12


10

Asymptotes:
y  5 3x  3

12

6
2

23. Vertices:  1, 0 a  1

22. Vertices:  4, 0 a  4
Foci:  6, 0 c  6

Asymptotes: y  5x

b2  c2  a2  36  16  20 b  25

Center: 0, 0  h, k

x2
y2
 21
2
a
b

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2

y2
x2

1
16 20

y2
x2

1
1
25
25. Foci: 0, 8 c  8

24. Vertices: 0, 3 a  3


Asymptotes: y  3x

a
 3, b  1
b

Asymptotes: y  4x

c2  a2  b2 64  16b2  b2

y2 x2
 1
9
1

64
1024
 b2 a2 
17
17
( y  k)2 (x  h)2

1
a2
b2
y2
x2

1
102417 6417
17x2
17y2

1
1024
64

26. Foci:  10, 0 c  10


3
b 3m
Asymptotes: y  x 
4
a 4m

a  42  8
b  32  6

c  a  b 100  3m  4m


2

a
 4 a  4b
b

Center: 0, 0  h, k

y2
x2
 21
2
a
b

b
 5, b  5
a

100  25m2
2m

y2
x2

1
a2 b2
x2
y2

1
64 36

Section 10.4
28. Vertices: 2, 3, 2, 3 a  3

27. Vertices: (2, 0), (6, 0) a  2


Foci: (0, 0), (8, 0) c  4

Center: 2, 0

b2  c2  a2  16  4  12

Foci: 2, 6, 2, 6 c  6

Center: (4, 0)  (h, k)

b2  c2  a2  36  9  27

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2

 y  k2 x  h2

1
a2
b2

(x  4)2
y2

1
4
12

y2 x  22

1
9
27
30. Vertices: 2, 1, 2, 1 a  2

29. Vertices: (4, 1), (4, 9) a  4


Foci: (4, 0), (4, 10) c  5

Center: 0, 1

b2  c2  a2  25  16  9

Foci: 3, 1, 3, 1 c  3

Center: (4, 5)  (h, k)

b2  c2  a2  9  4  5

( y  k)2 (x  h)2

1
a2
b2

x  h2  y  k2

1
a2
b2

( y  5)2 (x  4)2

1
16
9

x2  y  12

1
4
5
32. Vertices: 2, 1, 2, 1 a  2

31. Vertices: (2, 3), (2, 3) a  3


Passes through the point: (0, 5)

Center: 0, 1

Center: (2, 0)  (h, k)

Point on curve: 5, 4

( y  k)2 (x  h)2

1
a2
b2

x  h2  y  k2

1
a2
b2
x2  y  12

1
4
b2

y2 (x  2)2

1
9
b2

25
9
 21
4
b

y2  9
x  22 y2
 1

2
b
9
9

b2 

9(x  2)2 9(2)2 36 9





b  2
y 9
25  9 16 4
2

x2  y  12

1
4
127

y2 (x  2)2

1
9
94

x2 7 y  12

1
4
12

4x  2
y

1
9
9
2

33. Vertices: 0, 4, 0, 0 a  2


Passes through the point 5, 1
Center: 0, 2  h, k

 y  k2 x  h2

1
a2
b2
 y  22 x2
x2
 y  22
 y  22  4
 21 2
1
4
b
b
4
4
4x2
45 
20


4
y  22  4 1  22  4
5
2

b2 

 y  22 x2
 1
4
4

12
7

Hyperbolas

937

938

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

34. Vertices: 1, 2 a  2


Center: 1, 0
Point on curve: 0, 5 

 y  k2 x  h2

1
a2
b2

35. Vertices: 1, 2, 3, 2 a  1

36. Vertices: 3, 0, 3, 6 a  3

Asymptotes: y  x, y  4  x

Center: 3, 3

b
b
1 1 b1
a
1

Asymptotes: y  6  x, y  x

Center: 2, 2  h, k

a
1 b3
b

y2 x  12
1

4
b2

x  h2  y  k2

1
a2
b2

 y  k2 x  h2

1
a2
b2

5
1
 1
4 b2

x  22  y  22

1
1
1

 y  32 x  32

1
9
9

b2  4
y2 x  12

1
4
4
37. Vertices: (0, 2), (6, 2) a  3
2
2
Asymptotes: y  x, y  4  x
3
3
b 2
 b2
a 3
Center: (3, 2)  (h, k)
(x 
a2

(y 
b2

k)2

(y 
(x  3)

9
4

2)2

h)2

1
1

39. (a) Vertices:  1, 0 a  1

38. Vertices: (3, 0, 3, 4 a  2


2
2
Asymptotes: y  x, y  4  x
3
3
a 2
 b3
b 3
Center: 3, 2  h, k

 y  k2 x  h2

1
a2
b2
 y  22 x  32

1
4
9

(b) When y  5: x 2  1 

Horizontal transverse axis


x

Center: 0, 0

Point on the graph: 2, 13


22 132
 2 1
12
b
4

169
1
b2
3b2  169
b2 

169
 56.33
3

Thus we have

25
 1.2016
1  56.33

Width: 2x  2.403 feet

y2
x2
2  2  1
a
b

y2
x2

 1.
1
56.33

52
56.33

Section 10.4
2c  4 mi  21,120 ft

40.

Hyperbolas

939

c  10,560 ft

1100 fts18 s  19,800 ft

5,000

The lightening occurred 19,800 feet further from B than from A:


d2  d1  2a  19,800 ft

d2

(10,560, 0)

a  9900 ft

d1

15,000 10,000 5,000

x
15,000

5,000

(10,560, 0)

b2  c2  a2  10,5602  99002
b2  13,503,600
x2
y2

1
99002 13,503,600
x2
y2

1
98,010,000 13,503,600

41. Since listening station C heard the explosion 4 seconds after listening station A, and since listening station B heard the
explosion one second after listening station A, and sound travels 1100 feet per second, the explosion is located in
Quadrant IV on the line x  3300. The locus of all points 4400 feet closer to A than C is one branch of the hyperbola.
y2
4400
x2
 2  1 where c  3300 feet and a 
 2200 feet, b2  c2  a2  6,050,000.
2
a
b
2
When x  3300 we have
Solving for y:

y2

33002
y2
 1.

2
2200
6,050,000

33002
 6,050,000
1
22002

y
3000

2000

B (3300, 1100)

1000

 7,562,500

C ( 3300, 0)
4000 3000

y  2750

A (3300, 0)
1000

Since the explosion is in Quadrant IV, its coordinates are 3300, 2750.

1000

4000

2000

(3300, 2750)

3000

42. (a) Foci:  150, 0 c  150

Center: 0, 0  h, k


150

d2
d1

 0.001 2a  186, a  93
186,000 186,000

(x, 75)

b2  c2  a2  1502  932  13,851


(150, 0)

(150, 0)
x

150

x2  932 1 

752
 12,161
13,851

x  110.3 miles
(b) c  a  150  93  57 miles
30
270

 0.00129 second
186,000 186,000

CONTINUED

d2
d1

x2
y2

1
2
93
13,851

(c)

75

75

75

150

940

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

42. CONTINUED
(d)

d2
d1

 0.00129
186,000 186,000
2a  239.94
a  119.97
b2

 c2  a2  1502  119.97 2  8107.1991

x2
y2

1
119.972 8107.1991

x2  119.97 2 1 

60 2
8107.1991

x  144.2 miles
Position: 144.2, 60
43. Center: 0, 0  h, k
Focus: (24, 0) c  24
Solution point: (24, 24)
242  a2  b2 b2  242  a2
(x  h)2 (y  k)2

1
a2
b2

44. (a) x 2  y 2  200x  52,500  0


Ax 2  Cy 2  Dx  Ey  F  0
A  1, C  1, D  200, E  0, F  52,500
A  C: circle
(b) x 2  200x  10,000   y 2  52,500  10,000

x  1002  y2  62,500

x2
y2
242
242
 2
1 2  2
1
2
2
a
24  a
a
24  a2

x  1002
y2

1
62,500
62,500

Solving yields a  1223  5  OR

125  1  14.83 and b2  355.9876.


Thus, we have

y2
x2

 1.
220.0124 355.9876

100

The right vertex is at (a, 0)  (14.83, 0).

x
100

200

300

100

(c) d  100  02  150  02  5013


d  180.28 meters
45. x2  y2  6x  4y  9  0

46. x2  4y2  6x  16y  21  0

A  1, C  1

A  1, C  4

A  C Circle

AC  14 > 0 and A  C Ellipse

47. 4x2  y2  4x  3  0

48. y2  6y  4x  21  0

A  4, C  1

A  0, C  1

AC  41  4 < 0 Hyperbola

AC  01  0 Parabola

49. y 2  4x 2  4x  2y  4  0

50. x 2  y 2  4x  6y  3  0

A  4, C  1

A  1, C  1

AC  41  4 < 0 Hyperbola

A  C Circle

Section 10.4

Hyperbolas

941

52. 4x 2  y 2  8x  3  0

51. x 2  4x  8y  2  0
A  1, C  0

A  4, C  1

AC  10  0 Parabola

AC  4 > 0 and A  C Ellipse


54. 4y2  2x2  4y  8x  15  0

53. 4x2  3y2  8x  24y  51  0

AC  24 < 0 Hyperbola

A  4, C  3
AC  43  12 > 0 and A  C Ellipse
55. 25x2  10x  200y  119  0

56. 4y2  4x2  24x  35  0

A  25, C  0

A  C  4 Circle

AC  250  0 Parabola
57. 4x2  16y2  4x  32y  1  0

58. 2y 2  2x  2y  1  0

A  4, C  16

A  0, C  2

AC  416  64 > 0 and A  C Ellipse

AC  0, but C  0 Parabola

59. 100x2  100y2  100x  400y  409  0

60. 4x 2  y 2  4x  2y  1  0

A  100, C  100

A  4, C  1

A  C Circle

AC  41  4 < 0 Hyperbola

61. True. For a hyperbola, c2  a2  b2 or


e2 

c2
a2

1

b2
a2

62. False. For the trivial solution of two intersecting lines to


occur, the standard form of the equation of the hyperbola
would be equal to zero.

x  h2 y  k2
y  k2 x  h2

 0 or

0
a2
b2
a2
b2

The larger the ratio of b to a, the larger the eccentricity


e  ca of the hyperbola.

63. Let x, y be such that the difference of the distances from c, 0 and c, 0 is 2a (again only deriving one of the forms).

2a  x  c2  y2  x  c2  y2


2a  x  c 
2

4a2

 4ax  c 
2

y2

 x  c 
2

y2

 x  c 

y2

 x  c2  y2

y2

4ax  c2  y2  4cx  4a2


ax  c2  y2  cx  a2

a2

x2

 2cx  c2  y2  c2x2  2a2cx  a4


a2c2  a2  c2  a2x2  a2y2

Let b2  c2  a2. Then a2b2  b2x2  a2y2 1 

x2
y2
 2.
2
a
b

64. The extended diagonals of the central rectangle are the asymptotes of the hyperbola.

942

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

9x2  54x  4y 2  8y  41  0

65.

9x2  6x  9  4 y 2  2y  1   41  81  4
9x  32  4 y  12  36

x  32  y  12

1
4
9
 y  12 x  32

1
9
4

 y  12  9

x  32
1
4

The bottom half of the hyperbola is:

9 x 4 3  1
x  3
1
y  1  3
4
2

y1

66.

1
3

Value of C

Possible number of points of intersection

C > 2

C2

2 < C < 2

C  2

CONTINUED

Section 10.4

Hyperbolas

66. CONTINUED
C < 2

or

or

For C 2, we need to analyze the two curves to determine the number of points of intersection.
C  2:
x2  y2  4

and

y  x2  2
x2  y  2

 y  2  y 2  4

Substitute:

y2  y  2  0

 y  2 y  1  0
y  2, 1
x2  y  2

x2  y  2

x 2  2  2

x2  1  2

x2  0

x2  3

x0

x  3

0, 2

 3, 1, 3, 1

There are three points of intersection when C  2.


C < 2:
x2  y2  4

and

y  x2  C
x2  y  C

 y  C  y 2  4

Substitute:

y2  y  4  C  0
y

1 12  41C  4
2

y

1 1  4C  4
2

If 1  4C  4 < 0, there are no real solutions (no points of intersection):


1  4C  16 < 0
4C < 17
C <

17
, no points of intersection
4

If 1  4C  4  0, there is one real solution (two points of intersection):


1  4C  16  0
4C  17
C
CONTINUED

17
, two points of intersection
4

943

944

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

66. CONTINUED
If 1  4C  4 > 0, there are two real solutions (four points of intersection):
1  4C  16 > 0
4C > 17
C >

17
, but C < 2, four points of intersection
4

Summary:
a. no points of intersection: C > 2

or C <

17
4

b. one point of intersection: C  2


c. two points of intersection: 2 < C < 2

17
4

or C 

d. three points of intersection: C  2


e. four points of intersection:

17
< C < 2
4

67. x3  16x  xx2  16  xx  4x  4

68. x2  14x  49  x2  27x  72  x  72

69. 2x3  24x2  72x  2x(x2  12x  36  2xx  62

70. 6x3  11x2  10x  x6x2  11x  10


 x6x2  15x  4x  10
 x 3x2x  5  22x  5
 x3x  22x  5
72. 4  x  4x 2  x3  4  4x 2  x  x3

71. 16x3  54  28x3  27


 2 2x3  33

 41  x 2  x1  x2

 22x  34x2  6x  9

 4  x1  x 2

73. y  2 cos x  1

74. y  sin  x

Amplitude: 2

1
x

3
2

3
2

4
2
1
x
3
4

 

3
4

Period: 2
One cycle: 0 to 2

3
4

2
3
4

1
Graph y   cos x first.
2

1
76. y   sec x
2


2

Amplitude: 1

Period:

1
Key points: 0, 0, , 1 ,
2
3
1, 0, , 1 , 2, 0
2

75. y  tan 2x

2
Period:   2

Period: 2

3
2
1

2

3
2

Section 10.5

Section 10.5

Rotation of Conics

945

Rotation of Conics

The general second-degree equation Ax2  Bxy  Cy2  Dx  Ey  F  0 can be rewritten as


A(x ) 2  C( y ) 2  Dx  Ey  F  0 by rotating the coordinate axes through the angle
, where cot 2  A  CB and the following quantities are invariant under rotation:
1. F  F
2. A  C  A  C
3. B2  4AC  B2  4AC

x  x cos   ysin 
y  x sin   y cos 

The graph of the nondegenerate equation Ax2  Bxy  Cy2  Dx  Ey  F  0 is:


(a) An ellipse or circle if B2  4AC < 0.
(b) A parabola if B2  4AC  0.
(c) A hyperbola if B2  4AC > 0.

Vocabulary Check
1. rotation of axes

2. A(x ) 2  C( y ) 2  Dx  Ey  F  0

3. invariant under rotation

4. discriminant

1.   90; Point: (0, 3)

2.   45; Point: 3, 3

x  x cos   y sin 

y  x sin   y cos 

x  x cos   y sin 

0  x cos 90  y sin 90

3  x sin 90  y cos 90

y  x sin   y cos 

0  y

3  x

Solving the system yields x, y   32, 0.

45  y sin 45


33  xx cos
sin 45  y cos 45

So, (x, y )  (3, 0).


3.   30; Point: (1, 3)
x  x cos   y sin 
y  x sin   y cos 

4.   60 ; Point: 3, 1

30  y sin 30


13  xx cos
sin 30  y cos 30

3  3 33  1
,
.
Solving the system yields x, y  
2
2

5.   45; Point 2, 1


x  x cos   y sin 
y  x sin   y cos 

x  x cos   y sin 
y  x sin   y cos 

60  y sin 60


31  xx cos
sin 60  y cos 60

Solving this system yields x, y  

3 2

3 1  33

.

6.   30; Point: 2, 4

45  y sin 45


21  xx cos
sin 45  y cos 45

Solving the system yields x, y  

3 2 2,  22 .


x  x cos   y sin 
y  x sin   y cos 

30  y sin 30


24  xx cos
sin 30  y cos 30

Solving this system yields x, y   3  2, 23  1.

946

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

7. xy  1  0, A  0, B  1, C  0
cot 2 

AC



 0 2 
B
2
4

x  x cos
 x




 y sin
4
4

y  x sin

2 2
2

 y

2

 x

x  y
2

2 2
 y

2

x  y
2



x  y
2

 10

4 3 2
2
3

( y ) 2 (x ) 2

1
2
2

x  y
2

8. xy  2  0, A  0, B  1, C  0
cot 2 



AC
 0 2 

B
2
4



x  x cos  y sin
4
4

3
2



y  x sin  y cos
4
4

x  y
2

xy  1  0



 y cos
4
4

2

xy  2  0

x  y
2

x  y
2



x  y
20
2

x 2   y 2
2
2
x 2  y 2

1
4
4

9. x2  2xy  y2  1  0, A  1, B  2, C  1
cot 2 

AC


 0 2 

B
2
4

2 2
2

 y

y'

2

 x

x  y
2

 y

2

x  y
2

x 2y  2x 2yx 2y  x 2y  1  0


2

x2  2x y   y2 2x2   y2 x2  2x y   y2


10
2
2
2
2 y2  1  0

 y2 

1
2

y 
The graph is two parallel lines.
Alternate solution:
x2  2xy  y2  1  0

x  y2  1
x  y  1
yx 1

x2  2xy  y2  1  0


1
1

2 2
2

x'

2
1



y  x sin  y cos
4
4



x  x cos  y sin
4
4
 x

12  22


Section 10.5

Rotation of Conics

10. xy  x  2y  3  0
A  0, B  1, C  0
cot 2 



AC
 0 2 

B
2
4

y
8



x  x cos  y sin
4
4
2
2
 x
 y
2
2

 



y  x sin  y cos
4
4
2
2
 x
 y
2
2

 

 

x  y

2

6
4

 

8 6 4

x  y

2

6
8

xy  x  2y  3  0

x  y
2



x  y
x  y
x  y

2
30
2
2
2

 

x 2  y 2
x
y
2x
2y





30
2
2
2
2
2
2

x 

 2x 

2

 2    y
2

 32y 
2

32
2

32
2

x  2   y 
32
2
10

y 

2

 x  2 
2

10

2

  6   2   
2

32
2

 10

1

11. xy  2y  4x  0
8

A  0, B  1, C  0
cot 2 

 x


AC


 0 2 

B
2
4

x  x cos



 y sin
4
4

y  xsin

 2   y 2 
2

2

 x

x  y
2



 y cos
4
4

 2   y 2 
2

2

x  y
2

x 2yx 2y  2x 2y  4x 2y  0


)2

(x

2

( y )2
2

 2x  2y  22x  22y  0

(x ) 2  62x  32 2 


( y ) 2  22y  2 2  0  32 2  2 2
x  32 2   y  2 2  16
x  322   y  2 2  1
16

16

xy  2y  4x  0


2
4

947

948

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

12. 2x2  3xy  2y2  10  0


A  2, B  3, C  2
4
C
   71.57
cot 2 
B
3
cos 2  

4
5

2
1  45


1  cos
2
2
1  cos 2
1  45
cos   


2
2
sin  

x  x cos   y sin 
 x


 x

x  3y
10

1
10

y  x sin   y cos 

10  y 10
1

3
10

10  y 10
3

3x  y
10

2x2  3xy  2y2  10  0


2

x  3y
10

3

x  3y
10



3x  y
3x  y
2
10
10

 10  0

x 2 6x y 9 y 2 9x 2 24x y 9 y 2 9x 2 6x y  y 2










 10  0
5
5
5
10
10
10
5
5
5
5
5
 x 2   y 2  10
2
2

x 2  y 2

1
4
4
13. 5x2  6xy  5y2  12  0

A  5, B  6, C  5

y'

x'

cot 2 

AC


 0 2 

B
2
4

x  x cos
 x




 y sin
4
4

y  x sin

2 2
2

 y

2

 x

x  y
2



 y cos
4
4
 y

2 2
2

2

x  y
2
5x2  6xy  5y2  12  0

x 2y  6x 2yx 2y  5x 2y  12  0


2

)2

5(x
2

 5xy 

5( y ) 2
2

 3(x ) 2  3( y ) 2 

5(x) 2
2

 5xy 

5( y ) 2
 12  0
2

2(x ) 2  8( y )2  12
(x ) 2 ( y ) 2

1
6
32

Section 10.5

Rotation of Conics

949

14. 13x2  63xy  7y2  16  0


A  13, B  63, C  7
cot 2 

AC
1


2 


3
B
3
6

x  x cos
 x




 y sin
6
6

3

2

y  x sin



 y cos
6
6





3x  y

3 2

3
1
 x
 y
2
2

1
 y
2

 

2
3

x  3y
2

13x2  63xy  7y2  16  0


13

3x  y

 63

3x  y



x  3y
x  3y
7
2
2

 16  0

39x 2 133x y 13 y 2 18x2 183x y 63x y







4
2
4
4
4
4


18 y 2 7x 2 73x y 21 y 2





 16  0
4
4
2
4
16x 2  4 y 2  16

x 2  y 2

1
1
4
y

15. 3x2  23xy  y2  2x  23y  0

A  3, B  23, C  1
1
AC

  60
cot 2 
3
B

2
2

y  x sin 60  y cos 60

x  x cos 60  y sin 60

 

3
1
x  3y
 y

 x
2
2
2



 x

2 
3

3x  y
1
 y

2
2

3x2  23xy  y2  2x  23y  0


3

x  2 3y  2 3x  2 3y




3x  y



3x  y

  2x  2 3y  2 3
2

3x  y

0

3x 2 63xy 9 y 2 6x 2 43xy 6 y 2 3x 2 23xy  y 2










4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
 x  3y  3x  3y  0
4 y 2  4x  0

 y 2  x

950

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

16. 16x2  24xy  9y2  60x  80y  100  0


A  16, B  24, C  9
7
C

 53.13
cot 2 
B
24
cos 2  

7
25

sin  

2
1  725 4


1  cos
2
2
5

cos  

1  cos 2

2

y  x sin   y cos 

5  y 5
3

1  725
3

2
5

x  x cos   y sin 
 x

1
y

 x

3  y 5 
4

4x  3y
5
16x2  24xy  9y2  60x  80y  100  0

16

3x  4y
5

 24

3x  4y
5



4x  3y
4x  3y
9
5
5

 60

3x  4y
4x  3y
 80
 100  0
5
5

144x 2 384x y
256 y 2 288x 2 168x y
288 y 2 144x 2 216x y







25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25


81 y 2
 36x  48y  64x  48y  100  0
25
25 y 2  100x  100  0

 y  2  4x  1
y

17. 9x2  24xy  16y2  90x  130y  0


6

A  9, B  24, C  16
cot 2 

7
AC

 53.13
B
24

cos 2  

2
1  

1  cos
2
2

1  cos 2

2

7
25

3
5

y  xsin   ycos 

x  x cos   y sin 

5  y5 

3x  4y
5

 x


CONTINUED

7
1   25
4
5
2

cos  

 x

7
25

sin  

4
y

5  y 5
4

4x  3y
5

Section 10.5

Rotation of Conics

17. CONTINUED
9x2  24xy  16y2  90x  130y  0
9

3x  4y
5

 24

3x  4y
5



4x  3y
4x  3y
 16
5
5

 90

3x  4y
4x  3y
 130
0
5
5

81x2 216xy 144 y2 288x2 168xy 288 y2 256x2 384xy 144 y2








25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
 54x  72y  104x  78y  0
25x2  50x  150y  0

x2  2x  6y


x2  2x  1  6y  1

x  12  6 y 

18. 9x2  24xy  16y2  80x  60y  0


A  9, B  24, C  16
cot 2 

7
C

 53.13
B
24

cos 2  

7
25

sin  

1  cos 2

2

cos  

1  cos 2

2

1  725 4

2
5

3
1  725

2
5

x  x cos   y sin 



2
x

y  x sin   y cos 





3
4
 y
 x
5
5


3
y

1
1



4
3
 x
 y
5
5

3x  4y
5

4x  3y
5
9x2  24xy  16y2  80x  60y  0

3x  4y
5

 24

3x  4y
5



4x  3y
4x  3y
 16
5
5

 80

3x  4y
4x  3y
 60
0
5
5

81x 2 216x y
144 y 2 288x 2 168x y
288 y 2 256x 2 384x y
144 y2








25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
 48x  64x  48x  36x  0
25x 2  100y  0

x  2  4y
1 2
x   y
4

1
6

951

952

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

19. x2  2xy  y2  20

10

A  1, B  2, C  1
cot 2 

15

AC 11


 0   or 45
B
2
4

15

10

To graph the conic using a graphing calculator, we need to solve for y in terms of x.

x  y2  20
x  y  20
y  x 20
Use y1  x  20 and y2  x  20.
21. 17x2  32xy  7y2  75

20. x2  4xy  2y2  6


A  1, B  4, C  2

cot 2 

AC 12 1


cot 2 
B
4
4

A  C 17  7 24 3


  26.57
B
32
32 4

Solve for y in terms of x by completing the square.

1
1

tan 2 4

7y2  32xy  17x2  75


y2 

tan 2  4
2 75.96
y2 

 37.98
To graph conic with a graphing calculator, we need to
solve for y in terms of x.

32
17
75
xy  x2 
7
7
7

32
256 2 119 2 525 256 2
xy 
x 
x 

x
7
49
49
49
49

y  7 x
16

x2  4xy  2y2  6
y  2xy 
2

x2

x2
 3   x2
2

x2
 y  x2  3 
2
yx

3  x2

yx
Enter y1  x 

3  2

x2

3  x2

and y2  x 

16x 515x2  21
7

and y2 

16x  515x2  21
.
7

y

16x  515x2  21
7

16
x
7

Use y1 

375x 49 525

y

3  x2 .

375x2  525
49

Section 10.5
23. 32x2  48xy  8y2  50

22. 40x2  36xy  25y2  52


A  40, B  36, C  25

cot 2 

5
A  C 40  25


cot 2 
B
36
12

8y2  48xy  32x2  50

y2  6xy  4x2 

2 67.38

y2  6xy  9x2  4x2 

 33.69
25y2  36xy  52  40x2

y

y
Enter y1 
y2 

1300  676x2

625

18
x
25

36
324 2 52 40 2 324 2
y2  xy 
x 
 x 
x
25
625
25 25
625

25
 9x2
4

5x  254
25
y  3x 5x 
4
25
Use y  3x  5x 
and
4
25
y  3x  5x  .
4
y  3x 

52 40 2
36
y2  xy 
 x
25
25 25

25
4

25
4

y  3x2  5x2 

Solve for y in terms of x by completing the square:

18
y x
25

A  C 24 1

  31.72
B
48 2

Solve for y in terms of x by completing the square.

1
5

tan 2 12
12
tan 2 
5

Rotation of Conics


1300 625

676x2

18x 1300  676x2


25

18x  1300  676x2


and
25

18x  1300  676x2


.
25

24. 24x2  18xy  12y2  34


A  24, B  18, C  12
A  C 24  12 2


B
18
3
3
tan 2 
2
2 56.31

cot 2 

 28.15
Solve for y in terms of x by completing the square:
12x2  9xy  6y2  17




3
27
69
9
6 y2  xy  x2  17  12x2  x2  17  x2
2
16
8
8
3 2 136  69x2
y x 
4
48

3
y x
4
Enter y1 

9x  3136 
12

136 48


69x2

69x2

and y2 

9x 3136  69x2


12

9x  3136  69x2


.
12

953

954

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

25. 4x2  12xy  9y2  413  12x  613  8y  91


A  4, B  12, C  9
cot 2 

5
AC 49


B
12
12

5
1

tan 2 12
tan 2 

12
5

2 67.38

 33.69
Solve for y in terms of x with the quadratic formula:
4x2  12xy  9y2  413  12x  613  8y  91

 12x  613  8y  4x2  413x  12x  91  0

9y2

a  9, b   12x  613  8, c  4x2  413x  12x  91


y
y


b b2  4ac
2a

12x  613  8 12x  613  82  494x2  413x  12x  91


18

12x  613  8 624x  3808  9613

18

18

Enter y1 
and y2 

12x  613  8  624x  3808  9613


18

27

12x  613  8  624x  3808  9613


.
18

26. 6x2  4xy  8y2  55  10x  75  5y  80

A  6, B  4, C  8
cot 2 

AC 68 1


B
4
2

tan 2  2
2 63.43

 31.72
Solve for y in terms of x using the quadratic formula.
8y2  4x  75  5y  6x2  55  10x  80  0
y

1
4x  75  5 4x  75  52  326x2  55  10x  80
16

Enter y1 and y2 from the above expression.


27. xy  2  0
B2  4AC  1 The graph is a hyperbola.
cot 2 

AC
 0   45
B

Matches graph (e).

28. x2  2xy  y2  0

x  y2  0
xy0
y  x
The graph is a line. Matches graph (f).

Section 10.5
29. 2x2  3xy  2y2  3  0
B2

 4AC 

(3)2

 4(2)(2)  25

A  1, B  1, C  3
B2  4AC  12  413  11

4
AC
   18.43
B
3

Matches graph (b).

31. 3x2  2xy  y2  10  0


B2

 4AC 

(2)2

 4(3)(1)  8

AC 13

 2  13.28
B
1
Matches graph (a).
cot 2 

A  1, B  4, C  4
B2  4AC  42  414  0
The graph is a parabola.

AC
 1   22.5
B

AC 14 3

  26.57
B
4
4
Matches graph (c).
cot 2 

Matches graph (d).

33. (a)

The graph is an ellipse.

32. x2  4xy  4y2  10x  30  0

The graph is an ellipse or circle.


cot 2 

34. (a) x2  4xy  2y2  6  0

16x2  8xy  y2  10x  5y  0


B2  4AC  82  4161  0

A  1, B  4, C  2

The graph is a parabola.

B2  4AC  42  412  24 > 0


The graph is a hyperbola.

(b) y2  8x  5y  16x2  10x  0


 8x  5 8x  52  4116x2  10x
y
21


8x  5 8x  52  416x2  10x


2

(c)

(b) 2y2  4xy  x2  6  0


1
y  
4x 16x2  8x2  6
4
(c)

1
4

955

30. x2  xy  3y2  5  0

The graph is a hyperbola.


cot 2 

Rotation of Conics

12

12

2
8

12x2  6xy  7y2  45  0

35. (a)

36. (a) 2x2  4xy  5y2  3x  4y  20  0

B2  4AC  62  4127  300 < 0

A  2, B  4, C  5

The graph is an ellipse.

B2  4AC  42  425  16  40  24 < 0

(b) 7y2  6xy  12x2  45  0


y

6x 36x2  2812x2  45



14
(c)

The graph is an ellipse.

 6x 6x  4712x  45


27
2

(b) 5y2  4x  4y  2x2  3x  20  0


y
(c)

 4x  4 4x  42  202x2  3x  20


10
5

5
3
3

956

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

x2  6xy  5y2  4x  22  0

37. (a)

38. (a) 36x2  60xy  25y2  9y  0

B2  4AC  62  415  56 > 0

A  36, B  60, C  25

The graph is a hyperbola.

B2  4AC  602  43625  0

(b) 5y2  6xy  x2  4x  22  0


y

The graph is a parabola.


(b) 25y2  60x  9y  36x2  0

 6x 6x2  45x2  4x  22


25

y

6x 36x2  20x2  4x  22



10

(c)

6x 36x2  20x2  4x  22



10
(c)

60x  9 60x  92  3600x2


50
1

6
5
9

39. (a) x2  4xy  4y2  5x  y  3  0

40. (a) x2  xy  4y2  x  y  4  0

B2  4AC  42  414  0

A  1, B  1, C  4
B2  4AC  12  414  15

The graph is a parabola.


(b) 4y2  4x  1y  x2  5x  3  0
y

The graph is an ellipse.

 4x  1 4x  1  44


24
2

x2

 5x  3

(b) 4y2  x  1y  x2  x  4  0


y

 4x  1 4x  12  16x2  5x  3



8
(c)

 x  1 x  12  16x2  x  4


8

(c)

3
4

41. y2  9x2  0

42.

x2  y2  2x  6y  10  0

 9x

x2  2x  1   y2  6y  9  10  1  9

y  3x

x  12   y  32  0

y2

Point at 1, 3

Two intersecting lines


y

4
3
2
1

4 3 2 1

x
1

2
3
6

(1, 3)

Section 10.5
43. x2  2xy  y2  1  0
(x 

y)2

x2  10xy  y2  0

44.

10

Rotation of Conics

y  10xy  25x2  25x2  x2


2

 y  5x2  24x2

(x  y)2  1
x  y  1

y  5x  24x2

y  x 1

y  5x 26x
y  5 26x

Two parallel lines


y

3
2

x
4 3 2 1

2 1

x
1

3
4

x2  y2  4x  6y  4  0 ( y  3)2  (x  2)2  1

45.

x2  y2  4x  6y  12  0 (x  2)2  ( y  3)2  1
2y2  12y  16  0
2( y  2)( y  4)  0

The points of intersection are 2, 2 and 2, 4.

y  2 or y  4

For y  2: x2  22  4x  6(2)  12  0
x2  4x  4  0

(x  2)2  0
For y  4:

x2

42

8
1

x2
 4x  6(4)  12  0
x2  4x  4  0
(x  2)2  0
x2

46. x2  y2  8x  20y  7  0 x  42   y  102  109


x2  9y2  8x  4y  7  0 x  42  9 y 
8y2

2 2
9

85
9

0

 24y

8y y  3  0
y  0 or y  3
When y  0:

x2

 90  8x  40  7  0
2

x  7x  1  0
x  7, 1
When y  3:

x2  932  8x  43  7  0
x2  8x  76  0
No real solution

Points of intersection: 7, 0, 1, 0

957

958

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

47. 4x2  y2  16x  24y  16  0


4x2  y2  40x  24y  208  0
 192  0
24x
x  8

30

When x  8: 482  y2  408  24y  208  0


10

y2  24y  144  0

10
0

 y  122  0
y  12
The point of intersection is 8, 12. In standard form the equations are:

x  22  y  122
x  52  y  122

 1 and

1
36
144
9
36
48.

x2  4y2  20x  64y  172  0 x  102  4 y  82  16


16x2  4y2  320x  64y  1600  0 16x  102  4 y  82  256
17x2

 340x

1428  0

17x  238x  6  0
x  6 or x  14
When x  6:

62

4y2

 206  64y  172  0


4y2

0
25

 64y  256  0

y2  16y  64  0

 y  82  0
20

y  8
When x  14:

142  4y2  2014  64y  172  0


4y2  64y  256  0
y2  16y  64  0

y  82  0
y  8
Points of intersection: 6, 8, 14, 8
49.

x2  y2  12x  16y  64  0
x2  y2  12x  16y  64  0
2x2
 24x
0
2xx  12  0

16

x  0 or x  12
When x  0:

10

02  y2  120  16y  64  0

20
4

y2  16y  64  0

 y  82  0
y8
When x  12: 122  y2  1212  16y  64  0
y2  16y  64  0

 y  82  0
y8
The points of intersection are 0, 8 and 12, 8. The standard forms of the equations are:

x  62  y  82

 1 and x  62   y  82  36
36
36

Section 10.5
50.

Rotation of Conics

x2  4y2  2x  8y  1  0 x  12  4 y  12  4


 2x  4y  1  0 y   14x  12

x2

12y

4y2

0

4y y  3  0
y  0 or y  3
When y  0: x  40  2x  80  1  0
2

x2

 2x  1  0

x  12  0

x1
x2

When y  3:

 2x  43  1  0
x2  2x  13  0

No real solution
Point of intersection: 1, 0
51. 16x2  y2  24y  80  0
16x2  25y2
 400  0
24y2  24y  480  0

The point of intersection is (0, 4).


In standard form the equations are:
x2 ( y  12)2

1
4
64

24( y  5)( y  4)  0
y  5 or y  4
When y  5:

16x2

25(5)2

y2
x2

1
25 16

 400  0
16x2  225

No real solution
When y  4: 16x2  25(4)2  400  0
16x2

0
5

x0
 16y  128  0 16x2   y  82  64

52. 16x2  y2

y2  48x  16y  32  0  y  82  48x  96


16x2

 48x

 160  0

16

x2

 3x  10  0

x  5x  2  0
x  5 or x  2
When x  5:

y2

 485  16y  32  0
y2

 16y  272  0
y  8 421

When x  2:

30

25

50

y2  482  16y  32  0
y2  16y  64  0

 y  82  0
y8
Points of intersection: 5, 8  421, 5, 8  421, 2, 8

20

959

960

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

 y2  4  0
3x  y2
0
2
x  3x
40
x  4x  1  0

53. x2

x  4

54. 4x2  9y2  36y  0 4x2  9y  22  36

x2  9y  27  0 y  
6

x2
3
9

427  9y  9y2  36y  0

or x  1

9y2  72y  108  0

9 y  6 y  2  0

When x  4: 34  y2  0

y  6 or y  2

y2  12

When y  6 : x  27  96  27


2

No real solution

No real solution

When x  1: 31  y2  0

When y  2 : x2  27  92  9

y2  3

x  3

y  3

Points of intersection: 3, 2, 3, 2

The points of intersection are 1, 3  and 1,  3 .

The standard forms of the equations are:


x2  y2  4
6

y2  3x

6
2

55. x2  2y2  4x  6y  5  0

No real solution

x  y  4  0 y  x  4
x2

No points of intersection

 2x  4  4x  6x  4  5  0

The standard forms of the equations are:

x  22

x2  2x2  8x  16  4x  6x  24  5  0

27
2

3x2  18x  51  0

y  32 2  1
27
4

x  y  4

3x2  6x  17  0

x2  6x  17  0
x2  6x  9  17  9

x  32  8
6

56. x2  2y2  4x  6y  5  0 2x  22  4 y  32   27


2

x2  4x  y  4  0 y  x2  4x  4
y  4  2y2  6y  5  0
2y2  7y  9  0

2y  9 y  1  0
y   92 or y  1
When y  1:

x2  4x  1  4  0

x  3x  1  0
x  1 or x  3
9
9
When y   2 : x2  4x   2   4  0

x2  4x  17
2  0
No real solution
Points of intersection: 1, 1, 3, 1

Section 10.5

xy  x  2y  3  0 y 

57.

x  3
x2

x  3

 x2 

xy10 y1x
5x2  2x1  x  51  x2  12  0
5x2  2x  2x2  51  2x  x2  12  0

9

5x2  2x  2x2  5  10x  5x2  12  0

x2(x  2)2  4(x  3)2  9(x  2)2

12x2  12x  7  0

x2x2  4x  4  4x2  6x  9  9x2  4x  4


x4

x

 4x  4x  4x  24x  36  9x  36x  36
3

x4  4x3  x2  60x  0
x(x  3)

x2

 7x  20  0
x  0 or x  3

3  30
3  30 3  30

: y1
6
6
6

When x 

3  30
3  30 3  30

: y1
6
6
6

Points of intersection:

0  3
3

02
2

63  30, 63  30, 63  30, 63  30


1

(3)  3
When x  3: y 
0
3  2

 2, (3, 0).

The points of intersection are 0,

3 30
6

When x 

Note: x2  7x  20  0 has no real solution.


When x  0: y 

961

58. 5x2  2xy  5y2  12  0

x2  4y2  9  0
x2  4

Rotation of Conics

6
2
9

59. x2  xy  ky2  6x  10  0
B2  4AC  12  41k  1  4k > 0 4k > 1 k <

1
4

True. For the graph to be a hyperbola, the discriminant must be greater than zero.
60. False. The coefficients of the new equation, after rotation of axes, are obtained by making the substitutions.
x  x cos   y sin 
y  x sin   y cos 
61. r2  x2  y2  x cos   y sin 2   y cos   x sin 2
 x 2 cos2   2xy cos  sin    y 2 sin2    y 2 cos2   2xy cos  sin   x 2 sin2 
 x 2cos2   sin2    y 2sin2   cos2   x 2   y 2
Thus, x 2   y 2  r2.
62. In Exercise 14, the equation of the rotated ellipse is:

x 
 y 

1
1
4
2

a2  4 a  2
b2

1 b1

Length of major axis is 2a  22  4.


Length of minor axis is 2b  21  2.

63. f x  x  3

Shift the graph of y  x


three units to the left.

6
5
4
3
2
1
6 5 4 3 2 1
1
2

x
1

962

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

64. f x  x  4  1

g x  4  x2

65.

y2  4  x2

The graph of the function


f x is the graph of x shifted
four units to the right and one
unit upward.

4
3

x2  y2  4

4
3

gx is the top half of this


circle since y 0.

2
1
1

4
3

Domain:

 x,

2
3,

0


2
3,

2
3

11
3

1
68. h t  2t  43

h 0 

1
2 0

4
3

3 2 1
1

6
4

4
0

2

1

27
2

32

125
2

 32, 0, 32


x-intercept: 0 

2
1

ht

 43

2 1
1

y-intercept:

Reflect the graph of y  x3


about the x-axis, shift it to the
right two units, and upward
three units.

2  3x
2
3

67. ht   t  23  3

0 2  3x  2

x-intercept: 0  3x  2

66. g x  3x  2

2 1
1

4 3 2 1

1
2 t

4
3

 4

2
1

0t4
7 6

t  4, 4, 0

4 3 2 1
1

t
1

2
3
4

69. f t  t  5  1
Shift the graph of y  x
five units to the right and
upward one unit.

70. f t  2t  3

1
1
1

3
t

2
3

4 3 2 1
1

t
1

3
4

71. Area  12 ab sin C


 2812 sin 110

72. sin 70 

h
25

45.11 square units

h  25 sin 70
1
Area  baseheight
2
1
 1625 sin 70
2
187.9

25

70

A
16

Section 10.6

73. s 

Parametric Equations

a  b  c 11  18  10

 19.5
2
2

Area  ss  as  bs  c  19.58.51.59.5  48.60 square units


74. Law of Cosines:

35 2  232  272  22327 cos 


cos 

11
414

  cos1

35

11
414


27

 

h  23 sin cos1

23

11
h
 sin   sin cos1
23
414

Not drawn to scale

11
414


 

   310.4

1
11
1
27 23 sin cos1
Area  baseheight 
2
2
414

Section 10.6

Parametric Equations

If f and g are continuous functions of t on an interval I, then the set of ordered pairs  f t, gt is a
plane curve C. The equations x  f (t) and y  g(t) are parametric equations for C and t is the parameter.

To eliminate the parameter:


(a) Solve for t in one equation and substitute into the second equation.
(b) Use trigonometric identities.

You should be able to find the parametric equations for a graph.

Vocabulary Check
1. plane curve; parametric; parameter

2. orientation

3. eliminating the parameter

1. x  t, y  3  t
1. (a)

(b)

2 3

4
2
1

(c) x  t

x2  t
2
y3x

y3t

The graph of the parametric equations only shows the right


half of the parabola, whereas the rectangular equation yields
the entire parabola.
y

4
4

3
2

1
2

1
x

1
1
2

4 3

1
2
3
4

963

964

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

2. x  4 cos2 , y  2 sin 
(a)

 2

 4

4

2

2

 2

(b)

2

(c)

x
y
 cos2 ,  sin 
4
2
cos2   sin2   1



x
y

4
2

y
4
3

1

4
3

x

4 3 2 1

x
y2
 1
4
4

y 2

4

The rectangular version of the graph continues into the


second and third quadrants.

4 3 2 1

2
3
4

3. (a) x  3t  3, y  2t  1

4. (a) x  3  2t, y  2  3t

2

1

3

2

1

9

6

3

1

3

3

1

7

4

1

11

6
5
4

2
1

5
4

2
x

4 3 2 1

1 2 3

2
3
4

2 1

x3
(b) x  3t  3 t 
3

(b) x  3  2t t   12x  32
y  2  3t

2
2
y  2t  1 y  x  3  1  x  3
3
3

y  2  3 12x  32 
y  2  32x  92
2y  4  3x  9
3x  2y  13  0

5. (a) x  14 t, y  t 2
y

6. (a) x  t, y  t3

2

1

 12

 14

1
4

1
2

3

2

1

3

2

1

27

8

1

27

y
2

2
1

(b) x  14 t t  4x
y

t2

4 3 2

y  16x

2
3
4

(b) x  t, y  t 3, y  x 3

Section 10.6
7. (a) x  t  2, y  t 2

2

1

Parametric Equations

8. (a) x  t, y  1  t

2

3

1

2

4
1

2
1

2 1

6
3

(b) x  t x2  t, t 0

(b) x  t  2 t  x  2
y  x  22  x 2  4x  4

y  t2

t
t1

9. (a) x  t  1, y 

y  1  t  1  x 2, x 0

t
t1

10. (a) x  t  1, y 

3

2

3

2

1

2

1

4

3

2

1

3
2

1
2

2
3

3
4

2
3

3
2

1
2

3
2
1

2
1
3

1
2

(b) x  t  1 t  x  1
y

(b) x  t  1 t  x  1

t
x1
y
t1
x

y

x1
x1
t


t1 x11
x

11. (a) x  2t  1, y  t  2

12. (a) x  t  1 , y  t  2

10

3

2

1

10

14

18

22

1

14

12
6

10
8

2
x

10

8 10 12 14

(b) x  2t  1

y t2

x2
x
 1  t or t 
2
2
y

  

x
x
12  3
2
2

965

(b) x  t  1

yt2 ty2 x y3

OR y  x  3, x 0 and y  x  3, x 0

966

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

13. (a) x  3 cos , y  3 sin 

(b) x  3 cos 

3

y  3 sin 

3

 cos2 


2

3

3

3
2

2

 sin2 

1
4

3  3
x

2 1

1

x2 y2
 1
9
9

14. (a) x  2 cos , y  3 sin 

(b) x  2 cos 

4

2

34

54

32

74

2

y  3 sin 

2

 2

2

 2

2

cos2   sin2   1

322

322

322

3

322

2x   3y 
2

1

x2 y2
 1
4
9

2
1
4 3

2
4

15. (a) x  4 sin 2, y  2 cos 2


4

3
4


2

(b) x  4 sin 2

4
x

y  2 cos 2

2

 sin2 2

4
3

4

2

4  2

3 2 1

 cos2 2

1

y2
x2
 1
16
4

(b) x  cos 

16. (a) x  cos , y  2 sin 2

4

2

34

54

32

74

2

22

 22

1

 22

22

2

2

y  2 sin 2
y  2 sin 2
y  22 sin  cos 
y2  16 sin2  cos2 
y2  161  x2x2

y2  16x21  x2
x

Section 10.6

17. (a) x  4  2 cos , y  1  sin 

(b) x  4  2 cos 
y


2

3
2

2

1

1

2

Parametric Equations
x4
2

 cos2 

y  1  sin  (y  1)2  sin2 

(x  4)2 ( y  1)2

1
4
1

2
1

1

967

2
3
4
5

18. (a) x  4  2 cos , y  2  3 sin 

4

2

34

54

32

74

2

4  2

4  2

4  2

4  2

2  322

2  322

2  322

1

2  322

y
6
5
4
3
2
1
x

(b) x  4  2 cos 
y  2  3 sin 
cos2   sin2   1

x  42  y  22

1
4
9
19. (a) x  et, y  e3t
t

2

(b) x  et
1

y  e3t y  et 3

7.3891

2.7183

0.3679

0.1353

0.0025

0.0498

20.0855

403.4288

y

x

y

1
, x > 0, y > 0
x3

2
1
x

1
 et
x

(b) x  e2t

20. (a) x  e2t, y  e t


t
x
y

3
0.0025
0.0498

2
0.0183
0.1353

1

y  et y2  e2t

0 1

0.1353 1 7.3891
0.3679 1 2.7183

2
3

x  e2t  y2

y2  x, y > 0

54.5982
7.3891
1
x
1
1

968

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

21. (a) x  t 3, y  3 ln t

(b) x  t3

y  3 ln t y  ln t3

1
2

1
8

27

64

2.0794

2.0794

3.2958

4.1589

x13  t

4
4

y  lnx133

y  ln x

2
1
2 1
1

x
1

2
3
4

(b) x  ln 2t t  12ex

22. (a) x  ln 2t, y  2t 2

y  2t2

1
1
y  2t2  22ex  2e2x
2

0.6931

1.3863

1.7918

2.0794

18

32

6
5
4
3
2
1
x

4 3 2 1

23. By eliminating the parameter, each curve becomes


y  2x  1.
(a) x  t
y  2t  1
There are no restrictions on x and y.

(b)

x  cos 

1 x 1

y  2 cos   1 1 y 3
The graph oscillates.

Domain:  , 

Domain: 1, 1

Orientation: Left to right

Orientation: Depends on 

3
2

2
1

x
2

2
x

(c) x  et

x > 0

y  2et  1 y > 1
Domain: 0, 
Orientation: Downward or right to left

x > 0
(d) x  et
y  2et  1 y > 1
Domain: 0, 
Orientation: Upward or left to right

y
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1

x
2

2
x
2

Section 10.6

Parametric Equations

24. By eliminating the parameter, each curve represents a portion of y  x2  1.


(a) x  t
y

(b) x  t2 x 0

t2

1

y  t4  1

There are no restrictions on x.

1
2
2

2
2

Domain: 0, 
Orientation: Depends on t

Domain:  , 
Orientation: Left to right

(d) x  et x > 0

(c) x  sin t 1 x 1

y  e2t  1

y  sin2 t  1

1
x

1
2

Domain: 1, 1

Orientation: Depends on t
25. x  x1  tx2  x1, y  y1  t y2  y1
x  x1
t
x2  x1
y  y1 
y  y1 

Domain: 0, 
Orientation: Left to right
26. x  h  r cos , y  k  r sin 
cos  

x  x1
 y2  y1
2  x1

x

y2  y1
x  x1  mx  x1
x2  x1

27. x  h  a cos , y  k  b sin 

xh
yk
, sin  
r
r

x  h2  y  k  2

1
r2
r2
x  h2   y  k2  r2
cos2   sin2  

28. x  h  a sec , y  k  b tan 

yk
xh
 cos ,
 sin 
a
b

yk
xh
 sec ,
 tan 
a
b

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2

x  h2  y  k2

1
a2
b2

29. From Exercise 25 we have:


x  0  t(6  0)  6t
y  0  t(3  0)  3t

30. Line through 2, 3 and 6, 3


From Exercise 25 we have:
x  x1  tx2  x1  2  t6  2  2  4t
y  y1  ty2  y1  3  t3  3  3  6t

969

970

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry


32. Circle with center 3, 2; radius: 5

31. From Exercise 26 we have:


x  3  4 cos 

From Exercise 26 we have:

y  2  4 sin 

x  h  r cos   3  5 cos 
y  k  r sin   2  5 sin 

33. Vertices: ( 4, 0) (h, k)  (0, 0) and a  4


Foci: ( 3, 0) c  3
c2  a2  b2 9  16  b2 b  7
From Exercise 27 we have:

34. Ellipse
Vertices: 4, 7, 4, 3 h, k  4, 2, a  5
Foci: 4, 5, 4, 1 c  3
b2  a2  c2  25  9  16 b  4
From Exercise 27 we have:

x  4 cos 

x  h  b cos   4  4 cos 

y  7 sin 

y  k  a sin   2  5 sin 

35. Vertices: ( 4, 0) (h, k)  (0, 0) and a  4

36. Hyperbola

Foci: ( 5, 0) c  5

Vertices:  2, 0 h, k  0, 0, a  2

c2  a2  b2 25  16  b2 b  3

Foci:  4, 0 c  4

From Exercise 28 we have:

b2  c2  a2  16  4 b  23

x  4 sec 

From Exercise 28 we have:

y  3 tan 

x  h  a sec   2 sec 
y  k  b tan   23 tan 
38. x  3y  2

37. y  3x  2
(a) t  x x  t and y  3t  2

1
(a) t  x, x  t, y  3t  2

(b) t  2  x x  t  2 and

1
1
(b) t  2  x, x  2  t, y  3x  2  34  t

y  3t  2  2  3t  4
40. y  x3

39. y  x2
(a) t  x x  t and y  t2

(a) t  x, x  t, y  t3

(b) t  2  x x  t  2 and

(b) t  2  x, x  2  t, y  2  t3

y  t  22  t2  4t  4
42. y  2  x

41. y  x2  1
(a) t  x x  t and y  t2  1

(a) t  x, x  t, y  2  t

(b) t  2  x x  t  2 and

(b) t  2  x, x  2  t, y  2  2  t  t

y  t  2  1 
2

43. y 

t2

 4t  5

1
x

(a) t  x x  t and y 

44. y 
1
t

(b) t  2  x x  t  2 and y 

1
2x

(a) t  x, x  t, y 
1
1

t  2 t  2

1
2t

(b) t  2  x, x  2  t, y 

1
1

22  t 4  2t

Section 10.6

Parametric Equations

45. x  4  sin 

46. x    sin 

47. x    32 sin 

y  41  cos 

y  1  cos 

y  1  32 cos 

34

971

8
6

0
0

51

18

12
0
6

48. x  2  4 sin 

49. x  3 cos3 

y  2  4 cos 

y3

50. x  8  4 sin 

sin3 

14

y  8  4 cos 

14

6
0

30
0

51. x  2 cot 
y2

52. x 

3t
1  t3

y

3t2
1  t3

sin2 
4

53. x  2 cos 2 x 2
y  sin 2 1 y 1
Matches graph (b).
Domain: [2, 2]

100

Range: [1, 1]
6

54. x  4 cos3  4 x 4
y6

sin3

 6 y 6

55. x  12cos    sin 


y

1
2 sin

56. x  12 cot    < x <

   cos 

y  4 sin  cos  2 y 2

Matches graph (c).

Matches graph (d).

Matches graph (a).

Domain: 4, 4

Domain: ( , )

Domain:  , 

Range: 6, 6

Range: ( , )

Range: 2, 2

57. x  v0 cos t and y  h  v0 sin t  16t2


(a)   60, v0  88 ftsec
x  88 cos 60t and y  88 sin 60t  16t2

(b)   60, v0  132 ftsec


x  132 cos 60t and y  132 sin 60t  16t2

100

220

250
0

500
0

Maximum height: 90.7 feet

Maximum height: 204.2 feet

Range: 209.6 feet

Range: 471.6 feet

CONTINUED

972

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

57. CONTINUED
(d)   45, v0  132 ftsec

(c)   45, v0  88 ftsec


x  88 cos 45t and y  88 sin 45t 

16t2

100

x  132 cos 45t and y  132 sin 45t  16t2


200

300

600
0

Maximum height: 60.5 ft

Maximum height: 136.1 ft

Range: 242.0 ft

Range: 544.5 ft

58. x  v0 cos t


y  h  v0 sin t  16t2
(a)   15, v0  60 ft sec
Maximum height: 3.8 feet
Range: 56.3 feet

(b)   15, v0  100 ft sec


Maximum height: 10.5 feet
Range: 156.3 feet
15

60

(c)   30, v0  60 ft sec


Maximum height: 14.1 feet
Range: 97.4 feet

(d)   30, v0  100 ft sec


Maximum height: 39.1 feet
Range: 270.6 feet
40

15

100

160
0

300
0

5280
440
59. (a) 100 miles per hour  1003600  ftsec  3 ftsec

x  440
3 cos  t  (146.67 cos )t
2
2
y  3  440
3 sin  t  16 t  3  (146.67 sin  )t  16t

(b) For   15, we have:

50

x  440
3 cos 15t  141.7t
2
2
y  3  440
3 sin 15t  16t  3  38.0t  16t

The ball hits the ground inside the ballpark, so it is not a home run.

450
0

(c) For   23, we have:


x  440
3 cos 23t  135.0t

60

2
2
y  3  440
3 sin 23t  16t  3  57.3t  16t

The ball easily clears the 7-foot fence at 408 feet so it is a home run.
(d) Find  so that y  7 when x  408 by graphing the parametric
equations for  values between 15 and 23. This occurs when   19.3.

500
0

Section 10.6
(b) y  5  240 sin 10t  16t2  0

60. (a) x  v0 cos t


y  h  v0 sin t  16t2

t

h  5, v0  240,   10
x  240 cos 10t
y  5  240 sin 10t  16t2

61. x  v0 cos t t 

Parametric Equations
40

(c)

240 sin 10 240 sin 102  4165


216

t  0.1149, 2.7196

Distance traveled before arrow hits ground:

Maximum height: 32.1 feet

700
0

240 cos 102.7196  643 feet

(d) Time arrow is in the air:


approximately 2.72 seconds
(see part b)

x
v0 cos 

y  h  v0 sin t  16t2


 h  v0 sin 

v

x
x
 16
cos

v
cos

0
0

 h  (tan )x 


16x2
v02 cos2 

16 sec2  2
x  (tan )x  h
v02

62. y  7  x  0.02x2
(a) Exercise 61 result: y  

16 sec2  2
x  tan x  h
v02

(b)

25

h7
tan   1   45
0

(c) Maximum height: 19.5 feet

x  v0 cos t  40 cos 45 t


y  h  v0 sin t 

 7  40 sin 45t 

60
0

16 sec2 45
 0.02 v0  40
v02

16t2

Range: 56.2 feet


16t2

63. When the circle has rolled  radians, the center is at (a, a).

sin   sin(180  )


AC  BD
b

 

BD  b sin 

P
b

cos   cos(180  )


AP
b

973

 

AP  b cos 

C
a
x

B D

Therefore, x  a  b sin  and y  a  b cos .


64. The coordinates of point x, y can be thought of as the
sum of two vectors:
From origin to center of small circle: 3 cos , 3 sin 
From center of small circle to point x, y: cos , sin 
Because the small circle rotates by 2 when its center
has rotated by , we have     3.
x  3 cos   cos  3  3 cos   cos 3
y  3 sin   sin  3  3 sin   sin 3

65. True
xt
y  t2  1 y  x2  1
x  3t
y  9t2  1 y  x2  1

974

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

66. False. Since t2 0, the graph is that of y  x for x 0.

67. The use of parametric equations is useful when graphing


two functions simultaneously on the same coordinate
system. For example, this is useful when tracking the path
of an object so the position and the time associated with
that position can be determined.

68. For selected values of t, prepare a table of values for xt


and yt. Plot the points xt, yt in the table. Sketch a
curve through the points in order of increasing t (this is
the orientation of the curve).

69.

5x  7y  11
5x  7y  11
3x  y  13 21x  7y  91
16x
 80
x
5
55  7y 

11 y  2

Solution: 5, 2
70.

6x  10y  18
3x4x  5y2y  149
20x  10y  70
26x

71. 3a  2b  c  8 9a  6b  3c  24
2a  b  3c  3 2a  b  3c  3
11a  5b
 21

 52

2a  b  3c  3 6a  3b  9c  9
a  3b  9c  16 a  3b  9c  16
7a
 7
a
 1

x  2
32  5y  9 y  3
Solution: 2, 3

111  5b  21 b  2
31  22  c  8 c  1
Solution: 1, 2, 1
72.

5u  7v  9w  4
u  2v  3w  7
8u  2v  w  20

Equation 1
Equation 2
Equation 3

u  2v  3w  7
5u  7v  9w  4
8u  2v  w  20

Interchange Eq.1 and Eq.2

89w  178 w  2
17v  242  31 v  1
u  21  32 
7 u 3

u  2v  3w 
7
17v  24w  31
14v  25w  36

u  2v  3w 
7
17v  24w  31
89w  178

Solution: 3, 1, 2

5Eq.1  Eq.2
8Eq.1  Eq.3

73.   105

14Eq.2  17Eq.3

74.   230

    180

  180  105  75


105

 230  180  50

230
x

75.   

2
3

  

76.  

2


3
3

5
6

       
x

2
3

5 

6
6

5
6

Section 10.7

Section 10.7

Polar Coordinates

975

Polar Coordinates

In polar coordinates you do not have unique representation of points. The point r,  can be represented
by r,  2n or by r,  2n  1 where n is any integer. The pole is represented by 0, 
where  is any angle.

To convert from polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates, use the following relationships.
x  r cos 
y  r sin 

To convert from rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates, use the following relationships.
r  x2  y2
tan   y  x
If  is in the same quadrant as the point x, y, then r is positive. If  is in the opposite quadrant as the point x, y, then r
is negative.

You should be able to convert rectangular equations to polar form and vice versa.

Vocabulary Check
1. pole

2. directed distance; directed angle


y
4. x  r cos , tan  
x

3. polar

y  r sin ,

1. Polar coordinates:

4,  3 

2.

4,  3  2  4, 53




4

   4, 
3
3

 

3. Polar coordinates:

1,  34

1, 4 

Additional representations:

4, 

r2  x2  y2

1 2 3 4

1,

5
4

3
2

3
2

0,  76

Additional representations:

0,  76  2  0, 56


0,  76    0,  6  or 0,  for any , 2 <  < 2

1 2 3 4

3
2

2 3 4

976

4.

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

16, 52


16,


2

5. Polar coordinates: 2, 2.36

Additional representations:

16, 32

4 8 12 16

2, 2.36  2  2, 3.92


 2, 2.36     2, 0.78

3
2

1 2 3 4

3
2

6. 3, 1.57

7. Polar coordinates: 22, 4.71

3, 1.5716

Additional representations:

3, 4.7132

1 2 3 4

22, 4.71  2  22, 1.57


22, 2  4.71  22, 1.57

3
2

1 2 3 4

3
2

8. 5, 2.36

9. Polar coordinates:

5, 0.7816
5, 3.9232

2 4 6 8

3
2

10. Polar coordinates:

3, 32  r, 

x  r cos   3 cos
y  r sin   3 sin

3
0
2

3
 3
2

Rectangular coordinates: 0, 3

x  3 cos


0
2

y  3 sin


3
2

3, 2 

Rectangular coordinates: 0, 3

11. Polar coordinates:


x  1 cos

5

5

1, 4 

4

2

Rectangular coordinates:

, y  1 sin

 22, 22
 

5

4

2

Section 10.7

12. Polar coordinates: 0,    r, 

13. Polar coordinates:

x  r cos   0
y  r sin   0
Rectangular coordinates: 0, 0

Polar Coordinates

977

2, 34

x  2 cos

3
  2
4

y  2 sin

3
 2
4

Rectangular coordinates:  2, 2 

14. Polar coordinates:

2, 76  r, 

x  r cos   2 cos
y  r sin   2 sin

15. Polar coordinates: 2.5, 1.1


x  2.5 cos 1.1  1.1340

7
 3
6

y  2.5 sin 1.1  2.2280


Rectangular coordinates: 1.1340, 2.2280

7
1
6

Rectangular coordinates: 3, 1


16. Polar coordinates: 8.25, 3.5  r, 

17. Rectangular coordinates: (1, 1)

x  r cos   8.25 cos 3.5  7.7258

r  2, tan   1,  

y  r sin   8.25 sin 3.5  2.8940


Rectangular coordinates: 7.7258, 2.8940

Polar coordinates:

Polar coordinates:

2,




5
,  2,
4
4

19. Rectangular coordinates: 6, 0

18. Rectangular coordinates: 3, 3


r  32, tan   1,  

 5
or
4
4

r  6, tan   0,   0 or 

5
4

Polar coordinates: 6, , 6, 0

5

32, 4 

4 6 8

3
2

20. Rectangular coordinates: 0, 5


r  5, tan  undefined,  
Polar coordinates:

5,

3
2

3
2

4 6 8


2

21. Rectangular coordinates: (3, 4)


4
r  9  16  5, tan    ,   2.2143, 5.3559
3
Polar coordinates: (5, 2.2143), (5, 5.3559)

978

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

22. Rectangular coordinates: 3, 1


r  9  1  10, tan    13,   0.322 or 5.9614

23. Rectangular coordinates:  3,  3 


r  3  3  6, tan   1,  

Polar coordinates: 10, 5.961

Polar coordinates:

4 6 8

5

 5
or
4
4

6, 4 ,  6, 4 

3
2

24. Rectangular coordinates: 3, 1


r  3  1  2, tan   

Polar coordinates: 2,

11
6

25. Rectangular coordinates: 6, 9

1
11
, 
6
3

r  62  92  117  313


tan   96,   0.9828, 4.1244
Polar coordinates: 313, 0.9828, 313, 4.1244

2 3 4

3
2

26. Rectangular coordinates: 5, 12


r  25  144  13, tan   12
5 ,   1.176
Polar coordinates: 13, 1.176

4 8 12 16

3
2

27. Rectangular: 3, 2


(3, 2)  Pol
 (3.606, 0.5880)

or 13, 0.5880
or 13, 5.6952

30. Rectangular coordinates: 32, 32


R  Pr32, 32  6

R  P32, 32  0.785

 4

 6,

28. Rectangular coordinates: 5, 2

29. Rectangular: 3, 2

3, 2  Pol

R  Pr5, 2  5.385

 2.646, 0.8571

R  P5, 2  2.761

or 7, 0.8571

 5.385, 2.761

31. Rectangular:

2, 3  Pol
5 4

 2, 3 
5 4

 2.833, 0.4900
or

176, 0.4900

Section 10.7
32. Rectangular coordinates:
R  Pr

74, 32 

34. x2  y2  16

33. x2  y2  9

  2.305
R  P   0.709
7 3
4, 2

Polar Coordinates

r3

r4

7 3
4, 2

 2.305, 0.709
y4

35.

yx

36.

r sin   4

37.

r cos   r sin 

r  4 csc 

3x  y  2  0

r cos   4a
r  4a sec 

r  10 sec 

40.

3r cos   r sin   2  0

3x  5y  2  0
3r cos   5r sin   2  0

r(3 cos   sin )  2

r3 cos   5 sin   2

2
r
3 cos   sin 
xy  16

41.

(r cos )(r sin )  16


r  16 sec  csc   32 csc 2
2

x  4a

38.

r cos   10

1  tan 



4
39.

x  10

r

42.

2
3 cos   5 sin 

2xy  1
2r cos r sin   1
2r2 cos  sin   1
r2 

1
2 cos  sin 

r2 

1
sec  csc 
2

r2  csc 2
44. x2  y22  9x2  y2

43. y2  8x  16  0
r2 sin2   8r cos   16  0
By the Quadratic Formula, we have:
r

 8 cos  8 cos 2  4sin2 16


2 sin2 

8 cos  64 cos2   64 sin2 


2 sin2 

8 cos  64 cos2   sin2 


2 sin2 

8 cos  8
2 sin2 

4cos  1
1  cos2 

r

4cos   1
4

1  cos 1  cos  1  cos 
or

r

4cos   1
4

1  cos 1  cos  1  cos 

r22  9r2 cos2   r2 sin2 


 9r2cos2   sin2 
r2  9 cos 2

979

980

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry


46. x2  y2  9a2

45. x2  y2  a2

47. x2  y2  2ax  0

r  3a

r2  a2

r2  2a r cos   0
rr  2a cos   0

ra

r  2a cos   0
r  2a cos 
48. x2  y2  2ay  0
r2  2ar sin   0
x2

r  2a sin 

50. Because x  r cos  and r is


given as 2 cos  :

r  4 sin 

49.


r2

 4r sin 

y2

 4y

x  2 cos  cos   2 cos2 


r  2 cos 

x2  y2  4y  0

r 2  4 cos2 
x2  y 2  2 2 cos2 
x2  y 2  2x
x 2  y 2  2x  0

51.



2
3



52.

2
tan   tan
3

53.

r4

y
  3
x

54.

r  10

 16

r2  100

x2  y2  16

x2  y2  100

r2

tan    3

y
  3
x

y   3 x

y   3x

3 x  y  0

3x  y  0

55.

5
3

r  4 csc 

56.

r sin   4

r  3 sec 
r
 3
sec 

y4

r2  cos 

57.

r3  r cos 

 x2  y23  x

r cos   3

x2  y232  x

x  3

x2  y23  x2
x2  y2  x23
x2  y2  x23  0
58.

r2  sin 2  2 sin  cos 


r2  2

 r  r  
y

r 4  2xy

x2  y22  2xy

2xy
r2

59.

r  2 sin 3
r  2 sin  2
r  2sin  cos 2  cos  sin 2
r  2sin 1  2 sin2   cos 2 sin  cos 
r  2sin   2 sin3   2 sin  cos2 
r  2sin   2 sin3   2 sin 1  sin2 
r  2(3 sin   4 sin3 )
r4  6r3 sin   8r3 sin3 

x2  y22  6x2  y2y  8y3


x2  y22  6x2y  2y3

Section 10.7

r  3 cos 2 

60.

r

61.

r  32 cos2   1
r3

r

r3

2x  r
r2

r3

2x 2  x2  y 2
x2  y 2

r3

x

r2  9

x

x 2  y2  9

2x

1

2
2

x2  y 2
2  y2

r

62.

981

1
1  cos 

r(1  sin )  2

r  r cos   1

r  r sin   2

x2  y2  x  1

x2  y2  1  2x  x2

r  2  r sin 

x2  y 2
2  y2

2
1  sin 

Polar Coordinates

y2  2x  1

x2  y2  2  y

x2  y2  2  y2

x2  y2  4  4y  y2
x2  4y  4  0

x 2  y 2 2
x2  y 22

x 2  y 23  9x2  y 22


r

63.

6
2  3 sin 

r

6
2 cos   3 sin 

r

6
2xr  3yr

r

6r
2x  3y

1

6
2x  3y

64.

r(2  3 sin )  6
2r  6  3r sin 
2

x2

y2

  6  3y

4x2  y2  6  3y2


4x2  4y2  36  36y  9y2
4x2  5y2  36y  36  0

2x  3y  6

65. The graph of the polar


equation consists of all
points that are six units
from the pole.
r6

4
2
8

4 2

r2  36
x2

66. The graph of the polar


equation consists of all
points that are eight units
from the pole.

r2

67. The graph of the polar equation consists of all points that
make an angle of 6 with the polar axis.




6

tan   tan

3

tan   tan

1
2

3
4

10

3
4

3
2
1

x
4 3 2

3y  3x
 3x  3y  0

3
2

10

4
6

3
4

y 3

x
3
y

2 4 6

68. The graph of the polar equation consists of all points that
make an angle of 34 with the polar axis.




6

 64

x2  y2  64

6
4
2
6 4 2

 y  36

r8

10

y
 1
x
y  x
xy0

4 3 2 1
2
3
4

982

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

69. The graph of the polar equation is not evident by simple


inspection. Convert to rectangular form first.
r  3 sec 

70. The graph of the polar equation is not evident by simple


inspection. Convert to rectangular form first.
r  2 csc 

r cos  3

x3

r sin   2

4
3

y2

x30

y20

4 3 2 1

71. True. Because r is a directed distance, then the point r, 


can be represented as r,  2n.
r  2(h cos   k sin )

73.

4 3 2 1

r

x2
x2

x2

 2hx 

h2

 2hx 



y2

y2

 2hx  2ky

y2

 2hx  2ky

r  cos   3 sin 

74.

r

x 3y

r
r

r2  x  3y

2hx  2ky
r

r2

72. False. r1,  and r2,  represent the same point only if
r1  r2.

  r   k r 

r2 h

x
1

x2  y2  x  3y
x2  x  y2  3y  0

x  2   y  2 
1

 2ky  0

 2ky  k2  h2  k2

5
2

The graph is a circle.

(x  h)2  (y  k)2  h2  k2
Center: h, k
Radius: h2  k2
75. (a)

r1, 1  x1, y1 where x1  r1 cos 1 and y1  r1 sin 1.


r2, 2  x2, y2 where x2  r2 cos 2 and y2  r2 sin 2.
d  x1  x22  y1  y22
 x12  2x1x2  x22  y12  2y1y2  y22
 x12  y12  x22  y22  2x1x2  y1y2
 r12  r22  2 r1r2 cos 1 cos 2  r1r2 sin 1 sin 2
 r12  r22  2r1r2 cos1  2

(b) If 1  2, then


d  r1  r2  2r1r2
2

 r1  r22

 r1  r2 .
This represents the distance between two points on
the line   1  2.
(c) If 1  2  90, then
d  r12  r22.
This is the result of the Pythagorean Theorem.

(d) The results should be the same. For example, use the
points


3,
and 4, .
6
3

 

 

The distance is d  2.053.


Now use the representations
7

4

3, 6  and 4, 3 .


The distance is still d  2.053.

Section 10.7

76. (a) For horizontal moves, just the x -coordinate changes.


For vertical moves, just the y -coordinate changes.

77. log 6

Polar Coordinates

x2z
 log 6 x2z  log 6 3y
3y
 log 6 x2  log 6 z  log 6 3  log 6 y

(b) For horizontal moves, both r and  change.


For vertical moves, both r and  change.

 2 log 6 x  log 6 z  log 6 3  log 6 y

(c) Unlike r and , x and y measure horizontal and vertical


changes, respectively.

78. log4

2x

 log42x  log4 y


1
log4 2x  log4 y
2

1
1
log4 2  log4 x  log4 y
2
2

1 1
 log4 x  log4 y
4 2

80. ln 5x2x2  1  ln 5  ln x2  lnx2  1

79. ln xx  42  ln x  lnx  42


 ln x  2 lnx  4

81. log7 x  log7 3y  log7

 ln 5  2 ln x  lnx2  1

82. log5 a  8 log5x  1  log5 a  log5x  18

83.

1
2

x
3y

ln x  lnx  2  ln x  lnx  2
 ln xx  2

 log5 ax  18

84. ln 6  ln y  lnx  3  ln 6y  lnx  3


 ln

85.

6y
x3

5x  7y  11

3x  y  3

By Cramers Rule we have:

11 7
32
3
1
x

2
5 7
16
3
1
5 11
3 3
48
y

3
5 7
16
3
1
Solution: 2, 3

86. 3x  5y  10
4x  2y  5

10 5
5 2
45
x

3 5
14
4 2

3
4
y
3
4

10
5
55

5
14
2

Solution: 

45 55
,
14 14

983

984
87.

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

3a  2b  c  0
2a  b  3c  0
a  3b  9c  8

3
2
1

2
1
3

88.

1
3  35
9

u

By Cramers Rule we have:


2
1
1 3
40 8
3
9


35
35 7

0
0
8

a

3
2
1

b

2
1
3
35

3
2
1

c

Solution:

89.

0
0
8

y

z

7
9
2 3
2
1
295 295


,
89
89
89

5
1
8

15
9
7 3
0
1
844 844


,
89
89
89

5
1
8

7 15
2
7
2
0
672
672


89
89
89

 89 , 89 ,  89 
295 844

672

56 8

35 5

8 88 8

90.

2x1  x2  2x3  4
2x1  2x2
5
2x1  x2  6x3  2

2
D 2
2

2
1  15
2

By Cramers Rule we have:

x

7
2
2

7, 35, 5

1
3
4

w

15
7
0

Solution:

x  y  2z  1
2x  3y  z  2
5x  4y  2z  4

1
2
5

v

0
1
0 3
88
8
9

35
35

5u  7v  9w  15
5
u  2v  3w  7 1
8u  2v  w  0
8

1
2
4

1
3
4
15

2
1
2

1
2
5

1
2
4
15

2
1
2

1
2
5

1
1
3 2
4
4
45

3
15
15

30
2
15

45
 3
15

1
2
1

2
0 0
6

Cramers Rule does not apply.

Solution: 2, 3, 3 


91. Points: 4, 3, 6, 7, 2, 1

4
6
2

3
7
1

1
1  20  0
1

The points are not collinear.

92. Points: 2, 4, 0, 1, 4, 5

2
0
4

4
1
5

1
1  0 collinear
1

9
3  89
1

Section 10.8
93. Points: 6, 4, 1, 3, 1.5, 2.5

6 4
1 3
1.5 2.5

94. Points: 2.3, 5, 0.5, 0, 1.5, 3

2.3
0.5
1.5

1
1 0
1

The points are collinear.

Section 10.8

Graphs of Polar Equations

5
0
3

1
1  4.6 not collinear
1

Graphs of Polar Equations

When graphing polar equations:


1. Test for symmetry.
(a)   2: Replace (r, ) by (r,   ) or (r,  ).
(b) Polar axis: Replace (r, ) by (r,  ) or (r,   ).
(c) Pole: Replace (r, ) by (r,   ) or (r, ).
(d) r  f (sin ) is symmetric with respect to the line   2.
(e) r  f (cos ) is symmetric with respect to the polar axis.



2. Find the  values for which r is maximum.


3. Find the  values for which r  0.
4. Know the different types of polar graphs.
(a) Limaons 0 < a, 0 < b
(b) Rose curves, n 2
r  a b cos 
r  a cos n
r  a b sin 
r  a sin n

(c) Circles
r  a cos 
r  a sin 

(d) Lemniscates
r2  a2 cos 2
r2  a2 sin 2

ra
5. Plot additional points.

Vocabulary Check

2
4. circle
1.  

2. polar axis

3. convex limaon

5. lemniscate

6. cardioid

1. r  3 cos 2
Rose curve with 4 petals

2. r  5  5 sin 
Cardioid

3. r  31  2 cos 
Limaon with inner loop

4. r 2  16 cos 2
Lemniscate

5. r  6 sin 2
Rose curve with 4 petals

6. r  3 cos 
Circle

7. r  5  4 cos 




:
2

r  5  4 cos( )
r  5  4 cos 

8. r  16 cos 3

  : r  16 cos3 
2
r  16 cos3
r  16 cos 3
Not an equivalent equation

Not an equivalent equation


Polar axis: r  5  4 cos( )
r  5  4 cos 

Polar
axis:

Equivalent equation
Pole:

Symmetric with respect to polar axis

r  16 cos3
r  16 cos 3

r  5  4 cos 
Not an equivalent equation

Answer:

r  16 cos3 

Equivalent equation
r  16 cos 3
Not an equivalent equation
Answer: Symmetric with respect to polar axis
Pole:

985

986

Chapter 10

9. r 



Topics in Analytic Geometry

2
1  sin 


:
2

10. r 


3
  : r 
2
2  cos 

r

2
1  sin(  )

r

2
1  sin  cos   cos  sin 

Not an equivalent equation


Polar
axis:

2
r
1  sin 

r

3
2  cos 

Equivalent equation

Equivalent equation
2
Polar axis: r 
1  sin( )
r

3
2  cos 

Pole:

r 

3
2  cos 

Not an equivalent equation

2
1  sin 

Answer: Symmetric with respect to polar axis

Not an equivalent equation


r 

Pole:

2
1  sin 

Symmetric with respect to   2

Answer:

11. r2  16 cos 2


 :
2

12. r 2  36 sin 2


  : r2  36 sin2
2

r2  16 cos 2 


r2  16 cos 2

Not an equivalent equation

Equivalent equation
Polar axis:

r2

 16 cos 2 

r2

 16 cos 2

Polar
axis:
Pole:

Equivalent equation

Not an equivalent equation

r2  36 sin 2
Equivalent equation

r2  16 cos 2

Pole:

r2  36 sin2

Answer: Symmetric with respect to pole

r2  16 cos 2
Equivalent equation
Symmetric with respect to  

Answer:


, the
2

polar axis, and the pole


13.

r  10(1  sin )  101  sin  10(2)  20


1  sin   2
1  sin   2

or

1  sin   2
sin   3

sin   1
3

2



Maximum: r  20 when  
0  10(1  sin )
sin   1


2


Zero: r  0 when  
2

Not possible

14.

r  6  12 cos  6  12 cos 


 6  12cos  18
cos   1

0



Maximum: r  18 when   0
3
2

0  6  12 cos 
cos   



1
2

2 4
,
3 3

Zero: r  0 when  

2 4
,
3 3

Section 10.8
15.

r  4 cos 3  4cos 3 4


cos 3  1

16.

cos 3  1

987

r  3 sin 2  3sin 2 3


sin 2  1
sin 2  1

 3 5 7
 , , ,
4 4 4 4

 2
  0, ,
3 3
 2
Maximum: r  4 when   0, ,
3 3





Maximum: r  3 when  

0  4 cos 3

 3 5 7
, , ,
4 4 4 4

0  3 sin 2

cos 3  0

sin 2  0


3
  0, , ,
2
2

  5
 , ,
6 2 6
Zero: r  0 when  


3
Zero: r  0 when   0, , ,
2
2

  5
, ,
6 2 6

17. Circle: r  5

19. Circle: r 

18. Circle: r  2

0
2

0
1

3
2

3
4

22. r  4 cos 

Symmetric with respect to   2

Symmetric with respect to polar axis

Circle with a radius of 32

Circle with radius 2

3
2

21. r  3 sin 


6

3
2

20. r  

Graphs of Polar Equations

0
1

3 4

3
2

24. r  41  sin 

Symmetric with respect to


the polar axis

Symmetric with respect to 2

a 4
  1 Cardioid
b 4

r  8 when  

r  6 when   
r  0 when   0

3
2

23. r  31  cos 

0
1

a 3
  1 Cardioid
b 3

0
1

3
2

3
2

r  0 when  


2

0
2

3
2
3
2

988

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

25. r  41  sin 

26. r  21  cos 

Symmetric with respect to  


2

a 4
  1 Cardioid
b 4

27. r  3  6 sin 

Symmetric with respect to


polar axis

Symmetric with respect to  

a 2
  1 Cardioid
b 2

a 3
 < 1 Limaon with
b 6
inner loop

r  4 when   0

r  8 when   2

r  0 when   

3
r  0 when  
2

r  9 when   2

r  0 when  

3
2

0
4

7 11
,
6 6


2

0
2 4

3
2

3
2

28. r  4  3 sin 
Symmetric with respect to 2
a  4, b  3
a 4
 Dimpled limaon
b 3
3
r  7 when  
2



Symmetric with respect to  


a 1
 < 1 Limaon with
b 2
inner loop

r  3 when  

r  0 when  

30. r  1  2 cos 

29. r  1  2 sin 

3
2


2

Symmetric with respect to the


polar axis
a 1
 Limaon with inner loop
b 2

r  3

when   

r  0 when  

 5
,
6 6

3
2

3
2

31. r  3  4 cos 

Symmetric with respect to the polar axis

0
2

r  7 when   
r  0 when cos  

3
2

a 3
 < 1 Limaon with inner loop
b 4

3
or   0.723, 5.560
4

 5
,
3 3

3
2

Section 10.8
32. r  4  3 cos 

Graphs of Polar Equations

33. r  5 sin 2
Symmetric with respect to   2, the polar axis,
and the pole

Symmetric with respect to the polar axis


a 4
 > 1 Dimpled limaon
b 3

Rose curve n  2 with 4 petals

r  7 when   0

 3 5 7
, ,
4 4 4

r  5 when   4 ,


r  0 when   0, , 
2

989

0
4

3
2
3
2

34. r  3 cos 2

Symmetric with respect to the polar axis


Rose curve n  2 with four petals

r  3


3
when   0, , ,
2
2

r  0 when  

r

 3 5 7
, , ,
4 4 4 4

r  2 sec 

35.

3
2

r  5 csc 

36.

r sin   5

2
cos 

r

37.

r(sin   2 cos )  3

y  5 Line

r cos   2

y  2x  3
y  2x  3 Line

x  2 Line

1 2 3 4

0
1

0
1

3
2
3
2

3
2

38.

3
sin   2 cos 

r

6
2 sin   3 cos 

r2 sin   3 cos   6


2y  3x  6
3
y  x  3 Line
2

3
2

990

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

39. r2  9 cos 2

40. r2  4 sin 

Symmetric with respect to


the polar axis,   2,
and the pole

r  2sin 
r  2sin 

0
4

Lemniscate

0  

3
2

3
2

41. r  8 cos 
6

14

0  2

43. r  3(2  sin )


4
11

10

10

0  2

45. r  8 sin  cos2 


3

0  2

min = 0
max = 2
step = 24
Xmin = -4
Xmax = 14
Xscl = 2
Ymin = -6
Ymax = 6
Yscl = 2

42. r  cos 2

min = 0
max = 2
step = 24
Xmin = -10
Xmax = 10
Xscl = 1
Ymin = -10
Ymax = 4
Yscl = 1

44. r  2 cos3  2

min = 0
max = 2
step = 24
Xmin = -4
Xmax = 4
Xscl = 1
Ymin = -3
Ymax = 3
Yscl = 1

46. r  2 csc   5 

0  2

min = 0
max = 
step = 24
Xmin = -2
Xmax = 2
Xscl = 1
Ymin = -2
Ymax = 2
Yscl = 1

0  

2
5
sin 

0  2

0  < 2

49. r  2 cos

14

3

2

0  < 4

min = 0
max = 2
step = 24
Xmin = -9
Xmax = 9
Xscl = 1
Ymin = -4
Ymax = 8
Yscl = 1

0  < 2

48. r  5  4 cos 

min = 0
max = 2
step = 24
Xmin = -3
Xmax = 3
Xscl = 1
Ymin = -2
Ymax = 2
Yscl = 1

47. r  3  4 cos 

10

Section 10.8

50. r  3 sin

5

2

0  < 

1


0 <  <


1.0

5
1.5

1.5

53.

52. r2 

51. r2  9 sin 2

0  < 4

Graphs of Polar Equations

1.0

r  2  sec   2 

1
cos 

r cos   2 cos   1

r(r cos )  2r cos   r


6

 x2  y2 x  2x   x2  y2 

 x2  y2  (x  1)  2x
 x2  y2  
x2  y2 
y2 

2x
x1
4x2
(x  1)2
4x2
 x2
(x  1)2

4x2  x2(x  1)2 4x2  x2x2  2x  1



(x  1)2
(x  1)2

x4  2x3  3x2 x2x2  2x  3



(x  1)2
(x  1)2

y

The graph has an asymptote at x  1.

54.

 

x 3(x2x1) x   x x 1

r  2  csc   2 
r sin   2 sin   1

3  2x  x2

1
sin 

rr sin   2r sin   r

 x2  y2 y   2y   x2  y2

 x2  y2 y  1  2y

2y

 x2  y2  y  1
x2  y2 
x2 

4y2
 y  12

y23  2y  y2
 y  12

x

 

y 3 y2y1 y   y y 1
2

The graph has an asymptote at y  1.

3  2y  y2

991

992

Chapter 10

55. r 

Topics in Analytic Geometry

3




3 3 sin  3 sin 


r
r sin 
y

y

3 sin 


r  2 cos 2 sec  

56.

r

2 cos 2
cos 

2cos2   sin2 
cos 

r cos   2cos2   sin2 

x  2cos2   sin2 

As  0, y 3

As 


, x 2.
2

58. False. For a graph to be symmetric about the pole, one


portion of the graph coincides with the other portion when
rotated  radians about the pole.

57. True. For a graph to have polar axis symmetry, replace


r,  by r,   or r,   .

59. r  6 cos 


(a) 0 
2
Upper half of circle


 
2

(b)

Lower half of circle

0
1

3
2

(c) 

3
2




2
2

0
1


3
(d)

4
4
Left half of circle

Entire circle

0
1

3
2

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3
2

60. r  6 1  cos  
(a)

(b)

(c)

12

14

16
9

18

12
4

The angle  has the effect of rotating the graph by the angle . For part (c),

 61  sin .
r  6 1  cos  
2

61. Let the curve r  f () be rotated by  to


form the curve r  g(). If r1, 1 is a
point on r  f (), then r1, 1   is on
r  g(). That is, g1    r1  f 1.
Letting   1  , or 1    , we see that
g  g1    f1  f   .

15

(r, + )
(r, )

Section 10.8

Graphs of Polar Equations

62. Use the result of Exercise 61.


2
Original graph: r  f sin 

3
2
Original graph: r  f sin 

(a) Rotation:  

 

(c) Rotation:  

Rotated graph: r  f sin  


2

  f cos 

 

Rotated graph: r  f sin  

3
2

  f cos 

(b) Rotation:   
Original graph: r  f sin 
Rotated graph: r  f sin    f sin 

63. (a)

r  2  sin  


4

 2  sin  cos
2

2


2

(b) r  2  sin  



 cos  sin
4
4



 cos  sin
2
2

 2  sin  cos

 2  cos 
(sin   cos )

3
2

(d) r  2  sin  

(c) r  2  sin(  )

 2  sin  cos

 2  sin 

3
3
 cos  sin
2
2

 2  sin  cos   cos  sin 

 2  cos 

64. r  2 sin 2

 6 



 2 2 sin   cos  

6
6

(a) r  2 sin 2  



 4 sin  
cos  
6
6

 

2
(c) r  2 sin 2  
3

 2 2 sin  

 4 sin  

65. (a)

(b) r  2 sin 2  


2

 2 sin2  
 2 sin 2

 22 sin  cos 


 4 sin  cos 

(d) r  2 sin 2  

2
2
cos  
3
3

 

2
2
cos  
3
3

 

 2 sin2  2

 2 sin 2
 2 2 sin  cos 

 4 sin  cos 

r  1  sin 

(b) r  1  sin  


4


Rotate the graph in part (a) through the angle .
4

0
1

0
1

3
2

3
2

993

994

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

r  3 sec 

66. (a)

r

r  3 sec  

(b)

3
cos 

r

r cos   3 x  3

r

2

r cos  

2

2


4

3
cos  4

0
2

3
cos  cos4  sin  sin4

3
2

r sin   3

x

2

y3

3
2

r  3 sec  

(c)


3

r

3
cos  3

r

3
cos  cos3  sin  sin3

3
1
r cos  
r sin   3
2
2

(d)

3
2

3
1
x
y3
2
2

r  3 sec  
2

r

3
cos  2

r

3
cos  cos2  sin  sin2

r sin   3 y  3

3
2

67. r  2  k sin 

k  1: r  2  sin 

68. r  3 sin k

k  0: r  2
Circle

k=3

(a) r  3 sin 1.5

k=2
k=1

(b) r  3 sin 2.5

0  < 4

0  < 4

k=0
3

Convex limaon
k  2: r  2  2 sin 

Cardioid
k  3: r  2  3 sin 
Limaon with inner loop

(c) Yes. r  3 sink.


Find the minimum value of ,  > 0, that is a multiple
of 2 that makes k a multiple of 2.

Section 10.9

y

69.

x2  9
x1

70. y  6 

x2  9
0
x1

4
x2  4

y5

71.

No zeros

5

x2  9  0

3
x2

y

72.

3
0
x2
5

x2  9

Polar Equations of Conics

995

x3  27
x2  4

Zero: x  3

3
x2

5x  2  3

x  3

5x  10  3
5x  13
x

73. Vertices: 4, 2, 2, 2 Center at 1, 2 and a  3

74. Foci: 3, 2, 3, 4; Major axis of length 8


Center: h, k  3, 1

Minor axis of length 4: 2b  4 b  2


y

Horizontal major axis

13
5

Vertical major axis

x  h2  y  k2

1
a2
b2

a  4, c  3, b2  a2  c2  16  9 b  7

x  1
 y  2

1
9
4

x  h2  y  k2

1
b2
a2

1
5 4 3 2 1
1

x
1

2
3

x  32  y  12

1
7
16

3
2
1
x
1

2
3
4
5

Section 10.9

Polar Equations of Conics

The graph of a polar equation of the form


r

ep
ep
or r 
1 e cos 
1 e sin 



is a conic, where e > 0 is the eccentricity and p is the distance between the focus (pole) and the directrix.
(a) If e < 1, the graph is an ellipse.
(b) If e  1, the graph is a parabola.
(c) If e > 1, the graph is a hyperbola.

Guidelines for finding polar equations of conics:


(a) Horizontal directrix above the pole: r 

ep
1  e sin 

(b) Horizontal directrix below the pole: r 

ep
1  e sin 

(c) Vertical directrix to the right of the pole: r 


(d) Vertical directrix to the left of the pole: r 

ep
1  e cos 

ep
1  e cos 

996

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

Vocabulary Check
1. conic

2. eccentricity; e

3. vertical; right

4. (a) iii

1. r 

4e
1  e cos 

2. r 

4
, parabola
1  cos 
2
4

, ellipse
(b) e  0.5, r 
1  0.5 cos  2  cos 
(a) e  1, r 

(c) e  1.5, r 
e=1

(b) i

4e
1  e cos 

e  1, r 

6
12

, hyperbola
1  1.5 cos  2  3 cos 

(c) ii

4
, parabola
1  cos 

e  0.5, r 

2
, ellipse
1  0.5 cos 

e  1.5, r 

6
, hyperbola
1  1.5 cos 
7

e=1

e = 1.5

e = 0.5
6

e = 1.5

14

15

e = 0.5
7

3. r 

4e
1  e sin 

4. r 

4
, parabola
1  sin 
2
4
(b) e  0.5, r 

, ellipse
1  0.5 sin  2  sin 
(a) e  1, r 

(c) e  1.5, r 
6
16

6
12

, hyperbola
1  1.5 sin  2  3 sin 

e  1, r 

2
, ellipse
1  0.5 sin 

e  1.5, r 

6
, hyperbola
1  1.5 sin 

e = 0.5

14
17

e = 1.5

e=1

2
1  cos 

e  1 Parabola
Vertical directrix to the right
of the pole
Matches graph (f).

2
1  sin 

e  1 Parabola
Horizontal directrix below pole
Matches graph (e).

e=1

15

16

8. r 

4
, parabola
1  sin 

e  0.5, r 

e = 1.5

5. r 

4e
1  e sin 

e = 0.5

3
2  cos 

6. r 

1
Ellipse
2

e

15

7. r 

3
1  2 sin 

e  2 Hyperbola
Matches graph (d).

Vertical directrix to the left


of the pole
Matches graph (c).

9. r 


4
2  cos 

2
1  0.5 cos 

e  0.5 Ellipse
Matches graph (a).

10. r 

4
1  3 sin 

e  3 Hyperbola
Horizontal directrix below pole
Matches graph (b).

Section 10.9
2
1  cos 
e  1, the graph is a parabola.

11. r 

12. r 

3
1  sin 

13. r 

5
1  sin 

Vertex:

997

e  1, the graph is a parabola.

e  1 Parabola
3 
Vertex:
,
2 2

 

Vertex: (1, )

5 

 2, 2 

0
1

0
1

3
2

14. r 

Polar Equations of Conics

0
2

3
2

6
1  cos 

15. r 

e  1 Parabola
Vertex: 3, 0

e

3
2

1
2

2  cos  1  12 cos 
1
< 1, the graph is an ellipse.
2

Vertices: (2, 0),

 3, 
2

16. r 

3
1

3  sin 
1  13 sin 

1
< 1 Ellipse
3
3 
3 3
, , ,
Vertices:
4 2
2 2
e

 

0
2

3
2

0
1

3
2

3
2

17. r 

3
6

2  sin  1  12 sin 

18. r 

e

1
< 1, the graph is an ellipse.
2

e

Vertices:

3

2, , 6,
2
2

 

19. r 

3
32

2  4 sin  1  2 sin 

e  2 > 1, the graph is a hyperbola.

2
< 1 Ellipse
3

Vertices:

 

9
Vertices: 9, 0, , 
5

1 

3 3

 2, 2 ,  2, 2 

9
3

3  2 cos  1  23 cos 

0
2

10

0
1

3
2
3
2

3
2

998

Chapter 10

20. r 

Topics in Analytic Geometry

5
1  2 cos 

5
1  2 cos 

21. r 

Vertices:

3
2  6 sin 

Vertices:

3 

3 3

 8, 2 ,  4, 2 

0
1

3
2

23. r 

1
3
2

3
2

2
4

2  cos  1  12 cos 

43, 

24. r 

1
e  < 1, the graph is an ellipse.
2
Vertices: 4, 0,

32
1  3 sin 

e  3 > 1 Hyperbola

 4, 0,  8, 

22. r 

e  3 > 1, the graph is a hyperbola.

e  2 > 1 Hyperbola
5
Vertices: 5, 0,  , 
3

3
32

2  6 cos  1  3 cos 

2
2  3 sin 

1
1  32 sin 

3
> 1 Hyperbola
2
2 
3
Vertices:
, , 2,
5 2
2
e

 

0
1

3
2

25. r 

1
1  sin 

3
2

26. r 

e  1 Parabola

5
 52

2  4 sin  1  2 sin 

3
4  2 cos 

e

1
Ellipse
2

e  2 Hyperbola

3
3

27. r 

3
2

4
3

4
2

28. r 

4
1  2 cos 

29. r 

e  2 Hyperbola


4
Rotate the graph in Exercise 11
through the angle 4.

1  cos  

30. r 


3  sin  
3

31. r 

Rotate the graph in Exercise 16


through the angle 3.

15


2  sin  
6

Rotate the graph in Exercise 17


through the angle  6.

Section 10.9
5

32. r 

1  2 cos  

2
3

Rotate the graph in Exercise


20 through the angle
23.

34. Parabola: e  1
Directrix: y  2
p2

Directrix:

12
2

1  1 sin  1  sin 

3
4
Directrix: y  3

36. Ellipse: e 

Horizontal directrix below the pole

343
9

1  34 sin  4  3 sin 

3
2
Directrix: x  1

38. Hyperbola: e 
p1

Vertical directrix to the left of the pole


r

x  1

Vertical directrix to the left of the pole


9

r

1
1(1)

1  1 cos  1  cos 

35. Ellipse: e 

1
2

Directrix: y  1
Horizontal directrix above the pole
r

12(1)
1

1  12 sin  2  sin 

37. Hyperbola: e  2
Directrix: x  1
p1

p3

r

e1

p1

Horizontal directrix below the pole


r

33. Parabola:

Polar Equations of Conics

321
3

1  32 cos  2  3 cos 

Vertical directrix to the right of the pole


r

2(1)
2

1  2 cos  1  2 cos 

39. Parabola
Vertex:

1,  2  e  1, p  2

Horizontal directrix below the pole


r

1(2)
2

1  1 sin  1  sin 

41. Parabola

40. Parabola
Vertex: 6, 0 e  1, p  12

Vertex: (5, ) e  1, p  10

Vertical directrix to the right of the pole

Vertical directrix to the left of the pole

r

12
112

1  1 cos  1  cos 


Vertex: 10,
e  1, p  20
2
Horizontal directrix above the pole
r

10
1(10)

1  1 cos  1  cos 

43. Ellipse: Vertices (2, 0), (10, )

42. Parabola

r

120
20

1  1 sin  1  sin 

2
3
Vertical directrix to the right of the pole
Center: (4, ); c  4, a  6, e 

r

2p
23p

1  23 cos  3  2 cos 

2

2p
3  2 cos 0

p5
r

10
25

3  2 cos  3  2 cos 

999

1000

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry


45. Ellipse: Vertices (20, 0), (4, )

44. Ellipse
Vertices:


3
2, , 4,
2
2

 

Center: (8, 0); c  8, a  12, e 

3

1, 2 ; c  1, a  3, e  3

Center:

Vertical directrix to the left of the pole


r

Horizontal directrix above the axis


13p
p
r

1  13 sin  3  sin 
2

20 

p
3  sin2

23p
2p

1  23 cos  3  2 cos 
2p
3  2 cos 0

p  10

p8

r

8
r
3  sin 

20
2(10)

3  2 cos  3  2 cos 

3
3
, 9,
2
2
3
5
Center: 5,
; c  5, a  4, e 
2
4
Horizontal directrix below the pole

47. Hyperbola: Vertices 1,

46. Hyperbola
Vertices: 2, 0, 8, 0
Center: 5, 0; c  5, a  3, e 

5
3

Vertical directrix to the right of the pole


r

53p
5p

1  53cos  3  5 cos 

5p
2
3  5 cos 0



r

54 p
5p

1  54 sin  4  5 sin 

1

5p
4  5 sin32

16
5

p

9
5

r

16
5165

3  5 cos  3  5 cos 

r

9
595

4  5 sin  4  5 sin 

49. When   0, r  c  a  ea  a  a(1  e).

48. Hyperbola

Center:

p

Vertices:

2
3

Therefore,

4, 2 , 1, 2 
5 

a(1  e) 

2, 2 ; c  2, a  2, e  32  3
5

Horizontal directrix above the pole


r

53p
5p

1  53 sin  3  5 sin 

1

5p
3  5 sin2

p

8
5

r

8
585

3  5 sin  3  5 sin 

52

ep
1  e cos 0

a(1  e)(1  e)  ep
a1  e2  ep.
Thus, r 

1  e2a
ep

.
1  e cos  1  e cos 

Section 10.9

51. r 

50. Minimum distance occurs when   .

1  e2a
1  e1  ea

 a1  e
1  e cos 
1e

r

Maximum distance occurs when   0.

1  e2a
1  e1  ea
r

 a1  e
1  e cos 0
1e

52. r 

Perihelion distance:
r  95.956  106(1  0.0167)  9.4354  107 miles
Aphelion distance:
r  95.956  106(1  0.0167)  9.7558  107 miles

1  0.05422
1.427  109
1.4228  109

1  0.0542 cos 
1  0.0542 cos 

Aphelion distance: r  1.427  1091  0.0542  1.5043  109 kilometers

1  (0.0068)2
108.209  106
1.0820  108

1  0.0068 cos 
1  0.0068 cos 

Perihelion distance: r  108.209  106(1  0.0068)  1.0747  108 kilometers


Aphelion distance: r  108.209  106(1  0.0068)  1.0894  108 kilometers

54. r 

1  0.20562
35.98  106
3.4459  107

1  0.2056 cos 
1  0.2056 cos 

Perihelion distance: r  35.98  1061  0.2056  2.8583  107 miles


Aphelion distance: r  35.98  1061  0.2056  4.3377  107 miles

55. r 

1.4039  108
1  0.09342
141.63  106

1  0.0934 cos 
1  0.0934 cos 

Perihelion distance: r  141.63  1061  0.0934  1.2840  108 miles


Aphelion distance: r  141.63  1061  0.0934  1.5486  108 miles

56. r 

1  0.04842
778.41  106
7.7659  108

1  0.0484 cos 
1  0.0484 cos 

Perihelion distance: r  778.41  1061  0.0484  7.4073  108 kilometers


Aphelion distance: r  778.41  1061  0.0484  8.1609  108 kilometers

57. e  0.847, a 
2a 

4.42
 2.21
2

0.847p
0.847p

 5.9945p  4.42
1  0.847 1  0.847

p  0.737, ep  0.624
r

0.624
1  0.847 sin 

To find the closest point to the sun, let  


r


.
2

0.624
 0.338 astronomical units
1  0.847 sin2

1001

1  (0.0167)2
95.956  106
9.5929  107

1  0.0167 cos 
1  0.0167 cos 

Perihelion distance: r  1.427  1091  0.0542  1.3497  109 kilometers

53. r 

Polar Equations of Conics

1002

Chapter 10

58. (a) r 

Topics in Analytic Geometry

ep
1  e sin 

(b)

Since the graph is a parabola, e  1. The distance


between the vertex and the focus (pole) is 4100, so the
distance between the focus (pole) and the directrix is
p  8200.
r

5,000

10,000

10,000
1,000

8200
1  sin 

(d) When   60, r 

8200
 4394.4
1  sin 60

Distance between surface of Earth and satellite:

8200
 5466.7
1  sin 30
Distance between surface of Earth and satellite:

(c) When   30, r 

4394.4  4000  394 miles

5466.7  4000  1467 miles


59. True. The graphs represent the same hyperbola, although
the graphs are not traced out in the same order as  goes
from 0 to 2.

60. False. The graph has a horizontal directrix below the pole.

61. True. See Exercise 63.

62. Answers will vary.

e
63.

2
3

< 1

x2
y2

a2 b2
2
2
r cos  r2 sin2 

a2
b2
2
2
2
r cos  r 1  cos2 

a2
b2
r2b2 cos2   r2a2  r2a2 cos2 

1
1

r2 cos2  r2 sin2 

1
a2
b2

1

r2 cos2  r21  cos2 



1
a2
b2

 a2b2

r2b2  a2cos2   r2a2  a2b2


Since b2  a2  c2, we have:
r2c2 cos2   r2a2  a2b2



c 2
c
cos2   r2  b2, e 
a
a
r2e2 cos2   r2  b2

r2

y2
x2
 1
a2 b2

64.

r21  e2 cos2   b2
r2 

b2
1  e2 cos2 

r2b2 cos2   r2a2  r2a2 cos2   a2b2


r2b2  a2 cos2   r2a2  a2b2
a2  b2  c2
r2c2 cos2   r2a2  a2b2
r2

a
c

cos2   r2  b2, e 

c
a

r2e2 cos2   r2  b2
r2e2 cos2   1  b2
r2 


e2

b2
cos2   1

b2
1  e2 cos2 

Section 10.9

65.

x2
y2

1
169 144

66.

a  13, b  12, c  5, e 

x2
y2

1
25 16
a  5, b  4, c  3, e 

5
13

r2 

144
24,336

r 
2
1  25169 cos  169  25 cos2 
2

67.

x2
y2

1
9
16

68.

a  3, b  4, c  5, e 
r2 

5
3

400
25  9 cos2 

a  6, b  2, c  210, e 

16
144

1  259 cos2  25 cos2   9

69. One focus: 5, 0

r2 

10

4
36

1  109 cos2  9  10 cos2 
36
10 cos2   9

70. Ellipse
One focus: 4, 0

Vertices: 4, 0, 4, 0


a  4, c  5 b  3 and e 

5
4

x2
y2

1
16
9

71. r 

3
5

y2
x2
 1
36
4

r2 

Polar Equations of Conics

Vertices: 5, 0, 5, 


a  5, c  4, b  3, e 
r2 

9
144

1  2516 cos2  16  25 cos2 

4
5

9
225

1  1625 cos2  25  16 cos2 

4
1  0.4 cos 

(a) Since e < 1, the conic is an ellipse.


4
has a vertical directrix to the right
1  0.4 cos 
4
of the pole and r 
has a horizontal
1  0.4 sin 
directrix below the pole. The given polar equation,
4
r
, has a vertical directrix to the left
1  0.4 cos 
of the pole.

(c)

r2 =

4
1 0.4 sin
10

(b) r 

12

12

r1 =

4
1 + 0.4 cos

r=

4
1 0.4 cos

1003

1004

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

72. If e remains fixed and p changes, then the lengths of both the major axis and the minor axis change.
For example, graph r 
graph r 

5
2
15
, with e  and p  , and
1  23 sin 
3
2

6 23
2
, with e  and p  10 on the same set of coordinate axes.
1  23 sin 
3

The first ellipse has a major axis of length 18 and a minor axis of length 65, and the second ellipse
has a major axis of length 21.6 and a minor axis of length 7.25.
73. 43 tan   3  1
43 tan   4
tan  

cos x 
1

3

x


   n
6

x

77. 2 cot x  5 cos

4
3

sin x 

1
2

sin2  


5
 2n,
 2 n
3
3


2

cos  

cot x  0


2
  n,
 n
3
3

x

3


2
 n,
 n
3
3

78. 2 sec   2 csc

2 cot x  0
3

3
4

sin  



76. 9 csc2 x  10  2
csc2 x 

75. 12 sin2   9

74. 6 cos x  2  1




 n
2


4

1
2


5
 2n,
 2n
3
3

For 7982 use the following:


u and v are in Quadrant IV;

sin u  

79. cos(u  v  cos u cos v  sin u sin v







4512   53 12


4
52

3
52





cos v 

1
2

sin v  

cos v 

1
2

3
52

4
3
82. sin u   , cos u 
5
5
cos v 

1
2

2

, sin v  

2

sinu  v  sin u cos v  cos u sin v

 53 22   45 22 

 

52
72
10

2

72
10

10

, sin v  

 53 22   45 22 

2

52

sinu  v  sin u cos v  cos u sin v

52

2

 

4512   53 12

1
2

4
3
80. sin u   , cos u 
5
5

81. cosu  v  cos u cos v  sin u sin v




3
4
cos u  ;
5
5

2

10

Review Exercises for Chapter 10


4 
3
< u <  cos u  
83. sin u  ,
5 2
5
cos 2u  cos2 u  sin2 u

sin 2u  2 sin u cos u


2



84.

 53  45

45 53
24
25

tan u   3,
sin u  

3

 

9
16
7


25 25
25

3
< u < 2
2

, cos u 

tan 2u 

3

2 tan u
1

tan2 u

24
7
1
4

 41

 0  n  1 

3
1

2
2

tan 2u 

2425
725

an  a1  n  1d

 
1
3
1
cos 2u  cos u  sin u     

2
2 
2
2

85. a1  0, d  

1
2

sin 2u  2 sin u cos u  2 

sin 2u
cos 2u

2 3 

1   3 

86. an  a1  dn  1

1
1
 n
4
4

 3

88. an  ak  dn  k

87. a3  27, a8  72

an  13  3n  1

a8  a3  5d

an  13  3n  3

72  27  5d d  9

an  10  3n

a1  27  29  9

a4  a1  d4  1
9.5  5  d3
d  1.5

an  a1  n  1d

an  5  1.5n  1

 9  n  19
 9n

89.

12C9

12!
12  11  10

 220
12  9!9!
3!

90.

18C16

91.

10P3

10!
10!

 10  9  8  720
10  3!
7!

92.

29P2

18!
18  17

 153
16!2!
2

 29  28  812

Review Exercises for Chapter 10


1. Points: 1, 2 and 2, 5
m

52
3
 1
2  1 3

tan   1  


radian  45
4

3. y  2x  4 m  2
tan   2   arctan 2  1.1071 radians  63.43

2. m 

47
3
   tan 
3  2
5

 53

    arctan 

 2.6012, or about 149.04

4. 6x  7y  5  0
m  67  tan 

  arctan 67  0.7086, or about 40.60

1005

1006
5.

Chapter 10
4x  y  2

Topics in Analytic Geometry


y  4x  2 m1  4

5x  y  1 y  5x  1
tan  

6. 5x  3y  3
2x  3y  1

m2  5

9
5  4

1  45
19

  arctan

9
 0.4424 radian  25.35
19

m1 

5
3

m2 

2
3

tan  

53  23
9

1  5323
19

  0.4424, or about 25.35


2
8
2
7. 2x  7y  8 y  x  m1 
7
7
7

8. 0.02x  0.07y  0.18


0.09x  0.04y  0.17

0.4x  y  0 y  0.4x m2  0.4


tan  

m1  

0.4  27
24

31
1  270.4

 

m2 

24
  arctan
 0.6588 radian  37.75
31

9
4

tan  

2
7

71
94  27

1  2794
10

  1.4309, or about 81.98


10. 0, 4 x1  0, y1  4

9. (1, 2) x1  1, y1  2
x  y  3  0 A  1, B  1, C  3
d

1(1)  (1)(2)  (3) 


12

(1)2

4
2

x  2y  2  0 A  1, B  2, C  2
d

 22

11. Hyperbola

10  24  2 


12  22

6
5

65
5

12. A parabola is formed.


14. Vertex: 2, 0  h, k

13. Vertex: 0, 0  (h, k)

15. Vertex: (0, 2)  (h, k)

Focus: 4, 0 p  4

Focus: 0, 0 p  2

Directrix: x  3 p  3

 y  k2  4px  h

 y  k 2  4px  h

( y  k2  4p(x  h)
( y  2)2  12x

y 2  8x  2

 y  02  44x  0
y 2  16x

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

3
5
4
3
2
1
4 3 2 1
2
3
4
5

2
1

1 2 3 4 5

4 3 2 1
1
2
3
4

x
1

4
4 3 2 1

2
3

1 2 3 4 5

Review Exercises for Chapter 10

16. Vertex: 2, 2  h, k

17. x2  2y p  

Directrix: y  0 p  2

x  22  8 y  2

1
2

0,  21

Focus:

x  h 2  4p y  k

d1  b 

1
2

2  0  2  21


9
5
 4  
4 2

d2 

5
4

2
1
1

d1  d2

2 1
1

5
1
b 
2 2

1007

(0, b)

d1
3 2
0, 12

b2
The slope of the line is
2  2
m
 2.
20

x
2

1
2

d2

(2, 2)

3
4

Tangent line: y  2x  2


x-intercept: 1, 0
18. x2  2y
p

1
2

Focus:

19. Parabola
Opens downward
Vertex: (0, 12)

1
0, 
2

(x  h)2  4p(y  k)

Tangent line through point 4, 8:


Slope: m

d2 

16  8p

1
2

2  p

1
4  0  8 
2
2

d1  d2 b  8
m

8  8
4
4  0

y  4x  8
x-intercept of tangent line: 2, 0
20. y2  4px
p  1.5
y2  6x

Solution points: ( 4, 10)


16  4p(10  12)

y-intercept: 0, b
d1  b 

x2  4p(y  12)

17

2

x2  8(y  12)
To find the x-intercepts, let y  0.
x2  96
x  96  46
At the base, the archway is 246   86 meters wide.

1008

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry


22. Vertices: 2, 0, 2, 4 a  2, h, k  2, 2

21. Vertices: (3, 0), (7, 0) a  5


(h, k)  (2, 0)

Foci: 2, 1, 2, 3 c  1

Foci: (0, 0), (4, 0) c  2


b2

b2  a2  c2  4  1  3

 a  c  25  4  21
2

(x  h)2 ( y  k)2

1
a2
b2

x  h 2  y  k 2

1
b2
a2

10
8
6

y2
(x  2)2

1
25
21

y
4

x  2 2  y  2 2

1
3
4

3
2

8 6 4

2 4 6 8 10
2

6
8
10

x  h 2  y  k 2

1
b2
a2
12

x  4 2 y  52

1
4
36

3
2

10
8

6
x

8 6

25. 2a  10 a  5

26.

b4

x2
y2

1
324 196
a  324  18, b  196  14

c2  a2  b2  25  16  9 c  3

c  a2  b2  128  82

The foci occur 3 feet from the center of the arch


on a line connecting the tops of the pillars.

Longest distance: 2a  36 feet


Shortest distance: 2b  28 feet
Distance between foci: 2c  162 feet

27.

x  22 y  12

1
81
100

28.

x  52 y  32

1
1
36

a  10, b  9, c  19

Center: 5, 3

Center: 2, 1

a  6, b  1, c  a2  b2  35

Vertices: 2, 11 and 2, 9

Vertices: 5, 3, 5, 9

Foci: 2, 1 19 

Foci: 5, 3 35 

Eccentricity: e 

19

10

2 1
1

24. Vertices: 4, 1, 4, 11 a  6, h, k  4, 5


Endpoints of the minor axis: 6, 5, 2, 5 b  2

x  2 2
  y  1 2  1
4

23. Vertices: 0, 1, 4, 1 a  2, h, k  2, 1


Endpoints of minor axis: 2, 0, 2, 2 b  1

x  h 2  y  k 2

1
a2
b2

x
1
1

Eccentricity: e 

35
c

a
6

2
2

x
2

Review Exercises for Chapter 10


16x2  9y2  32x  72y  16  0

29.

30.

16x2  2x  1  9y2  8y  16  16  16  144

4x2  25y2  16x  150y  141  0


4x2  4x  4  25 y2  6y  9  141  16  225

16x  12  9 y  42  144

x  22  y  32

1
25
4

x  12  y  42

1
9
16

Center: 2, 3

a  4, b  3, c  7

a  5, b  2, c  a2  b2  21

Center: 1, 4

Vertices: 3, 3, 7, 3

Vertices: 1, 0 and 1, 8

Foci: 2 21, 3

Foci: 1, 4 7 
Eccentricity: e 

Eccentricity: e 

7

32. Vertices: 2, 2, 2, 2 a  2, h, k  0, 2

31. Vertices: (0, 1) a  1, (h, k)  (0, 0)


Foci: (0, 3) c  3

Foci: 4, 2, 4, 2 c  4

b2  c2  a2  9  1  8

b 2  c 2  a 2  16  4  12

(y  k)2 (x  h)2

1
a2
b2

x  h 2  y  k 2

1
a2
b2

x2
1
8

x 2  y  2 2

1
4
12
34. Foci: 3, 2 c  2, h, k  3, 0

33. Foci: (0, 0), (8, 0) c  4, (h, k)  (4, 0)


Asymptotes: y  2(x  4)

b
 2, b  2a
a

Asymptotes: y  2x  3

b2  c2  a2 4a2  16  a2

(x 
a2

h)2

(y 
b2

k)2

 y  k 2 x  h 2

1
a2
b2

1

y2
x  3 2
5y 2 5x  32

1

1
165
45
16
4

(x  4)2
y2

1
165
645
5(x  4)2 5y2

1
16
64

x  32  y  52

1
16
4

y
2

a  4, b  2, c  20  25

x
2

Center: 3, 5

Vertices: 7, 5 and 1, 5


Foci: 3 25, 5

1
Asymptotes: y  5 x  3
2
13
1
y x
2
2

a
 2, a  2b
b

4
16
b2  c 2  a 2  4  4b2 b 2  , a 2 
5
5

16
64
a2  , b2 
5
5

35.

21
c

a
5

y2 

10

1
7
or y   x 
2
2

1009

1010

36.

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

 y  12
 x2  1
4

Center: 0, 1

a  2, b  1, c  a2  b2  5
Vertices: 0, 3, 0, 1
Foci: 0, 1 5 

Asymptotes: y  1 2x
37.

4 3 2

9x2  16y2  18x  32y  151  0

9x2  2x  1  16 y2  2y  1  151  9  16

6
4

9x  12  16y  12  144

2
x

x  12  y  12

1
16
9

6 4

a  4, b  3, c  5

6
8

Center: 1, 1


Vertices: 5, 1 and 3, 1
Foci: 6, 1 and 4, 1
3
Asymptotes: y  1 x  1
4
7
3
y x
4
4
38.

3
1
or y   x 
4
4

4x2  25y2  8x  150y  121  0


4x2  2x  1  25 y2  6y  9  121  4  225

 y  32 x  12

1
4
25
Center: 1, 3

1
x

a  2, b  5, c  a2  b2  29

Vertices: 1, 1, 1, 5

Foci: 1, 3 29 

2
Asymptotes: y  3 x  1
5

39. Foci:  100, 0 c  100


Center: 0, 0
d1
d2

 0.0005 d2  d1  93  2a a  46.5
186,000 186,000

b2  c2  a2  1002  46.52  7837.75

100

x2
y2

1
2162.25 7837.75

d2

y2  7837.75

60
 1  5211.5736
2162.25

y  72 miles

(60, y)
B

d1
A

100

100
50
100

Review Exercises for Chapter 10

40. BD  AD  6

5280

CD  AD  8

5280

1100
1100

2a  CD  BD  2
a

5280
1100

5
2279
, c  2 b2 
24
576

Thus, we have

y2
576x2 576y2
x2

 1 x and y in miles or

 1 x and y in feet.
25
2279
1,210,000 110,303,600

OR:
CD  AD  8

5280

BD  AD  6

5280

1100

y
2

1100

2a  BD  AD  6

1100
5280

B
1

 

5
39
5
a3
 , c  1 b2 
24
8
64
Center: 1, 0
64(x  1)2 64y2
x  52802
y2

 1 x and y in miles or

 1 x and y in feet.
25
39
10,890,000
16,988,400
41. 5x2  2y2  10x  4y  17  0

42. 4y2  5x  3y  7  0

AC  52  10 < 0

AC  04  0 Parabola

The graph is a hyperbola.


43. 3x 2  2y 2  12x  12y  29  0

44. 4x 2  4y 2  4x  8y  11  0

A  3, C  2

A  4, C  4

AC  32  6 > 0

A  C Circle

The graph is an ellipse.


45. xy  4  0
A  C  0, B  1
B2  4AC  12  400  1 > 0
The graph is a hyperbola.
cot 2  0 2 




2
4


 x  y
x  x cos  y sin 
4
4
2
y  x sin


 x  y
 y cos 
4
4
2

x  y
2



x  y
40
2

x2   y2
4
2
x2  y2

1
8
8

3
2
x

4 3 2

2
2
3

1011

1012

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

46. x2  10xy  y2  1  0
B2  4AC  102  411  96 > 0 Hyperbola
cot 2 

AC 11



 0 2 

B
10
2
4

x  x cos

1


 y sin 
x  y 
4
4
2

y
y



1
y  x sin  y cos 
x  y 
4
4
2

1
2

1
1
x  y 2  5x  yx  y  x  y2  1  0
2
2

1
2

6 y 2  4x2  1  0

x2  y2

1
14
16
47. 5x2  2xy  5y2  12  0
A  C  5, B  2
B2  4AC  22  455  96 < 0

y
y

The graph is an ellipse.


cot 2  0 2 




2
4

1
x

x  x cos


 x  y
 y sin 
4
4
2

y  x sin


 x  y
 y cos 
4
4
2

1
2

x 2y  2x 2yx 2y  5x 2y  12  0


2

5
5
x2  2xy   y2
 x2   y2
 x2  2xy   y2
 12
2
2
4x2  6 y2  12

x2  y2

1
3
2
48. 4x2  8xy  4y2  72x  92y  0
B2

 4AC 

cot 2 

82

 444  0 Parabola

y
y



1
y  x sin  y cos 
x  y 
4
4
2
CONTINUED

AC 44



 0 2 

B
8
2
4



1
x  x cos  y sin 
x  y 
4
4
2

2
x

4 3

3
4

Review Exercises for Chapter 10


48. CONTINUED
2x  y2  4x  yx  y  2x  y2  7x  y  9x  y  0
8x2  16x  2y  0
y  4x2  8x
y  4x2  2x  1  4
y  4x  12  4
y  4  4x  12
4x  12  y  4
y  4x  12  4
49. (a) 16x2  24xy  9y2  30x  40y  0

(c)

B2  4AC  242  4169  0


The graph is a parabola.
3

(b) To use a graphing utility, we need to solve for y in terms of x.

9
1

9y2  24x  40y  16x2  30x  0


y


 24x  40 24x  402  4916x2  30x


29

24x  40 24x  402  3616x2  30x


18

50. (a) 13x2  8xy  7y2  45  0

(c)

B2  4AC  82  4137  300 < 0 Ellipse


6

(b) Use the Quadratic Formula to solve for y in terms of x:


7y2  8xy  13x2  45  0
y

1
8x 64x2  2813x2  45

14

51. (a) x2  y2  2xy  22x  22y  2  0

(c)

B2  4AC  22  411  0
The graph is a parabola.
11

(b) To use a graphing utility, we need to solve for y in terms of x.

y2  2x  22 y  x2  22x  2  0


y

 2x  22 

52. (a) x2  10xy  y2  1  0

2x  22 2  4x2  22x  2


2
(c)

Since B2  4AC  (10)2  4(1)(1) > 0 Hyperbola


(b) Use the Quadratic Formula to solve for y in terms of x:
y2  10xy  x 2  1  0
y  12 10x 100x2  4x2  1

1013

1014

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry


4
1
54. x  t and y 
5
t1

53. x  3t  2, y  7  4t
t

3

2

11

8

2

19

15

1

5

1

 15

2
5

3
5

4
5

4
3

2

4

20

16

12

2
1
x

12 8 4
4

12
3

56. (a)

55. (a)

57. (a)
4

4 3 2 1

3 2 1
3

y  4t y  4

5
1
x
1

(b) x  1  4t, y  2  3t

x
(b) x  2t  t
2

t

2  2x
x

(b) x  t 2, x 0

x1
4

y  t y2  t

y23

x1
4

x   y22 x

4 x
 y4 y  

3x  4y  11
58. (a)

59. (a)

y
8

60. (a)

8
6

2
x

(b) x  t  4, y  t 2
tx4
y  x  4 2

4 2

4
2

x
2

8
8

(b) x  6 cos , y  6 sin 

x
2

10

2
4

(b) x  3  3 cos , y  2  5 sin 


x3
y2
, sin  
3
5

x
y
cos   , sin  
6
6

cos  

x2
y2

1
36 36

x  3 2  y  22

1
9
25

x2  y2  36

Review Exercises for Chapter 10


62. (h, k)  (3, 4)

61. Center: 5, 4

63. Hyperbola

Radius: 6

2a  8 a  4

Vertices: 0, 4

x  h  r cos   5  6 cos 

2b  6 b  3

Foci: 0, 5

(x  3)2 ( y  4)2

1
16
9

y  k  r sin   4  6 sin 

1015

Center: 0, 0
a  4, c  5, b  c2  a2  3

x  3  4 cos 

x  3 tan , y  4 sec 

y  4  3 sin 
This solution is not unique.

y  QB  QA

64.

65. Polar coordinates:

QP  arc QC  r

QA  r sin90  

90

O B

 r cos 

2, 4 

Additional polar representations:


P (x, y)

2,  74, 2, 54

QB  r sin 
Therefore,
y  r sin   r cos   rsin    cos .

1 2

3 4

Similarly, x  OB  AP.
Therefore, x  r cos   r sin   r cos    sin .

66. Polar coordinates:

5,  3   5, 23 or 5, 53

Additional polar representations: 7, 1.05, 7, 2.09

3
2

2 4

6 8

3
2

68. Polar coordinates:

3, 2.62  3, 3.66 or  3, 5.76

1 2 3 4

3
2

67. Polar coordinates: 7, 4.19

2 4 6 8

3
2

69. Polar coordinates:

1, 3 

x  1 cos


1

3
2

y  1 sin

3


3
2

Rectangular coordinates:

 21,  23 


1016

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

2, 54  r, 

70. Polar coordinates:

x  r cos   2 cos
y  r sin   2 sin

71. Polar coordinates:

5
  2
4

5
  2
4

Rectangular coordinates:  2, 2

72. Polar coordinates:

x  3 cos

32
3

4
2

y  3 sin

3 32

4
2

Rectangular coordinates:

0, 2   r, 

tan  is undefined  
Polar coordinates:

Rectangular coordinates: 0, 0


74. Rectangular coordinates:  5, 5 

 3
,
2 2

2, 2  or 2, 32

75. Rectangular coordinates: 4, 6


r  42  62  52  213

Polar coordinates:
r   5   5   10
tan   1,  

r  02  22  2


0
2

 3 2 2, 3 2 2 

73. Rectangular coordinates: 0, 2


x  r cos   0 cos  0
2
y  r sin   0 sin

3, 34

tan  

3
4

6
  0.9828, 4.1244
4

Polar coordinates: 213, 0.9828 or 213, 4.1244

10, 34
76. Rectangular coordinates: 3, 4

77. x 2  y 2  49

78. x 2  y 2  20

r 2  49

x2  y2  r 2

Polar coordinates:
r  32  42  5

r7

r 2  20
r  25

4
tan    ,   0.9273
3

5, 5.356
79. x2  y 2  6y  0

80. x2  y2  4x  0

 6r sin   0

r2  4r cos   0

r2

rr  6 sin   0

81. xy  5

r cos r sin   5

r  4 cos 

r2 

r  0 or r  6 sin 
Since r  6 sin  contains r  0,
we just have r  6 sin .
82.

xy  2

83.

r5

r cos  r sin   2

r2

r 2 cos  sin   2

x 2  y 2  25

r2 

2
cos  sin 

r 2  2 sec  csc 
r 2  4 csc 2 

 25

84.

5
sin  cos 
10
 10 csc 2
sin 2

r  12
r 2  144
 x 2  y 2 or x 2  y 2  144

Review Exercises for Chapter 10


r  3 cos 

85.

86. Because y  r sin  and r is given as 8 sin ,

r2  3r cos 
x2

y2

y  8 sin  sin   8 sin2 .

 3x

r  8 sin 
r2  64 sin2 
r 2  88 sin2 
x2  y2  8y
x2  y2  8y  0

r2  sin 

87.

r2  cos 2

88.

r 3  r sin 

r2 

 x 2  y 23  y

xr  yr
2

x2  y22  x2  y2

x2  y23  y2
x2  y 2  y23

90. r  11

89. r  4
Circle of radius 4 centered at the pole
Symmetric with respect to   2, the polar axis
and the pole



Maximum value of r  4, for all values of 

Symmetry:  


, polar axis, pole
2



Maximum value of r : 11, for all values of 


Zeros of r: none

Zeros: None

0
4

0
2
3
2
3
2

91. r  4 sin 2

92. r  cos 5 

Rose curve (n  2) with 4 petals

Symmetry: polar axis

Symmetric with respect to   2, the polar axis,


and the pole

Maximum value of r : r  1 when



Maximum value of r  4 when  


3
Zeros: r  0 when   0, , ,
2
2

 3 5 7
,
, ,
4 4 4 4

 

  0,

2 4 6 8
, , ,
5 5 5 5

Zeros of r: r  0 when  

3
2

3
2

 3  7 9
, , , ,
10 10 2 10 10

1017

1018

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

93. r  21  cos 

94. r  3  4 cos 

Symmetric with respect to the polar axis

Symmetry: polar axis



Maximum value of r  4 when   0

 

Maximum value of r : r  7 when   

Zeros: r  0 when   

3
3
Zeros of r: r  0 when   arccos , 2  arccos
4
4

a 2
  1 Cardioid
b 2

0
2
3
2
3
2

95. r  2  6 sin 
Limaon with inner loop
r  f sin   


symmetry
2



Maximum value: r  8 when  


2

0
2

3
2

1
Zeros: 2  6 sin   0 sin      3.4814, 5.9433
3
96. r  5  5 cos 

r  51  cos 
Symmetry: polar axis

 

Maximum values of r : r  10 when   

Zeros of r: r  0 when   0, 2
3
2

97. r  3 cos 2

Rose curve with 4 petals


r  f cos  polar axis symmetry


  : r  3 cos 2    3 cos2  2  3 cos 2
2

Equivalent equation   symmetry
2
Pole:

r  3 cos 2    3 cos2  2  3 cos 2


Equivalent equation pole symmetry


3
Maximum value: r  3 when   0, , ,
2
2



Zeros: 3 cos 2  0 when cos 2  0  

 3 5 7
, , ,
4 4 4 4

0
4

3
2

Review Exercises for Chapter 10


98. r  cos 2 

1019

Symmetry: polar axis

 

Maximum value of r : r  1 when   0,


Zeros of r: r  0 when  

3

, ,
2
2

0
2

 3 5 7
, , ,
4 4 4 4
3
2

99. r  32  cos 

100. r  31  2 cos 

 6  3 cos 

r  3  6 cos 

16

a 6
 2
b 3

12

Limaon with inner loop.


8

The graph is a convex limaon.


101. r  4 cos 3

102. r2  9 cos 2

The graph is a rose curve


with 3 petals.

Lemniscate
6

103. r 

1
,e2
1  2 sin 

104. r 

Hyperbola symmetric with respect to  


and having
2

3
1 
vertices at ,
and 1,
.
3 2
2

 

2
1  sin 

e  1 parabola

 2 

Vertex: 1,

3
2

0
1
3
2

105. r 
r

4
5  3 cos 
45
1  35 cos 

,e

3
5

Ellipse symmetric with


respect to the polar axis and
having vertices at 2, 0 and
12, .

106. r 

0
1

3
2

16
4  5 cos 

r

4
1  54 cos 

e

5
> 1 Hyperbola
4

Vertices:

169, 0, 16, 

3
2

9 12 15

21

1020

Chapter 10

107. Parabola: r 

Topics in Analytic Geometry

ep
,e1
1  e cos 

Vertex: (2, )

Focus: 0, 0 p  4

4
1  cos 

109. Ellipse: r 

e1

 2

Vertex: 2,

Focus: 0, 0 p  4
r

ep
,
1  e sin 

108. Parabola: r 

r

ep
1  e cos 

4
1  sin 

110. Hyperbola: r 

ep
1  e cos 

Vertices: (5, 0), (1, ) a  3

Vertices: 1, 0, 7, 0 a  3

One focus: (0, 0) c  2

One focus: 0, 0 c  4

e

c
2
5
 ,p
a 3
2

e

4
7
c
 ,p
a 3
4

r

53
2352

1  23 cos  1  23 cos 

r

4374
73
7


1  43 cos  1  43 cos  3  4 cos 

5
3  2 cos 

111. a  c  122,800  4000 a  c  126,800


a  c  119  4000
a  c  4,119
2a
 130,919
a
 65,459.5
c  61,340.5
c
61,340.5
e 
 0.937
a 65,459.5
r

112. Parabola: r 
Vertex:

r  126,800 when   0

6,000,000, 2 

Focus: 0, 0 p  12,000,000


r

ep
0.937p

1  e cos  1  0.937 cos 

ep
,e1
1  e sin 

12,000,000
1  sin 




3

r  89,600,000 miles

ep
126,800 
1  e cos 0

ep  126,800 1 

61,340.5
 7978.81
65,459.5

Thus, r 

7978.81
.
1  0.937 cos 

When  


7978.81
 15,011.87 miles.
,r
3
1  0.937 cos3

The distance from the surface of Earth and the


satellite is 15,011.87  4000  11,011.87 miles.
113. False. When classifying equations of the form
Ax2  Bxy  Cy2  Dx  Ey  F  0,
its graph can be determined by its discriminant. For a
graph to be a parabola, its discriminant, B2  4AC, must
equal zero. So, if B  0, then A or C equals 0, but not
both.

114. False.
x2
 y 4  1 is a fourth-degree equation.
4
The equation of a hyperbola is a second degree equation.

Problem Solving for Chapter 10


115. False. The following are two sets of parametric
equations for the line.

1021

116. False.

r, , r,   2, r,   , etc.

x  t, y  3  2t

All represent the same point.

x  3t, y  3  6t
117. 2a  10 a  5

118. The orientation would be reversed.

b must be less than 5; 0 < b < 5.


As b approaches 5, the ellipse becomes more circular
and approaches a circle of radius 5.

119. x  4 cos t and y  3 sin t

4, 6 , 4, 6 : symmetric about the pole

120. (a)

(a) x  4 cos 2t and y  3 sin 2t


The speed would double.
(b) x  5 cos t and y  3 sin t
The elliptical orbit would be flatter. The length of
the major axis is greater.

(b)

4,  6 , 4, 6 : symmetric about the polar axis

(c)

4,  6 , 4, 6 : symmetric about the   2 axis.

(b) x  y  0 y  x

121. (a) x2  y2  25
r5


4
The graphs are the same. They are both lines with slope 1
and intercept 0, 0.


The graphs are the same. They are both circles


centered at 0, 0 with a radius of 5.

122. Area of the circle: A  100


Area of the ellipse: A  ab  a10  2100 a  20
Length of major axis: 2a  40

Problem Solving for Chapter 10


1. (a)     1.10  0.84  1.2016 radians
(b) sin 0.84 
sin 1.10 

x
x  3250 sin 0.84  2420 feet
3250

6700 ft
y
3250 ft

y
y  6700 sin 1.10  5971 feet
6700

1.10 radians

( 48.5, 0)

50
40
30

(0, 23)

x2
y2
 21
2
48.5
23

(48.5, 0)

10
x
30

10
30
40
50

0.84 radians

(a) Let 0, 0 represent the center of the ellipse. Then


2a  97 a  48.5 and 2b  46 b  23.

2.

10 20 30 40

(0, 23)

x2
y2

1
2352.25 529
(b) c2  a2  b2  2352.25  529  1823.25
c  42.7
The foci are 2c  85.4 feet apart.
(c) A  ab  48.523  1115.5  3504.45 square feet

1022

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

3. Since the axis of symmetry is the x-axis, the vertex is h, 0 and y2  4px  h. Also, since the focus is 0, 0,
0  h  p h  p and y2  4px  p.
4. Let x, x be the corner of the square in Quadrant I.

A  4x2
(x, x)

x2
x2
a2b2
  1 x2  2
a2 b2
a  b2
Thus, A 

4a2b2
a2  b2

5. (a)

(b)

boat

12

d1

d2

9
6

12 m

Island 1

Island 1

Island 2
12

Since d1  d2 20, by definition, the


outer bound that the boat can travel is
an ellipse.The islands are the foci.

6 3
3

Island 2
3

9 12

6
9
12

(c) d1  d2  2a  20 a  10

Island 1 is located at 6, 0 and Island 2 is located at 6, 0.

The boat traveled 20 miles. The vertex


is 10, 0.

(d) c  6, a  10 b2  a2  c2  64
x2
y2

1
100 64

6. Foci: 2, 2 and 10, 2 Center is 6, 2 and c  4

d2  d1  2a  6
c2

a2

b2

a3

16  9  b 2 b 2  7

Horizontal transverse axis

x  62 y  22

1
9
7
7. Ax2  Cy2  Dx  Ey  F  0
Assume that the conic is not degenerate.
(b) A  0 or C  0 (but not both). Let C  0.

(a) A  C, A  0
Ax2

Ay2

 Dx  Ey  F  0

x2  y2 

x

E
F
D
x y 0
A
A
A

 

D
D2
E
E2
F
D2
E2
x  2  y2  y  2    2  2
A
4A
A
4A
A 4A
4A

x  2AD   y  2AE 

D2  E2  4AF
4A2

D
E
This is a circle with center  , 
and radius
2A 2A
2
2
D  E  4AF
.
2A



CONTINUED

Ax2  Dx  Ey  F  0
x2 
x2 

D
E
F
x y
A
A
A

D
D2
E
F
D2
x 2 y  2
A
4A
A
A 4A

x  2AD 



E
F
D2
y

A
E
4AE

This is a parabola with vertex 


A  0 yields a similar result.

D D2  4AF
,
.
2A
4AE

Problem Solving for Chapter 10


7. CONTINUED
(c) AC > 0 A and C are either both positive or are both negative (if that is the case, move the terms
to the other side of the equation so that they are both positive).
Ax2  Cy2  Dx  Ey  F  0

A x2 

D
2A

A x

x  2AD 

D
D2
E
E2
D2
E2
x  2  C y2  y  2  F 

A
4A
C
4C
4A 4C
2

C y

y  2CE 

CD2  AE2  4ACF


4A2C

E
2C

CD2  AE2  4ACF


4AC

1

CD2  AE2  4ACF


4AC 2

Since A and C are both positive, 4A2C and 4AC 2 are both positive. CD2  AE2  4ACF must be positive
D
E
or the conic is degenerate. Thus, we have an ellipse with center  , 
.
2A 2C

(d) AC < 0 A and C have opposite signs. Lets assume that A is positive and C is negative. (If A is negative
and C is positive, move the terms to the other side of the equation.) From part (c) we have

x  2AD 

y  2CE 

CD2  AE2  4ACF


4A2C

 1.

CD2  AE2  4ACF


4AC 2

Since A > 0 and C < 0, the first denominator is positive if CD2  AE2  4ACF < 0 and is negative if
CD2  AE2  4ACF > 0, since 4A2C is negative. The second denominator would have the opposite sign
since 4AC2 > 0. Thus, we have a hyperbola with center
D
E
 ,
.
2A 2C

8. (a) The first model describes linear motion, whereas the second model describes parabolic motion.
(b) x  v0 cos t t 
y  v0 sin t t 

x
v0 cos 
y
v0 sin 

x
y

v0 cos  v0 sin 

v0 cos y  v0 sin x


y  tan x
x
v0 cos 

x  v0 cos t t 

y  h  v0 sin t  16t2


y  h  v0 sin 

v

y  h  tan x 

x
x
 16
cos

v
cos

0
0

v

16
x2
cos2 

(c) In the case x  v0 cos t, y  v0 sin t, the path of the projectile is not affected by changing the velocity v.
When the parameter is eliminated, we just have y  tan x. The path is only affected by the angle .

1023

1024

Chapter 10

Topics in Analytic Geometry

9. To change the orientation, we can just replace t with t.


x  cost  cos t
y  2 sint  2 sin t

10. x  a  bcos t  b cos


y  a  bsin t  b sin

a b b t

a b b t

(a) a  2, b  1

x  cos t  cos t  2 cos t


y  sin t  sin t  0

The graph oscillates between 2 and 2 on the x-axis.

(b) a  3, b  1

x  2 cos t  cos 2 t
y  2 sin t  sin 2 t

(c) a  4, b  1

x  3 cos t  cos 3t
y  3 sin t  sin 3 t

(d) a  10, b  1

10

x  9 cos t  cos 9 t
y  9 sin t  sin 9 t

10

10

10

(e) a  3, b  2

x  cos t  2 cos
y  sin t  2 sin

t
2

t
2

The graph looks the same as the graph in part (b), but is oriented clockwise instead of counterclockwise.
(f) a  4, b  3

x  cos t  3 cos
y  sin t  3 sin

t
3

t
3

The graph is the same as the graph in part (c), but is oriented clockwise instead of counterclockwise.

Problem Solving for Chapter 10

11. (a) y2 

t21  t22 2 1  t22


,x 
1  t22
1  t22

1x

1x

11  tt  2t

1t
2
1
1t 
2

 t2

r cos  sin2   sin2   cos2   r cos3 


r cos sin2   cos2   cos2   sin2 

r cos   cos 2

11  xx.

r  cos 2

(c)


11  rr cos
cos 

sin2 1  r cos   cos2 1  r cos 

1

Thus, y2  x2

r2 sin2   r2 cos2 

(b)

1025

 sec 

0
1

12. r  2 cos

12 

r  3 sin

52

r  cos2
2

r  2 sin

47

The graphs all contain overlapping loops or petals.


13. r  a sin   b cos 
r2  ra sin   b cos 
r2  ar sin   br cos 
x2  y2  ay  bx
x2  y2  bx  ay  0

x

 bx 

 

b2
a2
a2 b2
 y2  ay 
 
4
4
4
4

x  2b  y  2a
2

This represents a circle with center

14. r  ecos   2 cos 4  sin5

a2  b2
4

b2, a2 and radius r  12a

 b2.

12 

(a) No, the graph appears to have a period of 2 but does not. For example, r   r 3.
(b) By using the table feature of the calculator we have r  4.077 when   5.54 for 0  2 and
r  4.46 when   11.83 for 0  4. The graph is not periodic. As  increases the value of r changes.

1026

Chapter 10

15.

Topics in Analytic Geometry

n  1, 2, 3, 4, 5 produce bells; n  1, 2, 3, 4, 5 produce hearts.

16. (a) Neptune: a 

9.000  109
 4.500  109
2

perihelion: a1  e  4.500  1091  0.0086

e  0.0086

1  0.008624.500  109
rNeptune 
1  0.0086 cos 
rNeptune 

4.4997  109
1  0.0086 cos 

10.0813  109
a
 5.4065  109
2

Pluto:

(b) Neptune:

 4.461  109 km
aphelion:

 4.539  109 km
Pluto:
perihelion: a1  e  5.4065  1091  0.2488
 4.061  109 km

e  0.2488

1  0.248825.4065  109
rPluto 
1  0.2488 cos 
rPluto 
(c)

5.0718  109
1  0.2488 cos 

1.2 1010

Neptune
1.8 1010

1.8 1010

aphelion:

a1  e  5.4065  1091  0.2488


 6.752  109 km

(d) If the orbits were in the same plane, then they would
intersect. Furthermore, since the orbital periods
differ (Neptune  164.79 years, Pluto  247.68 years),
then the two planets would ultimately collide if the orbits
intersect.
The orbital inclination of Pluto is significantly larger than
that of Neptune 17.16 vs. 1.769 , so further analysis is
required to determine if the orbits intersect.

Pluto
1.2 1010

(e) perihelion

a1  e  4.500  1091  0.0086

Neptune

Pluto

4.461  109 km

4.061  109 km

Pluto is sometimes closer to the sun than Neptune (for


about 20 years of its 248-year orbit). At the time of its
discovery, Pluto was more distant than Neptune. At
that time, Pluto was the most distant planet (the ninth
in distance) and was also the ninth planet discovered.

Practice Test for Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Practice Test

1. Find the angle, , between the lines 3x  4y  12 and 4x  3y  12.


2. Find the distance between the point 5, 9 and the line 3x  7y  21.
3. Find the vertex, focus and directrix of the parabola x2  6x  4y  1  0.
4. Find an equation of the parabola with its vertex at 2, 5 and focus at 2, 6.
5. Find the center, foci, vertices, and eccentricity of the ellipse x2  4y2  2x  32y  61  0.
1
6. Find an equation of the ellipse with vertices 0, 6 and eccentricity e  2.

7. Find the center, vertices, foci, and asymptotes of the hyperbola 16y2  x2  6x  128y  231  0.
8. Find an equation of the hyperbola with vertices at  3, 2 and foci at  5, 2.
9. Rotate the axes to eliminate the xy-term. Sketch the graph of the resulting equation, showing both sets of axes.
5x2  2xy  5y2  10  0
10. Use the discriminant to determine whether the graph of the equation is a parabola, ellipse, or hyperbola.
(a) 6x2  2xy  y2  0

(b) x2  4xy  4y2  x  y  17  0

11. Convert the polar point 2,

3
to rectangular coordinates.
4

12. Convert the rectangular point 3, 1 to polar coordinates.


13. Convert the rectangular equation 4x  3y  12 to polar form.
14. Convert the polar equation r  5 cos  to rectangular form.
15. Sketch the graph of r  1  cos .
16. Sketch the graph of r  5 sin 2.
17. Sketch the graph of r 

3
.
6  cos 

 2  and focus at 0, 0.

18. Find a polar equation of the parabola with its vertex at 6,

For Exercises 19 and 20, eliminate the parameter and write the corresponding rectangular equation.
19. x  3  2 sin , y  1  5 cos 

20. x  e2t, y  e4t

1027