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AS

ELEMENTARY

GRAMMAR

OF THE

GREEK

LANGUAGE.

BY
DR. RAPHAEL KUHNER,
CO-RECTOR OP THE LYCEUM AT HANOVER.

IW<7>;A

TRANSLATED BY

JOHN H. MILLARD,
st. John's college, Cambridge ; late second classical master at
mill-hill grammar school.

NEW EDITION.

LONDON
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, LONGMANS, & ROBERTS.
1859

LONDON
PUNTfif) BY SPOrri.VWOOT>E AND CO
NEW-SSTKEIvT 8QUARB.

rREPACE.

Dr. KtjHNEE, the author of the present work, belongs


to the most modern and philosophical school of Ger
man Grammarians, He adopts the system of Grimm,
Humboldt, Becker, and Grotefend. The first part
of his " Copious Grammar of the Greek Language "
appeared in 1834, the remainder in the course of the
following year, It is considered, in Germany, far
superior to any other work of the kind ; and affords
a striking illustration of the advantage of applying
to language the same principles of analysis, generali
sation, and induction, as are employed in scientific
investigations.
Several of its very excellencies, however, render
it unsuitable for general use, as the author him
self appears to have felt; and, accordingly, in 1836,
he published an abridgement of it, entitled " A
School-Grammar of the Greek Language."
This is
precisely such a work as might have been expected
from the pen of an author, not less experienced as
a teacher, than eminent as a scholar. It combines
theory and practice in the most happy proportions,
and, while the advanced student will find it quite
sufficient for every purpose, the mere beginner will
be able to use it with advantage.
In 1837 he published a still further abridgement,
prepared expressly for the use of young beginners, a
A 2

iy

TREFACE.

second edition of which was called for in 1841, and is


the original of the present translation. He commences
his preface to the first edition with the following re
marks : " Instruction in the ancient languages has a
two-fold object: the learning of the languages them
selves, and the comprehension of the works written in
them. The mere learning of the ancient languages has
been for centuries recognised as the best discipline of
the youthful mind as the simplest and surest method
of awakening, exercising, and forming the intellectual
powers of the boy for the most varied purposes;
while an acquaintance with the great master-works
which are composed in these languages the con
templation and familiar view of that grand style of
action which everywhere appears most strikingly
in Grecian and Roman antiquity possesses the ad
ditional property of fastening upon the mind and
heart of youth more strongly then the study of any
other branch of human knowledge, and of inspiring
them with ideas of the noble, the beautiful, and the
grand."
Those who coincide in these sentiments will be
pleased to find, that the task of guiding the first
steps of youth in such a course has been undertaken
by one so well qualified in every respect, and to
know, that his " Elementary Grammar," which is
now rendered available to the English pupil, retains
all the characteristic excellencies of his larger works.
Of these excellencies the following, among others,
deserve particular notice.
1. It is distinguished by a remarkable aptness and
amplitude of illustration. This remark applies in a
great measure to the Etymology, but especially to

PREFACE.

the Syntax. The paradigms contain much more


numerous and complete exemplifications of declen
sion and conjugation than any of our common schoolgrammars ; while the Syntax abounds with instances
of every variety of construction. In fact, nothing
is stated without being elucidated by one or more
appropriate examples ; so that it is scarcely possible
for the reader not to understand clearly, and retain
tenaciously, what the author aims to communicate.
The importance of this feature of the work will be
best understood by those who have had most ex
perience in teaching.
2. The inflexional syllables of nouns and verbs are
distinguished from the stem, or that part to which
these syllables are attached, for the purpose of modi
fying the general idea expressed by the word. This
will be found as useful in practice as it is correct
in theory. For the pupil, by being accustomed to
observe this distinction at the very commencement,
will be able, in a much shorter time than usual, to
give a correct analysis of any form he may meet
with in his Greek reading, and to express with pre
cision, by the inverse process of synthesis, whatever
modification of number, case, mood, tense, &c, may
be required in composition ; provided he be well
acquainted with the laws which regulate the various
changes of the letters. A boy thus trained will be
preserved from more than half the errors and diffi
culties to which those differently taught are con
stantly liable when called upon to decline or conjugate
other words than those given in their Grammar,
though, perhaps, perfectly familiar with the models
prescribed. He will be at no loss to perceive, e. g.,
A 3

PREFACE.
that the transition from rpi^-Sav to 6pil, or from
"Kswr-mv to Xsouen, is as strictly conformable to rule,
as that from Qyp-ibv to O^p-a-i; and will easily under
stand how Ti-dpofi-ficti and Te-9pu<-flai are obtained
from Sp67TT-m, according to the very same law of
inflexion as /3e*/3ouXeu-jU.a and 0s-$ooXeu-a-5a from
0ouXsu'*a>. In this way he will gradually gain a clear
insight into the nature of inflexion, and, at the same
time, be forming those habits of observation, reflec
tion, comparison, and classification, which ought ever
to be reckoned among the most valuable results of a
good education.
3. In order to secure these important advantages,
Dr. Kiihner has wisely deviated from the plan pur
sued by preceding Grammarians, when exhibiting
the conjugation of the verb, and has chosen a pure
verb as the model of regular inflexion. He is thus
enabled to display the stem throughout the whole
paradigm, unaffected by those changes to which it
is often subject when the characteristic letter is a
consonant.
4. The Syntax is admirable for its perspicuity and
completeness. It contains a full account of the dif
ferent kinds of sentences, the constituent elements of
each, and the way in which they are affected by the
usages of the language. This part of the work will
be of essential service to those who are reading an
author.
5. The arrangement is logical, natural, and clear.
The author's list of irregular verbs is a remarkable
instance of scientific classification ; and, if not abso
lutely perfect, is, in the opinion of several distin
guished scholars, hitherto unrivalled.

PREFACE.

vii

Such are some of the most prominent features of


this valuable work, which will be found one of the
best introductions to the Greek language, if used in
the way the author intended. His plan is as follows :
As soon as the pupil has acquired a knowledge of
the letters, the signs of the breathings, and the most
common rules of accentuation (omitting, for the pre
sent, 6, 7, 8. 11. and 13. to 17., which are distin
guished by the mark (f) ), let him learn the present
tense, indicative, imperative, and infinitive, active and
middle, of fiovXeiiw ; together with the third person
singular and plural of the present and imperfect in
dicative, the second person singular and plural of the
imperative, and the present infinitive of the verb eijuY.
He will thus be able at once to translate short sen
tences from Greek into English, and vice versa. These
should be given him at every step of his progress
through the Etymology, in illustration of what he
learns. Dr. Kiihner thinks that the pupil, by thus
continually applying to practice what he acquires,
will have it more deeply rooted in his mind, and be
pleased to find that he is perceptibly gaining ground.
If this method be adopted, and most of that which is
printed in small type be omitted at first, the work
will be found to answer a double purpose ; serving
both as a manual for beginners, and as a book of
reference for such as are in higher classes.
It now only remains to be observed, in reference to
the translation, that it has been the object of the trans
lator, to make it express the meaning of the author,
without mutilation or addition, as literally as the idioms
of the two languages would permit ; and resemble,
as far as possible, not merely the substance, but also

Vlll

PREFACE.

the form of the original. This has been done from


the conviction, that such a mode of procedure would
be both more equitable to the author, and more
satisfactory to the public. For this reason, those
nouns which are declined at full length in the para
digms of the original (though some of them are
never found in the dual or plural) are given simi
larly in the translation, without any attempt to sub
stitute other analogous words ; and the Latin words
and phrases, which occur more particularly in the
Syntax, have been left untranslated, wherever the
author has not thought proper to translate them into
German.
Nov. 18 13.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

ETYMOLOGY.
1.
2.
3.
4.

CHAP. I. On the Letters and Articulate Sounds.


Classification of the Letters 5. Alphabet ... Page 4
5
Page 1 f 6. Sign of Crasis and Elision
Classification of the Vowels -f- 7. Moveable Consonants at the end
' of a Word -5
Diphthongs - 1
Classification of the Consonants 2 t 8. Change ofConsonants in Inflexion
and Derivation - 6
Spiritus lenis and Spiritus asper 3

CHAP II. On Syllables.


9. On the Quantity of Syllables 10 \ 13. Alterationand Removal ofthe Ac
cent in connected Discourse 16
10. Quantity of o, i, and v in the Pe
- 17
nultimate
- 11 f 14. Atones, or Proclitics - 17
11. On the Accentuation of Sylla f 15. Enclitics bles
- 13 f 16. Rules for the Inclination of the
Accent - 18
f 1 2. Alteration and Removal of the
1 7. Enclitics accented
- 19
Accent in Inflexion and Con
-20
traction
- 14 18. Division of Syllables 19. The Stops - 20
CHAP III. On the Substantive and Adjective.
- 36
20. Nature and Classification of Sub 36. Syncopated Nouns stantives
- 20 37. Nouns whose Nominative Singular
affixes s to the Stem
- 37
21. Gender of Substantives
- 21
22. Number, Case, and Declension 21 38. Nouns whose Stem ends in a
T-sound- 38
23. Nature and Gender of the Adjec
tive
- 22 39. Neuter Nouns whose Stem ends
in t or kt
- 39
24. First Declension - 23
40. Nouns whose Stem ends in v or vr
25. Terminations ofthe First Declen
40
sion
- 23
26. Feminines of First Declension 23 B. Nouns which have a Vowel be
27. Masculines of First Declension 26 fore the Case-Ending of the
28. Second Declension - 27
Genitive Singular.
29. Contractionof the Second Declen
41.
in tvs, ous, ovs - 41
sion
- 28 42. Substantives
Nouns in ijs, i - 42
30. The Attic Second Declension 30 43.
Nouns
in
m
( G. <oos) ; as and a
31. Third Declension
- 31
(G.
ooj)
44
32. Remarks upon the Case-endings 44. Nouns in as (G. oos) and os-(G.
of the Third Declension - 31
cos)
- 45
S3. Gender, Quantity, and Accentua 45. Nouns
in tj, i, vs, v - 46
tion of the Third Declension 32 46. Nouns in
ty, t, uy, v - 46
A. Nouns which have a Consonant 47. Irregular Substantives of the
BEFORE THE EnDINO OF THE GENI
Third Declension - 48
48. Irregular Adjectives - 49
TIVE Singular.
34. Nouns whose Nominative Singular 49. Comparison of Adjectives - 50
shows the pure Stem
- 33 50. A. First Form of Comparison 50
35. Nouns whose Nominative Singular 51. B. Second Form ofComparison 53
lengthens the short final Vowel 52 Anomalous Forms of Compari
son
- 53
of the Stem - 34

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAP. IV. On the Adverb.


S3. Nature, Classification, and Form- j 54. Comparison of Adverbs Page 55
ation of Adverbs - Page 54 I

55.
56.
57.
58.
59.

CHAP. V. On
Nature of the Pronoun
- 56
Personal Pronouns - 56
Reflective Pronouns - 57
Reciprocal Pronouns - 58
Adjectiv^rperspnal or possessive
Pronouns
- 58

the Pronoun.
60. Demonstrative Pronouns - 59
61. Relative Pronouns - 60
62. Indefinite and Interrogative Pro
nouns - 60
63. Correlative Pronouns - 61
64. Lengthening of Pronouns - 62

CHAP. VI. On the Numerals.


65. Nature and Classification of the 68. Declension of the First Four
Numerals
- 63
Numerals
- 66
66. Numeral Signs r 64 69. Numeral Adverbs
.
- 66
67. Survey of Cardinals and Ord. 64
CHAP. VII. On the Verb. Nature and Classification op Verbs.
70. Kinds of Verbs according to their i 86. Temporal Augment - 84
Signification - 67 87. Remarks on Peculiarities of Aug
71. Kinds of Verbs according to their
ment - 85
Form -68 88. Reduplication - 85
72. Tenses of the Verb - 68 89. Attic Reduplication - 87
73. Moods of the Verb - 69 90. Augment in Composition - 88
74. On the Participials. Infinitive 91. Remarks on Peculiarities of Aug
and Participle
- 69
ment in Compound Verbs 89
75. Numbers and Persons of the 92. Classification of Verbs in at ac
Verb .
.
-69
cording to their Characteristic
76. Conjugation of the Verb - 70
Letter >
- 90
77. Stem, Augment, and Reduplica
tion. Characteristic of the
I. Pure Verbs.
Verb - 70
78. Inflexional Endings of the Verb. 93. Formation of the Tenses of Pure
Tense - Characteristic, and
Verbs - 91
Ending - 71 94. Pure Verbs which retain the short
79. Personal Endings and Modal
Characteristic Vowel in the
Vowel - 72
Formation of their Tenses 92
80. Remarks upon the Personal End 95. Formation of the Aor. and Fut.
ings and Modal Vowel - 73
Passive, and Perf. and Pluperf.
81. Conjugation of the regular Verb
Middle or Passive with a 93
in w
- 74 96. Contracted Pure Verbs - 94
82. Remarks upon the Table of Con
97. Remarks upon the Conjugation
jugation
- 80
of Contracted Verbs
- 98
83. Remarks upon the (so-called) 98. Contracted Verbs which retain the
Attic Future
- 81
short Characteristic Vowel in
84. Accentuation of the Verb - 82
the Formation of their Tenses
85. More particular Definition of the
100
Augment and Reduplication. 99. Paradigms of the last mentioned
Verbs
.
- 102
Syllabic Augment
83

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

xi

II. Impure Verbs.


122, Verbs whose pure Stem is
strengthened, in the Present
100. General Remarks. Pure and
and Imperfect, by the Addition
Impure Stem. Theme 102
of bk or urn - Page 125
101. Strengtheningof the Stem 104
102. Change of the Stem- Vowel 104 123. Verbs whose pure Stem is
strengthened, at the Begin
103. Remarks upon the Formation
ning, by Reduplication - 127
of the Second Tenses - 105
124. Verbs which have the pure Stem
A. Mote Verbs.
in the Present and Imperfect,
but in the remaining Tenses
104. Classification of MuteVerbs 106
suppose a Stem with f as the
105. Observations on MuteVerbs 107
Characteristic
- 128
106. Tense-Formation of Mule Verbs
108 1 25. Verbs to whose pure Stem t is
added in the Present and Im
Paradigms of Mute Verbs.
perfect

. 130
107. Verbs whose Stem is a P-sound. 1 26. Verbs whose Tenses are derived
Pure Characteristic ; j8, it, $
from different Roots connected
109
in Signification only - 131
108. Impure Characteristic; mr in
the Present and Imperfect 110
B. Verbs in MI.
109. Verbs whose Characteristic is a
K-sound 111 127. Conjugation of Verbs in fit 132
1 10. Verbs whose Characteristic is a 128. Classification of Verbs in fu 133
Modal Vowel of Verbs in fu 134
T-sound
.
- 112 129.
1 30. Personal Endings of Verbs in fit
135
B. Liquid Verbs.
111. Tense- Formation of Liquid Tense- Formation of Verbs in MI.
Verbs - 118 131. First Class of Verbs in au 138
112. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs 115 132.
Second Class of Verbs in fit 139
113. Shorter Paradigms of Liquid 1 33. Paradigms
in fit - 140
Verbs according to the Stem- 134. Remarks onof Verbs
the Paradigms of
Vowel of the Future; Verbs
Verbs
in
fit
- 146
with a in the Future - 117
1 14. Liquid Verbs with c in the Fu
Survey of Verbs in MI.
ture - 118
115. Liquid Verbs with I or 5 in the 135. Verbs in fu which join the Per
sonal Endings immediately on
Future
- 118
to the Stem-Vowel. Verbs
1 1 6. Special Peculiarities of some
Verbs, Pure and Impure 119
in a
- 146
117. Syncope and Metathesis - 1 20 136. Verbs in fit whose Stem ends
118. Anomalous Verbs - 121
ill f
- 149
187. Ei/il, I am, and etfit, I go - 150
A, Anomalous Verbs in H.
138. Verbs in fu which affix the Per
1 1 9. Verbs whose pure Stem is
sonal Endings, after the Ad
strengthened, in the Present
dition of the Syllable wi or vii
and Imperfect, by the Insertion
to the Stem-Vowel
- 151
of v before the Ending - 122 139. Verbs whose Stem ends in a
120. Verbs whose pure Stem is
Vowel and takes -vvv - 152
strengthened, in the Present 140 Verbs whose Stem ends in a
and Imperfect, by the Inser
Consonant and takes -vii 154
tion of the Syllable vt before 141. Inflexion of Kslfiat and fifiai 155
the Ending ... 123 142. Verbs in u which follow the
121. Verbs whose pure Stem is
Analogy of Verbs in fu in the
strengthened, in the Present
Aoristll. Act. and Mid. 156
and Imperfect, by the Insertion 143. OTSo, / know - 159
of or or aw before the Ending 144. Deponents and Active Verbs
with Middle Future Form 159
123

xii

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
SYNTAX.

CHAP. I. Oh the Principal Elements of the Simple Sentence.


145. Nature of a Sentence. Sub i 149. On the Kinds of Verbs - 175
ject Predicate - Page 162 150. Remarks on the Kinds of Verbs
176
146. On Concord - 164
147. Exceptions to the general Rules 151. Tenses and Moods of Verbs 181
of Concord - 165 152. A. On the Tenses of Verbs, in
147. Concord in the Case of several
Detail
-181
Subjects
- 167 153. B. On the Moods of Verbs, in
Detail - 186
148. On the Article
- 168
CHAP. II. 154. On the Attributive Combination, page 190.
CHAP. III. 155. On the Objective Combination.
Dative, and Accusative : ifJbpt,
On the Case.
irepi, &r(, yueTcl, irapd, irp<Js, vrr6
156. I. Genitive - 192
212
157. A. Local Sense. Separative
Genitive
- 193 168. Remarks upon the Construction
of
Verbal
Adjectives
in
t4os,
158. B. Causal Sense - 193
Te'a, Te'ov, and of the Compara
159. II. Accusative
- 199
tive and Superlative
- 217
160. Double Accusative - 202
161. III. Dative .
- 204 169. Remarks upon the Use of the
Pronouns - 218
162. On the Prepositions
- 206
222
170. On the Infinitive A. Prepositions with One Case.
171. A. Infinitive without Article 222
163. I. Prepositions with the Geni
172. Nominative, Genitive, Dative,
tive only ... 207
and Accusative, with the In
164. 2. With the Dative only - 208
finitive
- 223
165. 3. With the Accusative only 209 173. B. Infinitive with Article 225
] 74. On the Participle - 226
B. Prepositions with Two Cases.
Participle as the Comple
166. Prepositions with the Genitive 175. A.ment
a Verbal Idea - 227
and the Accusative : 5h, Hard, 176. B. TheofParticiple
as the Ex
xnrip - 21 1
pression of Adverbial Relations
C. Prepositions with Three Cases.
and Accessory Ideas - 230
- 232
167. Prepositions with the Genitive, 177. On the Adverb
Syntax of the Compound Sentence, or Account of the Connexion of
Sentences.
CHAP. IV. 178. A. Co-ordination, page 235.
CHAP. V. B. Subordination.
179. Principal and Accessory Sen
184. a. Adverbial Sentences express
tence
238
ing the Cause
- 250
180. I. Substantive- Sentences - 239 185. b. Conditional
- 250
181. Final Substantive-Sentences in
1 86. c. Consequence or Effect - 258
troduced by itt, ha, &c. - 241 187. On Interrogative Sentences 254
182. II. Adjective-Sentences - 242 188. On the Form of Oblique or In
183. III. Adverbial Sentences - 247
direct Speech 257

ELEMENTARY

GREEK

GRAMMAR.

ETYMOLOGY.

CHAP. I.
ON THE LETTERS AND ARTICULATE SOUNDS.
1.

Classification of the Letters.

The Greek language has four and twenty letters for the
indication of its sounds, viz. seven vowels and seventeen
consonants.

2.

Classification of the Vowels. Diphthongs.

e (short e, Epsilon) and o (short o, Omicron) are always


short, rj (long e, Eta) and a (long o, Omega) are always
long, a (a, Alpha), i (i, Iota), and v (m, Upsilon), are either
long or short.
The short are indicated by (" ), the long by (" ) ; as : a, a.
The mark ( - ) shows that the vowel may be used long or
short, as: a.
B

LETTERS AND ARTICULATE SOUNDS.

|chap. l

The Greek language has the following diphthongs :


at,
,
01,
vi,
av,
ev,
i/l/,
ov ; besides a, g, and <p, i. c.
a, t], and a>, with the Iota subscribed (Iota subscriptum).
These three diphthongs, which are called improper, are pro
nounced like simple vowels; thus: a = a, &c.
Remark 1. In capital letters the Iota subscriptum in a, y, if is sometimes
placed by the side of the vowels ; as : At q. Hi y, Qi n>.
Remark 2. When two vowels, which regularly form a diphthong, are
to be pronounced separately; this is indicated by two points (puncta
diteresis) over the second vowel (, v), as : '/, oY, av.

3.

Classification of the Consonants.

1. The consonants are divided, firstly, according to the or


gans of speech by which they are pronounced, into Gutturals ;
7 (g, Gamma), k (h, Kappa), ^ (ch, Chi) : Linguals ; 8 (d,
Delta), t (t, Tau), 0 (th, Theta), X (I, Lambda), v (n, Nu),
p (r, 8ho), a (s, Sigma) : Labials ; /9 (b, Beta), tt (p, Pi), <p
(ph, Phi), fi (m, Mu).
2. Secondly, the consonants are divided, according to the
greater or less influence of the organs of speech in their form
ation into :
a. Semivowels, viz. X, fi, v, p, which are called liquids,
and the sibilant <r.
b. Mutes, viz. /3, 7, B, it, k, t, <f>,
0. These nine mutes
are divided : a) according to the organs of speech, into three
gutturals, three linguals, and three labials ; /S) according to
their names, into three K-, three T-, and three P-sounds ;
lastly, according to the mode of pronunciation, into three
smooth (tenues), three middle (medio?), and three aspirates
(aspiratce), thus:

BREATHINGS.

4.]
Smooth,
Unites.
Gutturals

Middle. ,
media.

Aspirates,
aspirate.

K-sounds.

Linguals

T-sounds.

Labials

7T

<8

4>

P-sounds.

From the blending of the mute consonants with <r, arise


three double consonants :
yfr (ps, Psi) from ira, ftcr, (fjcr.
(x, Xi) from k<t, ytr, ^<r.
f (z, Zeta) from erB.

4.

Spiritus lenis and Spiritus asper.

1. Every vowel is uttered with a breathing ; this breath


ing is either smooth or rough. The smooth is represented by
the sign ('); the rough, by the sign ('). Both signs are placed
over the first vowel of the word; as: cbov, ovum, Urropia, historia. The rough breathing corresponds to the English and
Latin h ; the smooth is joined to every vowel which is not
pronounced with the rough.
2. In diphthongs, the sign of the breathing takes its place
above the second vowel ; as : olos, svOvs, avriKa. But in the
improper diphthongs, q, rj, p, when in capital letters, the sign
of the breathing is placed over the first vowel ; as : vVtS^s for
qBrjs, Hades.
The liquid p was pronounced with the rough breathing,
and hence had the sign of the breathing at the beginning of
the word ; as pafiBos. When two p's came together in the
middle of a word, the former was pronounced with the smooth,
the latter with the rough, breathing ; the former received the
lenis, the latter the asper ; as : Hvppos, Pyrrhus.
B 2

LETTERS AND ARTICULATE SOUNDS.

5.
FORM.
A
B
r
A

z
H
e
i
K
A
M
N
a
o
n
p
s
T
T
*
X
9
a

a
7
8
8
r
V
e
i
K
X
(*
V
0
It
p
a, s
T
V
4>
X
*
a

[chap. i.

Alphabet.

PRONUNCIATION.
a
b
g
d
e short
z
e long
th
i
k
i
m
n
X
o short
P
r
B
t
u
ph
ch
ps
o long

NAMES.
Alpha
"AXtpa
Beta
Bfjra
Gamma
Td/MfJta
Delta
A\ra
*E \frl\6u
Epsllon
Zeta
Ziryra
Eta
*Hra
Theta
TjTa
Iota
'l&ra
Kappa
Ka7T7ra
Lambda AdpfiSa
Mu
Mv
Nu
NfJ
Xi
Bl
Omicron *OfUKpOV
Pi
m
rPw
Rho
Sigma
Tau
TaO
Upsilon
Phi
<Pl
Chi
XI
Psi
Omega

Remark 1. The Sigma (V), at the end of a word, takes the form g; as
ouapog. This latter is also sometimes used in the middle of compound
words, when the first part of the compound consists of a word ending in
a Sigma ; as : jrpogfipu.
Remark 2. y, before y k % ?> sounds like n ; as : dyycXog, angehis ;
'Ayx'fflf) Anchises ; ciryKonii, syncope ; \dpvy, larynx.

MOVEABLE CONSONANTS.

t 6.

Sign of Crasis and Elision.

(Coronis. Apostrop/ie.)

1 . The sign of Crasis and Elision is like that of the soft


breathing.
2. When two words, one of which ends and the other begins
with a vowel, come together, it often happens that both these
vowels are changed into one long vowel-sound. This union is
called Crasis, and the sign of it Coronis. The Coronis takes its
place above the vowel-sound formed by crasis, and, when this
is a diphthong, above the second vowel ; but it is omitted
when the word begins with the vowel-sound ; as : to ovofia
Tovvofia, to hros = tovttos, to dyadd rar/add.
Remark. The Iota subscriptum is used in crasis, only when the i
belongs to the latter of the two vowel-sounds thus merged into one ;
as : Kai ilra = Kfra ; but leal lirura K&irtiTa.
3. Elision must be carefully distinguished from Crasis. It
consists in throwing away a short vowel at the end of a word
before another beginning with a vowel, without further change.
The sign of this is called Apostrophe ; e. g. tovto 1<ttw tout
eariv. Apostrophe is omitted in the composition of words ;
as : aTre<pepov from dvoicfyspov.

| 7. Moveable Consonants at the end of a Word.


Another means of avoiding the concurrence of two vowels
in two successive words, consists in affixing a consonant to the
final vowel of the first word.
The following consonants are used for this purpose.
a. The v (i<j>sKicvaTiic6v), which is affixed :
a) to the Dat. plur. in <ri ; the two adverbs, iripvai, last
gear, iravrdiravi, altogether ; and all adverbs of place in ai ;
as : irdaLv sKs^a, ij TlXaratuaiv rf/jiov(a ;
B 3

LETTERS AND ARTICULATE SOUNDS.

[chap. i.

/3) to the ill pers. sing, and plur. in <n ; as : rvinovaiv


ifjJ, rUSt^ra) iv t{) Tpanri^Q
7) to the in. pers. sing, in e; as: ennrrsv ijii;
8) to the numeral ukocti, but not always ; as : eXkoctlv fivhpss
' and s'Ikocto avSpes.
Remark. In Attic prose the v I^iKkvutikov stands regularly at the end
of an entire section, and often before long stops.
b. The sibilant s, which is affixed to the word ovtco, thus,
as : ovrms hroirjcrsv ; often also to the words fi^XP1, an0- ^XPl>
until; and to the preposition Ik, ex, which then becomes i, as :
elprjvr);, but sk Trjs elprjvrjs ; so also in composition, as : ieKavvsiv, but imsKeiv.
c. Lastly, k, which is affixed to the negative ov, as : owe
ala-xpos, but ov koXos ; so also, after the analogy of oiiksti,
fi7)KSTi (=fifj en). But k is not affixed when ov is found at
the end of a sentence or signifies No ; as : ov- a\\d, &c. (No;
but, &c.)

f 8.

Change of Consonants in Inflexion and Derivation.

1. A T-sound (t, 8, 0) before a T-sound becomes tr.


lvt'S-9tiv (fr. TTilBia) becomes iirtfo9t]v
nuB-rioQ (fr. Trti'flw)
jreiariog
iipu$-9r)V (fr. ipeidui) ripuoQriv.
2. A P-sound (ir,
<f>) before fi becomes fi.
A K-sound (/c, 7, %) before fi becomes 7.
A T-sound (t, S, 8) before fi becomes <r.
a) P-sounds : Tirpiji-pai (fr. rpi/3w) becomes rhpi/i/tat
\e\enr-p,ai (fr. Xuttoi)
XeXei/i/xai
yeypaf-fiai (fr. ypaQu) yeypafifiai.
ff) K-SOUnds : irtir\eic-ftai (fr. 7rXeica>) becomes mirXiyfiai
\i\iy-p.ai (fr. Xsyw) remains XiXty/iai
f3sj3p(xmllat (fr- Pp^X10) becomes (Ufipiyixai,

8.]

CHANGE OF CONSONANTS.
y) T-sounds : rjvvr- pat
qpuS-fUu
irtiraQ-jiai
KtKofiil-fim

(fr. avvTta) becomes yvvafiai


(fr. iptidio)
ijpeurpai
(fr. ttMiS)
niirtwucu
(fr. KOfiilm) Kucupiopai.

3. A P-eound (tt, /S, <j>) with <r forms ^.


A K-sound (/c, 7,
with cr forms f.
A T-sound (t, 8, 5) before cr is dropped.
a) P-sounds : XeiV-ffu (fr. XeiVw) becomes Xttyw
rpi(3-ffio (fr. rp//}w)
rpiypto
ypa$-a<o (fr. ypa^w)
ypd-J/cj.
/?) K-sounds : 7rXeic-<rw (fr. 7rXt/cw) becomes 7rXew
Xy-ffw (fr. Xfy<u)
Xe4*u
@pkX-Gti> (fr. jSpE^w)
jSjOt^W.
y) T-sounds : avvT-ou (fr. avvrw) becomes di/ii<rw
ipeiS-ffut (fr. tptidto)
ipttaia
wtiO-au) (fr. irtiOw)
wiiau>
iwid-ow (fr. tX7r(?w) iXfl-iVw.
Remark 1. The preposition te before <r forms an exception ; as : iic4. N before a P-sound (ir, y3, c, ijr) becomes fi.
N
K-sound (, y, ft )
7.
N T-sound (t, 8, 0) remains unaltered.
iv-irtipia becomes hpnrtipia.
twv-Ka\eu) becomes avyxaXiui.
iv-fiaXKu i/i/3dXX<u.
<rvv-ytyvil>(rKia ovyyiyvwaKto,
iv-tj>pu>v
tp<ppuv.
cvv-xpovoq
avyxpovog.
tv-tyvxpQ tfiipvxog.
ffi/v-Cew
avy^tb).
But : (TVVTtlvto, (TVvH(Ot OVvQ'tb),
Exceptions. The enclitics ; as : ovirtp, rovyt.
5. N before a liquid is changed into that liquid, thus : avvXcyi'fa) becomes avKKxr/L^w, ow-fierpia becomes o-u/Afierpia,
crvv-phrtrw becomes crvpphrra.
Exception, iv before p ; as : Ivpiirru.
6. N is always dropped before , and before <r in inflexion,
and in those compound words in which another consonant
B 4

LETTERS AND ARTICULATE SOUNDS.

[chap. L

follows a. The preceding naturally short vowel remains


short, after the omission of v before a.
<rvv-vyta = av^vy'ia^ daip.ov-ffi = Saifiotrij avv-<rrr)fia auarrjfia.
Exceptions. 'Ev, as : Ivoiriipw, ivZ,tvyvvp.i ; iraXiv, as : iraXivaKioQ ; some
forms of inflexion and derivation in am and trie, as : irifavaai, fr. <patvu> ;
and some few substantives in ivq and wc. The v in ovv becomes a in
composition before o and a vowel ; as : avaaiiX,ta instead of ovvouZw.
7. If, in the inflexion of a verb, a termination beginning
with ad be affixed to a stem ending in a consonant, a is dropped;
thus : XsKsLir-aQmv (fr. Xswrw) becomes \s\ei<})0cov, rjyyiX-crOai
becomes fj<ry\0ai.
8. When the liquid v comes before a T-sound and a, the v
and the T-sound fall away, the preceding short vowel (a, t, or
v) is made long, e is changed into si, and o into ov; thus:
iravT-ai becomes iraoi.
rvipQivr-oi becomes rvQOti&i.
eXfiivQ-cri eXpim.
airkvS-ata
oirtiau).
StiKvvvr-ai StiKvvffi,
XkovT-ffi
\kovat.
9. Mute consonants of one species are joined to others of
the same species. There are three species of mute consonants
(3, 2.): the smooth (fames), it, k, t; the middle (mediae), {},
7, 8 ; and the aspirates (aspirates), <f>, ^ 0. When, therefore,
in inflexion or derivation, mutes of different species come to
gether, the first is changed into one of the same species as
the second, and hence we have the following rules.
a) A P-sound (nr, /3, <) or a K-sound (k, 7, %), before a
T-sound, must be of the same species as the T-sound; so that
7T or k is joined to r, @ or 7 to S, and <j> or ^ to 0.
before r becomes
as: (fr. rpi/3o)) Terpifi-Tai = TSTplTTTat.

(fr. ypatpoi) ytypatp-rat = yiypaTTTai.


* r
K (fr. Xiyui) \tXiy-rai XiXtKTCU.
r r
K (fr. j3piXo>) f&fiptX-Tai = fii(3ptKTai.
X T
fi (fr. "PAII) pair-doc
* i
= pafiloe.
I
(3 (fr. ypatyta) ypaf-dijv = ypa(3Snv.
y (fr. 5tXckw) irXtK-Snv = TrXkySnv,
K. i
(fr. /3p^x0 Ppkx-Snv = Ppeydriv.

i
X
* (fr. ;r/j7r<d) iirifiw-Btiv
w 0

CHANGE OP CONSONANTS.

/3 before 9 becomes <p, as : (fr. rpifSb)) lrpij3-9riv = hptyGriv.


K 9
x (fr- wXtKiu) iir\iK-9riv = sjrXix&Jv.
Y 9
x (fr- Xfyw) t\iy-9j)V = IXixOriv.
Remark 2. The preposition Ik remains unaltered ; as : USovvai, UBuvm,
&e., not iylovvai, tyOihnu.
ft) The smooth mutes (yr, k, t), before an aspirate breath
ing, are changed into their kindred aspirates (<f>,
6), not
only in inflexion and derivation, but also in separate words ;
the middle mutes, however, undergo change only in the in
flexion of verbs; thus :
an' oi becomes a<$> ov; iirriptpoQ (fr. liri, ripipa) = lfr)fifpo; lirvfaim (fr.
7rt
= itpvQaivhjj rirvrr-a = Tsrvtpa^ oi/K vaicjc = oi/% 6(Ti'wc; Sanj/itpos
(fr. lixa, r'lpfpa) = itx'iptpog ; avr' wv = avff uv (fr. avrli) ; avriXKui =
av9t\KOt ; a\oy-a uXoxa ; but Xky' iripav (not, \i\ iripav) ;
=
TiTpujia ; but rpi/3' ovtws (not, rp'tttf oDrwf).
Remark 3. This change also takes place in Crasis ; as : 9aripa from tA
irepa ( 6, 2.). If two smooth mutes precede an aspirate, they must
both be changed into aspirates, as : itp9i)pipoc instead of inHiptpog (fr.
iirra, rijikpa), v!>x9' oXijv instead of vvkt o\ijv.
10. There are certain deviations from the rule that mutes
of the same species are joined together, with regard to which
the following rules prevail :
a) Two aspirates are not found in immediate connexion
with each other ; but the first is changed into its kindred
smooth: 2a7r$ft>, Ba^os, 'AtOis; but not ^acfxpai, Ba^o*,
A.66is.
ft) If, in the reduplication of verbs whose stem begins
with an aspirate, the aspirate is to be repeated, the first
aspirate is changed into the kindred smooth; thus:
tpi-(pi\i}Ka. (fr. ^tXsw) becomes fft^iXijico.
Xt-xVKa (fr- X'")
Ktxvica.
8t-9vKa (fr. 6vw)
ri9vKa.
9i-9ripi (stem 6E)
ri0ij/ii.
The two verbs, 9vuv, to sacrifice, and ndevai (stem 8E), to set; follow
this rule in the case of passive terminations beginning with 9, thus :
iri-9t)v, ru-0q<ro/M, M-9t]v, Tf9t)aopai, instead of i9v-9ijv, Wi-Gyv.

10

ON SYLLABLES.

chap. n.

7) Words whose stem begins and ends with an aspirate


change the former aspirate into the kindred smooth, unless
the latter is changed into an unaspirated consonant, in conse
quence of coming before a, t, and fi, according to No. 3, 8, a),
and 2., when it remains unchanged. Hence we have the
following variations :
rpi(p-u) (stem 0PE4>), 9pl\jm>, Bpiw-rrip, Opipfia.
rafq (stem 8A*), 9d\poj, 9air-Tw, Tidappai.
rpvijioQ (stem 0PY4>), 9pv>j/u>, 9pvTTTU>, ri9pvpp.at.
rpex-u (stem 0PEX), 9pki,ofiat ; rpix-oQ (stem 6PIX), 9pit, 9pitv.
raxvs (stem 9AXT) becomes in the comparative Qaaomv.
Remark 4. Tpt0w, 9&vtu>, and 9pvirrtji, do not change either of
the aspirates in their stem before a passive termination beginning with
9; as:
i-9pif-9^v, 9pt(p-9ijvat, 9pe(p-9ijaia9at.
l-9a<p-9riVy Oaf-Otic, QaQ-Orfaopai, Ti-9d<p-9au
Remark 5. In the Imperative termination of the Aor. 1. Pass. (9i)9C),
where both the flexions! syllables begin with 9, the latter, and not the
former, aspirate is changed into its kindred smooth ; as : Tv<p9tjTi.
11. Lastly, it should be observed, in reference to the li
quid p, that it is doubled: a) on prefixing the augment, as:
sppeov ; b) in composition, when a short vowel goes before,
as: dpprjKTos, fiaBvppoos; but sv-paaros (fr. sv + pwvwfit).

CHAP. H.
ON SYLLABLES.
9.

On the Quantity of Syllables.

L A syllable is short by nature when the vowel in it is


short, viz. e, 0, a, t, v, and followed by a vowel or simple
consonant, as: 'evofico-d, 'hrvdsTo.

QUANTITY IN THE PENULTIMATE.

10.]

11

2. A syllable is long by nature when it contains either a


simple long vowel, rj, eo, a, I, v, or a diphthong, as : 'ijpws,
Kplvw, ys(j)vpa, laxjupovs, iratSsv^s; hence those syllables are
always long, in which two vowels are contracted into one, as:
'a/cow (fr. astcm>), ftorpv? (fr. fiorpvas).
3. A syllable with a short vowel becomes long by position
(i. e. the placing of the vowel), if two or more consonants, or
a double consonant ( f, yjr), follow the short vowel, as :
'ifcoTfWei), Tvyfravres, icopal; (jcopaicos), rpaTri^a.
Remark. The position of a mute with a liquid generally does not make
a short vowel long ; as : otikvoq, dir?irXoc, 'a7*fj, (Sorpuj, Sidpaxpog.
But in two cases a short vowel is thus made long : a) in compounds ;
as : 'tKvtpta ; 6) when one of the middle mutes
y, S) comes before
one of the three liquids, X, p, v ; as : /3I/3Xof, MSpoc, iriirXlypai.

10.

Quantity of a, i, and v, in the Penultimate.

In order to a correct pronunciation, it is of importance to know, with


certainty, the quantity of the doubtful vowels (a, i, v) in the penultimate
of words of three or more syllables. The following survey will comprise,
within a small compass, all the principal cases.
The penultimate is long :
1. In substantives in : auv (G. aovog or amvog) ; in substantives of two
or more syllables in iw (G. wvoq ; but iwv, G. Xuvoq) ; and in comparatives
in i(ov, Tov, as : dirdtov (a), ~^ia\dtav (a) ; Ktuw (Z), jSpa^t'wr (I), 'Aptyiutv (I),
KaWiuiv (I), icdWtov.
Exceptions. The two oxytones : y tjliliv (I), the shore, and (usually)
%iiiv, snow. Homer uses comparatives in uav, u>v, always as short.
2. In oxytone proper names in dvog, in substantives in daog (with the
exception of Biaaos), Ivog, vooc ; in compounds in dyog (fr. ayw, I lead,
and ayvvjii, I break), dviap, and Kpdvog ; as: 'Aaidvog, \oxdy6g, a leader of
a troop, vavdyog, naufragus, Bidvtap (a), rpucpdviig.
3. In adjectives in aijs (Fern, die), derived from verbs in am ; in proper
names in drng (a) ; in substantives in iVijs (7) (Fem. Trig), and vrtig (y) of
the first declension (Fem. inc) ; and in proper names in trij (I), as:
Svadris (a), Eiippdrtig (a), Mt9pi8aTt)g (a) ; iroXirijf (I) (Fem. iro\iTig) ;
wpe<7/3uVi;s (v) ; 'A^poiirij (I), 'ApfiTpirt) ().

12

ON SYLLABLES.

[chap. II.

Exceptions, a. To proper names in arng : raXdrr/g (), AaX/tari;; (),


"ZapnarriQ (a) ; all in jiarne and (pdrrjg, and compounds from verbal stems ;
as: Swepdrijc (a). b. KpXrrjg, ajudge, from the short stem icpl, crinfc, a
founder, and 0uV;c (S), a sacriftcer.
4. In proparoxytones in IXoc, IXov, Ivoc, Ivor ; in those in Ivn, Iva, vvn,
vva ; in those in vvog, when a goes before the ending ; in proparoxytones
in vpa, and adjectives in vpog, with a preceding long syllable ; as :
6 ofitXog, a multitude.
Swrivtj (I), a gift. icivSvvog, danger.
iriSCXov, a shoe, sandal.
AXylva.
ytyvpa, a bridge,
y KajiivoQ, a stove.
alo~xvvn (y), shame. iaxvpog, strong.
okXlvov, parsley,
dfivva, a fence.
(but oxvpog.)
Remark 1. To proparoxytones in Ivog and vpa may be added o xaWoc,
a bridle, ipiviog, a wildJig-tree, and KoXXvpa (y), coarse bread.
Exceptions. tlXavivt (I), a feast, and compounds in yvvog (fr. yvvr),
a woman) ; as : dvdpoyvvog, and Kopvvn (y), a club.
5. In substantives in vrog, and in compound adjectives in daicpvrog and
Tpvrog (fr. Saicpvw (ii), rpu'w () ) ; in substantives in vpa, vyn, and 5y<uj>,
and adverbs in vBov ; as :
KtuKvrog, lamentation.
'iSpv/ia, a seat.
oXoXvywv (), ululatus.
dSdicpvTog, tearless.
SXoXvyfi, ululatus. (Sorpvlov, in clusters,
arpvrog, indestructible.
Exception, iiapiiapvyr), splendour.
6. In dissyllabic oxytones in IXog, Ipog, Ivog, X6g, vX6g, vpog, vvog, and
paroxytones in ipn (y), ivr/ (y) ; as-:
4>iXig, bald.
log, a violet.
Bvpog, the mind. Xvpn (v), disgrace.
6 XZftog, hunger. 6 x^s, sap.
dBv/wg, &c.
fivvr, (y), a pretext.
>) pivog, the hide. 6 pvpog, a pole. %vvog, common.
Exceptions. fSiog, a bow ; irXvvog, a washing-trough.
7. In dissyllables in dog and dvog (oxytones), and dissyllables in la,
which begin with two consonants ; as :
vdog, a temple ; Qdvoc, bright ; aria (I), a pebble ; <j>Xid, a door-post.
Remark 2. To dissyllables in ia must be added xaXld, a nest, dvia (?),
sorrow, Kovia (7), dust; and to those in dog, the variable 'iXaog, and proper
names in dog ; as : 'A/Kjiuipdog ; but Oiv6/idog.
Exceptions, ramg or raog, the peacock, aicid, a shadow.
The following single words are also worthy of remark :
I. d.
aicpdrog, unmixed.
vtdvig, a young maiden.
ndpa. (a), a turban,
dvtdpog, troublesome.
oirdlog, a companion.
<pdXdpog, bright.
auOdSng (a), self-pleasing, o-ivdm, mustard.
6 <pXvdpog, prattle.

11.]

ACCENTUATION OP SYLLABLES.

13

Proper Names. 'Apaoic,"Avairoc'Apdrot, Aq/iaparo, Ocavu, 'Iaauv (a),


npiaxof, "Zaoairis, Serapis, SrvpipaXog, S>apoaXo
n. i.
Itpffipoc, strong.
ivljt-T), scolding.
irapBtvoiriirnc (I), one who
to rdpixoc, pickledJish. 6 xfXIflwv, a swallow.
looks after virgins.
And these proper names : 'Ayx'^'JC (<)> rp<*vi*oe, Evpiiroc, Kaiicoc (r),
"Offlpif, BovolpiQ. The dissyllables : rlpi), honour, and viicn (<), victory, are
worthy of remark on account of their compounds.
in. v.
upvjiiov (v), unblamable. ipvKto (v), to keep from. Xafvpov, booty.
davXov, an asylum.
iXvos, a lurking-hole.
/ iravvpoc, papyrus,
avrri (), a cry.
iyvvr) (i), the hock.
itirvpov, bran.
And these proper names : "Afivdos, 'Apxvrat (J), Bifiwo'c, Atovvaog, Ka/ifivons (")> Kipicvpa, Kuictiroc, with Tpvxv, the soul.

11.

On the Accentuation of Syllables.

1. Accent consists in raising the tone of one syllable, in


words of two or more, while the others are pronounced in a
depressed or deeper tone, as speaking, immortal. Monosylla
bles should also be accented in order that they may appear
entire, in connected discourse. The Greek language has the
following marks of accentuation :
a) The acute (' ), to denote the sharp tone, as: \070s.
b) The circumflex ("), to denote the lenghtened tone, as:
<r&fia.
c) The grave ( v ), to denote a softened acute on the last
syllable of a word in connected discourse ( 12, 1.). Secondly,
the grave is used instead of the acute to distinguish certain
words, as: rh, aliquis, and to, quis ?
Remark 1. Although the accents are of little or no service to the
English pupil as guides to pronunciation, yet they are deserving of his
attention on other grounds ; especially if he wishes to write Greek cor
rectly.

14

ON SYLLABLES.

[chap. n.

Remark 2. In diphthongs, the accent stands upon the second vowel ;


and, at the beginning of words commencing with a vowel, the acute and
grave are placed after the breathing ; but the circumflex above it ; as :
ajroi, afXeiof, tvpoc, alfia. But in capital letters, the accent and breathing
stand upon the first vowel of the diphthongs, a, y, tp ; as : "Aii^c. In
diaeresis ( 2. Rem. 2.), the acute accent stands between, and the circum
flex above, the points ; as : itlijc, kXijVJi.
2. The acute stands upon one of the last three syllables,
whether short or long, as : Kakos, avOpanrov, troksfjuos; but on
the antepenultimate, only when the vowel of the last syllable
is short, or long by position merely, as: avOpamos, but,
avOpdyrrov.
3. The circumflex stands only on one of the last two syl
lables, which must be long by nature, as, rod, a&fia ; and on
the penultimate, only when the last syllable is short, or long
by position merely, as : tsZ^os, ypqiui, irpafys, avka% (G. clkos),
KaXavpoifr. Even I and v before or are treated as short,
thus : tpolvl^ (G. Ikos), Krjpvtj; but, 8wpa%.
Remark 3. Words receive the following appellations according to the
accentuation of the final syllables :
a) Oxytones, when the last syllable has the accent ; as : rervQwe, boko's;,
Brip;
V) Paroxytones, when the penultimate has the acute ; as : rvtrrui ;
c) Proparoxytones, when the antepenultimate has the acute ; as :
av9pu>7ro, ru7rrJ/ifvoc, dvBpoiirot, TvitTOfjuvoi ;
d) Perispomena, when the last syllable has the circumflex ; as : kokuq ;
e) Properispomena, when the penultimate has the circumflex ; as :
irpaypa, ipikovaa ;
f) Barytones, when the last syllable is unaccented ; as : irpayfiara
npayna.

| 12.

Alteration and Removal of the Accent in Inflexion


and Contraction.

1. "When a word is altered by inflexion, either in the quan


tity of the last syllable, or the number of syllables, a change

12.]

ALTERATION AND REMOVAL OF ACCENT.

15

or removal of the accent takes place generally according to


the above rules.
a) By the lengthening of the last syllable, the following
changes are produced:
a) A proparoxytone, as : ttoKs(uis, becomes a paroxytone,
as : irdkifwv.
. /S^ A properispomenon, as : Tet^oy, becomes a paroxytone,
as: rsL)(pvs.
y) An oxytone, as: 6s6s, becomes a perispomenon, as:
6sov. This change, however, is limited to particular cases.,
See 26, 5, a).
b) By the shortening of the last syllable, a paroxytone,
as: <psvya>, becomes a properispomenon, as, favye.
c) By the increase of syllables at the beginning of a word,
the accent generally moves towards the beginning, as: favya),
sfcvyov ; on the other hand, by the increase of syllables at the
end of a word, it generally moves towards the end, as: tv7tt<u,
Tv-TTTOfMsOa, Tv<f>di)a6/Me9a.
Remark 1. The particular cases of removal of accent in inflexion, and
the deviations from general rules, will be noticed when we come to treat
of the accentuation of the several parts of speech.
2. With regard to contraction, the following rules pre
vail:
1) When neither of the two syllables about to be contracted
is accented, the contracted syllable is also unaccented ; and
the syllable which had the accent before contraction retains it
afterwards, as : <j>i\,ee <j>iket, (but, (piXset <f>iXsl), ysvsl
ydvsi (but, ysvsav r= ysvav).
2) But when one of the two syllables about to be con
tracted is accented, the contracted syllable is also accented ;
and,
a) If it be the antepenultimate or penultimate, it has
the accentuation which the general rules require, as:

16

ON SYLLABLES.
dyairdofiat = dycnruftai.
taraoroQ = iaruiTog.
vXijtooa = v\rjaaa.

[chap. II.

tpiKtofifvoc = <[>i\ovpevoc.
dpQoovffi = bpOovau
TtfiaOVTU)V = TlfltdVTUtV.

b) If it be the last syllable, it has


a) the acute, when the second of the syllables about to
be contracted has the acute, as : saracos iarcos ;
/3) the circumflex, when the first of these syllables is ac
cented, as : vfxp'i = ryxpi.
Remark 2. The exceptions to these rules will be noticed when we
treat of the contracted declensions and conjugations.

t 13.

Alteration and Removal of tfie Accent in connected


Discourse.

1. In connected discourse oxytones have the sign of the grave accent,


t. e. the sharp tone is weakened or depressed by the close junction of the
words to one another ; but the acute must be retained before every long
stop, as the period or colon, and often even before the comma, if it makes
a real break in the thought ; as : 6 fiiv KSpoc, Wepaat rhv nora/iov, ol Si
ToXipuH cnritpvyov, Cyrus crossed the river; but the enemyfled.
Exception, rie ; rl ; qius f quid f always remains oxytone.
2. Crasis ( 6.) Here the following rule prevails :
The accent of the first word falls away, and the word formed out of the
two has the accent of the second ; as : t& dya9d = rayaBa, rov ovpavov =
rovpavov, ry fiptpq. = Bf/fitpq, rb ovofia = rovvopa ; but the long vowelsound formed by crasis takes the circumflex instead of the acute, when
the second word is a dissyllabic paroxytone with a short final syllable,
according to ( 11, 3.), as : 7-6 woe = rou7rof, t& dWa = raXKa, to epyov =
TovpyoV) rd oir\a 6unr\a.
3. Elision. Here we have the following rule. The accent of the
elided vowel goes as an acute upon the preceding syllable ; but it is en
tirely lost, if the apostrophised word is a preposition or one of the particles :
d\\a, oiSi, finds, or one of the enclitics : nvd and work, in case they are
incapable of inclination on account of their position ; as :

ENCLITICS.

15.]
7roXXd tiraOov
Beivcl spurge
<pi]fd iyu>
maxpa t\ea
iirrct f/aav.

=
=
=
=
=

7rc!X\' iiradov.
Setv' ipiar^Q.
Q>in' ly<!>.
alcrxp' iktZag.
eVr' r)<tav.

f 14.

17
irdpd Ifiov = reap' l/iov.
dwb iaVTOv j= a<p' eaVTOv.
dXAd tyw = dXY tyw.

Atones, or Proclitics.

Certain monosyllabic words which, in connected discourse,


are so closely joined to the following word as to blend with
it, as it were, and lose their accent, are called atones. They
are the following :
a) The forms of the article : 6, fj, oi, al;
b) The prepositions: kv, in, sis (is), in, i/c (if), ex, coy. ad;
c) The conjunctions : a>s, as, that, in order to, when, el, si; m
d) oi (ovk, 01%), not ; but at the end of a sentence, and in
the signification no, it has the accent : ov (ovk).

f 15.

Enclitics.

Enclitics are certain words of one and two syllables, which,


in connected discourse, are sometimes so closely united to the
preceding word, that they either lose their accent, or throw it
on to the preceding word ; ae : $t\os ns, troXsfios ns. They
are the following :
a) The verbs : el/il, I am, and fiipi, I say, in the present Indicative,
except the second person singular : cl, thou art, and <prjg, thou sayest.
b) The following forms of the three personal pronouns :
I. P. S. pov
n. P. S. aov
III. P. S. oi
Dual, atpwiv.
(TO1
Plur. triplet (y).
e
fit
c) The indefinite pronoun rig, ri, thoughout all the cases and numbers,
together with the shortened forms : tov and rip (but not arra instead of

ON SYLLABLES.

18

[chap. n.

rifri) ; and the indefinite adverbs : irug, w<i, tti/, iroii, iro9i, iroB'tv, vol, ttotK
On the other hand, the corresponding interrogatives are always accented ;
as : r*c, W, nug, &c.
d) The following particles : re, rot, ye, vvv, trip, Oijv, and the inseparable
Si, whether it expresses the direction whither, as "EpejiotrSe, to Erebus, or
serves the purpose of a strengthening particle ; as : rooootii.

t 16.

Rules for the Inclination of the Accent.

1. An oxytone unites with the following enclitic in such a


manner that, in the middle of a sentence, the customary
softened acute ( 13, 1.) again assumes its original force and
form; as:
9i)p rig instead of Brjp rig.
KaXog iari instead of icaX&g lari
Kai rtvtg
Kai rivkg.
norafiog ye
irorafibg ye.
Ka\6g re
KaXbg re.
irorapoi Tivtg
Trorafioi rtvig.
2. A perispomenon unites with the following enclitic with
out further change of accent ; as :
0<3c ti instead of <pS>g rl.
fiXei rig instead of ^iXel rig.
0ii iari
Qiig tori.
Ka\ov rtvog
koXov nvog.
Long syllables in enclitics are regarded as short in reference to accen
tuation ; hence : oivrivotv, (mjvtivwv, f/Kovad rtvMV,
3. A paroxytone unites with the following enclitic of one
syllable without further change of accent, but the inclination
of a dissyllabic enclitic should be avoided ; as ?
<pi\og fwv instead of (pi\og fiov ; but <pl\o tori, <piXoi <paoi.
aXXog TTiag * aKkog ir&g ; a\\o Trorf, aXXwj/ Tivutv.
4. A proparoxytone and a properispomenon unite with the
following enclitic, and take an acute upon the last syllable ;
as:
avOpanrog rig instead of apQptairog rig,
owpa rt instead of awfia ri.
&v9pu)iroi nvtg
avBpuiroi rivig.
au/td tart aS/ia tori.
Remark. If several enclitics follow one another, each generally throws
its accent upon the preceding ; as : ei rig yi poi <pi)<ri irort.

17-]

ENCLITICS ACCENTED.

t 17.

19

Enclitics accented.

The enclitics retain their accent in the following cases, even when the
preceding word might receive it :
1. The verb tipi retains its accent in all forms of the Indicative mood,
when it is not a mere copula, but has the signification of to be present, to
exist, to subsist, &c, and then, in the third pers. sing., draws the
accent from the last syllable to the penultimate ; thus : tial 8toi, there are
gods, or gods exist; but : o Qtog ian aotj>6g ; iariv ovrwg, sic se habet res ;
in connection with the Infinitive in the signification of i^tan, licet; as':
iariv USuv ; generally, when it stands at the beginning of a sentence ;
as : iari ao$6g ofirog 6 avrjp, siai ooQoi otiroi oi dvSptg ; lastly, tart is
accented after ow, or a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence, and
after the pronoun roOr' ; as : oAk iariv, aXX' iariv, ti iariv, wg ian, xai ian,
rovr iariv.
2.
and the remaining persons of the Indicative retain the accent
when they are separated from the preceding word by a stop; as: iariv
dvrjp dyaOog, (prjfli.
3. The enclitic personal pronouns, aov, aoi, oi, of, a<p!ai retain their
accent in the following cases :
a) When an accented preposition goes before them; as: napa aov,
fitrd. as, trpbg aoi. In this case, the oxytone longer forms of the pronoun
in the first person are used instead of the enclitical ; as :
wap' Ifiov (not : irapd ftov).
xpbg ipoi (not : irpog fioi).
tear ifii (not : Kara p.s).
nspi ifiov (not : irtpi /*ot).
Remark. The unaccented prepositions are joined to the enclitical
forms ; as: tK ftov, iv pot, eg at, ig fit, Ik aov, iv aoi.
V) In general, when the pronouns are emphatic, e.g. in antitheses.
c) The forms : oi, oi, i are oxytone, only when they have the force of
the reflective pronoun (of himself, &c).
d) The pronouns are always accented at the beginning of a sentence.
4. Inclination is omitted when the accent of the enclitic has fallen
away by elision ; as : KaKbg f Iariv, but : tcaXbg Si lartv ; iroXXoi $' tiaiv, but :
9roX\oi 5s tlatv.

c 2

20

THE SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.

t 18.

[chap. m.

Division of Syllables.

1. Fundamental Rule. Syllables end with a vowel, and begin with a


consonant. When, therefore, a consonant stands between two vowels,
it belongs to the following syllable ; as : 7ro-ra-^of, o-i#/o-/m.
Exception. A compound word, or a word with an inflexional or de
rivative ending, is divided according to the elements of the compound ;
aS I <WV-Ktpb>Vt]fflQ9 TVTT-TU).
2. Second Rule. When two like consonants, as : rrir, XX, &c, or a
smooth mute with its kindred aspirate (nf, kx, tO), stand together, or
when a mute consonant follows a liquid, the consonants are shared be
tween the two syllables ; as : rdr-ru, jiax-xog, ip-yov ; but : a-iivij.

t 19.

The Stops.

The colon and semicolon are denoted by a point on a level with the
top of the line ; as : ev tXt^ae' irdvng yap ai/toXoyjjffav. The note of inter
rogation is like our semicolon ; as : ric ravra inoitjtrtv ; who did this f The
period, comma, and note of exclamation are the same as ours.

CHAP. III.
ON THE SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.
20.

Nature and Classification of Substantives-

The substantive is the expression of a thing or object.


There are two classes of substantives: a) the names of living
beings, as : man, woman ; b) the names of things, as: earth,
garden.

22.]

NUMBER, CASE, AND DECLENSION.

21.

21

Gender of Substantives.

The gender of substantives, which is threefold as in Latin,


is determined partly by their signification, and partly by their
termination. We shall notice the latter mode of detennining
it under the several declensions. In reference to the former,
the following rules prevail :
First Rule. The names of men, most male animals, months,
rivers, and winds, are of the masculine gender.
Second Rule. The names of women, female animals, coun
tries, islands, and most towns, together with most trees and
plants, are of thefeminine gender.
Third Rule. The names of fruits ; diminutives, with the
exception of female proper names in the form of diminutives,
as : 17 Aeovtiov ; the names of alphabetical letters ; the Infi
nitive mood ; and every word considered as a mere indication
of sound, as : to firjrrjp, the word mother ; are of the neuter
gender.
Fourth Rule. Those names of living beings, which have
only one form both for the masculine and feminine genders,
are common, as : 6 jJ dsos, a god or goddess.

22.

Number, Case, and Declension.

1. The substantive and adjective have three numbers, the


singular, dual, and plural ; and three cases, viz.
a) the genitive, to express whence, as: of or from the
father ;
b) the dative, to express where, as : in the wood ;
c) the accusative, to express whither, as : to the shepherd.
Two other forms are reckoned with the cases, viz.
c 3

22

THE SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.

[chap. hi.

a) the nominative (the case of the subject), as : the father


writes ;
ft) the vocative (the case of calling to), as : take care, boy.
Remark. Substantives and adjectives of the neuter gender have the
nominative, accusative, and vocative alike in the three numbers. The
dual has only two forms ; the one for the nominative, accusative, and
vocative, the other for the genitive and dative.
2. There are three different methods according to which
substantives and adjectives are inflected in Greek, distin
guished as the first, second, and third declensions.

23.

Nature and Gender of the Adjective.

1. The adjective expresses a quality, which is considered


either as already existing in an object, as: the red rose; or
only attributed to it, as : the rose is red. In both cases, the
adjective in Greek, as in Latin, agrees with its substantive in
gender, case, and number, as: 6 ay ados dvOpanros, bonus
homo, 6 dvOpanros ayaOos sotiv, homo bonus est, 17 Ka\rj
Movo~a, pulchra Musa, 17 Movcra KaXrj hariv, Musa pulchra
est.
2. Hence the adjective, like the substantive, has a three
fold gender. Not all adjectives, however, have separate forms
for the three genders, but many have only two terminations,
one for the masculine and feminine genders, the other for the
neuter, as: 6 r/av^o s avr)p, tranquillus vir, r) rj a v % o s
ywr), tranquilla mulier, to ^ cr v % o v tkvov, the quiet child ;
and some have only one termination by which they generally
denote only the masculine and feminine, rarely the neuter
gender, as: 6 <j>vyas dwjp, the fleeing man, tj <f>vyas yvvrf,
the fleeing woman.
3. The declension of adjectives agrees with that of sub
stantives, with few exceptions.

FEMIHIJVES.

23

26.]

24.

First Declension.

The first declension has four endings, d, 17 (or a), as and


r)s, of which a and 7 are feminine, as and 17s masculine.

25.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Voc.

a;
tjs;
y>
dv;
a;

Terminations. '

Singular.
a or V as or Vs
1)3
as
ov
a
V f
V
a 7]V dv
rp>
a
V d
V> 0.

Plural.
ai
icop
aw
as
at

Dual.
d
aw
aiv
a
d
r

PARADIGMS.
26.

I. Feminines.

1. a) The nominative ends in a or a, and the a remains


through all the cases, if a p, s, or t, precedes it ; as : %oi>pa, a
country, iZia, a form, ao<f>ia, wisdom, "xpsia, advantage. With
.these are comprised some substantives in a, as: aka\d(d), a
war-cry ; and some proper names, as : ^AvBpo/jJSd, ArjSd, <f>tXofirjXd, gen. ay. dat. a. b) The nominative ends in d, and the
a remains only in the accusative and vocative, and changes
into 17 in the genitive and dative singular if a X, XX, v, a,
aa (tt), f, f, or yjr precedes it. c) In all other cases, the
nominative ends in 97, which remains throughout the singular.
2. If a or e precedes the a, la is in some words contracted
into 77 and da into a; and the last syllable remains circumflexed through all the cases.
C 4

24

THE SUBSTANTJVE AND ADJECTIVE.


a.

rj through all the cases of the singular.


honour. an opinion.
yvcofiT]
Tiprj
ryvdofirjs
riprjs
np.fi
TLflrjV
Tlfirj

justice.
Sing. Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Voc.
Plur. Nom.
Gen.
Dat
Acc.
Voc.

Tt]S 8lK-7)S
TTJV 8U-1)V
& SlK-T}
ai
r&v
reus
Tas
&

hi/c-at,
Sok-wv
SiK-ais
Slx-cis
hiK-ai

DuaLN.AV. rd hU-a
G.&D. raiv SIk-mv
b.

[chap. in.

a fig-tree.
<rvK(ia)r)
a~UK-r)s
ovK-rj
OVK-7)

Tipai <yva>pcu
Tlfl&V yvwpxov
Tipais yvcopais
ripds(d) ypaipds
yvwpai
ripal

avic-ai
avK-S>v
crvK-ais
avK-as
avK-al

Ti/jui(a) yvmpd
TLpCUV

avK-a
avK-alv

a through all the cases.

c.

a, G. i?s.

a) long a.
*) short a.
a shadow, a country, amina. a hammer, a Muse. a lioness.
<TKL-a %<opd pv(da)d crtpvpd Movcrd XsaLvd
S. N. Vf
G. TTjS <TKi-as ^mpds p/v-ds cripvpds M.0V(77jS "kealvrjs
Xsaivr]
a-(f)vpa Movcrr)
D. TJJ <TKl-a y&pq pv-a
cr<f>vpdv
Movcrdv
TTJV
crKi-d'v
yatpdv
pv-dv
\6cuvdv
A
UKi-a y(i>pd pv-d
o~$vpd Movcrd "Xjaivd
V.
P. N. ai
G. T&V
D. rats
A. ras
V.
D.

(TKi-aL y&pai
tnei-&p yaspSsv
aKi-als x^>Pals
aici-as ^papdi
tjKi-aL yGipat,

P'V-ai
pv-5>v
pv-als
pv-ds
p.v-al

a<f>vpai
<T<f>VpS>V
<T(pvpacs
<r(f>vpds
o~<f>vpai

Movaai
Movcrmv
M-OVCTMS
Movads
Movcrai

"bJcuvcu
Xsaivatv
Xsatvats
\saivds
Xiaivai

Td crKi-a ympd pv-d


cr(pvpd Movcrd Xsaivd
raiv <TKi-aiv xcopaip pv-alv <T(f>vpaiv Movcraiv Xsaivaiv

26.]

FEMININES.

25

Remark. The feminine of all adjectives of three terminations follows


the above paradigms ; as: y xa\tj Tt/i)j, the noble honour, } xPv"f> (fTXpvata, like trvicka ovicif) trroXrj, the golden robe, rijg xPvffWG ffroX^c;
r) l\Qpa x^pa, the hostile country, rtjQ lxP<* X^paQ3. The quantity of the endings is given in 25.
4. With regard to the accentuation, the following observations may be
made :
a) The ending of the plural oi is considered short with respect to the
accent ; hence \tmvai (not Xtaivm), Movant (not Movoai) ;
6) The accent remains upon the accented syllable of the nominative as
long as the rules of accentuation permit.
Exceptions, a) the vocative Jso-irora, fr. leairarns, a master ;
p) In adjectives in of, ij (a), ov, the accentuation of the feminine is
conformed to that of the masc. as often as the nature of the last syllable
permits ; thus the plural of the feminine nominative of /3e/3au>c, t\cv0tpog,
avippwiTivog, is accented on the antepenultimate : /3e/3aioi, /} i /3 a t a i,
\f!0fpoi, IXtvOepat, dvBpiiirivot, dvQpuirivat, although the feminine in
singular is a paroxytone, on account of the long ending q and a ; viz.
fStf}aid, i\ev9tpa, dvdpiamvn ;
y) The genitive plural in the first declension has the last syllable, w,
circumflexed ; as : \imvSv from \iatva, vtavidv from veaviag. To this,
however, there are the following exceptions : 1) The feminine of ad
jectives and participles in og, n (a), ov has the same accentuation as the
masculine ; as : rwv KaXkiaToiv Mouow, from KaXkurrog, KaKKiaTt), jcoXAhttw,
pulcherrimus, a, um ; but the feminine of other adjectives and participles is
perispomenon ; as: fiapvg, fiaptia, j3apv, Gen.pl. jiapioiv, (3 apt id v.
2) The substantives : xpvaT1i a usurer, a^vti, an anchovy, irqaicu, tradewinds, and %kovv7]q, a wild boar; which remain paroxytone in the
genitive plural.
5. The accent of the nominative changes, according to the quantity of
the last syllable, in the following manner :
a) Oxytones are, in the gen. and dat. of all three numbers, perispomena ;
as : Tipijs, y, wv, alv, aig (this holds good in the 2d declension also) ;
V) Paroxytones remain as such through all the cases (with the ex
ception of the gen. pi., which is always perispomenon), if the last syllable
is long ; but become properispomena, if the last syllable is short ; which
is the case in the nom. pi. ; as : -/vd/iti, yvdpai, 'ArptiStig, 'ArptlSai ;
c) Perispomena become paroxytones, if the last syllable becomes long ;
as : Mouffa, MouVi/e ;
d) Proparoxytones become paroxytones, if the last syllable becomes
long ; as : \ttuva, Xtaivt/g.

27.

[. .

II. .83.

' ^ ;
, -, , (1 1. :
1) , 8 : , V. , , V. : 2) ! \&>, :
, V. &, , -, V. ; 3) , : -, &,
V. . 11 , : ",,
$$, V. . 8
.
1. 8163 ,
, . , , , , ,
& ; &1 868 68, , . ;
, , .
&8.

0117.

& 7 1)<11;16. . \(1.

8. . \() ',()
'

'

.
. '
V. *

.
. ,)

. ,
.,

. . \1

& )8 &
8 (; : , ,
, ; , / /(,
, } }.

8 018.

28.]

28.

27

8 .

8(1 \ <8, ;
6 \!1 8 ^ , ;
& , ( , 8 : \.
8.
0

*^"1\

.
>.
.
V.

015

&

68.
.

8. . -

. -
. -
. -/
V. -

. . -.

& ,.

97

; ^


-
-//
. -

V. -

.
.

<1.











-
-'

& 16886.

\
~\

%.




. ?(8 ^ , 1) ; &8 : ^ <1 ; !\ : .


2. \ ^- , !1<; 1)
)8(1 : ' ^ \.:1 ,

88 .

[. .

, 33 1<* 33 3) ;
^-, .
, & 8 , 8 \11
. ^ 8 684 , , \!
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32

THE SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.

chap. m.

taking away the sign of the genitive case og ; as : 6 /copo?, the raven, G.
KopaK-og.
' 2. Neuters exhibit the pure stem in the nominative singular. But the
laws of euphony in the Greek language do not allow a word to end in r.
Hence, in this case, the r is either altogether dropped, or changed into
the kindred consonant a ; as :
Stem : wtjrtpi, S. N. iriirtpX, pepper, G. >rf7repi-0f, or i-og.
(rtofiar trutfia, a body, awfiar-og.
rtpar ripag, a prodigy, rtpar-og.
3. The accusative has the form in v, in the words of the masculine and
feminine gender ending in ig and vg, avg and ovg, whose stem ends in t, v,
av, and ov ; as :
Stem : jtoXi, S. N. vo\ig, A. jroXiv. Stem : fiorpv, S. N. (lorpvg, A. fiorpvv.
vav vavg, vavv.
flov, fiovg, fioiiv.
The accusative has the other form in a when the stem ends in a con
sonant ; as : ^Xc/3, (fid^, <p\E(3-a ; Kopaic, KopaZ, Kopaic-a ; XafiwaS, Xa/nrag,
XaftwdS-a.
Barytones, however, of more than one syllable, whose stem ends in a
T-sound, take the form in v, in prose, instead of that in a ; as : ipiS,
S. N. ipig, A. Ipiv ; KopvB, S. N. Kopvg, A. xopvv ; xaP'r> S. N. x"Pf>
4. The vocative is either like the nominative or the stem. See the
paradigms.
5. Upon the v tyikKvoTiKbv in the dative plural, see 7. a.

33.

Gender, Quantity, and Accentuation of the Third


Declension.

1. Gender. The gender of the third declension will be best learnt by


practice. The following rules, however, may be noticed :
a) These substantives are masculine ; a) Those ending in av, vv, ag
(G. avog, avrog), tvg, nv, tip (except ij x"Pi ^e hand), up (except ro irup,
fire), ovg (except ri o2s, the ear); /3) Those ending in tov, ijp, <op, tjg
(G. i/rof), ug (G. wros), with some exceptions.
b) These substantives are feminine; a) Those ending in dg (G. dSog),
avg, tvg, vvg, i> and ilig (G. ovg), ortjg, vri}g, tig (except 6 Kmc, a comb) ;
/3) Those ending in ig, iv, vg, wv (G. ovog) with some exceptions. Those
in 5 fluctuate between the masculine- and feminine genders.

NOMINATIVE SINGULAR.

33

c) These substantives are neuter ; viz. all ending in a, tj, op, up, og, 1,
ap (except d if/dp, a starling), and ag (G. arog, aog, except 6 Xdg, a stone),
and contracts in rip.
2. Quantity. Words whose nominative ends in af, i|, uf, atf/, 1^1, vrf/, tg,
and vg, have the penultimate, in the cases, long or short, according as the
vowel of these endings is long or short by nature ; as : d BupdS, a coat of
mail, G. &kos ; if pi'i// (7), a reed, piirSg ; tj dxrig (I), a ray, G. Ivog ; but :
t) j3&\a, a clod, aKog ; tj IXirig (i), hope, G. iSog (1).
3. Accentuation, a) The accent continues to stand upon the syllable
which is accented in the nominative, as long as the quantity of the last
syllable allows ; as : rb irpdypa, an action, trpdypaTog (but irpaypdruv) ; d ij
XXiwv, a swallow, xtXi^dvof. The particular exceptions will be noticed
hereafter. 6) Monosyllables are accented on the last syllable in the
genitive and dative of all numbers ; and the long syllables uv and oiv are
circumflexed ; as : d Blip, a wild animal, Bnp-6g, Br/p-i, Bnp-oiv, Sijpwv,
Otjpcri (y).
Exceptions. The following monosyllables are paroxytone or properispomenon in the genitive plural and genitive and dative dual : tj 8<fg, a torch ;
d Ipiig, a slave; tj Bug, a jackal; rb ovg (G. ur6g), the ear; 6 tj waXg, a child;
6 tj Tpwf, a Trojan ; rj (jxpg (G. <p<plog), a blister caused by burning ; to tpdg
(G. 0w7oe), lights as : irmSiav, irailotv. In addition to these, may be
mentioned : ttdg, all, every, G. travrog, D. iravri, but irdvTtnv, tram (y) ;
6 Ildv, G. IIoWc, but, roig Ham (v).

A.

WORDS WHICH HAVE A CONSONANT BEFORE THE END


ING 09 IN THE GENITIVE SINGULAR, I. e. WORDS
WHOSE STEM ENDS IN A CONSONANT.

34.

I. The Nominative Singular exhibits the pure Stem.

The case-endings are affixed to the nominative singular


without any change. Stems ending in vr (Sevo(j>&vr) and
pr (rj Sdfiapr) must drop t, according to 32, 2.; thus : Eefo(fxbv, G. SiVT-OS.
D

34

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50

THE SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.

49.

[chap. ra.

Comparison of Adjectives.

The Greek language has two forms to denote the two de


grees of comparison or comparative and superlative : of which
the one is by far the more usual, viz. rspos, repa, repov for the
comparative, and raros, rdrrj, rarov for the superlative ; the
other more rare, viz. lmv(l), lov, or mv, ov for the comparative,
and iotos, uttt), co-top, for the superlative.
Remark 1. The superlative form expresses either the highest degree
of a quality, or only a very high degree.
Remark 2. Instead of the simple forms of the comparative and super
lative, the Greek, like the Latin, also uses the positive in conjunction
with /ioXXov (niagis) and iiaKwra (jnaxime).

50.

A. First Form of Comparison.

Comparative, repos, ripa, rspov.


Superlative, totos, raWr), totov.
The following adjectives affix these terminations to the
masculine ; and in the following ways :
I. Adjectives in os, 17(a), ov.
a) Most adjectives of this class take the given terminations
after throwing away s, and retain the o, if a syllable long by
nature or position ( 9, 3.) precedes, a mute with a liquid
being always considered as constituting position in this case ;
but lengthen the o into co if a short syllable goes before ; as :
Kovip-og, light comp. Kovty-o-Ttpos sup. kovQ-o-tcitoq.
ioxvp-oQ, strong iaxvp-o-rtpoq iaxvp-6-rarog.
X7rr-0, thin
\(7rr-6-TEpog Af7rr-6-rarof.
trq>op-6g, violent aQodp-o-Ttpog ffQodp-o-raroQ.
TTlKp-OQ, bitter
TTlKp-6'TipOQ
TTlKp-6-TaTOQ.
(to^-oc, wise
aoty-ttf-Ttpog
troQ-w-Tarog.
ixvp-6i,firm
ixvp-ii-rtpog ixvp->-TaTog.
a^t-og, worthy aQ-w-repof:
dJ-i-ii-rarof.

50.]

FIRST FORM OF COMPARISON.

51

b) Contracts in sos=ovs and oos=ovs suffer contraction in


the forms of comparison, since the former lose e before to, and
the latter insert the syllable ss, after throwing away os, and
form a contraction with the preceding o, as :
7rop0up-oc
= 7rop^up-oCe, purple. awX-oog
= airX-ovg, simple.
iroptpvpttijTtpos = ^rop^vp-w-rfpof.
aTrXo-eo-repog aTrX-ava-rtpog.
TropfpvptwraTOC = irop^vp-w-rarof.
dirXo-tv-Tarog = cnrX-ovo-raTog.
To these belong also contracts of two terminations in ove and ovv ; as :
ivvoog = ivv-ovg, neut. ivv-oov = evv-ow, comp. tivo-ta-rtpog = tvv-ovoTtpoQ, sup. ivvo-'ia-Tarog = ivv-ova-Tarog.
c) The following adjectives in aios, receive the endings
rspos and raros after throwing away the last syllable os, viz.
yspaios, old, irakaios, ancient, irepaios, beyond, aypTvalos, lazy,
together with the adjective tpiXos, friendly ; as :
ytpai-OQ, comp. ytpal-Ttpog, sup. yipai-rarog.
ftX-og
(piX-Tipog
QiX-Tarog.
d) The following adjectives in os insert the syllable at,
after throwing off os, viz. svSios, serene, rio-vyps, tranquil,
iSws, own, Xaos, like, pAaos, middle, opOpios, early, oijrios, late,
irptoios, early, and tpiXos, dear ; as :
jika-og, comp. pw-ai-Tipog, sup. fita-ai-TaTog.
piX-oe
(piX-ai-rcpog (piX-ai-rarog.
e) The two adjectives, spptopJvos, strong, aKpdros, pure,
insert the syllable es, after throwing off os, as : Ipptofisv-icrrepos, sppo>fisv-^o--TaTos, aKpaT-ea-TSpos, aKpaT-ia-Ta-vos. So
also: alBolos, a, ov, modest, superl. alSoido^raros.
f) The following adjectives in os insert the syllable is after
throwing off os, viz. XaXos, loquacious, fiovotposyos, eating
alone, oifrotpwyos, dainty, and Trrt&xps, begging, poor ; as : \aX-os,
comp. XaX-La-rspos, sup. XaX-lff-Taros.
II. Adjectives in rjs, G. ov, and yjrevStfs, 4s, G. ios, shorten
the ending rjs into is; as : KXhrr-rjs, thievish, comp. tcKeirr-Urrspos, sup. KXerrr-Ur-raTos.
E 2

52

THE SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE.

[chap. ni.

With regard to adjectives of the third declension, the fol


lowing is to be observed.
III. The comparison-endings, rspos, twtos, are joined im
mediately to the pure stem of the word, (which appears in the
neuter,) in the adjectives ending in vs, sia, v ; rjs, es (G. eos) ;
as, av ; and in the solitary pdxap, blessed.
yXvKvg, sweet neut. v
yXvKV-repog
yXvKV-rarog.
aXnOrjg, true
Is
dXriBea-Ttpog
CtXij0tV-raro,
fieXdv-rcpog
/leXdv-Tarog.
fieXag, black
av
raXdv-Tipog
TaXdv-rarog.
rdXag, miserable av
/laicdp-Ttpog
fiaicap-TaTog.
fiaxap, blessed op
Remark. The adjectives tjSvg, raxvg, and noXvg take the form of com
parison in iW(l) and w. See 51, 1. and 52.
IV. The comparison-endings are affixed to the pure stem
of the word, immediately after the insertion of a single letter
or a whole syllable.
a) The compounds of %apis insert a> ; as :
i-nixapig, G. hirixdpiT-OQ, attractive.
comp. 6jrix<ipir-<i-rfpof, sup. lmxapir-ui rarog.
b) Adjectives in cov, ov (Gr. ovos), insert es; as :
fiSaifiaiv, neut. ivdaifiov, fortunate.
comp. (idai/iov-to-Tepog, sup. ivScajiov-ia'TaTog.
c) Adjectives in (? insert es or is; as :
diprjXXS, G. dtpijXae-og, growing old.
COmp. d<prjXtK-o-Ttpog.
sup. dpnXue-h-TaTog.

apira$, G. apiray-og, rapax.


COmp. dpnay-'wrepog.
sup. dpTray-ia-rarog.

V. Adjectives in sis, ev, affix the endings trrepos, araros to


the pure stem and drop v before a ( 8, 6.) ; as :
xopiftf, neut. xa9iiv< attractive.
comp. xapii-aripog, sup. xapie-ffraroj.

52.]

ANOMALOUS FORMS OF COMPARISON.


51.

53

B. Second Form of Comparison.

Comparative lwv(i), neut. lov, or rev, neut. ov. Superlative


urros, Urrq, icrrov.
Remark 1. Upon the declension of comparatives, see 35. Rem. 4.
This form of comparison is assumed by :
I. Some in vs, after throwing off this ending, and usually
only ijSvy, pleasant, and Tamils, swift; the latter of which
has in the comp. Odaacov (Odrrcov), thus :
tjl-vc, comp. ijl-tuv (i), neut. ijS-Tov, sup. jji-torog.
Ta\-vQ, comp. Oaaaiav, Att. Bdrrwv, neut. Oaooov, Att. Gdrrov, sup. ra'x"
OTOff.
Remark 2. The rest in ve, as : (?apv'c, heavy ; /3a0u, <&ep ; /3pax"'ffi
short; Saavg, thick; tiipve, broad; 6$vg, sharp; Trptajivi, old; and wicvc,
swift; take the form in vrepoe, u'rarof.
II. The following in pos : aloypos, disgraceful, fyOpos, hos
tile, and olicrpos, pitiable (in the comp. always oUrporspos),
after throwing off the ending ; as :
aiax-poQ, comp. aiVx-iW(I), neut. aia\-lov, sup. aiax-iaroq.

52.
Positive.
1. dya96i,good

Anomalous Forms of Comparison.

Comparative.
Superlative.
dptivwv, neut. dfitivov
apurrof.
PtXritav
jStXrwroj.
Kptiaaiav, Att. Kptirruv
Kpam>.
XtpUlV
X<rro.
KCUCIUV
KaKUTTOC.
2 xaKog, bad
\iipmv
Xtipurroc.
ijaaajv, Att.f}r7w (inferior).
eaXXtffroj.
3. icaXoff, beautiful KaXX/aw
4 aXysiKoe, painful aXyeivortpos
dXyttvdraros
aXyiW
aXyiffroj.
E 3

54

ON THE ADVEUB.

5. ftacpos, long
6. pocpdf, small

fiaxportpoc
i\aooon>, Att. iXdrruv

7.
8.
9.
10.
1 1.
12.

6\iyoc, little
fiiyac, great
iroXwf, much
paSuie, uy
iriwuv, ripe
iriuv,fat

TrXl'uov Or TrXtojv
pqiav
irtiraiTfpos
wtSrepos

[chap. IV.
fiaKporarosanJl prjKtaro.
fiucporaroc.
i\ax'"TOQ.
6\tyHTro.
jrXfTffror,
paoros.
iriiraWaroi.
KvararoQ.

CHAP. IV.
ON THE ADVERB.
53.

Nature, Classification, and Formation of Adverbs.

1. Bt adverbs we understand those indeclinable words by


means of which the relations of time, place, and manner are
denoted; as: ixsl, there; vuv, now; koX&s, well.
2. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by assuming
the ending a>s. This ending is attached to the pure stem of
the adjective ; and since in the third declension this appears
in the genitive, and adjectives in the plural agree with ad
verbs in point of accentuation, we have the following rule
for the formation of adverbs from adjectives : the ending of
the genitive plural of the adjective Uov) is changed into cos; as:
0iXoc, dear
gen. pi. fiK-wv
adv.
eaXo'c, beautiful
icaX-wv
(caX-i3f.
djrX(d-oc) ovc, simple dir\(6-<av) tip
dir\(o-uie) He.
rravr-iav
irde, all, G. iravroQ
jravT-o>s.
<Tu><j>p6v-uiv
<rw0poV-w.
ai>fpiv, moderate
raxt-tov
ra^fi-wc*
Ta\ve, swift
)ttyd\-tt)v
ntyd\-o}.
pkyas, great
aXi)6(-wv) >v
dX)J0(-(J) Wf.
dXijOfe, true
owijQtiQ, customary (tsvvt)9'i-<av) avvriQuii,' (ovvtjOt-we) avvifiui.

54.]

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

55.

Remark 1. Upon the accentuation of the compounds in r)6o>s and the


compound avrdpKios, compare 42. Rem. 4. ; upon that of tvvug (instead
of evvtSs), 29.
Remark 2. From substantives, pronouns, and adverbs, other adverbs
may be formed by affixing the three endings 6tv, Be, and St (at), to
denote these three relations of movement in space, viz. whence (9tv),
where (9i), and whither (St or at); as : oipavoBtv, de ccelo ; ovpavoQi, in
ccelo; ovpavovdf, in ccelum.
Remark 3. The ending St is regularly affixed only to the accusative of
substantives. To pronouns and primitive adverbs, at is affixed instead of
St ; as : Uii-at, thither; aKXo-at, in another direction. In that form of the
plural of substantives which ends in as, aSt becomes ; as : 'A^va-fr,
towards Athens.
3. Besides the adverbs with the ending ms, there are many
which bear evident marks of a case-inflexion ; as : i^airivqs,
de repente, suddenly ; airrov, there, &c. The accusative sin
gular and plural of adjectives is very often used adverbially ;
as : fjJya icXaUw, to weep much.

54.

Comparison of Adverbs.

Adverbs derived from adjectives have no distinct adverbial


ending in their comparison, but use the neuter of the compa
rative and superlative of the corresponding adjective ; the
singular for the comparative, and the plural for the superla
tive ; as :
70^>e (fr. aotpoo), wisely
comp. oofywripov sup. aopiaraTa.
aa<f>)Q (fr. aaipiis), evidently
aatptartpov aafiarara.
XapuvruiQ (fr. \apitis), gracefully xaP'*aTtPov xaP^"TaTa.
tvSaifiOvutg (fr. tijSaipwv), fortu- tvSatfiovtaTt- tvSaifiovta'
nately
pov
rara.
xiaxp&s (fr. aiV^pog), disgracefully alaxiov
atax^ara.
ySttos (fr. rjSvs), agreeably
ijSlov
ydtara.
raxioiQ (fr. raxis), quickly
Odaaov, ttov
rdxiara.
4

[chap. v.

ON THE PRONOUN.

56

All primitive adverbs in a>, as ava>, /carm, ego), saw, &c.,


regularly retain this ending in comparison also ; as :
avu, above
caVtu, below

comp. dviaripiti
icaTutripto

sup. aviaraTia.
icarwrrirw.

So also, most other primitive adverbs ; as :


tripd, ultra
TtjKoVffar
has, far
lyyvc, near

comp. irepairipai
TTjXoTepti)
tKaaripu)
lyyvrepo)

sup. wanting.
rqAorarw.
iKaaTarni.
lyyvrdro).

CHAP. V.
ON THE PRONOUN.
55.

Nature of the Pronoun.

The pronoun does not, like the substantive, express the


idea of an object, but only the relation of an object to the
speaker ; since it shows whether the object is the speaker
himself (the first person), or the person (or thing) spoken to
{the second person), or the person (or thing) spoken of (the
third person) ; as : I (the teacher) give thee (the scholar) it (the
book). All pronouns are comprised under five general heads:
personal, demonstrative, relative, indefinite, and interrogative
pronouns.

56.

I. Personal Pronouns.

a. Substantive-personal pronouns.
a) The simple ones : syw, ego; crv, tu; ov, sui.

57.]

REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS.

S. N. lyii, I
av, thou
G. ^ot(/*ov), liiov,ofme aov (nov), of thee
D. ftoiQioi), Ifioi, to me aoi (<roi), to thee
<te (ct), thee
A. fiiQii), i/ie, me

57

oi (0J), of himself or herself


oi (oi), to himself or herself
1(0, himself herself, itself

<r<pu, you two


vu>, we, us two
v$v, of or to us two trffv, of or to you afwiv (?<pmv), of or to them
two
selves
atpd, neut. ofka, they them
vitut, you (i)
P.N. rifitiS, we
selves
v/iuv, ofyou (v) ef&v, of themselves
G. rifluiv, of US
v/iiv, to you (i)
<npi<rt(v) (<r0ri), to themselves
D. rifiiv, to US
vfide, you (v)
<npac, neut. <r<pia, themselves
A. r)pds, US

D.

Remark. The forms capable of inclination are placed without accent


in parentheses. Compare 15, V). Upon the signification and use of the
pronoun in the third person, see the syntax $ 169. Bern. 2.

57.

1$) The reflective pronouns : i/iavrov, aeavrov, kavrov.

The reflective pronouns of the first and second persons de


cline the two pronouns from which they are formed, separately,
in the plural ; that of the third person is declined either sim
ply, eavrav, &c, or acf>&v avnmv.
eavTOv, rjc, or
S.G. Ifiavrov, qf, of my trsavrov, jyc, or
aavrov, ij<;,ofthyself^avrov, ijs, ofhimselfor herself
self
\eavr$, p, or
D. Ifiavry, p, to myself atavrif, p, or
travTtp, p, to thyself ai)r, p, to himself or herself
iavrdv, t)v, o, or
A. i/tavrov, ipi, myself fftavrov, r\v, or
aavrov, i)V, thyself air6v, ^v, 6, himself, herself,
or itself

58

ON THE PRONOUN.

[chap. v.

P.G. t'lliiSv airruv, ofour ilfiuv avTtZv, of iavrtSv, or avruiv, or


selves
yourselves
otjitSv avruiv, of themselves
D. ifSv avroig, atf, to Vfiiv avroig, aXg, to iavrdig, aXg, or avroig, aic, or
ourselves
yourselves
aty'wiv avroig, aig, to them
selves
A. t'l/iag airroig, Ag, vpag avroig, dg, iavroig, dg, a, or avrovg, dg,
ourselves
yourselves
a, or
afdg avrovg, dg, trtpka avrd,
themselves

58. y) The reciprocal pronoun expresses mutual inter


change between several persons.
Plural. G. aXX^Xw, of one another
D. a\Xii\oig,
aig,
oi
A. dXKrjXovg,
ag,
a

Dual. dXX^Xoiv,
dXKyXu),

atv,

oiv

a,

59. b. Adjective-personal or possessive pronouns.


The possessive pronouns are formed from the genitive of
the foregoing substantive-pronouns :
sfios, r\, bv, mem, fr. ifiov ; rjfierspos, repd, rspov, noster, fr.
fjfMtiV ;
aos, rj, bv, tuus, fr. o~ov; bfilrepos, ripd, rspov, vester, fr.
os, fj, ov, suus, for which the Attics use eavrov, t}9, 5>v in
the reflective signification, and avrov, fy, S>v in the significa
tion of the personal pronoun of the third person, e. g. twtb
rbv eavrov vibv or rbv vibv rbv eavrov, he is striking his own
son, rxmrsL avrov rbv vlbv or rbv vibv avrov, he is striking his
(i. e. of him, ejus) son.

60.]

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

60.

S.N. Hi
Or. rovdt
D.
A. TOvdt
P.N. o'iSe
G. TlSvSt
D. Toigde
A. roiigSe
rwe
D.
roivh

59

II. Demonstrative Pronouns.

this.
t)tt
rijgdt
Tftt
TT}vSt
aide
riSvle
raigli
TagSe

rdflf 0$TOg
rovSe roirov
TOVTtp
roSe rovrov
rade 0$TOl
TiavSt TOVTUIV
roigdt roiroig
T&St rovrovg
TaSt riidi rovru
raTvSe TOivSl TOVTOIV

this.
avTT)
ravrrjg
rainy
Tavrqv
airai
TOVTUIV
ravraig
ravrag

tovto
TOVTOV
TOVTtp
TOVTO

self,
aitTOQ
avrov
air$
avrbv

or he, she, it.


avrrj avro
avrrjg avrov
avry avTal
avrijv avro
avroi avrai avra
avriSv avriSv avriov
avrolg avTa'ig arlroig
avroig avrag avra

ravra
TOVTIilV
tovtoiq
ravra
ravra TOVTia avrui avra avr<i
ravraiv TOVTOIV avrolv avralv avmv

Like oiVog are declined : rooovrog, rooavrjj, ro<rovro(i>), tantus, a, um ;


roioSrof, roiavrq, roiouro(v), talis, e ; rtjXiKOvroe, rriKwavrri, 7-i)Xuco5ro(v),
so great, so old; but it should be remarked a) that the neuter-singular
has a form in ov, as well as that in o, and b) that, in all the forms of
ovrog which begin with r, this letter is dropped.
Like airog are declined : Utivog, ij, o, that ; and dXXof, q, o, alius,
a, ml.

N. TOOOVTOQ
a. TOtJOVTOV
D. roaovru)
A roaovrov

Singular.
roaairi] TOOOVTo(v)
Toaavrrjg roaovrov
roaairy TOaOVTIf
roaaiiTtiv Toaovro{y)
rooovTtti
roaovroiv

Plural.
roaovroi roaavrai roaavra
roaovruv tooovtuv roaovrmv
roaovrotg roaavraig ToaovroiQ
tooovtovq roaairag roaavTa

Dual.
roaavra
roaavraiv

roaovrbt
roaovrotv

Remark. The pronoun airog signifies, either self, ipse, ipsa, ipsum, or
supplies the cases of the personal pronoun of the third person, he, she, it,
is, ea, id. In connexion with the article, o airog, ri airri, to avro, it is
equivalent to idem, eadem, idem. The article usually blends by crasis
( 6.) with airog, so as to form one word : aiirog, rairo, commonly rairov,
rairov, ravrif, ravry, &c.

60

ON THE PEONOUN.

61.
Singular.
TS. of, qui ij, quce
6. 0$
D.
i
A. 8v

62.

[chap. t.

III. Relative Pronouns.

o, quod
oi
V
o

oi
T
h)V
T
oiic

Plural.
al
T
U)V
ale
Us

u
!>v
6ls
S

&
olv
olv
&

Dual.
2
alv
alv
S.

a
olv
olv
&

IV. Indefinite and Interrogative Pronouns.

The indefinite and interrogative pronouns are expressed by


the same form, but are distinguished by their accent and
position, the indefinite being enclitic ( 14.) and the interro
gative always accented.
Remark 1. The interrogative pronouns affix to their root the relative
o (which is not inflected, except in bens), when they stand in a dependent
sentence ; as : birolos, biroaos, biroTtpos, &c.
Declension of tIs, ris, and Sorts.
Sing. N.
G.
D.
A.
Plur. N.
Q.
D.
A.

rig, some one neut. ti, something.


nvos or TOV
nvt or
riva
neut. ti
Tivis
TiviSv
rnr/(v)
TIV&S

Dual. N.A. nvi


G.D.- TlVOlv

rig, quis t
rivos or TOV
TlVl Or Tip
Tiva
neut. riva and drra TIVIS
tiviov
rt<ri(v)
neut. riva and arra rivas
TlVt
TIV01V

Ti,quidf

Ti
riva

riva

63.]

CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS.

CI

Plural.
olrivts
alnvec
Uriva or urra
uvtividv (more rarely otuv)
oTjrri(v) (more rarely oroig) alerioi^v) oTsthti(v)
ovqtivoq agrtvag
aTLva or arra
Dual.
N. A. tirivi, arivt G. D. oWivoiv, aWivotv

Singular.
SfTif, who
yrtg o-ti
G. oinVOQ Or OTOV rjQTlVOQ
D. ifnvi or otu> yrivi
yvriva o-n
A. ovriva

Remark 2. The negative compounds of riff, ovng, oun, pijrtff, /xi/rt,


no one, nothing, have the inflexion of the simple riff ; as : ovnvog, ovrivtg,
&c

63.

Correlative Pronouns.

Under the head of correlative pronouns are comprised those pronouns


which express a mutual relation to one another, and exhibit this relation
by a corresponding form.
a. Adjective-correlatives.
Interrogatives.

Indefinites. 1

Demonstratives.

Relative and Dependent


Interrogatives.

iroaoQ, n, ov ; 7ro<70f, if, ov, qf ro'o-of, ?i, ov, so great, so ooog, n, ov.
oVo'o-oc, n, ov, how
how great* a certain size much, tantus.
great, how much,
how much ? or quantity,
quantus.
aliquantus.
quantusf
jrotof, a, ov ; of iroios, a, ov, of toXoc, a, ov, such, of oloc, a, ov, of what
kind, qualis.
what kind* acertainhind. such a kind, talis.
TOiocdf, roidde, roiovSe oVoiof, a, ov.
toiovtoc, -avrn, ovro(v)
jtjjXi'koc, t\, ov ; 7rjjXlK0, If, ov, ri/Xkof, n, ov, so great, jj'Xi'coff, jj, ov, how
great, how old.
how great f of a certain so old.
on-qXiicoc, n, ov.
size or age.
how old?

62

ON THE PRONOUN.

[chap. v.

b. Adverbial correlatives.
Interrogative:.

Indefinite*.

Demonstrative!.

some wanting (hie, ibi).


irov; where f wov,
where, aliubi?
cubi.
woBiv, from
TTudtV ;
somewhere,
whence ?
alicunde.
unde ?
m't; whither? wot, to some wanting.
place, aliquo.
quo?

Relative!.

Dependent
Interrogatives.

oS, where, '6irov, where.


vbi.
'66ev,whence, 6w69ev,
unde. .
whence.
oT, whither, oVof, whi
quo.
ther.

wore; when? wore, at some T-oVe, then, turn.


quandof
time,
aliquando.
wnvica ; quo wanting.
rnvixoSe, 1 hoc ipso
temporis
TtiviKavra, J tempore.
puneto ?
quota horaf

'ore, when, owoTt, when.


quum.

7r<j ; how ? Trcif, somehow, ourw(f), clfo, thus.


wrj;whither? mi, to some TySe, 1 hither, or
how?
place.
ravry, J here.

<!, how.
owoic, how.
;/, where, owoig, how.
whither. 07rij, where,
whither.

ijviKa, quo OTrrivixa,


ipso tem when.
pore.

Remark. The forms which are wanting in the ordinary dialects to


denote here, there, (hie, ibi,) are supplied by ivravBa, and those to denote
hence (hinc, inde), by ivQ'tvh, IvrtvSev.

64.

Lengthening of Pronouns.

a. The enclitic ye is attached to the personal pronouns of the first and


second persons, in order to render the person emphatic. The pronoun
lyii then draws back its accent, except in the genitive : eyuye, Ip-ovye,
e/iotye, Eft-y ; avye. Further, ye may be joined to any other word as
well as to any other pronoun, but not made one word with it.
b. The particles o*ij, (most commonly Sijirore,) and ovv, are affixed to the

CLASSIFICATION ON NUMERALS.

65.j

63

relatives composed of interrogatives or indefinites, as well as to oaoc, in


order to generalise the relative force, i. e. to extend it to every thing
comprised within the limits of the object denoted by the pronoun ; as :
dsriciSij, ofric&jxorc, offriov, ijrifouj', otwvv, quicunqne, (G. ovrivogovv or
OTOVOVV, ijgTLVOSOVV, D. tpTlVlOVV OT OTIpOVV, &C.) OTTOaOQSl), OTTOaOQOVV,
iaosStjiroTt, quantuscunque.
c. The enclitic irsp is affixed to all relatives in order to render the
relative reference to the demonstrative still more emphatic, and thus
properly denotes, just which ; as : oftrtp, ijmp, oirtp (G. oiirtp, &c.) ;
oooQirip ; oiOGirtp (G. 8<roir7rp, oiowep, &e.) ; oQnrep, '69tvirfp.
d. The inseparable demonstrative e (l) is attached to demonstrative
and a few other adverbs, always with a stronger demonstrative force. It
always has the acute accent, absorbs the short vowel immediately pre
ceding, and shortens long vowels and diphthongs :
N. ovroai(l), this (hicce, celui-ci), avrrji, rori(I).
G. TOVToii(i), Tavrt]m(l), D. Tovrtpi(i), Tavryi(l), PL owroIZ(I), airaXiQ),
Tavri(l) ; d&(i),
ro^t(i), fr. ode ; oiirw(W(i), fr. ovtmq.

CHAP. VI.
ON THE NUMERALS.
65.

Nature and Classification of the Numerals.

The numerals express the relation of number and quantity.


According to their signification they are divided into the fol
lowing classes :
a. Cardinals, which answer the question : " how many ?" The first four
of these, and then the round numbers from 200 (ctaKoaun) to 10,000
(/oi'pioi), with their compounds, have the inflexion of adjectives; all the
others are indeclinable. The thousands are formed by the adverbial
numerals ; as : rpicx'^'01! 3000.
b. Ordinals, which answer the question : " of what rank or place (in a
series)?" These are all declined like adjectives of three terminations,
ending in ot, n, ov, and og, a, ov (only Sevrepog, a, ov).
c. Multiplicatives, which answer the question : " how many fold f "

ON THE NUMERALS.

64

[chap, vt

These are all compounds of 7r\oV, and adjectives of three terminations :


ooj, ij, ov; as: SnrXovc, two-fold. See the declension of these, 29.
The numeral adverbs in ukiq answer the question : " how many times f "
d. Proportionals, which answer the question : " how many times more f "
They are compounds with the three-fold termination, ir\do-w(a), id, iov ;
as : StirXdawc, double.
e. Substantive-numerals, which express the abstract idea of the number ;
as ; n ivdt, dSot, duality.

66.

Numeral Signs.

1. The numeral signs are the 24 letters of tne Greek alphabet, among
which are inserted three ancient letters ; viz. after e, the Bav or digamma
F, or 2rl as the sign for 6 ; the Ko'ir7ra 5, as the sign for 90 ; and
the Xainn ^i, as the sign for 900.
2. The first eight letters, a to 0, with the Bav, denote units ; the fol
lowing eight, i to it, with the Koirira, the tens ; and the last eight : p to ,
with the 2a/i7ri, the hundreds.
3. Up to 999 the letters, used as numeral signs, are distinguished by a
short stroke above them, and, if two or more stand together in that
capacity, only the last has this stroke. With 1000 the alphabet begins
again, but the letters are distinguished by a short stroke below them ;
thus : a = 1, a = 1000, i = 10, jl = 10,000, fif/pp = 5742, ,<mA?' = 1836,
p = 100, ,p = 100,000.

67.

1
2
S
4
5
6
7

a
&
y.
h"
t
r
K

A Survey of the Cardinals and Ordinals.


Cardinals.
tie, /", iV, one.
vo, two.
rptic, rpia, three.
TiTTapee, , or reaaap.
KlVTl.
U.
inra.

Ordinals.
irpHros, ij, ov, primus, a, urn.
Sivrtpot, a, ov, secundus, a, um.
TpiroQ, ij, ov, tertius, a, um.
rkrapTOQ, ij, ov.
7rf/x7rroff, ij, ov.
iktos, ij, ov.
f/3SoflO, ij, ov.

CARDINALS AND ORDINALS.

67.]
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
IS
16
17
18
19
2Q
21
30
40
60
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
0,000

n
ff
I
id

{
a
t!
v
it
*>
ft
tt
*>
5
p'
<f
/

A
fi
!t
?

OKTli).
Ivvka.
SUa.
'ivdexa.
dudeica.
TpiQKaittKa
TtTTaptQKaitiiKa, or Tiaa.
izivrtxaiStKa.
iKKaiitKa.
iirTaicaiStKa.
,
oKTOiKaiSiKa.
ivvtaKaidexa.
ef/co<ri(v).
ukooiv tie, ilia, lv.
TpiaKOVTa(a).
TtrrapaKovra, OT Ttaa.
jrevrificovra.
tt>j'icovra.
tfiSoutjicovra.
oyio^KOVTa.
IvtvtjicovTa.
Uarov.
SiaKoiriot, at, a.
TptaKoawt, at, a.
TiTpaxiawi, at, a.
wevraKoawi, at, a.
ilaKoawi, at, a.
iiTTaKoaioi, at, a.
oKTaKoamt, at, a.
iwaxoatot, at, a.
XtXtoi, at, a.
8ixi\wi, at, a.
rpicx^tol> <">
rtrpaKitx^'O'j ah "

,* ifaKisxiXioi, at, a.
A tirraKisx^101! <"i <*
n OKTaKlSX^01) aut
,9 ivvaKisxti-i-oi, at, a.
f uvptot, at, a.
V

65

iydooQ, IJ, ov.


ivvaroc, q, ov.
S'tKaTOQ, ij, ov.
ivSUarog, tj, ov.
SwdiKaroQ, ij, ov.
rptiKaiSUaTOC, if, ov.
TtTTapaKaiitKaTOQ, ij, ov.
ictVTiicaic"iKaTOt, >;, ov.
tKicaiMicaTOC, V> ovinTOKCuSiKaTOC, 17, ov.
iKTOtKaiSeKaroc, t), ov.
ivvtaKaidiKaroe, i), ov.
ti'eoffro'c, tj, ov.
ihcoarog, tj, ov, irpSiTog, l), ov,
TpiCLKOaTOQ, IJ, OV.
TtTTapOKOOTOQ, I}', OV.
ntVTtlKOOTOQ, tj, OV.
tl)KOOTo'f, 1), OV.
f/36V>/ilJICOOTO, tj, ov.
bySotiKoarot, if, ov.
cvevijcooroc, ov.
iKaToaros, tj, ov.
SiaKoaioards, tj> vTpiaKoaiooTog, tj, ov.
rtrpaicofftoerrof, tj, oV.
TtVTaKOOWOTOS, tj, ov.
tSaMHTiooTo'c;, ij, ov.
eVraieoffiooTo'c, tj, ov.
iKTOKomooToe, tj, ov.
ivvaKootoaTOQ, tj, ov.
XiXiooro'c, tj, ov.
JiexiXioirro'c, tj, ov.
TplQX<^wo"roSl V>
rtrpawcxtXioffro'g, tj, ov.
irtvraBtex'Xioo-To's, i), ov.
cfaicxiXlo0'''o'f, i), o'v.
iirraiciex'XtoCTro'f, >), o'v.
OKraKiex'Xujoro'E, i/, o'v.
evvaiciex'XiooTo'f, ij, cv.
pupcooro'f, tj, ov.

ON THE NUftEBALS.

66

[chap. VI.

20,000 jc Sigpvptoi, ai, a.


Stgpvpioarog, tf, ov.
100,000 fi SeKaKigpvpioi, at, a.
SiKaKigpvpioaro'g, jj, ov.
Remark. In compound numbers the smaller, with cat, usually precedes
the larger number, and frequently the larger, without Kai, precedes ; as :
25 irivri Kai eucoiTi(v), or tlicom irtvre.
345 irivTi Kai rtrrapaKovTa Kai TptaxoauH, or rp. r. ir.
This is the case with ordinals also ; as : Kkp.irrog Kai tUoarog, or ukoutoq
TrkflTTTOC,

68.
els
ivo'g
ivi
eva
rpeig
TplGlV
Tpwi(v)
rpetf

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.

Declension of the First Four Numerals.


fita
(udg
Uif
piav

ev
iv&g
ivi
tv
neut. Tpia

neut. Tpia

Silo and Svai.


Svotv, (Att. also) Sveiv.
SvoTv, (more rarely) Svai(v).
Svo.
rirrapig or rivaaptg
TSTT&piJiV.
rkTTapm(y)
Ttrrapag

neut. a.

neut. -a.

Remark 1. In the same manner as tig, are declined ovSiig and ut/Seig,
no one ; which have the following anomalous accentuation :
oiiSdg, oiiSefita, ovSkv ; G. ovStvog, oi/Seuidg ; D, ovSevi, ovStpig, &c. ;
but in the plural oiStvig (jitjdtvtg), tvurv, -4m, tvag.
Remark 2. Avo is often used for all cases as indeclinable. The nu
meral ap<po>, both, has olv (apupolv) in the genitive and dative ; like Silo ;
the accusative is like the nominative. "Ap<ptn is also sometimes used as
indeclinable, like Svo.

69.
1
2
3
4

7ra, once.
Sig, twice.
rpig, thrice.
TtrpaKig.

Numeral Adverbs.
5
6
7
8

TrevraKig.
ktaKig.
tTrrcLKig.
iKTO-Kig

KINDS OF VERBS.

70.]
9
10
11
12
13
14
IS
16
17
18
19
30
SO

ivvcaKig, Iwaxtg.
SiKaKig.
ivdtKUKlQ.
SwStKaKig.
rpigKaidiKaKig.
TCTTapcgKaiSfKaKig, or Tiaaap.
irtVTEKaiStKCtKtC.
iKtatSttduut.
lirTaKaiStKaKig.
OKTUKOlSeKaKig.
ivviaKa.i8tKa.Kit.
HKoaaKig.
TfUXKOVTaKie.

40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
1000
2000
10,000
20,000

67
TtTTapaKOVTaKlQ.
TTlVTqKOVTaKig.
e^rjKovrdKig.
i(icofiriKovTixi{.
iySoqKovrdKig.
ivivtiKOvrixig.
fKaTovrdKig.
diaKotrtdKig,
TpiaKoaidxig.
SigX&idxig.
/lvpidxtg.
Sigfivpidxig.

CHAP. VII.
ON THE VERB. NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS.
70.

Kinds of Verbs according to their Signification.

The verb is the expression of an idea of activity. Verbs


are divided, according to their signification, into the following
classes :
a) Transitive verbs, which express an action so directed
to an object that this object appears as suffering or acted upon
(in the accusative), as: to strike (somebody); b) Passive
verbs, which express an action so received by one object from
another, that the former appears as suffering or acted upon, as :
TOTTo/jai vtto twos, I receive a blow from some one, I am struck
by some one; c) Intransitive verbs, which express an action
neither directed towards another nor received from without,
but limited to the object itself from which it proceeds, as :
to bloom; d) Reflective verbs, which express an action pro
ceeding from an object and returning to it again, as : rtnrre(T0ai, to strike one's self, KOfil^saOai, sibi parar'e.
F 2

68

ON THE VERB.

71.

[chap. Vlt.

Kinds of Verbs according to their Form.

The Greek language has three distinct forms for these


various kinds of signification, viz.
a) The active form, to denote the transitive, often the in
transitive also ; as : iyeipa as, I wake thee, dakXca, I bloom.
b) The middle form, to denote the reflective and intransitive ;
as : fiovXevofiai, I counsel myself, or I deliberate.
c) The passive form, to denote the passive (also the intran
sitive and reflective) ; as : oi iroXe/uoi sSid^drjaav xnrb tq>v
'EXXjjvwv, the enemies were pursued by tlie Greeks.

72.

Tenses of the Verb.

1. The
I. 1)
2)
II. 3)
4)
5)
III. 6)
7)

Greek language has the following tenses :


The present, fiovksvoo, I advise,
The perfect, ftsfiovKsv/ca, I have advised ;
The imperfect, eftovXsvov, I advised,
The pluperfect, s/3s/3ovXsvksiv, I had advised,
The aorist, s/3ov\svaa, I advised (quite indefinite) ;
The future, fiovXsvaw, I shall advise,
The future perfect (only in the middle form),
/3e/3ou\vo-o/u.<h, / shall have advised myself, or i"
shall have been advised.
2. All the tenses are divided into :
a. Principal tenses : the present, perfect, and future ;
b. Historical tenses : the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist.
Remark. The Greek language has two forms for the perfect and plu
perfect of the active, the simple future of the passive, and the aorist of all
three voices, which are distinguished as first and second tenses. Only a
few verbs, however, have both forms together; most verbs have the
above-mentioned tenses either in one or the other of these forms ; pure
verbs have only the first tenses.

75.]

NUMBERS AND PERSONS OF VERBS.


73.

69

Moods of the Verb.

The Greek language has the following moods :


I. The indicative, to denote a phenomenon or actual fact ;
as : the rose blooms, the rose was blooming when Icame into the
garden.
II. The subjunctive or conjunctive, to denote a supposition
or mere conception of the mind. The subjunctive of the his
torical tenses is called, in Greek grammar, the optative.
Remark. We shall see, in the syntax, how the aorist has both forms of
the subjunctive, and the future can have an optative.
III. The imperative, to denote the immediate expression
of our will; as: ftovXeve, advise.

74.

On the JParticipials. Infinitive and Participle.

Besides the moods, the verb has two forms which are called
participials, because, in one point of view, they partake of the
nature of the verb, and, in another, of that of the substantive
and adjective, viz.
a. The infinitive, which is the substantive-participial ; as :
iOiXeo fiovKeveiv, I wish to advise, and to fiiovXevuv, advising
or advice.
b. The participle, which is the adjective-participial; as:
fiovKewov irals, an advising boy.
Remark. These two participials are called the infinitive verb; the
other forms of the verb are called the finite verb.

75.

Numbers and Persons of the Verb.

The personal endings of the verb show whether the subject


of the action is the speaker himself, or a person spoken to or
F 3

70

ON THE VERB.

[chap. vii.

one spoken of, and, at the same time, also denote the relation of
number : Singular, Dual, and Plural ; as : fiovXevco, I (the
speaker) advise, fiovkevets, thou (the person spoken to) advisest,
fiovXevei, he (the person spoken of) advises, fiovXeverov, ye tico
(the persons spoken to) advise, ftovXevovct, they (the persons
spoken of) advise.
Remark. In the active voice and the passive aorists there is no
separate form for the first person of the dual, but it is expressed by the
first person of the plural.

76.

Conjugation of the Verb.

There are two forms of conjugation : the one in co, accord


ing to which by far the greatest number of verbs are inflected,
as : fiovXevco, I advise ; and the other in (u, as : iott)/u, I
place.

77.

Stem, Augment, and Reduplication. Characteristic of


the Verb.

1. In every verbal form we distinguish the stem, which


contains the fundamental form of the verb ; and the syllable
of formation, by which the relations of the action, given above
( 7275.), are denoted. In most verbs in co the stem is found
by cutting off the ending of the first person ; as : fiovXev-co, I
advise.
2. The syllable of formation either comes after the stem as
an ending, and is then called the inflexional ending, as:
fiovXsv-co, f3ov\v-arco, /3ov\ev-<ro/jLai ; or goes before, and is
then called the augment or reduplication, as : e-@ov\euov, I
advised, (Se-fiovksvica, I have advised.

INFLEXIONAL ENDINGS.

71

3. The augment, which all the historical tenses (imperfect,


aorist, and pluperfect) receive, consists, in the case of verbs
whose root begins with a consonant, of an e placed before the
stem, as : e-fiovkevo-a, I advised; but, in the case of verbs
whose stem begins with a vowel, in lengthening the first
vowel, by changing a and e into rj (and in some verbs into
si), i and v into I and v, and o into as. Reduplication, which
the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect receive, consists, in
the case of verbs whose stem begins with a consonant, in the
repetition of the first consonant of the stem with e ; but, in
the case of verbs whose stem begins with a vowel, is like the
augment, as : /3e-/3ov\evica, I have advised, 'iicfoev/ca, I have
besought, fr. 'Ikstsxi-os. The more particular definition of the
augment and reduplication may be seen 85. seq.
4. The letter which stands at the end of the stem, after
cutting off to, is called the verbal characteristic or merely the
characteristic (the distinguishing letter), because according to
this, verbs in as are divided into different classes : e. g. accord
ing as the characteristic is a vowel, a mute, or a liquid, the
verbs are divided into pure, mute, and liquid verbs ; as : /3ovXsv-io, I advise, ripd-as, I honour, rpi/3-as, I rub, <f>aiv-a>, 1
show.

78.

Inflexional Endings.

In the inflexional endings there are three different ele


ments, since by them the relations of time, mood, and person
are denoted, viz. the characteristic of the tense or tensecharacteristic, the modal vowel, and the personal ending ; as :
BovKsv-a-o-fiai. They are divided into inflexional endings
of the active, middle, and passive, according to the three
voices of the verb.
f 4

72

ON THE VERB.

[chap, vil

a. -Tense- Characteristic and Ending.


1. We call that consonant the tense-characteristic, which
stands immediately after the stem of the verb, and is the cha
racteristic mark of the tense. The tense-characteristic of the
perfect I. and pluperfect I. active is , in pure verbs, as :
f3e-/3ov\sv-K-a
e-fte-ftovKev-tc-ew
that of the first future and first aorist active and middle, and
future III. is <r, as :
/3ov\ev-<r-a>
fiovkev-cr-o/Aai
k-fSovKev-a-a
i-j3ov\eii-cr-d[ir}V
that of the aorist I. passive is 0, and the future I. passive has
the ending of the first aorist passive (dri) in addition to the
tense-characteristic cr, thus, Orjcr :
E-@ovXev-6-T}v
^ov\v-9ri<T-ofiai.
Only the first tenses have a tense-characteristic.
2. The tense-characteristic, in conjunction with the termi
nation following it, is called the tense-ending. Thus, e. g., in
the form ftovKevcrco the cr is the tense-characteristic of the
future, and the syllable <ra> the tense-ending. Lastly, the
stem of the verb, in conjunction with the tense-characteristic
and the augment or reduplication, is called the stem of the
tense or tense-stem. Thus, e. g., in efiov\svcr-a sjiovKsvcr is
the tense-stem of the first aorist active.

79.

b. Personal Endings and Modal Vowel.

The personal ending takes a different form according to the


different persons and numbers ; and the modal vowel, accord
ing to the different moods ; as :
1 pers. sing. Ind. pres. M. (3ov\til-o-nat.
Conj. /SovXctf-w-pat.
3 fut. /3oi>\ef-ff--rai.
Opt. /3ouXtf-<x-oi-ro.
1 plur. pres. (SovXtv-i-piOa.
Conj. f3ov\tv-ii-fie9a.
2
/3ouW--<T0.
/3owXtrf-I)-<T8f.
1 sing. aor. 1. l-^ovKiv-a-a-fitiv.
fiovXtv-o-ta-jiai.
3 l-povXtiS-u-a-ro.
Opt. j3ov\iv-(T-ai-ro.

80.]

PERSONAL ENDINGS, MODAL VOWEL.

73

Remark. In the above forms BovXev is the verbal stem, and (3ov\tv,
j3ovXeva, and ej3ou\fva are the tense-stems, viz. of the present, future, and
aorist I. middle ; the endings /uai, rat, &c, are the personal endings, and
the vowels o, u, t, , q, a, at, the modal vowels.

80.

Remarks upon the Personal Endings and Modal


Vowel.

1. The personal endings immediately follow the modal


vowel, and frequently connect themselves so closely with it
that the two do not appear as separate parts, but are com
bined into one ; as : ftovXsva-gs instead of ftovXevcr-rj-is, /3ouXev-y instead of fSovXev-s-ai.
2. The difference between the principal and historical
tenses is here important. The principal tenses, viz. the pre
sent, perfect, and future, form the second and third persons of
the dual with the same ending, ov, as : fiovXev-e-rov ftovXev-etov, /3ov\ev-e-crdov /3ov\ev--a0ov; but the historical tenses
form the second person with the ending ov, and and the third
with the ending rp>, as : gfiovXev-e-rov ifiovXev-e'-TTjv, eftovXeve-crdov kfiovKev-i-crd'qv.
3. Again, the principal tenses form the third person plural
active with the ending ct(v) (arising from vti, vat), and in the
middle with the ending war, the historical, in the active with
the ending v, and in the middle with the ending vro ; as :
(3ov\ev-o-v <rt fiovXev-o v<ri(y)
e-fiovXev-o-v
(SovXev-o-v rat
e-ftovXsv-o-vt o.
4. Lastly, the principal tenses have the endings fiai, crai, rat,
in the singular middle ; the historical, /jlvv, o~o, to; as :
/3ovXev-o-/Aai
i^ovXev-6-firjv
fiovXsv-e-cr ai fiovXev-y
i/3ovXev-s-a o = gfiovXev-ov
^ovXsv-e-rat
ifiovXsv-e-T o.

74

ON THE VEKB.

[chap. vn.

5. The personal endings of the conjunctive correspond to


those of the principal tenses of the indicative, and those of the
optative, to those of the historical tenses of the indicative; as:
Conj. [iovklVTl-TOV.
2 and 3 du. Ind. Pr. povXtrft-rov.
jiov\eiSti-a9ov.
fiovXvdt-oQov.
fiovXetSui-oifv').
3 pi. /3ouXcifou-<7i(j').
(3ov\eiSu)-VTai.
f}ov\eilo-v rai.
j3ovX(vm-/i a i.
1 sing. j8ou\eifo-/tai.
/3ovXtil-y.
2 fiovXtil-y.
jSotAttfij-rcu.
3 /3o\ttft-rai.
2 and 3 dual Im. ifSovXeile-rov, i-rt\v. Opt. fiovXllioi-TOV, 04-TljV.
ifiovXtvt-atiov, i-aOrfv. fiovXeilot-oQoVjoi-oQriv.
/3ov\tifot- v.
3 pi. IBovXivo-v.
fiovXeiloi-VTO.
IfiovXilio-VTO.
(3ovktvoi-n T) V.
1 sing. IjiovXtvi-ptiv.
2 tflovXeiSt-tro, IpovXtil-ov. (iovXtiloi-ao, /3ovXeiloi-o.
/3ouWoi-ro.
3 i/3ovXtilt-ro.
Remark. Upon the v IptXicvoTucdv see 7. a.
The modal vowel of the conjunctive of the principal tenses
is distinguished from that of the indicative, merely by being
lengthened, viz. o into eo, s and a into r), and st into y ; as :
Ind. fiovXsv-o-fiev
Conj. ^ov~Kev-as-fjbsv
Ind. /3ov\ev-e-(rde
Conj. fiov\v-t)-o-0e.
7. The modal vowel of the optative is i in conjunction
with the preceding modal vowel of the first person singular
indicative (the pluperfect forms an exception, since the opta
tive of this tense takes the modal vowel of the present), thus :
1 sing. Ind. imperf. act. o Opt. ot
i[iovXtv-o-v
f3ovXtv-ot-pi.
1 plur. aor. I. a
at IfiovXevo-a-fiev PovXtvo-at-pcv.

81.

Conjugation of the regular Verb in m exhibited in the


pure Verb ( 77, 4.) fiovkevw, I advise.

Prefatory Remarks. Since pure verbs do not form the second tenses
($ 72. Rem.), these will be supplied from two mute verbs and a liquid

CONJUGATION.

75

(Vpi/3-u), I rub, Xfijr-w. stem Ain, I leave, and faiv-m, stem *AN, I show)
in order to make up a complete conjugation.
In learning the table of conjugation, the following should be ob
served :
1) The English meaning is not annexed to the Greek form, because of
the variety of signification attaching to some of the moods and tenses.
2) The Greek forms may, at the very commencement, be always
divided into their elements, viz. : a) personal ending, b) modal vowel,
c) tense-characteristic, d) tense-stem, e) verbal stem, f) augment or
reduplication.
3) The endings expressed in characters standing far apart from each
other, may serve to render learners observant of the difference between
the historical tenses of the indicative and optative, and the principal
tenses.
4) The forms which are alike, as well as those which differ only in
accentuation, are distinguished by an asterisk (*). The learner should
seek out for these, and compare them together; as: /3ov\ej!ao) 1 sing.
Ind. fut. act., or 1 sing. Sub. aor. I. act.; fioilkevoai 2 sing. Imper.
aor. I. mid., fiovXnSaai 3 sing. Opt. aor. I. act., fiovXtvam Inf. aor. I. act.
5) With the form, the accentuation should likewise be learnt, which is
treated of 84. For beginners, this general rule will suffice : the accent,
in the verb, goes as far bach from the end, as the nature of the last syllable
allows. Those forms whose accentuation deviates from this general rule
are distinguished by a cross (f) annexed.
6) When the following paradigm has been thoroughly learnt in this
way, the learner should analyse the verbal forms occurring in sentences
of Greek, into their elements (personal ending, modal vowel, See.), thus :
/3<wXeif<no is, 1) of the first person, 2) singular, 3) Indicative, 4) future,
5) active, 6) from the verb (3ov\eiS<o, I advise ; and then, so translate the
verbal forms found in sentences of English, into Greek, that he may give
the elements of which the Greek form must be composed, separately, in
the following order : 1) The root of the verb, 2) augment or redu
plication, 3) tense-characteristic, 4) tense-stem, 5) modal vowel, 6)
tense-stem with modal vowel, 7) personal ending, 8) tense-stem
with modal vowel and personal ending: e. g. how will the form,
" he counselled himself (once)" be expressed in Greek as an aorist,
from the present: f}ov\tiS-w, I advise? Stem of the verb: fovXiv-,
augm. i, hence : i-fiovXiv ; tense-characteristic of aor. I. mid. a ; hence
tense-stem: l-ftovXtva-, modal vowel of the Ind. aor. I. mid. a, hence :
i-povXtv-a-a ; personal ending of the third person of an historical tense of
the middle voice to, hence : 1-fiovkuS-o-a-To.

76

ON THE VERB.

[chap. vu.

Paradigm of the Verb in <o.


Numb.
Pers.

Tenses.
S.
Present.
D.
Tease-stem :
P.
S.
iMFEBrECT.
D.
Tense-stem :
l-povktv
P.
S.
Perfect.
D.
Tense-stem :
fii-j3ov-\sv-K-

P.
S.

Pluperfect.
D.
Tense-stem :
P.

1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
3
1
2
3

Perfect II.
Pluperfect II.
S.
Aorist L
Tense-stem :
i-(}ov\iv-a-

1
2
3
D. 2
3
P. 1
2
3

Aorist LI. :
-X(7TFuture :
1) The inflexion of the
and participles.

Indicative.
(SouXfti-w * I advise
fiovXev-erov
jiovKiii-iTov
(ioiikEv-ontv
f3ov\&V-tT$
/3ouXtv-oufft(v)
l-(3oi>\ev-ov *
i-/3ov\tv-te
t-/3oiXu-f(v)
l-/3ov\tv-erov
t-(3ov\tv-tTTiv
t-fiov\iv-oiiiv
t-fiovXtV-lTl
i-fiovXtv-o v *
/3e-/3ouXw- K-a
/3-|3ouXtu-)c-ae
f}e-j3ov\lV-K-f(v)
/3-|3ouXU-K-aT-01'
fit-(iov\iv-K-a.Tov
fit-fiovXtv-K-ajitv
jSe-jSouXeu-K-arf
/3-/3ouXti-K-aiTl(l')
-/3e-/3ouXl)-K-tV
-/?-/3oi/XU-IC-l;
l-j3t-fSov\ii-K-u
l-fit-jiovXtV-K-UTOV
l-fit-fiovXev-ic-t ITTJV
l-(3t-j3ov\tv-K-ufuv
i-pl-fiovXlV-K-UTl
i-jit-(iov\tv-K-iaav
7r-0j)v-a 1)
i-Kt-qiiv-tiv 2)
t-j3ov\(v-a-a
i-fiovkiv-a-ae
i-f}ov\iv-(T-i(y)
l-f}ov\tv-a-aTov
i-/3ov\(v-a-aTt]v
s-f3ov\v-(T-afiev
i-[3ov\tv-<T-aTe
-/3ovXcu-ff-av
t-XlTT-OV -Xi7r-fc, &c. like the
imperf.
f3ov\tv-a-u> * like the
present
perf. II. is like that of

ACTIVE.
MoodsConjunctive of prin. tenses.
(3ov\tv-u *
j3ov\iv-ye
fiov\tv-y *
(iovXtV'tJTOV
fiovXev-qTov
(iovXiv-uififv
fiovXtV-TJT
j3ouXfli'-W(Tl(v)

(3t-f3ovXlV-K-U>
(}t-(}ov\tv-K-vg, &c, like the
present ; usually, how
ever, expressed by a peri
phrasis with the parti
ciple and tlvm, as :
/3f/3owXfUKii)f w, ye, &c.

Xl-tpijV-tD
(3ov\ev-<T-w *
(Sov\ii>-o-xis, &c, like the
present

Xr-W,&c., like the present


wanting
the perf. I. in all the moods

81.]

CONJUGATION.

77

ACTIVE.
Paradigm of the Verb in a>.
Paeticipials.
Moods.
Inpinit. Pahticiple.
Opt., i. e.conjunc.ofhist. tea.
Impebativb.
fovXev-eiv fiovXfv-itiV
fiovXev-ovtra
flovXev-c
(3ov\fv-ov "\
f3ovXev-iTu>
Gen. ovtos
($OvXtV-TOV
/3ovX(V-lTO)V
(SovXtv-tre
jiovXtv-eTuiaav, usually -OVTI0V
ftovKtv-oifii
(3ov\tv-oig
(SovXev-oi
(3ovXev -otrov
ftovXtV-OlTTI V
PovXiv-oi/uv
fiovXev-oiTt
fiovXtv-oiev
fii-fiovXiv-K-i, &c., like /3t-/3ouXuthe present ; only a K-'tvai^
pe-{3ov\ev-Kfew perfects, how
vta "f*
ever, with a present
fit-j3ov\ev-Ksignification form an
OQ-f
Imperative
Gen. k-otoq
K-VIO.Q
f3e-j3ovX(v-K-oiixi
/3t-/3ouXeu-:-ote, &C. like
the imperf. ; usually,
however, expressed by
a periphrasis with the
participle and clvcu,a.s :
jSt-jSoi/Xtv-K-iic iirtv
Tn-frjv-oi/u
(3ovXiv-(T-ai[ii
j3ovXev-a-ai or nag
PovXiv-a-ai * f or fu(y)
fiovXtv-o-aiTov
{iovXtv-a-a'iT i\v
PovXiv-o-aifiiv
fiovXtv-o-atTi
fiov\tv~<T-aiv or siav
Xt7r-oi/ii, &c, like the
imperf.

(3oiXev-(T-ov
fiovXiv-a-aria
fiovXtv-o-aTov
(5ovXtv-o-aTm>

ire-Qri-vkj>at"f*
fiovXev'ff- (3ov\tv-<j-a
fiovXtv-a-acra
*t
fiovXev-a-av'f

fiovXtv-ff-are
/3ouXtu-cr-arwtTav, usual y trdvrtav
Xnr-uiv, ovaajov
Xiir-t, &c. like the
G. 6vTogt ovtrijQ
present

fiovXtv-a-uiV,
fiovXev-ir-oifii, like the
wanting
&c, like pres.
imperf.
2) The inflexion of the pluperf. II. is like that of the pluperf. I. in all
the optative and Indicative.

Paradigm of the Verb in w.


Tenses.

1
Ph
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
0
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1

Indicative.
fiavXev-o
fi a i
S.
/3ovXev-ri *
fiovXtv-e t a i
Present.
^OvXiV-OfliBoV
D.
(iovXtv-taQov
Tense-stem :
fiovXtv-k tr9ov
fiovXtvj3ovXtv-6n(9a
P.
f}ovKiv-t(r9t
flovXti-ovrai
i-j3ovXiv-6fitiv
S.
i-(3ovXeu-ov
t-fiovXtv-tro
Imperfect.
e-fiovXev-ofitOov
D.
i-j3ovXd-ea9ov
Tense-stem :
e-fiovXtv-i <r9t)V
i-j3ovXtvi-jiovXtv-ojiiBa
P.
i-fiovXtv-taQt
t-fiovXev-ov to
fie-fSoiXtv-nai
S.
fit-fiovXsv-fj a i
[it-fiovXtv-Tat
Perfect.
(3i-{3ovXtv-fit9ov
D.
jit-fiovXtv-<j9ov
Tense-stem :
fii-fiovXtv-a 9 ov
Pt-fiovXtvfit-fiovXtv-piQa
P.
jit-fiovXtv-(i9t
pt-fiovXtv-vrai
i-j5t-(iovXev-fit]V
S.
t-j3e-ISovXtv-uo
t-fit-fSovXlV-TO
Pmperfect. D.
l-(i(-j3ovXiv-fit9ov
i-jii-jioiXtv-a9ov
Tense-stem :
i-^-j3ovX(ii-iy9riv
i-l3(-jSov\tvk-(3e~j3ovXv-fJLe9a
P.
s-fi-(iovXiv-<T9t
E-fit-flovXtV-VTO
t-fiov\tv-G-a \ir\v
S.
i-f3ovXV-(7'0}
l-fiovXtv-a-aTO
AoRIST I.
l-f3ovXtv-n-ajii9ov
D.
i-/3ovX(v-(T-a<T9ov
Tense-stem :
1-fSovXtv-a-aa 8 t)V
i-jiovXtval-f3ovXtv-a-ajit9a
P.
i-j}ovXtv-a-an9c
1-fiovXtv-a-a vto
i-Xiir-6nr)v, like the
S.
AORIST II.
imperf.
/SovXtv-a-o/iai, like the
S.
1
Future
pres.
fit-fiavXtv-G-nitai, like
S.
1
FutorePerfect
the pres.

MIDDLE.
Moods.
Conjcnc. of prin. ten.
fiovXiv-ui fi a i
[3ovXtv-y *
fiovXsv-i]Tai
^uvXtv-w^ii9ov
(iovXtv-i}(j9ov
fiovXev-rj tj9ov
(3ovXtv-<ofit9a
f3ovXev-r)a9f
fiovXtv-uivTai

Pe-fiovXtv-fiivot; w, jjt,". V

j3ovXsv-o--u>fiai
fiovXtv-a-y, &c., like
the pres.

Xin-uifiai, like the pres.


wanting
wanting

Paradigm of the Verb in a>.


MIDDLE.
Moods.
Pabticipials.
Opt., t. e. conj. hist. ten.
Imperative.
Infimt. Participub.
jSouXfu- ftovXev-ofitvog
fiovXev-ov
todai
fiovXev-opkvr)
{iovXtv-kaOm
PovXtv-dfitvov
fiovXtv-taQov
(3ovXtv-eo9wv *
(iovXiv-to9i
'
Pov\tvt<j9u)<rav, usual! r -ia9uv *
j3ow\eu-oi'/ijv
^ovXtv-oio
fiovXtv-oiro
/3ovXiv-ot/it9ov
(3ov\v-outQov
fiov\ev-otfj9ij v
PovXtv-oi/uda
(3ovXtv-ow9e
fiovXev-otvTo

j3e-(3ot>Xtv-ao
Pt-(3ov\tv-o8u
f}i-povXtv-o9ov
/3t-Pov\ev-o9wv *

/3e-(3ovXiv- {Si-fiovXtvfikvog "f


/3e-/3ouXtufiivr)
(3(-/3ovXivfiivov f

Pe-/}ov\iv<r9c
fit-fiavXtv-oOiooav, usuaIly -aOwv *
(3t-l3ov\tv-nsvoQ
this, tlii

111)V,

(3ovXtv-a-aifiijv
f}ov\(u-o-aio
fiovXev-a-aiTO
Pov\iv-<r-ai/ic9ov
fSovXev-o-ai<r9ov
fiovXtV-O-aiG 9 rj V
$ovXiv-a-ai\ti8a.
f3ov\v-(T-at(r9
fiovXtv-o-aivr o
\in-oi/it]v, like the imperf.
povXiv-a-oi/iriv, like the
imperf.
^t-fiov\tv-(j-oifir)v, like
the imperf.

jSowXfv-ff-ai *
/3ovXeu-<r-a(70w
PovXti-a-aaBov
j3ov\(v-<x-aa9u)v *

fiovXev-oaa9ai

jSovXtr-cr/3ovXev-<raftivt)
fiovXiv-trCfltVOV

f3ovXiv-tr-ao9t
fiovXev-a-aoBuioav, usus lly -a<?9ojv *
Xiir-ov -)-, -eo9u>, like Xiir-etrOui 'f 'lXtir-ontvog
the pres.
\-OfJieV7], -OflLVOl
wanting
PovXiv-a- povXtv-otoQat
1 ofxtvoQ, rj9 cv
f5t-(3ovXiv- ]/3f-/3oXtii-<rwanting
<T-ta9ai l niifVOQy ??, ov

80

ON THE VERB.

[chap vn.

Paradigm of the Verb in a>.


Numb.
Pers.

Tenses.
S.

1
2
3
Aoeist I.
D. 2
Tense-stem :
3
l-Pov\fv-9P. 1
2
3
S. 1
2
FUTURE I.

rpt/3-w
t-7-p//3-j;c, &c, like the rpi/3-pc, &c., like the
aor. I. pass.
aor. I. pass.
wanting
S. 1 Tpifi-q-a-ofica
2 rptfi-ri-a-Ti, &c, like the
fut. I. pass.
Verba adjectives: (3ov\ev-r6g, r\, 6v,

S.
AORIST II.
Future II.

Indicative.
i-(3ov\tv-9-t]v
e-f3ov\v-e-i)S
i-fiovXtV-9-T]
i-fiovXtv-d-yjTov
l-f3ov\ev-Q-r)Tt]v
i-fiov\ev-9-Tifiv
t-fiov\ev'9-r]T
i-j3ov\tv-9-t]crav
(5ov\tv-9ii-tj-ofiai
/3ov\tv-9r]-a-t), &c. like
the Irid. of pres. mid.

PASSIVE.
Moods.
Conj. of prm. tenses.
/3ouXcu-0-a)
[}ov\tv-9-yc
jiov\tv-9-y
(3ov\tv-9~rjrov
(iov\tv-9-qTov
(3ov\ev~9-iofiv
fiov\tV'9-i]Tt*
{3ov\zv-9-u>vi(vy
wanting

1
2

82.

Remarks upon the Table.

1. In the 1. person singular of the pluperfect active there is another


form in jj, used by the Attics, as well as that in uv ; as : l/3f/3oiAtifK!j
as well as tfifjiovkivictiv.
2. In the 2. person singular of the present and future middle or passive
there is, among the Attics, a form in n, as well as that in y, as : j3ov\til-y and
fiovXti-ti, f3ov\ii-o-y and -ti, (3tf3ov\tio-y and -i, (iov\tv9r)<j-y and -,
TpifSi]<T-y and -ti. This latter form in a is, in the three following verbs,
exclusively used, viz. :
j3oi\o/iai, I wish.
diojiai, I think.
Cnpofiat, I shall see.

/3ou\fi, thou wishest (but Conj. fiovXy).


olei, thou thinhest (but Conj. oiy).
o^t t, thou wilt see

3. The shortened form of the 3. person plural of the Imperative active


agrees with the form of the genitive plural of the participle in every tense,
except the perfect. The learner should seek out the forms.
4. The changes which the mutes, at the end of the verbal stem,
undergo by the addition of endings beginning with a and 9, have been
noticed already, 8. The other changes will be more particularly
noticed under the separate classes of mute verbs.

83.]

ATTIC FUTURE.

PASSIVE.
Piradigm of the Verb
Moods.
Opt., conj. hist, tenses.
Imperative.
(iov\iv-9-t'tr}v
fiovXtv-Q-tiqg
f3ov\Ev-6~Tjri
fiovXev-Q-etrj
f3ovXtV-9-i]Tlt>
fiov\tv-Q-tir}Tov
j3ov\tv-8-t)Tov
fiov\tv-9~iiri Ttjv
j3ov\tv-9-iuo>v
l3ov\tv-6-tii]fiev & eip.ev
fiov\iv-Q-ur]Ti & -lire
(3ov\ev-9-rtri *
l3ov\ev-9-ttiv
/3ov\tv-9-iiTojtjav
/3ouXtu-0jj-ff-oi-/i)i',&c.,
wanting
like the Opt. of the
imperf. mid.
rptft-eirjv
Tpif}-dris, &c., like the rp//3-(;0i, -r)Tti>, &c,
aor. I. pass.
like the aor. I. pass.
rpi/3-i)-ff-oi>i)v,&c, like
wanting
the fut. L pass.

81
in w.
Participials.
Infinit. Participi-e.
(3ovXtv-6- 0ov\fv-9-iii \
fiovXtv^-tiaa^
i}vai
j3ovXtv-9-iv (
Genitive :
fluvXev-9-svTog
[3ov\v-9-tloT)(;
jiovKiv-eii- liov\tv-9rj-a<ria9ai
rplji-rjvai rpifl-tis -j-, &c.i
like aor. L
Tpiiiiioio9cu

iipivoq, r), ov

and /3ow\furEOf, rid, riov.

83.

Remarks upon the Formation of the (so-called) Attic


Future.

1. If, in the future, active, and middle in <ru>, ao/iai, of a stem of two or
more syllables, a short vowel, a, J, i> goes before the a ; another form is used,
instead of the regular one, which takes a circumflex ending after the
omission of <r, viz. w, ovp.cu, and is called the Attic future ; as : iXtiu>
(usually IXaivw'), I drive, lXa-a-a>, F. Att. IXd, &e, a, u>p.tv, are, &ai(f) ;
rfiXew, Ifulfil, r*Xe-ff-w, F. Att. rtXw, tig, ti, ovfiev, tire, ovai(f) ; rtXe-ffOfiai, TiXovfiai, fT, eirai, &c. ; ko/iIZw, I carry, F. Kopiiata (t), F. Att. ko/um,
itie, teT, wvpiv, ulrt, loiiiTi(v) ; Kopiovfim, ui, itirca, ioifis9a, &C
2. This form of the future is found only in the Indicative, Infinitive, and
Participle, never in the Optative ; thus : reXJi, rtXeiv, rtXHv ; but rtXiuot/ji.
The verbs which take this form are the following : a) lXdu> (iXaivui),
1 drive, reXtu, 1fulfil, and KaXtw, I call ; b) all in tw ; c) a few verbs
in iZ,i, very generally /3i|8i, I walk; d) all verbs in drvvfit and
aiHpiiwv/it, I clothe (airipikow, afupiCi). Exceptions to this form of the
future are but. rare in the Attic dialect.

ON THE VERB.

82
84.

[chap, m

Accentuation of the Verb.

1. Fundamental Rule. The accent goes as far, from the end of the
word towards the beginning, as the nature of the last syllable allows ; as :
fiovXive, iravt, TvTrrt, fioiXtvaov, iravaov, rtyov ; but : fiovXtfaig, fiovXtvtiv.
Remark 1. The diphthong at at the end of a word is considered as
short in relation to the accent ; as : fiovXtio/iai. The Optative-ending at
forms an exception, since it is considered long ; as : fiovXtiaai 3. pers.
sing. Opt. aor. I. act.
2. The above fundamental rule prevails in composition, with the limit
ation, however, that the accent of the verb must not pass beyond that syllable
of the word prefixed, which was accented before composition; nor beyond
its place in a preexisting compound, or upon a preexisting augment ; as :
<]>zpt irpoQtptpt, Qtvyt tKiptvyt, XtTtrt airoXmrt, but : Kpocti\ov like tlxvi
vapkaxov like la%ov, tKijyov like ijyov, tiriOtg, avvixdoc (not Ttp6quxov, irdptaxov, tZnyov, tTTtOtg, ativtK$og) ; SO also : irpogrjicov, airiipyov, like i;kov, tlpyov.
Exceptions to the fundamental rule.
3. The accent rests on the last syllable in the following forms :
a) In the Infinitive aorist II. active as a circumflex, and in the mas
culine and neuter singular of the Participle of this tense as an acute :
Xnrtiv, XittiIiv, 6v, and in 2. singular Imperative aorist II. active of the
following five verbs: tint, iX8t, tvpt, Xapi, and Ui.
6) In the Imperative aorist II. middle as a circumflex ; as : Xa/3oC,
Buv (fr. n'0tj/ti.)
Remark 2. In composition, the accent, in the Imperative (not in the
Participials) of aorist II. active and middle of aE verbs, moves back, ac
cording to the fundamental rule ; as : ?/c/3aXf, ttX9t, &k(34\ov, ZkSoq,
IkBoti, airoSog, fitTtlSog (not airodoc, fiiradog, see No. 2.), fitrdSoTt, but :
tKliaXtiv, UfiaXiIiv, licXiirtlv, iKtXBuiv, &c. In verbs in /it, however, the
accent in the singular Imperative aorist II. middle moves back, only
when the verb is compounded of a dissyllabic preposition, but remains if
the verb is compounded of a monosyllabic one; though in the dual and
plural it is drawn back always ; aviiov, Kar&dov, airidov, irpodov, ivBov,
a<pov, Trp6So<r9t, tigGtadt, atptaQt, KaT&QeaQt.
c) In all Participles in g Gen. rog, and always as an acute (thus e.g.
in all Participles active of verbs in /u as well as in those of perfect I.
and II. active and aorist I. and II. passive), as : /3tj3ovXtvKiog (G. 6rog),
(luvXtvOttg (G. ivToe), iardg (G. (tyros), TiBtig (G. tvrog)^ diiSovg (G. 6vrog),
StiKvig (G. ivros).
Exception. The Participle of aorist I. active, which is always paroxytone ; as : {3ovXt6irac.

sr..]

AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION.

83

d) In the Conjunctive aorist I. and II. passive, as a circumflex ; as :


(SovXivGti.
4. The accent rests on the penultimate in the following forms :
a) In the Infinitive, perfect, middle, or passive ; aorist I. active and
aorist II. middle; further, in all Infinitives in vnt, thus in all forms of the
Infinitive active of verbs in pi, as well as in the Infinitive aorist I.
and II. passive and perfect active ; as : TtriipQai, j3tf3ovXtvaQai, TtrtfiijaBai,
TreQiXr/aBai ; 0u\aaf, fiovXivtrat, Ttfirftrat, tpiXrjvai, /utrdajcrai; XiyreaOai^
ioravat, riOkvai, 8iS6vai, itucvivat, ari/vcK, foivai, tovvai ; fiovXtvQrivai,
Tvirfjvat ; fieflovXtvickvai.
V) In all Optative forms in at (see Rem. 1.)
Remark 3. The three similarly spelt forms of Infinitive aorist I. active,
Imperative aorist I. middle, and the 3. person singular Optative aorist I.
active, are distinguished by the accentuation in the following manner,
when they consist of three or more syllables, and have the penultimate
long by*nature :
Inf. Aor. I. A. 0ovXcv<rai. Imper. A. I. M. /3oiXivaai. Opt. A. I. M. fiavXtvaai.

Troijjffai.

Troiqaai.
icoitjaai.
If the penultimate is short by nature, or long by position only, the
Infinitive aorist I. active agrees with the 3. person Optative aorist I.
active ; as : <pvXi$ai ; but, Imperative aorist I. middle <piXaai.
e) In the Participle perfect middle or passive ; as : irnrattStvftivos, /xlvij,
liivov, rtn/iij/tttvof, irf^iXij/t/voft TCTVftfiivog.

85.

More particular Definition of the Augment and


Reduplication,
Having considered the augment and reduplication generally
( 77, 3.), it is necessary to add some more particular expla
nation.
All the historical tenses, imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist,
take the augment, as we have seen, but retain it in the Indica
tive only. We distinguish two kinds of augment: the
syllabic, and the temporal.
a) Syllabic Augment.
1. The syllabic augment takes place in verbs whose stem
begins with a consonant, and consists in prefixing s to the
G 2

84

ON THE VERB.

[chap. to.

stem in the imperfect and aorist, but to the reduplication in


the pluperfect. By this means, the word is increased (augetur)
by one syllable ; as : fiovXevo), Impf. i-/3ovXevov, Aor. e-/3ovXsvaa, Plpf. e-fts-ftovkevicsiv.
2. When the stem begins with p, this letter is doubled
after the addition of the augment ( 8, 11.); as: pim-to, I
throw, Impf. sppuiTTOV, Aor. eppnfra.
Remark. The three verbs : /3o<5X<ytai, / wish, Bvvapat, I can, and piXXw,
I intend, often take 17, instead of t, as an augment in the Attic dialect ;
as: lfiovX6p.nv and i)fiovX6iinv, Aor. tfiovXtjOnv and rjfSovXiiBnv ; eSvvd/iqv
and rjSvvi/inv, Aor. ISvvtjOqv and ifivvrfinv (but always : ilvvdadnv) ;
i/ttXXov and fj/ieXXov (the aorist is very seldom ripiXXnaa.')

86.

b) Temporal Augment.

The temporal augment takes place in verbs whose stem begins


with a vowel, and consists in lengthening the first vowel of the
stem, by which means the word is increased one time (tempus)
in point of quantity ; thus :
a becomes 17, as : ayw(a)
t n t\iriu)
I 1 eKfrfi5w(r)
tl) SfitXtta
0'
V v v&piu(i)
at y alpiia
an nv aitXebi
If oIktiZu)
01

Imp. liyov
T)\Tn%ov
iKtrtvov^i)
wfliXtOV
vfipiKov(v)
yptov
nvXtov
tpKTlZoV

J*f. 5xa
Plpf. fi\uv.
ijXmica
JjXir'iKetv.
iKBTevKa(})
wptXrjKa
iiip.lXl^KUV.
vPpaca^v') vfipiKiiv(v).
yptjxa
yprjizuv.
nvXijKa
nvXrjKftv.
IpKTlKa
tpKTlKUV.

Remark. Those verbs are incapable of augment which begin with n, 7,


v, w, ov, or 1 ; as : r/rrdoitai, T am worsted, Pf. tfrrnfiai, Plpf. r/TTyfirjv ;
iV<fw(t), I press, Aor. iwiaaa(i) ; vttv6u>, I lull to sleep, Aor. Bjrvwjra ;
ixptXiia, I benefit, Impf'. ili<piX(ov ; ounfjw, / wound, Impf. ovraov; tiKio, I
give way to, Impf. ukov, Aor. il%a. eUd'(m, I conjecture, forms an excep
tion, since it is augmented, though rarely, e. g. tixaZov and yKaZ,ov, c'iKaaa
and yuaaa, itKaapai and yKaajiai. Those, also, whose stem begins with fu
generally take no augment, e. g. tvxopai, 1 pray, tvxipnv, more rarely
nvx6pivt out Pf- 'ivy/iai.

88.]

REDUPLICATION.
87.

85

Remarks.

1. Verbs beginning with a and a succeeding vowel have a instead of


ij, but those beginning with a, av, or ot, and a succeeding vowel, are quite
incapable of augment ; as : dnSiZopcu(a), Ifeel disgust, Impf. di]Si^ip.nv{a) ;
dim (a) (poet.), /perceive, Impf. aim (a) ; avaivm, I dry, Impf. avaivuv ;
ouuagu, I steer, Impf. oldaZov. But the verb oiopm, I think, takes the
augment ; as : tp6nnv.
2. A few, also, beginning with oi and a following consonant do not
receive the augment ; as : oUovpim, Iguard the house, Aor. oUoipttaa.
3. The following eleven verbs beginning with i have the augment in
the form of ti instead of n : Ida, I allow, Impf. turn, Aor. uaaa ; i9iw,
I accustom, to which ituiBa, 1 am accustomed, also belongs ; iwipriv,
Aor. (stem' EA), I erected, 1founded; eXiaam, Iwind; tXxui, 1 draw, Aor.
t'iXKuaa, (fr.'EAKYU); tiKov,Itook ('EAQ), fr. alpim; 'impai, Ifollow;
IpyaZopai, I work; ipwu), ipiriZm, I creep, Igo; cartim, I entertain ;
and ex", I have.
4. The following verbs take the syllabic instead of the temporal aug
ment :
dyvv/ii, I break, Aor. taa, &c. See the verbs in ui.
d\i(TKopai, capior, Pf. idXmica (n), captus sum, and ijXmica.
uQioi, Ipush, It&Beov, &c.
uv'iopai, I buy, Impf. imvoifinv, Aor. tmvriodpnv, Pf. U/vnpai.
5. iopriZoi, I celebrate a feast, takes the augment in the second syllable
iapraZov. This occurs in the following forms of the pluperfect :
'EIKQ, Pf. II. ioiica, I am like, I seem, Plpf. lipKuv.
tXiropat, I hope, Pf. II. ioXira, I hope, Plpf. imXirftv.
'EPM2, / do, Pf. II. topya, Plpf. iwpynv.
6. The following verbs have both the temporal and syllabic aug
ment :
opau, I see, Impf. tmpuv, Pf. impaxa, eiipa/iai.
aVoi'yw, 1 open, Impf. dvkipyov, Aor. dvitpia (Inf. dvoigai), &c.
dXtoKOftai, I am taken, Aor. id\mv(a) (Inf. 'aXUvai) and i/Xuiv.

88.

Reduplication.

1. Reduplication consists in the repetition of the first conso


nant of the stem in connexion with e. It denotes a completed
o 3

ON THE VEKB.

86

[chap. vn.

action, and hence is prefixed to the perfect, as : Xi-\u/ea, /


liave loosed, fr. \va> ; to the future III., as : Ks-Koo~p,r\o-oyLai, I
shall be adorned, fr. ko<t/j,co ; and to the pluperfect, which, as
an historical tense, takes also the augment e before the redu
plication, as: i-fte-fiovkevicew.
2. Reduplication takes place only when the stem of the verb
begins with a single consonant or with a mute and liquid. The
exceptions to this rule are, verbs beginning with p, yv, /3X
(except /3fl\afi/j,ai fr. fSkairra), I hurt ; /3e/3\ao-<fyq/jLTiKa fr.
/3\ao-<fyt}fjJa>, I slander ; ^spxAcrrqKa and ifiXxUrTrjica fr. /3\o<ndv(o, I germinate), and most of those beginning with <y\ ;
which take merely the simple augment.
\iu), 1 loose
Biu), 1 sacrifice
ijivrtiu), I plant
Xopetui, I dance
ypifm, I write
kXiVw, / bend
xpiviti, Jjudge
7rv(o, I breathe
eXow, / break in pieces
pin-Tu, I throw
yvwpifa, I make known
pXattiu), lam lazy
yXvtpw, I carve

Pf. Xt'XvKa '


Plpf. i-Xf-Xocfiv.
re-Otwa, 8, 10 0) t-Tf-BvKttV.
irt-<pvrevica, 8, 10 (3) i-ire-QvTtixttv.
Kt-xoptvKa, 8, 10 j8) t-Kt-xopt&Ktiv.
yk-ypaipa
l-yt-ypifuv.
ke-kXiku
fact-icXtcw.
Ki-Kptxa
1-Kt-Kp'lKtlV.
v'e-nvivKa
i-irt-irviiKiiv.
Ti-eXana, J 8, 10 j8) i- n-9Xixttv.
ippKpa
ijlpiftlV.
i-yvhipiKa
1-yviap'iKUv.
I'&kaKtVKCL
i-PXctKiiiceiv.
t-yXi0a
l^yXitpav.

3. Reduplication is omitted (except in the above-mentioned


cases of verbs beginning with p, yv, /3\, yX), if the stem of the
verb begins with a double consonant, or two simple conso
nants wjiich are not a mute and a liquid; as :
qXd<o, I emulate
Ztvow, I entertain as a guest
<f/aXXu, Iplay on the harp
mrefpar, I sow
kt'i^ui, 1found
Trruffffw, /fold

Pf. 1-KijXotica

Plpf. 1-ZnXixiiv.

i-if/aXica
i-OTTapKa
t-KTlKa

i-^iaXjC(iv.
t-trirapKiiv.
lmKTtKUV.

89.J

ATTIC REDUPLICATION.

87

Remark 1. The two verbs, /ji/jvijotcw (stem MNA), I remind, and


KTao/iai, I acquire, take reduplication, although they begin with two con
sonants which are not a mute and a liquid : pi-pvti/tat, ne-nTti/iai, i-pcpvtjpnv, l-Kt-KTrifltlV.
4. Five verbs beginning with a liquid do not repeat this
letter, but take ei as an augment :
Xapfidvu), I take
Pf. elXij^a
Plpf. tiXifipav.
Xayxavoi, I receive (by lot) ^i?Xa
tiXrixtiv.
Xiyw, trvXXeyta, I collect
OWiiXova
avvtiXdxfiv.
'PEQ, I say
ripi/iea
tiprinuv.
(leipofiai, I obtain a share
tipaprai (with aspir. breath.) it is
allotted.
Remark 2. AiaXiyopai, I converse, has the Pf. cuiXtypat, although the
simple Xiyu in the signification of " to say " always takes the regular
reduplication : XsXtypm, dictus sum (Pf. act; wanting).

89.

Attic Reduplication.

1. Several verbs beginning with a, s, or o, repeat the first


two letters of the stem before the temporal augment, in the
perfect and pluperfect ; this augment is called Attic redu
plication.
a) Verbs the second syllable of whose stem is short by
nature :
dpdut, I plough.
IXaw (IXavvw), I drive,
ap-tjpoxa
ap-rjpopai
IX-i/Xaxa
IX-jjXapai
ap-t)poK(tv
ap-r\popr\v.
iX-r)XciKeiv iX-qXapnv.
IXiyxw, I convict.
tX-?jXtyxa
kX-qXsypai
ZX-rjXeyxtiv IX-nXeyprjv.

ipvTTio, I dig.
6p-topvx<i
6ptupvypai
dp-u>pvxftv 6p-upvypijv.

b) Verjbs which have a vowel long by nature in the second


syllable of the stem, and shorten it after the addition of the
reduplication (except ipe&co, Iprop, ipijpeiKa, eprtpsLo-fjuii) :
G 4

88

ON THE VERB.
a\(0b>, Ianoint.
a\-ij\uj>a
a\-rj\i(ipai
dX-ijXi^tiv
dX-ijXi'iiLiiji\

[chap, til

okovw, 1 hear,
aic-ijieoa
rjKova/iai
ij K-tfKotiv qKoiiOfinv.

aytipia, I assemble.
iyiipw, 1 awaken,
dy-ijytpica
dy-rjyfppai
ty-ijytpKa
iy^ytpfiai
dy-r\yipKtiv dy-nyip/it/v.
ly-qyepKHV iy-nyepfinv.
Remark 1. The pluperfect with the Attic reduplication very rarely
takes a fresh augment ; regularly, however, in r/K-nicdtiv.
Remark 2. Two verbs form even the aorist II. active with this redupli
cation, with this distinction, however, that the vowel of the reduplication
receives the temporal augment in the Indicative only, and the vowel of
the stem remains unaltered :
ayta, Head,
Aor. II. rjy-ayov,
lof.ayayuv.
<pipu>, Tbear,
'EfK, Aor. II. fiv-eyicov,
Inf. iv-eyiceiv.

90.

Augment in Composition.

1. First Rule. Verbs compounded with prepositions take


the augment between the preposition and the verb, in conse
quence of which, prepositions ending with a vowel, except
irepi and irpo, suffer elision ( 6, 3.); irpo often blends with
the augment by means of crasis ( 6, 2.) into irpov; and kv and
aim again take their v which had been assimilated to the
following consonant, or thrown away, or altered ; as :
diro-PaXKu)
irtpi-&aWo)
7rpo-j8aXXu
irpo-P&XKto
tfi-f}a\\u>
ly-yiyvofiat
<jv-UKivaX,ui
avp-piitria
ov\-\kynt

Impf. dx-tf}aWov
irtpi-eBaWov
irpo-ifSaWov
irpovfiaWov
t lv-k$a\\ov
iv-tyiyvo/inv
ovv-tOKtbaZov
aw-'ipplTTTOV
ovvektyov

Pf. diro-ftk&XtiKa Plpf. o7r-f/3e(3X)jic!!'.


7rfpi-j3/3\i}Ka Trtpi-tfiilSKiiKtw.
irpo-f}i$\nica irpo-ifStPXtjicuv.
Trpo-fitfiKnKa
1TpOV$lffKl}KClV.
l/<-/3t/3Xr;ica
lv-ifSe$\rjictiv.
ly-ykyova
iv-iyiyovuv.
ovv-tBKtiaKa ovv-mttvaxuv.
ovv-kp'pupa
OW-tpplfUV.
avv-iiKoxa
ovv-ti\6xttv.

% 91.]

REMARKS.

89

2. Second Rule. Verbs compounded with Bvs take the


augment a) at the beginning, if the stem of the simple verb
begins with a consonant, or a vowel not capable of the tem
poral augment ; b) in the middle, if the stem of the simple
verb begins with a vowel capable of the temporal augment ;
as:
Ivc-Tvxeu, lam unfortunate
Ivg-uiirib), Iput out ofcountenance
Ivs-aptariw, lam displeased with

l-dvgrvxow, di-dvsTvxriKa, i-$t-SvTVX^khv.


l-SvQiinrovv.
ivciptoTimVf Ivs-npicrriica.

Verbs compounded with eC may follow both the above


rules in No. 2. ; they commonly, however, avoid the augment
in the first case, and sispysreo), also in the latter ; as :
ei-7tixiw, lam fortunate
ti-uxko/iai, I banquet
tv-tpyeriw, I do well to

Impf. tii-rixovv, usually tii-rixovv.


ct-wxo/itiv.
lii-npytrovv, Pf. fi-ijpytrijra,
usually, iv-tpytrovv,
ti-tpyernKa.

3. Third Rule. The remaining compound verbs take the


augment at the beginning ; as :
p.v96koyiti>, I relate
oiKodo/iiw, I build

IpvQiikoyovv ,
tftKodopovv

91.

pep:v9o\6yn'a,
yjcoW/Jijica.

Remarks.

1. Some verbs compounded with a preposition take the augment in


both places, viz. before the stem, and also before the preposition :
dlimxofiat
Impf. ij/irxofiijv, or dpntiix.
Aor. II. ftpmoxopnv.
avxo/i<M
j)vtixonnv
i)viaxop.nv.
dvopSoio
jjvwpSowv
Pf. rjvvpQaica
Aor. r/viipOmaa.
ivo^X'^t
jjvt*>x^-ovv
^vojx^rjKa
J}vwx\jj(Ta.
napmv'uo
iirttpifvfw
iriirapipvnKa
tirapyvriaa.

ON THE VERB.

90

[chap. vn.

2: Three other verbs, which are not compounded with a preposition,


but derived from other compound words, follow the analogy of those
enumerated in No. 1. :
(tairaui (fr. Siaira, life), a) Ifeed, b) / am arbitrator, Impf. ifojriav and
Styrwv, Pf. SeStrfrrjKa.
iioKoviu (fr. Siaxovog, a servant), Impf. iSinnovovv and linic6vovv, Pf.
iedinK&vnica.
d/j0iffj3i}7-cw (fr. 'AM*ISBHTH2), I strive, Impf. l)\Ltyt<!$^TOvv and i}/t$i<xfit/TOW.
3. Exceptions to the First Rule ( 90, 1.). Several verbs, though
compounded with a preposition, take the augment before the preposition,
having in some degree acquired the force of simple verbs.
dp<piyvoiui (yoioi), lam uncertain Impf. rni<jiiyv6tov.
dft^tewvfii, 1 clothe
Aor. ?)/i$Uffa.
Imaraiuu, I understand
Impf. ijTrtffra/tijv.
KaQtZ,i*>, I set
tKaQi^ov, Pf. KtKaQiKa.
KaQtZofiau, I sit
iKa8iZ6fti]v and KaOe^iftiiv (without
augment).
Ka8r)jim, I sit
iKaO^/itiv and Ka94nt]v.
caBevho, I sleep
licdBevSov aai KaOnvSov.
4. Those verbs which are formed, not by the composition of a simple
verb with a preposition, but by derivation from a word already com
pounded, form an apparent exception to the first rule ; as :
IvavTwojicu, I am against (fr. tvavrtoe)
avnJiicsw, lam at law with (fr. dvriSiKog)
lji7rtS6u), I make firm
(fr. ifiirtSog)

92.

Impf. ?}vavno6fLHfv.
rjvTiliictov.
rjfimdoov.

Classification of Verbs in a> according to their different


Characteristic Letters, together with Remarks upon the
Formation of their Tenses.

Verbs in <o are divided into two general classes, according


to the nature of their characteristic letter.
I. Pure verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel, as : \v-a>, I
loose ; these are again divided into two classes :

93.]

TENSES OF PURE VERBS.

91

A. Uncontracted, whose characteristic is any vowel ex


cept a, e, o; as: iraiSgv-a), I educate, \v-a> ;
B. Contracted, whose characteristic is either a, s, or o ; as :
Tifid-co, I honour, c/uXe-tu, I love, purdo-w, I let outfor hire.
II. Impure verbs, whose characteristic is a consonant;
these are again divided into two classes :
A. Mute verbs, whose characteristic is one of the nine
mutes ; as : Xsitt-co, I leave, ttXJk-co, I plait, irsld-ai, I per-;
suade ;
B. Liquid verbs, whose characteristic is one of the four
liquids, X, /j,, v, p; as : wyysW-a), I announce, vi/j^co, I'divide,
(fra-lv-co, I show, <p0slp-eo, I destroy.
'Remark. According to the accentuation of the first person singular
Indicative active, all verbs are divided into : ' ,
a) Barytone verbs, whose last syllable in the first person is not accented;
as : \i-u>, ir\tic-w, &c. ;
V) Perispomena, whose last syllable in the first person is circumflexed,
thus the contract verbs ; as i ri^iw, <pt\u>, fiwQCt.

I. Pure Verbs.
93.

Formation of the Tenses of Pure Verbs.

1. In pure verbs, both barytones and perispomena, the tenseendings are regularly affixed to the unaltered verbal charac
teristic ; as : fiovXev-cra), fiefiovKev-ica. Pure verbs also form
no second tenses, but only first tenses ; the perfect with k (ko),
the future and aorist with cr (era), era). A regular change,
however, which pure verbs undergo, is the following :
2. The short characteristic vowel of the present and imper
fect, in both barytones and perispomena, is lengthened in the
remaining tenses. We will consider, first, the barytones, thus :
l into 7, as : jir\vi(i)-ti>, / am angry, ptp>i(t)-aia, l-iiqvlaa, &c. ;
v into i", as : kwXi;Q5)-w, / hinder, kuj\v(v)-ou>, Kt-K<!>\v-fica.

92

ON THE VERB.

[chap. vh.

ACTIVE.
Ind. ku\v(v)-u>, Conj. (cwXi(i)-w, Imp. ku>\v-i, Inf. r<oXt>(S)-fiv,
Part. KtaKv(Ju*)-h>v
Impf. Ind. i-KtoKv-ov, Opt. rwXu(t/)-ot^u
Perf. Ind. Kt-Ktd\v-Kat Inf. Kt-Ku\v-Ksvai, Part. -cw\u:a*f
Plpf. Ind. fc-K-icwAu(i)-cfiv
Put. Ind. Ku>\ii(v)-au), Opt. Kukv(y)-troifu, Inf. Ku>\i(y)-ouv, Part.
KU>\v(v)-fftoV

Aor. Ind. i-KiiXv-aa, Conj. ruiXu(tj)-<Tw, Opt, ii\g(v)-<RXtyU, Imp. ku>\vaov, Inf. KtSkv-ocu, Part. cuXt!(i;)-(Toe
MIDDLE.
Pres. Ind. (cwX'(i;)-o/aai, Conj. K<o\v(ii)-u>iiat, Imp. K<oXti'(ii)-oti, Inf.
ffwXt5(t))-ff0ai, Part, KwXiJ-Q/ifvof;
Impf. Ind. i-KU)\u-6firjVf Opt. K(o\v-0lfl7JV
Imperative.
Participle.
Indicative.
K-Kut\v-(rQai
S. 1 Kf-icwXv-^ai
2 Kt~KwXv-trai
Kf-jcwXv-ffo
Infinitive.
3 Kt-KlUKv-TCU
Kt-Ktakv-aQta
Perf. D. 1 K(-KI>l\v(v) -fitBov
Conjunctive.
2 Kt-Kli\v-o90V
Ke-KuiXv-a6ov
Kl-KhlXv-aBlDV
3 Ki-K&Xv-aQov
P. 1
" !?f i
Ki-K<l>\v-a9e
2 Kl-KtOkv-oQt
K-Kttikv-a9u)aav or -o9u)v
3 KE-KtI)\v-vrai
Singular.
Dual.
Plural.
Optative.
1 s-K-K<uXi(i)- l-Ke-icuKv(y)- t-Kt-Kui\v(v)- K-KwXu-/iPlpf. Ind.
jiTtv
pt9ov
Iit9a
2 l-Kt-Kw\v-BO --<COXw-(T0OV l-K(-KU)\v-<T0t
3 l-Kt-Kii\v-TO i-Kt-KtaXu-oOriv t-Kl-Kw\v-VTO
Fut. Ind. KiuXi)(v)-(To/iai, Opt. muXv-iroi/ii/v, Inf. Kia\v(y)-aia9ai, Part.
(cwXiI-ffo/xtvoc
Aor. Ind. Uicutkv-aaiiijv, Conj. icwXv(r)-ffwjurti, Opt. Ku}\v(y)~<Taifir]v
Imp. ciiXi-uat, Inf. Ka)Xi(v)-tra<T0ai, Part. rwXti-CTa/ntj'oc;.
PASSP7E.
Aor. Ind. l-Ku}\v{y)-9riv, Conj. KiuXv-fiw, Opt. <cwXi-0fi'))v, Imp
cuXv(i!)-6i}ri, Inf. icaAii-Oiji'ai, Part. lewXi-fla'c
Fut. Ind. Kot\v-6i]oo)iai, Opt. icwXii-Sijffoi'/jijv, Inf. KXii-0ij(rff0u,
Part. KioXi-8)j(70fifj'Oc;
Pres.

94.

Pure Verbs, which retain the short characteristic Vowel


hi the Formation of their Tenses, contrary to the General
Rule.

1. Several pure verbs retain the short characteristic vowel, either


throughout the whole of their tense-formation, or in some particular

95.J

TENSES OF PURE VERBS.

93

tenses. Most of these verbs take a a in the perfect middle or passive and
aorist I. passive, which is intimated, in the case of each, by the phrase
" Pass, with <r," (see 95.) thus :
xpi'w, I sting, I graze, Fut. xp'o'w(i) ; Aor. txp'va, Inf. xP'"al- Pass, with
<r. (But : xpio>, I besmear, I anoint, Fut. xp"hu(I) ; Aor.4xpl<ra, InfXpioai ; Aor. Mid. ixp'iaap.nv ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, Kixpusjxai, *XP'"
aOat ; Aor. Pass. ixP'"^1v-)
oTOu(S), Ifulfil, Fut. dvvao>(v) ; Aor. r\vv<sa. Pass, with <r.
apuw(fi), I draw liquid, Fut. apiSo-w^"1) ; Aor. fjpvaa, rjpvaeifiriv. Pass,
with a.
Iivix>(u), I close (e. g. the lips or eyes), Fut. niauQS) ; Aor. ipvoa ; Pf.
pifivica, I am shut, I am silent.
vtvui(v), I spit, Fut. 7rrii(7w(S) ; Aor. i-nrvaa ; Pass, with <r.
ifyxSw, / e<, Fut. iSpiixu(v) ; Aor. 'iSpvaa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. 'Idpvuai, Inf.
tfpS<T0ai ; Aor. Pass. lSpi9tiv(y).
2. A few dissyllables in via lengthen the short characteristic vowel in
the future and aorist, active and middle; partly, also, in the perfect
and pluperfect active ; but take the short vowel again in the perfect and
pluperfect middle or passive, and in the aorist and future passive :
tiu (S) F. Svoui (v) A. ISwa Pf. SUvxa tieSvpai A. P. UiOriv (2)
Qvu) (*5) Ovffto (v) tOvaa rkBvKa TtOv/uu eriJfliyv ()
\vb) (i)) XtJffw (y~) tXvtra XiXi/Ka XiXvfiat iXiBfjv (i)
Remark. In both contracted and uncontracted pure verbs, if the
vowel is long in the future active, and short in the perfect, middle, or
passive, the future III. again has the long vowel ; as : Xiiw, XcXvaofiai^v).

95.

Formation of the Aorist and Future -Passive, and Per


fect and Pluperfect Middle or Passive with a.

Mule. Pure verbs which retain the short characteristic vowel of the
stem in the formation of the tenses, insert a immediately before the tenseendings : Btjv, n<u, &c, in the aorist and future passive, and in the perfect and
pluperfect middle or passive (compare 94.). In addition to these verbs,
several which have a long characteristic vowel in their stem, or lengthen
the short characteristic vowel of the stem in the tense-formation, follow this
analogy; as: tixoioj, I hear, Aor. riKoi-a-6r)v, Fut. duov-a-Qriaoiiai, Perf.
riKov-a-u.at, Plpf. rixoi-a-iitiv ; Ivaim, I kindle ; KiXti , I order ; kuXiw (7), J

ON THE VERB.

94

|_CHAP. VII.

roll ; Xtiu>, 1 stone ; Ziu), I shave ; n-piw, / saw : aeiu, I shake ; xp'w> I oe~
smear ( 94.) ; ^iavui, I touch.
ACTIVE.
Perf. K(-Kc\tv-Ka
Plpf. l-Kt-KtXtV-KtlV

KtXiiu, I order.
Pres. Kf\tv-ui
Impf. 1-KsXtv-ov

Present KtXtv-ofiat
Indicative.
Ke-K\tV-<T-fAai
S.
KE-KtXev-cat
Kt-KkXev-a-Tai
KS-KtXev-a-fieBov
D.
K-KeXtV-(T-9oV
Perf.
K-KsXtV'(T'9oV

MIDDLE.
Impf. t-KtXEvo^ijjv
Imperative.
KC-Ks\EV-<TO
Ke-KtXev-aOio
Kt-KtXev-aOov
Kt-KtXtV-(j9u)V

Fut. Kt\ivat
Aor. i-KiXcv-aa

Infinitive.
K-KeXtv-(j9at
Participle.
Kt-KtXtv-a-ntvog
Conjunctive.
Kt-Kt\tV-(T-flVOg

Kt-KtXev-o-Oe
Ke-KeXtv-a9e
K-KtXtV-a-[lkvOl <7t Kf-KtXev-ffBoKrav or aOujv
S. 1 t-Kt-KtXtV-tT-finv D.l-Kl-KtXtV-tT-[ltQoV P.t-KE-KfXtU-ff-^iiGaj
i-Ke-Ke\fv-G-9ov
t'tct-Kt-KeXwadt
2 i-Kt-KsXtv-uo
Plpf.
i-K-iceXev-a-6t]V
1-KeXfv-a-fisvoi
3 i Ki-KiXtv-a-TO
Future KeXtv-aopai

Aorist l-KfXtv-a-8riv

Fut. III. Ki-tztXtv-copai

Aor. i-KtXev-ad[xiiv

PASSIVE.
Fut. KtXtv-<i'9r]aop.(u

Remark I. Some verbs fluctuate between the formation with a and the
regular formation ; e. g.
Bpaiui, I shatter, Tt9pava/iai and HOpav/tat, I9paia9nv.
icXfiui, Ishict, KtK\eifiai, Att. KBicXy/iai and icsicXfiojiai ; A. ixXuaOriv.
Kpoiu, I knock, KtKpovfiai and KiKpova/iai ; A. licpo&{r9i]v.
Remark 2. Some, contrary to the rule, do not take the it, though they
retain the short vowel. See, e.g., those given 94, 2., vu>, 9iu>, Xu.

96.

Contracted Pure Verbs.

1. Contracted pure verbs are, as we have seen 92., those


pure verbs which have for their characteristic either a, s, or o,

96.]

CONTRACTED PUKE VERBS.

95

and contract this with the following modal vowel. Contraction takes place only in the present and imperfect of the
active and middle, because only in these tenses does a vowel
follow the characteristic vowel.
2. The contractions, which take place in these tenses, are
the following :
0 + I = ov.
a + becomes <T.
t + = tt.
a.
e + 1 = 9o + <J = .
a+V
o + V = 01.
a+y
?
< + S
+ o = ov.
0 + 0 = ou.
a+o
Mb
f + ,o w.
0 + u = 0).
a + in
M.
- ?
f + a = CCa
0 + t = oi (ou in the Inf.).
a + ei
0 + 01 = 01.
e + oi = 01.
a + oi = fl.
t + ov
ov.
0 + 01) = ov.
a + ou OS W.
3. The formation of the tenses of contracted pure verbs
agrees, as we have seen 93., with that of the uncontracted ;
i. e. the short characteristic vowel is generally lengthened in
the formation of the tenses, viz. :
s into 17, as : <pi\J-o>, I love, Fut. <piX^-cra ;
o into to, as : fiio-66-o), I let for hire, Fut. fiurdoi-a-a) ;
a into 17, as : Ti/id(a)-<o, I honour, Fut. rifirfca ;
a into a, as : id(d)-o>, I allow, Fut. $d(a)-o-a>. This length
ening into a, occurs when an s, 1, or p goes before (compare
26, 1.); as:
ia(<x)-o, ia(a)-crQ) ; /ietSta(a)-a), I laugh, fisi8tA(a)-crop,ai ;
<pa>pd(d)-co, I catch, <f>copd(a)-a-a) ;
(but pfyvd(a)-co, I give as a pledge, iyyvy-aco ; f3oda>(d)i I
erg out, boo, fiorjo-ofuii, like oyBorj).
With these verbs are comprised the two following : akod-u>,
I thresh, d\od(a)-a<o ; d/cpod-ouai, I hear, aKpod(a)-o-ofiai (like
d6poa).
Remark. The verbs : XP"<"> 1 give an oracle, xpdopou, I tue, and rirpaw,
/ bore, have /, although' a p precedes ; as : xpva0flal> I shall me, rpr/aw, I
shall bore. The exceptions to the rule given in Nd. 3. will be enume
rated in 98.

96

ON THE VEKB.

[chap. vn.
Paradigms of the

ACTIVE.
|Moods
Present.
and
iParti- a jo Char.: a (I honour). Char.: t {Hove). Char. : o (/ let out
[cipials. g g
for hire).
S. 1 ri[i(d-u>)io
(pi\Q-ut)uj
2 rifi(^d-ig)^g
<pi\(e-Hs)eie
^(tr6(o-tc)oTf
3
0l\(l-[)fl
I) 1
2 TLix(a-t)a-TOV
IIndic.
fiitr9(6-t)ov'rov
3 rtfi(a-e)a-rov
0tX(t-)eT-rov
fiLaO{6~e)av-ruv
tpi\(k-o)ov-fiev
P. 1
Hi(r9(6-o)ov~fitv
2 r(/i(a-f)a-rt
(pl\(i-t)tt-TC
ftta9(6-e)ov-r
S
0lA(-Ol>)ou-(Tl()/) \iiioQ(J>-av)ov-<ji(v)
S. 1
2
3
/<70(o-7?)Ot
Con- D. 21
lit<TQ(6-rf\u>~Tov
JUNC.
3
rj-rov
fu<r9(6-ri)u>Tov
P. 1
2 Tiii(t'i-ri)a-T
8 ri[i(a-tu)tj-(Ti(v)
0tA (t-a>)w-(ri(y)
O-0(6-w)uj-fft(v)
S. 2
3 ri/i(a-f)a-rw
'iX^-f^t-TO^
Vl<jQ(6-t)OV-TOV
IImpe- D. 23 ri/x (a-i)a-ratv
^t\(-)l'-rWJ/
fXL<jQ(o-e)QV-Tto)V
1 EAT. P. 2
0tA(E-)-r
3 riju(a-f)a-rwffav or
<ptk(-e)ei-T(i)(Tav or }ii<jQ(Q-E)nv-TU)tTav or
rt/i (a-o)w-vrwv
0iX(-6)ov-vrwi> fil<j9(o-o)oV-VT(OV
IInfin.
0lX(-/)IV
jiur9(6-Etv)o
No.
Ttfi(a-ov)a-act
$ik(k-ov)ov-Ga
]uiad(6-ov)ov-aa
Part.
6-ov)ovv
Gen. Tljx(6.-o)G)-VTQQ
o-ov)ov-tji)Q
S. V\iri{x(^a-ov)tiv
2iW^(a-c)ac
3 -riu(a-f)a
). i|
IIndic.
3 ETiii(a~i)a-Tt)v
jP. 1 7(/i(d-o)w-/lV
2 rtju(a-)a-rt
3 6Tifi(a-ov)<t>v

IMPERFECT.
EtytX^t-OV^OVV
i0(X(-^)iff
0lX(-f)ft
i0tX(-f)ft-rov
0tX(f-)l'-r?/V
0tX(-o)oii-^V
E^tX(t-)a-r
j0l'X(-Ov)oVV

^io,0(o-)oi'-roi'
ffj.t<r9(o-e)ov-Trjv
ifii(r6(6-o)ov-fiv
^ia,0(o-)ou-r
/itff0(o-ov)oi;v

96.]

CONTRACTED PURE VERBS.

97

Contracted Verbs.
MIDDLE.
Present.
Char.: a.
Ttfi(d-o)(*}-fiai

Char. : .

Tifi(a-6)u>-fi,t9ov

0tX(t-u)ou-/0ov
<j>l\(-e)st-tj9oV

Tifi(a-t)d-cr6ov
Ttfi(_d-a)d(T9t
rifi(a-o)io-vrat

0tX (-t)e(-(T0
0iX(e-o)oij-vrat
^itX(fc-w)w-^iat
^tX(-r/)?J
0tX(-?j)i}-rai
n\i (a-w)w-fit9ov
0tX(-w)w-/iOov
Tifx (a-f/)a-(T#ov
tea 0iX(fi-?/)ij-(T0OV
rtfi(a- t])d-<r9ov
.5
Ttfi(a-ib)w-fit9a
S M 0iX(-w)w-^0a
0iX(6-jj)f)-cr0
Ttfi(a-to)u>-VTai
0tX -w)w-vrai
^tX(E-of)oi)
ri^i(a-)a-tT0a
0tX(-t)ti-ffOw
rt/z(a-)a-<T0ov
0tX (-)T-(T0OV
0tX(-)fI-(70WJ>
7i/i(-)a-(T0
^lX(-)ft-fT0
ri^(-;-)a-(70w(Tflv or
0iX(-E)fi-o,0wffttj> or
7i/i(a-f)-(r0wv
rt/i(a-f)a-tr0ai
Tifj.(^a-6)w-fxevog
Tlfi(a-0^tx)-fll>T)
Ttfl (a-o)w-/ivov
<pi\(t~o)ov-fxkvov
Tlfi(a-O^OJ~flkvT]Q
<j>i\(e-o)ov-[ikvr]

Tlfl(a-)d-TO
lTlfl((t-l))(i)-[lt90V
tTtfi(a-{)d-(j9ov
tTtfx(a-fyd-<r9t}v
e" rift (a-o)(!i-[j.e9a
t7(/i(a-f)a-(70
n/t(a-o)aJ-iTo

Imperfect.
fc0lX(-o)ou'-JtJJV
t(pt\Q~ov)ov
i<pi\(e-)tT-To
E<pi\{t-6)ov-f.i e9ov
E<Pl\(k-t)u-<790V
e'<f)t\(t-6)ov-fit9a
l(pik(e-t)H-(j9e
t<j)ik(i-o)oV-VTO
H

Char. : o.
t(rtf(ij-o)ov-fiai
fn<r9(6-t)ov-rat
/ii(T0(o-o)o)j-^0ov
/t((T0(d-)oU-O,0OJ'
fiia0(o-6}ov-fit9a
fita6(J)'t)ov-c9t
fii<j9(6-o)ov-vrai

fit<jO(o-U1^0J-fA(9oV
fu<r9(6-T))(o-(r9ov
fiia9(6-i])id-<rQov
fiuxQ(c-t&)u-fit9a
/it(T0(o-ij)w-(rO
fxl(j9(6-ov)ov
fii(j9{o''i)ov-(jQio
fitoQ\6-e}ov-oQov
fXia9(Q-'t)0V-G9u)V
^(f7#(o-)ot>-(T0
fii(j9{o-i)ov-i79u}<7av Or
lxi(jB(J>-i)ov-a9ai
fiur9(o-o)ov-ntvo
fiia9(o-O^OV-flBVT]
fJtfj9(o-6)oV'lXVOV
fiia9(o-o)ov-fikvov
fxia9\o-o)ov-fiivriQ

[11(t9(o-6)oV-{IT)V
ifii<j9(6-ov)ov
jUi(T0((J-f)oV-rO
h{xw9(o-o)ov~iit9ov
ifii<r9(o-t)ov-(j9ov
t{ll(j9(o-tyoV-(T9l}V
ifii<r6(o-o)ov-fit9a
lfiia9(o-e^ov-trOe
i}li<T9(6-0)0V-VT0

[chap. VII.

ON THE VERB.

98

ACTIVE.
IMoods
and
iParti- 4
Icipials.
S. 1
2
3
D. 1
|Opt.
2
3
P. 1
2
3
S. 1
2
3
[Attic D. 2
Opt.
3
P. 1
2
3
Perfect

Imperfect continued.
Char.

Tift(a-oi)$

-OtJtfl-TJV
ot)^-rjrov
-Otltp-tlfMV
TtTlfllJKCt

faeTtftTjiceiv
Plpfect.
We<pwpaKeiv(a)
Future
AORIST I.
Future III.

Char.:

Char. : o.

0piX(e-Oi)(H
0iX(6-oi)o7- rov
0iX(E-oi)ot0tX(6-oi)oi* /lev
0tX(e-oi)o7- re
0iX(t-ot)ot* EV
<j>tX(e-ortot0tX(t-ot)ot0tX(-Ol)o<pi\(e-oi)oi0iX (e-ot)ot- i//ii>
ijTe

{j.ktQ(6-ol)oi-tov
flt(T6(o-Ol)oL-Tt]V
f.u<r9(6'Oi)oT-fiev
fii<r9(6'Ot)oi'T
fjuo9{6~ot)ol-tv
fita9(o'Oi)oi-rjv
fittr$to-oi)oi-t]Q
fiMTOto-ofyot-nrov
[uv6(o-ot)oi-r]Tr}v
fi06{o-ot)oi-7]fiev
fJ.t(j9(o-Ot^Ol-1]T
Hi<j6(6-oi)oi-ev

Ttt<p'tknKa
tfUfiurOtbtcuv
0tX^ffa>

fj.La9u)<T(i)
tfit<j9(jj<ia

PASSIVE.
AoRIST I. | iri/iqdifv, i<j><tipa8t]v(a) \ lfikii9t)v \ IfiusQMiiv
Verbal adjectives : Ti/tri-Tiog, rid, t'iov
<p<npa-Ttos

97.

Remarks upon the Conjugation of Contracted Verbs.

1. Verbs in ku> with a stem of one syllable, as : irXcai, J sail, trvku, Iblow,
Biw, I run, &c, undergo only the contraction in ti (arising out of lu or it) ;
but in all the other forms remain uncontracted ; as :
Act. Pr. Ind. wXew, irXtTf, ir\t7, irXeo/icv, irXein, irXiovai (v).
Conj.- ttXew, n-Xf y g, jtXe y, irXewfiiv, nXenrc, trXtiatri (v).
Impr. 7rXei; Inf. xXilv; Part. nX'stav.

CONTRACTED PURE VERBS.

97.]

99

MIDDLE.
Imperfect continued.
Char. :
Ttfx(d*Ot)lf}-0
Tift(a-oi)y-ftt9ov
rti'(a-ot)<{>~(j9ov

Char. :
<pt\(t-ot)o7~o
<f>t\Q-ot)oi-rQ
(pi\(t-ui)ai-ne9ov

Char.: o.
fita9(o-oi}oi-ntiv
/if<x0(o-o/)o,-/i0ov
fti(rO(o-o)oi-(T97)V
fuc6(o-o<)ot-iit9a
Hi<r9(J)-oi}oi-a9t

rtfi (a-oi)(jj-(r9e
(pi\ (k-Ol)6t-VTO

Ttrtfijjuat
tTTfrpajpdfiTjv^d)
rifirjffofxai
"tu?/frojUfi

t7Tt<pl\l)fl7}V

i.fitfii(r9tofinv

(f>iki)(TOfiai
itpiXrjffajXTjv
ire<f>t\7}<JofJ,ai

iuurQiiHf&uiiv
fiff.ii(rt)iofTofi(ti

PASSIVE
Future I. | ri\xr\9i\no\nn, tptopaOjiaoficu \ tpi\r}9i}aofiaL j jjnrjQujQl)ffofxai
0tXr/-rlog, r'ta, T(ov
fiia9aj-rtoc, rta, Ttov.

Impf. Ind. tVXfov, 7r\eif, iirXti, iirXto/itv, in-Xiirf, lirXeov.


Opt. vXkoifii.
Mid. Pr. Ind. u-Xeo/xai, jrXetj, nXtirai, ir\(6fit9ov, Tr\tto9ov, &c.
lufin. ir\elo9ai; Part. n-Xtrf/ttvoc; Impf. t7r \iifir)v.
2. The verb few, J JiW, usually undergoes contraction in all forms,
especially in compounds ; as : to dovv, rov dovvrog, SiaSuvnai, KariSovv.
3. Several verbs deviate, in contraction, from the general rules,
a) at and au are contracted into n and y (instead of a and q) in S(a-w),
I live, Syj, f, yrov, yrt ; Inf. Sijv ; Impr. ?ij ; Impf. t?r,
jj, tjroj>, i/riyr,
ijre. 7rtiv(a-ia)ui, I hunger, Inf. jrtivijv, &c. (a-w)w, / thirst,
u|/yf, &C, Inf. luprjv. K)(a-w)(i, / scratch, Inf. m'jjv. <x/u(-)w, /
H 2

100

ON THE VKRB.

[chap. vn.

stroke, Inf. ofiijv. ^(d-w)w, I rub, if/ifv. xp("-0)ty""> % usei XPVi


Xpijrai, xprjaOai. So : airoxpuifiai, I have enough, diroxp^o-Oai ; aVoxpiJ
(shortened fr. diroxpy), it is sufficient, Inf. diroxpijv, Impf. dirtxpn.
Xp(a-u>)io, Jgive an oracle, xpp> XPV"b) oo and oe are contracted into u> (instead of ov), and o\i into <f (in
stead of ol), in piy(^-w)w, I congeal; Inf. piydv; Part, piywvroc and
piyuiaa ; Conj. pty(pg, p'y<f, &C. ; Impf. Ippiytav ; Opt. piyqj'ijv.
4. With regard to the use of the Attic form of the Optative, the fol
lowing is to be observed : the plural of this form is the least usual,
especially in the verbs ending in eu and 6w, but in those in dm more fre
quent ; in the singular, on the contrary, the form in 0117V is by far more
customary, in verbs in em and 6m, than the regular one, and in those in
dm almost exclusively used.
5. The verb Xoim, / wash, although properly not a contracted one,
suffers contraction in the imperfect active, and in the present and im
perfect middle, in all the forms in the ending of which there is e or o ; as :
tXov instead of tXove, tXovfitv instead of iXoio/itv, Mid. Xou/uu, Xdti, XoBrai,
&c. ; Impr. XoS ; Inf. XovoBcu ; Impf. iXoipnv, iXov, iXovro, &c, according
to a stem, AOE.
Remark. Upon the alteration and removal of the accent in contraction, see 12, 2.

98.

Contracted Verbs which retain the short Characteristic


Vowel in the Formation of their Tenses, contrary to the
Rule.

1. As in several uncontracted pure verbs, the short characteristic


vowel is retained in the tense-formation, contrary to the rule ( 94.), so
this takes place in several contracted ones also. Most of these verbs
take a in the perfect middle or passive, and in the aorist I. passive, and
the tenses derived from these two ; which is intimated in each case by
the phrase "pass, with a." They are the following :
a) dm (a).
yiXda, I laugh, P. ytXu'ffo^ai (a), Aor. iyeXdaa. Pass, with tr.
iXdm (usually iXaivm), I drive, F. fX<3 ; A. i}Xd<ra, &c.
fiXdw, 1 crush, QXdam (a), &c. Pass, with a.

98-]

CONTEACTED PUEE VEEBS.

101

cXaot, I break, ickdaio (a), &c. Pass, with a.


^aXaw, I relax, xaXaoui (a), &c. Pass, with a.
Sapdio (usually Sap,dZ,t), domo, I tame, Aor. ISdpdaa.
irepdw, I carry over, I sell, F. iripdaut (a), Aor. eirepaoa (but irepaw, Iget
over, intrans., F. wepdam (d), Aor. ivipaaa).
airdu, I draw, oiraaia (a), &c. Pass, with a.
a%aoj, I relax, I open, axdaoi (a), &c.
*
b) km.
ixiopat, I heal, dxeaopai, Jjieeadfinv ; Pf. tjttopuu.
a\ku>, Igrind, Ipound, F. dXw, Pf. M. or P. d\i]\f<tpai ( 89.).
dpicstii, I satisfy, F. dpickoa, &c. Pass, with a (also : to satisfy).
cpkto, I vomit, F. ijiiau, &c, Pf. A. i/irifitKa, Pf. M. or P. ipi}p!<?pai ( 89.).
?w, / boil (intrans.). Pass, with a. Jew, I shave. Pass, with a.
rtXiw, /finish, F. re\t5. Pass, with a. rokw, I tremble.
c) 6ul.
dpoii>, Iplough, F. dpoaio, A. f/poaa, Pf. M. or P. dprjpopai ($ 89.), Aor. P.
rjpoBriv.
Retnark. The following have the long vowel in some tenses, and the
short in others :
ttlviu, 1praise, F.alvkaiit, Aor. pvtra, Pf. pva, Aor. P. jimBiiv ; but Pf.
M. or P. jivr/pai.
rapiu), I take, Aor. P. jjpeflijv ; elsewhere i) : alprjow, ppqica, fjptipat.
yaptu, 1 marry, F. ya/tw, Aor. iytipa, Pf. ycya/jijica, Aor. P. tyapijdriv (/
u><w faira /or wife),
h'.ii), I bind, dijaui, ifinoa, {Ino&fLnv; but Sidtica, StSipm, iliBnv, F. Perf. ijffijaopm, which supplies the place of the un-Attic BiOqaofuu.
KoXtu), I call, F. kclXw, Aor. iKaXsaa, Pf. jCEfrXqjca, Pf. P. KtVXijpzt, lam
called; F. Pf. KacXfjaofuu, I shall be called, Aor. P. ekXi/Siji', F. M.
KaXofyiai, Aor. ixaKeadpriv.
wofllw, / desire, old Att. voQiaopat, lir68ioa ; elsewhere irodqotti, iV60>j<ra,
Pf. TTfiroOjjKa, Pf. M. or P. v?n69i)p.ai, Aor. P. <Vo0E<r0i)V.
novita, laboro, F. irov^ffu, &c. (Jfaooar); iroviow (I shallfeel pain) ; Pf.
jrf7roi/jjica in both significations.

H 3

102

ON THE VKEB.
99.

[chap. VII.

Paradigms.
ACTIVE.

Tenses. Char.: a (I draw). Char. : e (/finish). Char. : o (Iplough).


<77r(d-w)ui
rc\(e-w)ui
dp(6-w)<S
Present
Imperfect " tan(a-ov)u)v
lrt\(e-ov)ovv
T;p(o-oi')ow
Perfect
TtriXtKa
flpoKa
IrertXiictiv
Pluperfect
tanaKeLvfa.)
rjpoKtiv
ffjraffw(a)
rtXio
Future
apoato
qpoaa
Aorist
tairaaa
iHXtaa
PASSIVE.
qpoBriv
. IrtXk-a-Qnv
Aorist
Verbal adjectives : aira-a-r'tos, rka, rtov
Remark 1. Upon the formation ofthe perfect and aorist with a, see 95. ;
upon the omission of a in apr\pop.ai, fipoBrjv, J 94. ; and upon the Attic re
duplication in ap-ijpopai, 89, a. The further inflexion of taira-a-pai,
iaTra.-a-p.tiv, TiriXt-a-p.a.1, iriTtXt-a-pnv, is like that of KtsiXiv-a-fiai, ikikiXiv-a-p.r\v ($ 95.).
Remark 2. Upon the Attic future (jtXiaa = TeXtS, TtXtig, &c, TiXiaopai
= TtXovpcu, reXeT, &c), see 83.
Remark 3. Two contract verbs take a in the passive, though they
lengthen the characteristic vowel in the formation of the tenses, viz. :
Xooi, I heap, xtiaw, Pf. Mid. or Pass. Rixmapai, Aor. P. ix&adriv; and
xpdw, Igive an oracle, F. xpnou, Pf. Mid. or Pass, icixpna/iai, Aor. ixpijafyv.
Xpa.op.ai, I me, F. xpv<">^<"> has in the Perf. Ktypnpai, but in the Aor.
exp>ia9tiv, On the contrary, iXaia, alvim, alpiw, dew, and apow, do not take
a, although the characteristic vowel remains short in the perfect middle
or passive, and in the aorist passive. See 98.

II. Impure Verbs.


100. General Remarks. Pure and impure Stem. Theme.
1. Impure verbs, i. e. those whose characteristic is a conso
nant, undergo many changes in their stem ; partly in the course
of their tense-formation. The stem of the verb experiences :
a. Either a strengthening by a consonant, as: tvtt-t-co,
stem: TTII ; KPd-a, stem: KPAr;
b. Or a lengthening of the vowel of the stem, as : ff>evy-a,
stem : 4>Tr ;
stem : AA ; t^k-oo, stem : TAK ;

IMPTJKE VERBS.

100.]

99.

103

Paradigms.

MEODLE.
Char. : a.

taira-tr-fiai

Char. : t.
TiX(i~o)ov~fiat
trtX(i-6)ov-p7jv
TtTeXt-a-jxat
IrereXi-a-pitjv
TtXovfiat
iTeXtad/iriv

triraaofiai(a)
ktnraadfnjv
PASSIVE.
Fut. | ana-a-O i/io/ioi TtXe-a-Qrjffofiat
rAe- rr-Tfoc
ufio-Tug

Char. : o.

dp-ijpopai
dp-r)p6fir)v
dpo-aopai
VP0"d,ir,v
dpoOijnopai

c. Or a change of the vowel of the stem in the tenses,


which the Germans call umlautung, as: Kkhrr-co, i-KXd-7r-rjv(a),
ici-Kkofy-a ; as in English : steal, stole, stolen ; ring, rang, rung.
2. In verbs which thus alter the stem in their tense-form
ation we distinguish two different stems : the original, simple
one ; and the full, strengthened one ; and we call the former
the pure, the latter the impure, stem. The present and im
perfect of these verbs contain the impure ; the second tenses
(when such are formed), and especially the aorist II., the pure ;
the remaining tenses, either the pure or the impure ; as :
Pres. tvtt-t-w, I strike. Aor. II. Pas. i-rvTr(v)-r]v. F. rv^rai
(rwr-aat).
Pres. XsItt-q), 1 leave. Aor. II. Pas. s-Xlir-ov.
F. \fi'i|r(u
(XsiTr-cra).
3. For every form of the verb which could not have been
formed from that of the present, as its stem does not corre
spond to that of the existing present, we lay down another form
of the present (mostly one that is assumed merely for the
sake of the formation), and call it a theme (Oifid), which we
represent in capital letters, to distinguish it from the presentform in actual use ; thus, e. g., </>evya} is the form of the pre
sent in actual use, <J>Trfl the present-form merely assumed
for the formation of the aorist II., or the theme.
H 4

ON THE VEKB.

104
101.

[chap. VII.

Strengthening of the Stem.

1. The strengthening of the stem by consonants consists


in strengthening the simple characteristic consonant of the
stem by another consonant ; as :
tvtttco, I strike, Aor. II. P. s-rxrrr{yyt)v
Ttlcraco, I arrange,
i-rdy(a)-rjv.
2. The stem strengthened in this manner is preserved
only in the present and imperfect ; in all the other tenses,
the strengthening is lost, and the simple stem again ap
pears; as:
Pr. tvtttco, Impf. sTinrTov, Aor. II. Pas. ETVTrrjv, Fut. Tinjrco
(tvtto-co).
3. The strengthening of the stem by lengthening its vowel
consists in lengthening the short stem-vowel, which appears
in the aorist IL and, in the case of liquid verbs in the future;
thus :
a becomes >/ in mute verbs, as: (t-\a[9-ov)
a at liquid (0 a v-oj)
<paivu>.
t ei 1 (pOtp-o)
$9elpw.
i ei mute (t-Xtjr-ov)
Xet7r<D.
t
I m. audi. (i-rpc/3(i)-q>>) 7-pi'^w(Z).
v v Q-<ppvy(y)-t]v) <j>pvyu>(Jv).
V tv (t-tyvy-ov)
^fuyw.

102.

Change of the Stem-Vowel.

1. The change of the stem-vowel ( 100, 1, c.) takes place


only in the inflexion of the second tenses, with the exception
of a few forms of the perfect I.
2. Most mute, as well as liquid, verbs, with a stem of one
syllable, and s as the stem-vowel, have this vowel changed in
the aorist II. :
rpiit-w, I turn, A.II.P. t-rpdir-ov; ortXX-w, Isend, A. II. P. l-<rraX(a)-i;v;
rpeipaj, I nourish, A. II. P. i-rpa$ (a)-t)v; <j>9iip-to, I destroy, A. II. P.
6-00op(a)-!jv ; but not those whose stem consists of more than one
syllable, as: dyyeXXw, I announce, A. II. P. rjyyiXtiv.

103.]

IMPUKE VERBS.

105

Remark 1. The change of the stem-vowel is omitted in the aorist II.


of some verbs ; as the ending of the aorist passive does not admit of
an exchange with the imperfect, thus : fiXsino, I see, Impf. f-/3Xex-ov,
A. II P. i-/3\eir-nv.
3. Liquid verbs with a stem of one syllable, and s as the
stem-vowel, have it changed into a, not only in the aorist II.,
but also in the perfect I. active, perfect middle or passive, and
aorist I. passive ; as :
oreXXw, / send, F. <sti\-G>, Pf. i-arak-Ka i-oraX-fiai, A. P. l-araX-Btiv.
But not those whose stem is of more than one syllable ; as : jyyXim,
fr. dyyfXXu. Compare No. 2.
4. Mute and liquid verbs which have s in the last syllable
of the stem, and liquid verbs which have si in that syllable,
change them into o in the perfect II., while mute verbs which
have si in that syllable, change it into oi; as:
rpifio, I nourish, rirpofa
lipui, Iflay, Selopa
\tt7C(o, I leave, XtXonra
a-Ki'ipui, I sow, itnropa
5. The following change their stem-vowel into o in the
perfect I., contrary to the rule :
icXsirrw, I steal, Pf. I. kI k X o <p a ; but Pf. M. or P. KtK\ep.fiai (also KCKKannai) .
Xcyw, I collect, Pf. I. avvtiXoxa, ilctXo^a; but Pf. M. or P. avvtiXey/iat.
Ttniru), I send, Pf. I. ireirop.<pa; but Pf. M. or P. jrE7r^at.
rpsjrai, I (urn, Pf. I. rirpoipa (like the Pf. II. of Tp'opto, I nourish).
6. The following dissyllabic mute verbs with s as the stemvowel change it into a in the perfect middle or passive, like
liquid verbs of the same kind, but not in the aorist I. passive,
as is the case with the liquid verbs :
orpi(pu>. I turn, Pf. M. or P. iaTpap.p.ai, but A. I. P. itjTpt<p0t)v.
rpiTu, I turn

Tkrpap./iai
lrpt<pdrjv.
Tpi<pu>, I nourish

TsBpa/xfiai
tBpicpdr/v.

103.

Remarks upon the Formation of the second Tenses.

All second tenses are distinguished from the first tenses


partly, by being without the tense-characteristic, and hence

ON THE VERB.

106

[chap. vn.

attaching the personal endings (pv, opvqv, tjv, r/o-o/Mu, a, and


eiv) immediately on to the pure characteristic of the verb;
partly, by being formed from the pure verbal stem, as : XsLira
s-Tuir-ov, <psvya> e-cpi-y-ov ; and partly, by changing the
vowel of the verbal stem, as : crrpscpco, e-arpd<p{a)-7]v, arpatp^aofiat,; but i-crrps<p-0r]v.
Remark 1. The perfect II. does not always retain the short vowel of
the stem, but lengthens it in many verbs, viz. a into ij, and, after p or
a vowel, into a ; as :
KpaZu, I cry out
A. II. l-Kpdy-ov
P. II. Kt-rpdya
BaXKui, I bloom
Fut. OaX-H
Tt-Otjk-a
So irifpiKa, vifriva, XtXjjSo, fr. (jipiaam (<SPIK), I am rough, I shudder ;
faivm (4>AN, a), I show ; iptiyta (#TT,
1flee; X?j0w (XavQdvta, AAO, a),
I am hid.
Remark 2. -In those verbs in which the aorist II. active either would
not at all differ from the imperfect, or only in the quantity of the stemvowel, the aorist II. active is not found ; the aorist II. passive, however, is
used, because this has a different ending from the imperfect ; as :
ypdfwQi), Impf. iiypatpov, Aor. II. A. wanting, Aor. II. P. iypdtj>ijv(a).

A.

Mute Veebs.

104. Classification.
Mute verbs, like the mute letters, are divided into three
classes, according to the fundamental sound of their charac
teristic ; in each of these classes we distinguish the verbs
with a pure characteristic in the present and imperfect, and
those with an impure one ( 100, 2.).
a. Verbs whose characteristic is a P-sound (w, f}, <p pure ;
impure) ; as :
a. Pure characteristic: irifiTr-w, I send, Tplf3-co, I rub,
ypd<p-a), I write.
/3. Impure characteristic: tuttt-w, I strike (pure cha
racteristic, 7r ; pure stem TTII), fiXd-nr-ai, I injure (/3,
BAAB), piirr-ai, I throw (d>, 'PKE>>

105.].

MUTE IMPURE VERBS.

107

b. Verba whose characteristic is a K-sound (k, 7, ^ pure ;


aa or Att. tt impure) ; as :
a. Pure characteristic: ir\stc-a>, Iplait, ary-w, I lead,
tsvx-o), Iform.
yS. Impure characteristic : <ppura-a>, Att. (ppl-Tr-m, 1
shudder (pure characteristic, k ; pure stem, <I>PIK), Tcurcra>, Att. TaTT-ca, I arrange (7,TAr), ftrjcrcr-cQ, Att. /Sjjtt-w,
I cough
BHX).
c. Verbs whose characteristic is a T-sound (t, B, 0 pure ;
impure) ; as :
a. Pure characteristic : avvr-a, I complete, aS-a, I
sing, velB-m, I persuade.
jS. Impure characteristic: <ppd%-co, I sag (pure cha
racteristic, 8 ; pure stem, <E>PAA).

105. Observations.
1. Some in aaia, rrw, have, not a K-sound but, a T-sound for their pure
characteristic ; as : apfiorro), Ijoin together, F. -6ao> ; iptaam, rria, I row ;
iraooia, I sprinkle ; TtXaoata, Iform ; irriaaw, Ipound.
The verb vaaam, I cram, Ipress together, fluctuates between both
formations: F. vatia, &c, Pf. Mid. or Pass, vkvaopai, verb. adj. vaarog.
2. The following verbs in w, which for the most part express a cry or
sound, have, not a T-sound but, a K-sound (usually y) for their pure
characteristic : <ua?w, Igroan, F. alalia ; riXaXdw, / shout ; koi?w, Isqueak,
Igrunt (as a pig), F. Koi^u ; tpaZu, I cry out ; npii^ia, I croak ; paariZu), I
whip ; 6SaZu>, I bite ; ol/iwZw, I lament (F. a and o/j<u) ; oXoXi!?a>, I howl;
pvardZu), I tug ; aratia and araXalui, I drop ; arivaZo), Igroan ; oTnptSu, 1
make firm ; ariZ,io, Iprick ; avpifa, Ipipe, I whistle ; oQaZto (Att. a^anu),
I slaughter; a<j>v(,<a, I bubble ; rpi'iu, I chirp ; (pXvloi, I bubble up.
3. The following in ?w fluctuate between both formations : fiaaTalw, I
carry, F. aoio, &c, Aor. P. tftaoTaxOriv. vvaralto, 1 wink, I sleep, F. aaia
and aw. waifa, J play, F. 7raioii/iru (} 116, 3.) and iraiXopai, Aor.
iiraiaa, Pf. Mid. or Pass. mTraurfiai.
4. The following in ?w have yy for their pure characteristic : icXafw, /
cry out, Pf. II. d-KXayy-a, F. nXayiw, Aor. inXayga. irXdw, / wander,
F. nXay%u>, &c, Aor. P. lirXdyxQiv. aaXirlW, I trumpet, F. oaXiriyZ.(o,
&c

108

ON THE VEKB.

106.

[chap. vn.

Tense-Formation.

1. Mute verbs form the future and aorist I. active and mid
dle with the tense-characteristic c; and the petfect and pluper
fect I. active with the aspirated endings -a, -elv, if the charac
teristic is a P- or a K-sound, but with the endings -ica, -ksiv,
if it is a T-sound. The T-sound, however, is omitted before the
k, and is changed into a- before p and t, in the perfect middle or
passive, which a falls away before that of the personal endings ;
as : irsida), I persuade, irhriiafiai, arac ; <f>pda>, Isay, iri<f>paa-fiai, crrat ; but 2. p. irhrei-aai. The vowels a, t, v, in verbs
with a T-sound as their characteristic, are short before end
ings with the tense-characteristics a and k
-ksiv); as :
<ppda>, <ppdaco(a), ecppaaa, irtypaica ; ifKcuxaa, Iform, F. 7r\a<r<(a) ; vofiifyo, I think, A. evouura ; k\vo>, I wash, F. kKv<rco(y), &c
2. The alterations which the mutes undergo in consequence
of the addition of the terminations beginning with <r, 6, fi, or
V, and the aspirated endings : -a, -elv, proceed from what has
been discussed above ( 8.) in reference to the change of con
sonants.
Remark 1. If /t goes before a P-sound as the characteristic, as e.g. in
xipTr-ia ; one /i is dropped in the perfect middle or passive ; thus : ir$pir<j,
I send, TTtTnu-jiai (instead of iri-irtixir-jiai, Ktni^fi-nm) ; Ka/iirr-b), I
bend, xi-Kaji-nai (instead of ici-icapirr-ftai, Ke-Kapix-iiai). In the same
manner, if two y's come to stand before ft, one of them is dropped ; as :
a<ptyy-u>, I lace, i-a<j>iy-fiai.
Remark 2. The verbs whose characteristic is a T-sound do not form
the aorist II. in the ordinary dialects.
Remark 3. The terminations beginning with a8, after a mute imme
diately preceding, lose the a, and the mute is then changed into an aspi
rate on account of the following 9 ; as : Kiicpvipdai instead of Kpity0ae,
Tmr\s\Bat instead of Tcnr\i'i9ai.
Remark 4. The third person plural perfect and pluperfect middle or
passive, which properly ends in -vrai and -vto, as we have seen in the
pure verbs, cannot be formed in this way in impure verbs (whether mute

MUTE IMPURE VERBS.

107.]

109

or liquid), on account of the concurrence of so many consonants. Hence


this person is usually expressed by a periphrasis, consisting of the plural of
the participle perfect, and the third person plural present and imperfect of
the verb elvai (Uoi(v), sunt, rjoav, eranf) ; sometimes, however, the v is
excluded, and an a put in its place, which is aspirated after a P- or Ksound ; but unaspirated after a T-sound ; as :
rpiflw, I rub, H-rptp-pai
3. pers. rirpiipaTai (instead of rtrpijSirai),
Plpf. tTiTpttparo
ttXekio, Jplait, -Ki-nXiy-fiai
7rtir\sxaTal (instead of ir'fKXtKVTai)
rdaam, 1 arrange, Ti-Tay-pat
rtraxarai (instead of TtTayvrai)
OKivaZ,o>, 1 prepare, i-GKivatj-iiai iffKivaSarai (instead of tOKivuSvTai)
Xiop'iZw, I separate, Kt-x&pwuai Kex^piSarat (instead of Kfx&piSvrat)

PARADIGMS OF THE MUTE VERBS.


107.

a. Verbs whose Root is a P-sound (/9, ir, <f>).

a) Pure characteristic : /8, ir, (f> (Fut. ^r<u).


ACTIVE.
rpi/3iu(I), I rub.
Ind.
7-pi/3(i)-w,
Conj.
rpi/3(7)-, Imp. Tplfi-e, Inf. Tpi)S(j)-uv,
Pres.
Part. rpi'/3(7)-wv
Ind. irp'ifiov, Opt. rpi'/3(l)-oi/
Impf.
Ind. (rt-rplfi-a) rt-rp'op-a, Conj. i--rpi'<f>(7)-w, Imp. not used
Perf.
Inf. Tt-TpiQ-evai, Part. Te-rpup-wQ
Ind. (i-7-i-rpi'/3(7)-i>>) i-Tt-rpiip(t)-uv, Opt. rt-rpiip(l)-oifii
Plpf.
Ind. (jpiji-aui) rpi-^ui, Opt. rpiipoipi, Inf. rpiiptiv, Part, rpi^wv
Fut.
Aor. I. Ind. f-T-pii^-or, Conj. rpitpui, Opt. rpi'ifw/ii, Imp. rpitf/ov, Inf.
Tpltpat, Part. Tptyaq
Pres.
Impf.

Perf.

MIDDLE.
Ind. rp//3(7)-op;ai, Conj. Tpifi(T)-upnt, Imp. rpi'/3(7)-ou
Inf. Tpij}(l)-taGai, Part. Tp'ij3-6p.ivos
Ind. i-rplfi-npqv, Opt. Tpt$-oipi}v
Infinitives.
Imperat.
Ind. (rt-rpi/3-/tnf)
(rt-rptj3-0i)
(rt-rp7/3-(To)
3. 1 TE-rpip-fial
T-rpi0-(?cu
Tt-Tpvfyo
2 Tt-Tpujjai
Tt-Tptf}}-9u]
3 ri-rpi-n-Tai
Part.
1). 1 Tt-rpip-ptOov
Ti-Tpitp-Qov
rt-Tpip'ixkvoQ 7], ovj
2 r't'Tpiip-Qov
Tl-TPlty-9litV
:! Tt-rpi(p-9ov
Conj.
1 ri-Tpifi-fit6a
2 Ti-rpt<p-9e
Tl-Tpip-l>ltVO to
Tt-Tpt<p'9t
.') Tt-Tpip-p'tvoi tlirl(v) Ti-Tpt<p-9waav
or rt-Tpiip-9uiv
or ri-TplQ-arai

110

Plpf.

ON THE VERB.

1
2
3

Middle continued.
Singular.
Dual.
l-re-Tpip-pnv
l-Tt-Tplp-pt9ov
l-ri-Tptipo
l-rk-rpup-Bov
i-Tt-Tpiir-ro
l-TE~rpif-9i]V

[chap. VII.

Plural.
l-TE-rplp-pt9a
l-ri-Tpi$-9t
Tt-rpip-pivoi
r\<sav

Opt. TE-rpip-p'tvoq tin*


Ind. Tpi\po/jiai, Opt. rpt^oifiTjVf Inf. rptyeaQai, Part, rptipoptvog
Ind. i-Tpi\pdp.riv, Conj. rptipuipm, Opt. Tpi\pmpt]v, Imp. rptyat,
Inf. TpifyaaOai, Part, Tpt^apevog
Fut.m. Ind. rt-rptyofiat, Opt. Te-Tpi^oi/iriv, Inf. Ti-rpiypiaBai, Part.
TE-TpV^JOptVOQ
Fut.
Aor. I.

PASSIVE.
Ind. (i-Tp'tfi-Qr)v) i-Tpty-Bqv, Conj. rpup-6ai, Opt. Tpuj>-8iiriv,
Inf. Tpi^>9!jvai, Imp. rpi'0-0qri, Part. rpi<p-9ttg
Fut I. Ind. rpi$-9rj<?opai, Opt. rpi<p-8tiootpnv, Inf. rpi<p-9iiaia9ai, Part.
rpi0-0f/<7<Yij/oc
Aor. n. Ind. l-7-pi'|3(r)-)ji', Conj. rpifi-ui, Opt. Tpifi-tir)v, Imp. rp</3(I)-i)0i,
Inf. rpXfi-ijvai, Part. Tptj3-tg
Fut.n. Ind. TpXj3-t)aopai, Opt. rpXji-jiaoipnv, Inf. TpXj3-!j<re<i6ai, Part.
rpT/3-ijffo/xfvoc
Verb. adj. (rpifi-ros) rpijr-roc, i], 6v
Tpiv-Hog, so, kov.
Aor. I.

108.

/S) Impure characteristic: 7tt in the Present and


Imperfect (Put. -A/rto).

Active.
KOTTTlt)
t-KOTTT-OV
(ick-KO-Tr-a) KE-KOtft-a

Middle.

Passive.

iai
Present
inv
Impf.
KE-KOp-pa (like ri-Tpippai)
Perfect I.
l-KE-K6p-p.lt v (like l-Ti-Tpippnv)
Plupf. I.
Perf. n.
ks-kott-u (Horn.)
Aor. I. l-Kotp-Qnv
Plpf. II. L-KE-KOTT-UV
Fut. I. KOf-Briaopai
Kotpopai
Fut.
t-ieoi/za
t-Kotyapnv Aor. II. l-icon--i|v
Aor. I.
Fut. II. Koir-/)<TO/ia
KE-KOipOpal
Fut. III.
Verb. adj. K07r-r6c, ^, 6v
Koir-Hog, rsa, rov

MUTE IMPURE VERBS.

109,]

Ill

So Kafiir-r-iti, I bend, Fut. icd/r^w, Aor. f-cap^w, Perf. Mid. or Pas9.


Kt-Ka/i-fiai (instead o Ki-Kafip-fiai), J 106. Rem. 1.

Ind.

109.

S. 1
2
3
D. 1
2
3
P. 1
2
3
Verb.

b.

h-rlCU/IU,! f-

Imper.
KK/r.//0
KiKClflipQlil

lufin.
KtKan<p9ai
Part.
KSKafifiivog, t), ov

KtKafupQov
KKaft^it9a
KeKaptpOe
adj. kcihittos, t), 6v

KacafiipGuioav or zacafitpQuiv \
a/7rT6oc, 7-ia, reov

Verbs whose Characteristic is a K-sound (y, k,

a) Pure characteristic : y,
k, x-

irXk-w, 1 plant, Put. -Jw.

/8) Impure characteristic in the


Present and Imperfect aa,
Att. TT, more rarely 1
raao -w, Att. rar rw, I arrange.

Middle.
Middle.
Active.
Active.
irXiic-Oftai |
ttXck-u)
Pres.
i-raots-ov
-7rXK-O^I7/l>
l-Taffff-ofitjv
t-irXtK-ov
Empf.
(7T-n-Xic-/jai)
(rk-Tay-a)
(ir-7rXeic-a)
Perf.
re-ray-juat
?r-7rXfy-/iai
7T-7r\X-a
1-Tl-TCtx-tlV i-Tt-rdy-fAijv
-7Tf-7rXE7'-/JtyJ>
Plpf. -7T-7rX^tl/
7rX?o/iai
(ray-<xw)raw
(ttXek-o-w) 7tXe2;w
Fut.
i-7rXfJ;a^ij>
I'Ta^djiip'
f-7rX{a
Aor.
TE-rdZount
7rf-7rXf5o^ni
f. m.
Passive.
(i-Ta.y-9nv) i-rax-8>)V
Aor. L 1 (i-TT\'tK-Vt)v) i-w\s\-9r)v
Fut. L
TrXtx-dliiro/xai
rax-Q^aofiat
i.-ray~i]v
Aor. II. -7r\aK-))v and i-wXtK-nv
ray-7\ao]iai
Fut. H.
TrXaK-i'jTOfiat
Verb. adj. 7tX(kt6c, i), 6% ; nXtKrioe, Ha, r ov |

112

ON THE VERB.

[chap. vn.

Inflexion of the Perfect Middle or Passive.


raaau, I arrange, and o<piyyu> (jj 106. Rem. 1), I lace.
tiTtfttyfiat
Imperative.
TETaypai
taipiyZo
eafiyZat
2 TeraKat
t(T<ptyKTat
3 TETaKTCU
D. 1 rirayfieOov <T(f>iyfiE9ov
riraxQov
Ind.
2 TtraxOov e<T<ptyxOov
kaQiyxQvv
3 rkrax^ov i<T$tyX&0V
efftpiyfitQa
P. 1
ta<ptyxSi
rtraxde
2
t<T$iyx9t
TtraxQwaav or katpiyxQwaav or j
3 TZTayiiEvoi lcr<ptyfievot
tG<j>iyxQo*v
TiT&xOtov
Inf. reraxQat, io<piyx9at
| Part. Ttrayptvos, kaQtypivog

110.

c. Verbs whose Characteristic is a T-sound ($, r, 8).

a) Pure characteristic : 8,
r, 0.
xptiS-u), I deceive
Active.
Pres.
Impf.
Perf.
Plpf.
Fut.

(t-4>evd-ica)
t-lpEV-KO.
i-ypV-KLV
^EV-fJlO

Aor. I.
F. III.

/3) Impure char, in Pres. and


Impf. more rarely era.
Future <toj.

Middle.
\ptvd-ofiaij
t~\pvS-6fj.rjv
(t-i^Evd-fiai)

4/V-(TOfJ,ai
i-TpEV-ffdflTJV

<f>pa?-w, I say.
Active.

MlDDLE.
(ppdZ-ofiat,
t-typaZ-ofirjv
e-<PpaZ-ov
(iri-ippad-fiat)
irk-cppa-Ka
7r-0parr-fiat
E-7TE-<f>pa(a)~KHV l-7re~rppd(7-fiT}v
(<J>paS-0(i))
(jPpd.S'ffofiai)
<Ppd(jz)~(T<a
<ppd-(TOfiat.
E-<ppa-(jdp,7jp
l-*ppa-<m
7rt-tppd-(JOfiai

Passive.
(k-<Ppd-9riv) -tppd<T-9t)v
Aor. I. (J-\^Evd~9ijv^ i-ypEV(j-9rjv
Fut. I.
\pV(T-97l(SOp.ai
<ppa<T-9i](T0fiat
Verb. adj. ($ev-Teo) ^ever-rloc, rea, t'eov \\ tppaff-Hog
Inflexion of the Perfect Middle or Passive.
Imperative.
Ind. tytva-fiai
Infinitive.
fytv-tro
tyey-vat
i-^Ev-a9at
Et^EVd'Tai
l\/6-(Td(a
l^EV<7~p.E90V
D.
Participle.
E^EV-fs9oV
t)pEV-(j90V
E--tyV<J-pkvO) tj OV
v^ev-c9ov
v\>ev-<j9o)v
h^EV<7-fJLE9a
tyEVff-flEVOl u<Tt(v) tyEv-aOaxrav or tytii-trBtav I

111.]

LIQUID IMPURE VERBS.

113

B. Liquid Verbs.
111.

Tense-Formation.

1. Liquid verbs, i. e. verbs whose characteristic is one of


the liquid sounds, \, /*, v, p, form the future active and middle,
and the aorist I. active and middle, without the tense-character
istic a, but the perfect with the tense-characteristic k; as :
a<pd\Xco (stem, 2<I>AA), F. a<pa\-a>, A. I. I-o-^X-a, Pf.
s-o-<paX-Ka.
Remark 1. The future-endings of liquid verbs,
-ovfiai (arising
from -la-id, -iaoftm), are inflected like the present active and middle of
the contracted verbs in w; as :
^iX-oi^ai. The future III. is
wanting in liquid verbs.
2. The present of these verbs, with the exception of a few
whose stem-vowel is e, receives a strengthening, which consists
either in the doubling of the characteristic X, or the inser
tion of the liquid v after the characteristic, or in lengthening
the stem-vowel, as in the case of all those in Ivail), vveo(y),
vpa>(y), or changing it into a diphthong; e.g. a-(pd\-X-a>,
Tzfi-v-aj, KpMt)-(o, a/ivv{v)-o), ktsIv-o), (paiv-co (stems : 2<I>AA,
TEM, KPIN(i), AMTN(t5), KTEN, *AN); but, n&v-o,
vip.-as.
3. All the tenses are formed from the pure stem, but in
such a manner, that the vowel of the last syllable of the stem
is lengthened in the aorist I. active and middle ; as : o-<f>aW-a>
(2<I>AA), Fut. a<pa\-co, Aor. II. P. s-o-<pd\-yv, Perf. I. s-crcpaXko, Aor. I. A. i-<j<prj\-a.
4. All liquid verbs are divided into four classes, according
to the radical vowel of the future : a, s, I, and v. In the aorist
is lengthened into rj, s into si, I into t, and v into v. Thus :
I. Class, with a in the Future.
Present.
Future.
Aorist.
Kctfiv-u), I work
Kan-oijtai
wanting
TtKnaip-iD, I limit
TCKfiap-Z
l-rtKfiqp-a
0aiv-w, I show
0av-(3
f^ijv a
I

114

ON THE VERB.

[chap. vn.

II. Class, with in the Future.

l-puv-a
ptvw
(itv-id, I remain
f/yytiX-a
ayye\-<2
ayytXk-u), I announce
Ttfl-U>
wanting
TEpV-W, I cut
vt/i-iS
i-veip-a
vifi-ui, I divide
ip.ip-u>
'i-pup-a
t/i'p-w, I desire
HI. Class, with l in the Future.
riX-w
e-rtX-a
n'XX-w, Ipull
KpXv-d3
i-Kpiv-a
rpiV-w, I separate
rV. Class, with v in the Future.
GUp-lH
i-ovp-a
(Tu'p(tj)-(u, / drag
dpvv-oi
fipvv-a
apvvfjty-w, I keep off"
Remark 2. Of the verbs in the first class, the following in -aivoi take
a, not ij, in the Aorist : hxvaivu, I make lean (laxdva, taxdvat), tepteUvu,
I gain (iniplava, icipHdvai), koiXouw, I excavate (iKoCXava, KoiXdvai), XevKaivu), I make white, bpyaivui, I make angry, Trtiraivia, I make ripe ; together
with all in -paivu, as : irepaivu, Ifinish, F. wtpavii, Aor. iiripava, Inf.
Trtpdvat (except TiTpaivio, I bore, erirpiiva, rtrpiivat) ; and all in tatVw,
as : Tialvu, I make fat, iiriava, iridvai (except pialvu), Jpollute, pirjvai).
5. The perfect I. active of verbs with the characteristic v,
ought properly to end in -yica ; as : /j,/j,iarf-/ca (fr. fuaivw, I
pollute, instead of fie-fj,iav-Ka). But this form is found only
in the later writers. Good writers endeavour to avoid this,
either by excluding the v, as in KspBawa), Pf. KsicspSaica, or
by employing the form of the perfect II. in the sense of the
perfect I., as in ktsCiko. I kill, Perf. II. s/crova, or by not
forming it at all, or forming it from a new theme, as e. g.
in fjJvw, Pf. fxsfisvrjKa, fr. MENE12.
6. The following three verbs with the characteristic v, ex
clude the v, not only in the perfect and pluperfect active, but
also in the perfect and pluperfect middle or passive, and aorist
I. passive; as:
Kpivui, I separate
xkicpXiea
K&Kpipat
lKpiQi)v(i)
kXi'vw, / bend
KExXfca
tceicXTpat
EKXiOrjvQ)
irXivta I wash
jrtjrXwa
xiirXvp.ai
l7rXv8riv(y)
7. Upon the formation of the perfect middle or passive,
the following is worthy of remark:

LIQUID IMPURE VERBS.

II*.]

115

a) When ad follows a liquid, the <r falls out ( 106, Re


mark 3.); as : yyyiXOai (instead of rff^iX-aOai), Trefyavdat,.
5) In verbs in alvca and vva>(y), the v generally falls out
before the terminations beginning with and cr is inserted to
strengthen the syllable, as: <j>aiv-(o, irs-cfra-a-fiat,, Trscj)d-cr-/j,s6a;
but, in some verbs of this kind, the v is assimilated to the fol
lowing fi, as : 7rapet;vv-a), I incite, irapdigv/i/iai ; auryyiMo, 1
shame, ya^yfifiat, Inf. -vv6ai.
8. In the perfect II., which is formed by only a few verbs,
the short stem-vowel is lengthened before the ending a, as in
the aorist I. active, except in the verbs with e in the future,
which change it into o ( 102, 3.) ; as : <pa(v-m, A. I. s-<f>7jv-a,
Pf. II. ird-<j)T)v-a ; avretp-to, I sow, Fut. airsp-a, Pf. II. scnrop-a.

112.

Paradigms of the Liquid Verbs.


dyykXXa, I announce.

ACTIVE.
Ind. ayyiXX-w, Conj. ayyfXXw, Imp. ayyfXXf, Inf. dyyeXXeiv,
Part. dyyeXXutv.
Impf.
Ind. r/yyfXX-oi', Opt. dyysXXoifii.
Perf. L Ind. rjyyeX-ica, Conj. ijyytXicw, Imp. not used. Inf. rjyytXictvat,
Part. JiyytXicwg.
Plpf. I. Ind. riyyt\-Knv, Opt. j/yyeX-Koijui .
lop-a, perii, fr. (ptiiipw, perdo, Plpf. !-rp96p-itv.
Perf. II.
Opt. dyyiXoifii or dyytXoirjv
Future
Ind. ayye.\-w
ayyeX-^Q
dyytXolg
dyyeXoiyg
dyyeXol
ayyeX-el
dyytXoir}
dyyiXotTov dyytXoiriTov
ayytX-iirov
dyyeX-tirov
dyytXoirrjV dyyeXoiijTTjv
dyytXoTjitv dyyeXoirjfiev
dyyeX-ov/xev
dyytXoirt dyytXoit)Tt
dyytX-ure
ayye\-ovai(vj
dyytXoitv dyytXoltv
Inf. dyyeXur, Part. dyytXwv, tvaa, ovv.
Ind. fjyytCXa, Conj. (iyyeiXw, Opt. dyytiXaifit, Imp. dyytiXov,
Aor. I.
Inf. dyy&lXat, Part. dyytiXac.
Aor. H. Ind. i/yytX-ov, Conj. dyytXw, Opt. dyyiXoi/ii, Imp. ayytXe,
Inf. dyyeXeiv, Part. ayyfXwv, oiiaa, 6v.
Present

I 2

116

Pres.
Impf.

Perfect

Plpf.

Future

Aor. I.
Aor. n.

Aor. L
Fut. L
Aor. II.
Fut. n.

ON THE VERB.

[chap. to.

MIDDLE.
Ind. dyysXX-o;ua<, Conj. dyytXXuifiai, Imp. dyyIXXou,
Inf. ayyiWtaBai, Part. dyytXKo/iivoQ.
Ind. f/yyiW-ofitiv, Opt. dyy(XXo/fi>jv.
Imperative.
Infinitive.
Indicative.
r)yykX-9ai
S. 1 iiyytX-iiai
ijyyeX-ffo
2 i"iyytX-<rai
Participle.
)}yyeX-(?w
3 f/yysX-rai
rjyyiX-iiivog
D. 1 riyyiX-fiiOov
t}yyeX-9ov
Conjunctive.
2 fiyytX-9ov
rjyytX/tivog >
l)yykX~9o)V
3 7)yykX-9ov
P. 1 riyykX-iit9a
yyytX-Be
2 7jyyeX'9e
3 Tr/yytX-pevoi tiai(v) rtyyeX-9i*HTav Dr r/yykXBuiv |
j/yyt'X-/c?jv, so, to, pi9ov, -9ov, fljjv, -jitda, -9e, ijyyfX/tEj/oi
Indicative.
Optative.
Infinitive.
dyyeX-oifltjv dyyeX-el<r9at
S. 1 ayytX-ovfiai
dyytX-oio
2 dyytX-fj or ti
Participle.
dyyeX-oCro
3 dyytX-firai
dyytX-otplOov dyytX-ovpivog
D. 1 dyyiX'OVfit9ov
dyytX-otadov
2 dyytX-iia9ov
dyyeX-oiaBtjv
3 dyyeX-tia9ov
dyyeX-oiptda
P. 1 dyytX-ov/it8a
dyyiX-olaBe
2 dyytX-eio9i
dyyeX-o7vro
3 ayytX-ovvrat
Ind. jjyyeiX-d/i/jl', Conj. dyyttX-w/xai, Opt. dyyfcA-ai'/ijjv,
Imp. dyyfiX-af, Inf. ayyeik-avQai, Part. dyynX-dfitvog
Ind. f/yyt\-nfiT]V, Conj. dyyiX-wpai, Opt. dyytX-otftj/v,
Imp. ayyfX-or;, Inf. dyyX-a0ai, Part. dyyfX^Ofievog
PASSIVE.
Ind. i/yyeX-ei/v, Conj. dyyiX-Bd, Opt. dyyeX-Ofii/v, Imp. dyyiX-8?]Ti, Inf. dyyeX-0ijvai, Part. dyyfX-0t/c
Ind. dyyeX-Briao/im, Opt. dyytX-Bijaoifirjv, Inf. dyytX-9T)aeo9ai,
Part. dyytX-Qii<rofievoc
Ind. >}yyeX-i/j>, Conj. a'yytX-w, Opt. dyytX-ei'ijr, Imp. dyytX7}6i, Inf. ayyfX-qvat, Part. ayytX-tig
Ind. dyyeX-qo-o^ai, &c, like the Fut. I. P.
Verb. adj. dyyfX-rfoc, rscr, rov

LIQUID IMPURE VEKBS.

113.]

113.

117

Shorter Paradigms arranged according to the StemVowel of the Future.


a. With a in the Future.
a<pd\\io,fallo; (paivu, I show, Mid. I appear.
Active.
tT<pa\\-o>
f-cr0a\X-ov

Pres.
Imperf.
Perf. I.
Plpf. L
Perf. n.
Plpf. H.
Fut.
Aor. L

Middle.
fftpaW'Ofiai
l-atpaW-ofjirjv
i'tjtyak-iiai

l-o<j>d\-Ktiv
otpak-w, tig, li

wanting
wanting
Passive.

Active.
Middle.
tftaiv-ui
Qaiv-ofuu
t~<jiaiv-ov
(nt-tpay-Kct)
^k-ire'ipdy-Ktiv)
iri-tpriv-a, I appear
i-TTt-<pyv-tvt J r appeared
fdv-ui
ijtav-ovflal
t-tftrjT-afiijv
i-(jit)V-a
i-tpav-Btiv
(pav-tqaofxai
l-<pdv(a)-t]v

i-o<pak-Bt)v
Aor. I.
o<pa\-6i)<ropat
Fut. I.
Aor. II.
a^aK'riaoiuu
Fut. n.
Verb. adj. atfyaX-Hot, r'ta, riov

<f>av-Tko.

Inflexion of the Perfect Middle or Passive of


faiv-a, I show ; %ripaiv-t, / dry ; and reiv-u, J stretch.
S. 1
2
3
D. 1
Lad.
2
3
P. 1
2
3
S. 2
3
D. 2
Imp.
3
P. 2
3
Infinitive
Participle

iri-fav-iiai
iri-^av-aat
jrt-ipav-Tai
irt-<pd<r-[u9ov
7T-0av-0OV
Trk-ipav-9ov
Trt-fda-fieOa
Tre-tpav-Oe
7rt-<pa(x-fiivoi uai(v)
(7rt-<f>av-<ro)
irt-$dv-9ia
irk-ipav-Ouv
TTi-fyav-Ouv
iri-fav-Be
m-(fiavSo>aav 01
wt-<piv-9ttiv
jrt*pav-Qat

t-Zripav-aai
l-thpav-Tat
t-Krjpdfi-fi(6ov
i-b'ipav-Qov
i-&lpav-9ov
l-^Tjpdfi~fit8a
l-%r)pav-8B
i-^Tjpafi-fikvoi aVi(y)
(i-Zilpav-ao)
t-ijpdv-9to
i-Z,ripav-Qov
i-Kr)pdv-9u>v
l-Kvpav-9e
l-Sripdv-Swaav or
i-Ki]pdv-9m>
l-t)pdv-9ai
l-S,ripaii-jiivoQ
i 3

rk-Ta-nai
H-ra-aat
rt-rd-rai
Tt-Ta(a)-iii9ov
Tt-Ta-o9ov
Tt-Ta-o9ov
Ti-rd(a)-fii9a
Ti-Ta-a9t
T't-Ta-vrai
Ti-ra-ao
r6-rd-a(?aj
H-Ta-a9ov
Ti-rd-a9u>v
Tt-ra-o9i
Ti-ra-aBuiaav
Or Tt-Td-a9u>v
rfrd-oQat
Tt-ra-fitvoe

ON THE VEllli.

118

[chap. VII.

1 14. b. With e in the Future.


'tfuip-io (Ion. and poet.), I desire; and artXX-ui, I send.

Present
Imperf.
Perf. L
Plpf. I.
Perf. II.
Plpf. n.
Future
Aor. I.

Active.
ipiip-m
ipeip-ov
'lfiip~Ka
Ipip-KUV
ipep~ib
'ifiitp-a

Middle.
ifltip-op.cn
ipetp-optjv
'l/itp-fiai
ipip-iirtv

Meddle.
Active.
trrtXX-opai
ar&XX-o)
l-tTTtXX-OfJLTJV
t-CTTtXX-OV
e-araX-pai
t-oraX-Ka
k-UTaX-prjv
l-araX-Ktiv
i-tpSop-a (fr. tp9iip-o>) Ihave perished
i-fBop-uv, I had pen shed
crrtX-ovpa
artk-S)
(arrei\-dut]V
i-artiX-a

ip.tp-ovp.ai
\ptip-apr\v
Passive.
Aor. II. i-<rra\(a)-r]v
i-crTtS\-9r]V
Aor. I. \pMp-9i\v
{TTaX-ijcropai
aTaX-9r\dopai
Fut. I. ipip-9i)ffop,ai
Verb. adj. iptp-rot, rj, ov
\ptp-TtoQ, ria, r'tov
oraX-reog

Remark. The inflexion of the perfect middle or passive is like that


of ^yytX-pat.

115.

c. With t and v in the Future.

a) riXX-ui, Ipull; avpw(v)-i, I draw; poXvn(y) -w, I soil.


(ryp(u)-w
TlXX-to
poXvp(v")-h>
HXX-opai
o"vp(y)'Op.ai
ptoXvv(v)-opai
T-riX-Ka
o's-avp-Ka
(^pit-poXvy-Ka)
Perfect
Tt-TiX-ptai
ak-avp-pai
pt-lxoXva-pai
Future
rxX-w
avp-<S
poXvv-ui
rlX-ovpai
ovp-ovptai
poXvv-ovpai
t-TiX-a
t-avp-a
l-p.6Xvv-a
Aor. I.
i-avp-aptiv
l-TlX-6.pi\V
i-poXvv-apr)V
l-avp-9r}v
l-poXvv-9rjv
Aor. I. P.
i-TlX-9t)V
n\-9riaopai
o~vp-6rj(ropai
Aor. II. P.
fioXw-Br/oopai
(rvp-iiaopai
Aor. U. and Fut. II. P. -<rup(ii)-ijv
Verb. adj. nX-rof, /, 6v, TiX-rhe, Tea, riov
avp-rioq | pLoXw-rkoq.
Present

Remark 1. The inflexion of the perfect middle or passive, ri-TiX-pat,


oi-ovp-fiai, is like that of ijyyeX-pai ; that of pit-poXvo-pat, like that of iri<paa-pai; and that of yaxvp-pat (fr. aio\vvu, I shame), like that of
l-$ripaji-p.at.

116.]

PECULIAKITIES IN FOBMATION.

119

b) c\lv(l)-u, I bend; jrXvt>(y)-*>, I wash; with v falling out ($111, 6.).


Active.
Pres.
Perf.
Fut.
Aor. I.

Kf-icXt-icn
icXtv-w

Middle.
Kt-K\l-'fiai
kXXv*OVIUU

Active.
Middle.
7rXw(ii)-a<
7rE-7rXu-ici
rri-TrXv-fiai
irXCv-w
TrXvv-ov/jtai
e-7rXvi>-a
l-TrXvv^afiijv

Passive.
Aor. I. e~K\iQ^'9rjv P. I. KXX'Oytroftai i-7rXi((i;)-flij< irXu-flijro/iat
Aor. II. I-kXivQ^-tjv F. II. KXtv-Tjaopat
Verb. adj. k\i--6c, j/, 6v rXi-reoc, ria, riov || tt\v-t6s irXv-riog.
Remark 2. The inflexion of the perfect middle or passive, ice-icXl-fiat
and m-nXi-pat, is like that of H-ru-pai, and agrees with that of pure
verbs.

116.

Special Peculiarities in the Formation of several Verbs


both Pure and Impure.

1. Very many active verbs have the future in the middle


form ; as : aKovw, I hear, F. aKOvaofiai, Aor. ffKovcra ; a-Travrda, I meet, F. airavrrjaofiai, Aor. aTrijvrrja-a ; a-iroXava, I
enjoy, F. a-TroXavo-ojuii, Aor. airsXavaa, &c. Compare 144.
2. The following two verbs in da> or ata> take av in the
future and aorist :
Kaia>, Att. Kaas{a) (without contraction), I burn, F. Kavao),
A. sicavaa. Pf. /csKavica, Pf. Mid. or Pass. /c^Kavfuu. Aor.
I. P. SKavdriv. Verb adj. Kavareos, icavcrros.
KXaico, Att. /cXaaj(a) (without contraction), i" w>e<?jt>. See
No. 3.
3. The following five verbs in ia> : 6ia>, via, irXja, irvi(o, and
pirn, take sv in the future and aorist. In addition to this, it
should be observed that the first four, together with the cus
tomary form in ao/xai, have also another in crovfiai. This
circumflexed form of the future is called the Doric future.
I 4

ON THE VEKB.

120

[chap. vii.

Besides these four just mentioned, the verbs K~hai<o, TraLtya,


vrforra), and <f>svya), also have this form.
Oi-ui, I run, F. devaoipai and Btvaopai.
vk-io, I swim, F. vtvoovpai and vtvaopat, A. ivtvoa.
irXi'ia, I sail, F. 7r\ewoC/ioi and rcXivaopai, A, iirXtvaa, Pf. M. or P.
TriirXtvapai, A. P. tir\eva9i]v.
pi-w, Iflow, F. pevaopai, A. ippcvaa. Instead of these forms, however,
the Attics use F, piftoopai, A. Ippvyvfy), and Pf. ippvt]Ka(v).
Xf-w, -T ^oar, differs from the foregoing, F. x^i A. i\ia, Pf. ictxiKa,
F. M. xtop.a.i, A. M. ixtapriv, Pf. M. or P. Kixvpai, A. P. tx'0)jv(u).
k\<h-u, Att. Kkaui(a) (without contraction), T weep, F. KXavaoipai and
icXavo-opai, A. ticXavcra. Verb. adj. eAirverfOC and KXavorog.
tjtivy-w, Iflee, F. <ptvovpai and QtvZopai, A. ttpvyov, Pf. iretytvya.
iraiZ-w, Ijoke, J sport, F. TraiZ.ovp.ai and irai$opai, A, tiraiaa, Pf. M. or
P. 7rTraio-p.ai.
wlnr-a, Ifall (stem IIET), F. Tremvpat. See $ 123.
4. The following pure verbs, and impure ones which
follow the analogy of pure verbs in the formation of their
tenses by taking an as a characteristic, have a distinct form
for the Conjunctive perfect, and Optative pluperfect middle
or passive :
Krd-opai, I acquire, Pf. ce/crij/iat, Ipossess, Conj. mcriipau, f, tjrai. Plpf.
iKtKT>ipt]v, I possessed, Opt. KtKTyprjv, KtKTrjo, KCKTyro, or KiKTifpriv,
(UKA), I remind. See $ 122, 12.
xaXiw, I call, Pf. KeKXnpat, I am called. Plpf. iictKXiipqv, Opt. KiKXyptjv,
jjo, pro.

117.

Syncope and Metathesis.

L Some few verbs omit the stem-vowel in some forms,


when it stands between two consonants. This omission of
the vowel is called syncope. Thus, e. g. :
eyelpto, I awaken. A. regularly Tjysipa. Pf. I. eyijyepica. Pf.
II. iyprjyopa, I awake. Plpf. II. eyprjyopeiv, I awoke.

118.]

ANOMALOUS VEKBS.

121

Mid. A. ?jypofitjv, I awoke. -rrsToyMi, Ifly. Fut. irrqaofiai.


Aor. emofiriv, Trrsadai.
2. By metathesis, we understand the transposition of a
vowel and a liquid. Thus, e. g. :
8aX\m, Ithrow. Fut. /3a\w. Aor. tpdKov. BAA: Pf. PepkrjKa.
Pf. Mid. or Pass. j30\rjjtat. Aor. Pf. lfiX^r)v. Fut. Pass.
fiXyOrjcro/Mii. Fut. III. ^epKricrofmi.
Sa/ui^o), I tame (AAM). Fut. hafidaos{a). Aor. iSd/jxiaa,
Pf. &8/j,rjKa. Perf. Mid. or Pass. BeB/j,rjfiai. Aor. Pass.
eSfitfdrjv, eSdfirjV.
KoXios, I call ( 98, Remark). Perf. KEieXijica. Ka/jwa.
See 119.
a-KeXKo), &ksXs(o, I dry. Perf. ecr/cXijKa. Fut. cricKtfo-Ofiai..

118.

Anomalous Verbs.

1. We call every verb irregular, which has a tense-forma


tion deviating from the stem of the present, as well as every
one which does not take the customary personal endings.
Still, we reckon all those which, in the present, undergo one
of the changes mentioned in 101. and 102., among the
regular verbs.
.
2. All anomalies fall under two general heads, viz. :
a) Anomalies in the stem,
b) Anomalies in the personal endings.
Verbs, moreover, which are irregular in the personal end
ings, e. g. the verbs in fit, are likewise irregular in the stem.
3. A particular anomaly consists in this, that many verbs
have made up their tense-formation out of verbs having dif
ferent roots, which are connected together only by their sig
nification ; as : <j>ipco, I bear, o't'crw, 1 shall bear, rjveyicov, I bore.

ON THE VERB.

122

[chap. vn.

Remark. All forms assumed merely for the sake of the formation are
denoted by capital letters. " Mid." denotes that the verb forms the
future and aorist middle. " D. M." (i. e. deponent middle) and " D. P."
(i. e. deponent passive) signify that a verb has not the active form ; and
such a verb is called Deponent Middle, if it forms its aorist with a middle
form ; and Deponent Passive, if it forms it with a passive form. When /u
stands in a parenthesis, it denotes that the preceding form follows the
analogy of a conjugation in fu which is hereafter to be discussed. See
142.

A.

Anomalous Verbs in fl.

119. I. Verbs whose pure Stem is strengthened, in the


Present and Imperfect, by the Insertion of a v before the
Ending.
Preliminary Remark. Haivw has the stem-vowel a length
ened into at, iXavvco, into av.
1. /3cuVa>, I walk, Igo (BA). Put. ftrja-ofiai. Perf. /3e/3rjKa.
Aor. II. ifrnv (jm 142.). Pass, in compounds : Perf. -n-apafiefiafiai. Aor. 7raps/3d0r]v(a).
2. iXavvco, I drive. Fut. s\dcra)(a), Ait. e\a>, as, a, Inf.
i\av ( 83.). Aor. rfkaaa. Perf. eXrjKaica. Perf. Mid. or Pass.
ekr)\ap,ai. Aor. Pass. rj\d0i)v(a) (a, in the formation of the
tenses, 98, a.) Mid.
3. iru><o(T),.I drink. Put. irioimi. Aor. hviov, Impr. irWi
( 142.) (Poet. 7rtV), Inf. mslv, Pa. ttuov. HO. Perf. irhraica.
Perf. Mid. or Pass. Trhrofiai. Aor. hrodrjv.
4. TiVw(t), I expiate, Ipay. Fut. rlcra>(T). Aor. srlcra, Pf.
Act. rh-iKa. Perf. Mid. or Pass. Tircafiai. Aor. Pass. stL<j0t)v.
Mid. TLvo/u,at, I take vengeance on, Ipunish, T/fcro/iat(t), iriadfirjv.
5. (f>0dvco, I anticipate, Fut. (f>0rj<TOfxai, more rarely (f>0dcra>.
Aor.
Aor. II. <p0r)V and e<p0dMv (ju 142.). Perf.
s<f>0d/ca.

121.]

ANOMALOUS VERBS IN il.

123

With these are ranked three verbs whose pure stem ends
in a consonant :
BaKvco, I bite. Aor. II. eBa/cov. Fut. Brfgo/iai. Perf. Bs&r)x.a.
Perf. Mid. or Pass. SiBriyfiai. Aor. Pass. iSfydriv.
Kayajw, I exert myself, I weary myself, I am weary, I work
hard. Aor. s/cafiov. Fut. xa/Aovfiai. Perf. K^K/j-rj/ca ( 117,
2.).
Tjj,v(o, I cut, I divide, I lay waste. Fut. ts/uo. Aor. Ite/mw.
Perf. rhfirjKa. Perf. Mid. or Pass, rdrfirifiai. Aor. Pass.
tTfi^ffrjv. Fut. III. TSTjirjcrofiai ( 117, 2.). Mid.

120. II. Verbs whose pure Stem is strengthened, in the Pre


sent and Imperfect, by the Insertion of the Syllable vs
before the Ending.
1. fiv-ve-oi), Ifill up, I stop up. Fut. fivcra>(y). Aor. s/3vo-a.
Perf. Mid. or Pass. j3fivo-fiai, and Aor. Pass. ifivo-0T)v ( 59.).
2. a.(f>iK-vs-ofiai, I come. Fut. Suf>lofJUu. Aor. axjjiKofirjv,
a<f>uco-6ai. Perf. a<f>lyfiai, Inf. cupiyOai. Plpf. dcfrlyfirjv,
d(f>l^o, &c.
3. vTTLcr'^-vt-^ifiai, I promise. Aor. virso-^-ofiriv, Imp. wo<r^ov ; but Fut. vTrooyTjaofiai. Perf. xmio-y^imi. So : dfiincrXyovficu or afnrfyo/juii, I wear, I have on (fr. dfiTrfyw, I wrap
round. Fut. afi<f>^(0, Aor. ruiiriu^ov, d/iCTroa^slv). Fut. a/j,(f>eofiai. Aor. rjfVTriaxpfiTjv and rjfnrea-'xp/j.rjv ( 91, 1.).

121. III. FerSs whose pure Stem is strengthened, in the


Present and Imperfect, by the Insertion of the Syllable av,
more rarely aiv, before the Ending.
All verbs of this kind form their tenses from a threefold
stem the present and imperfect from the strengthened one

124

ON THE VEEB.

[chap. vii.

the aorist II. from the pure one the future, the perfect, and
pluperfect from a third, which consists of the pure stem and
an annexed e, which in inflexion becomes 77.
a. av or aw is affixed without any change.
1. ala-6-dv-ofiat, I perceive, I observe. Aor. rjo-6-6/j,rjv, aladicrOcu. Perf. ya-Orj/uii. Fut. alo-dtfaofiai.
2. dfiapjdvm, I err. Aor. tffiaprov. Fut. dyMprrr\o-oyML. Pf.
f)iJLdpTt)Ka.
3. aTrej^ddvofiai, I become hated, I am hateful. Aor. dirqydofi/rjv. Fut. dirs^Orjaofuu, Perf. dirTfy6r)fiai, I am hated.
4. av^dvus, I increase, I augment. Fut. av%ri<ras. Aor. rjv^rjcra. Perf. rjifrjica. Mid. and Pass. Igrow. Perf. rjv^rjfiai. Fut.
avf;tf<TOfiai. Aor. rjvtpjOrjv.
5. fSXaardva}, I sprout. Aor. ipKaarov. Fut. (Skacrrtfo-a).
Perf. efiXdcrTrjica and /3sf3\AuTr]Ka ( 88, 2.).
6. Sap8dva>, I sleep. Aor. ehap8ov. Fut. hapOrjaofiai. Perf.
7. oXurdava), I glide. Aor. a>\ur0ov. Fut. oXicrOrjaa). Perf.
8. 6o~<ppabvo[iai, I smell. Aor. dxrcppofirjv. Fut. oatyptfo-ofiai.
9. dcpXio-icdvco, I am liable, Ideserve. (The double strength
ening tavr and av should be observed.) Aor. axpXov. Fut.
6<p\rjo-a). Perf. axp\7]Ka. Perf. Mid. or Pass. axfiXrjfmi.
b. av is affixed with tlie insertion of the nasal sound v, before
the characteristic consonant of the pure stem. The short vowel
in the middle of the pure stem is changed into a long one in
inflexion. Except /xavdavos. The v, before a P-sound, is
changed into fi, and before a K-sound, into 7.
10. 6iffydva>, I touch. Aor. sOuyov. Fut. 61^0fiat.
11. Ttfvyxdva), I obtain by lot. Aor. sKd^ov. Fut. Xrjgo/uu.
Perf. siXiyxa. Perf. Mid. or Pass. si\t]y/Mu ( 88, 4.). Aor.
Pass. i\r)-)(dr)v.

122.]

ANOMALOUS VERBS IN SI.

12. \afi/3dva>, I take. Aor. iXajSov, Imp. Xafii. Fut. Xtfifrofiai. Perf. etkrjfya. Perf. Mid. or Pass. siXrjfifiai ( 81, 4.).
Aor. Pass. i\tf<fidT)v. Aor. Mid. i\afi6/ii]v.
13. Xav#ap (seldom XrjOw), I am concealed. Aor. s\d6ov.
Put. \?jcra>. Perf. Xs\7}6a, I am concealed. Mid. Iforget. Put.
Xrjaoimi. Perf. XtXrjfffieu. Aor. iXaOSfirjv.
14. fiavddvw, I learn. Aor. efjudOov. Put. /ui6>]aofiai. Perf.
15. irwOdvofiai, I inquire, I learn by inquiry. Aor. hrvOofirjv. Perf. ir^Trvo-ftai, irsttvaai, &c. Fut. irsvao/j,ai. Verb,
adj. ttsv<7t6s, irsvcrrios.
16. Tvyxava), I hit (a mark), I obtain (w. gen.), I happen.
Aor. hirypv. Fut. revfjo/juu (TETX-). Perf. rsTv^rjKa
(TTXE-).

122. IV. Fer&s whose pure Stem is strengthened, in the


Present and Imperfect, by the Addition of the two Conso
nants gk or the Syllable utk.
Sk is added when the characteristic of the stem is a vowel,
and htk, when a consonant. Most of the verbs whose pure
stem ends in a consonant, form the future, &c, according to
the analogy of pure verbs, as evp-io-Kto, Fut. evptfo-a ('ETPE).
Some of these take, in addition to this, a reduplication, which
consists in the repetition of the first consonant of the root
with the vowel v.
1. '' aK-uTK-ofiai, I am caught or taken (of a town). Impf.
rfKiaKOfirfv. (AAO-) Fut. aXcbcrofiai. Aor. r/\o>v and
sd\a)v(d) (/at 142, 9.), I was caught. Perf. rfkwica and edX<BKa(a), I have been caught. Augm. 87, 6. The active is
supplied by aipslv ( 126, 1.) in the signification, to take, to
obtain.
2. dvaXlcTKm, I spend, I waste. Impf. dvrfkuricov. Fut. dvcbXdxTco. Aor. dvrj\a>cra and dvd\waa(a), KarrjvaKwaa. Perf.

126

. .

\(). (1. .
\(). . .
3. , . . . . . . .
&88. . . 38. . .
4. ( '), , . . .
, . . . .
5. , &. (-) . . . &
(/ 142.). . '^. . . . .
( 95.) . 8x1]. , .
6. , / (^ ., 33 : .,
., .). . . . . '. (
142, 1.).
7. , . . , . . (-)
. . . . . . 9. -.
. 8. . . . . . ). .
8. , /. . {,
/, 1) , 1 1> ).
9. , ^ , . () . . . . '. , &. . III. !(1 , 1 8 .
10. , . . . . . .
11. \, . . \(). . .
12. (-), . . . . /?. . . , , , / (. 88, . 1.), ^. , $, ( 116,
4.), . . . , , . /^, /, , , , ( 116, 4.). . III.
, /. . . . .
13. - (^ - ), 8,
/. . '^/. (-). . , ( 8,
7.). . . . 0(1) ^.
14. -, $ . . (). . .

123.]

>8 8 .

127

15. , (. . !
16 \) , ). . . .
. 9. (. }. . ().
. III. 8 .
().
16. , , . . . .
. . &83. , , .
. . . . . .
17. , . . . . . .
. 8. . . . . , &
.
18. , , , (. ). . . . . . .
19. -, / . (-) . . .
. . ), , $.
, , 6 - 8
18 : . , . , . , . . )!/. .

123. V. $ 8( 8 ,
^, / / ^ .
8
, (; ^?1 . .
, \ ^.
!88 1)1, . </. .
( /), . (-) .
. ^/, , \! ,
8, . . .
( ), /, . . (-)
. ( 116, 3.). . . '.
^ \1.
13 IV., .

1 28

[. .

124. VI. > 8


/, 1> ^ $8 8
/,.
. 3 . :
.

1. \, ^. . . <1. ^
/$/. . . . (. ).
2. , ,. . . .
. . , 8,8
.
3. , /. . . . . .
/, .
4. , (2 . , 82, 2.). . \. *. ,. . . .
85, .
5. , / , . , $ )/ /,
^. ?, . , . . . ', . . .
?;. . ;(). . , . . .
. .
6. ^ , 0, / ;*. . \ \. .
(1 \, . \ . .
7. ', 85, . . ?;. . .
. ,. . 8. .
8. . . , , , ,
, , . . . 3 36
1>7 .
9. , (//. . . . .
10. /, ^ , . . . .
91, 3.
11. , , . . ( 87, 3.). . ,
. , . ', ( 142.), ^. , ^,
, , &. . (), ,. .

124.]

18 8 .

129

. . . . . , ).
, . , . , , . ,
, . . . . . .
8, . . 88. . . ). /
.
12. '|, . . . . ). ^
13. , , $. . , \ . .
. ^. . ( . ) (91, 3.).
. . /. . . . , 1
/ /^, . , . .
. . .
14. , , . () 1 ,. .
\ (1 - ( 116, 3.), ,^
,. . . ". ,.
.. . &). , .
15. , . . ( ). . . . . . 3,). (1 .
16. ,, , , &, /. .
\\ . . . . . ^.
85. .
17. , ( ^ ( !
). . ,. . (). . ().
\\ , \. . ,\ ( ').
. -.
18. /^, . . , &.
19. , . , ^. . . . '
, 8. (. . 89.)
20. , , II. 8. ' ( 82, 2.). .
/;. . . . , . .
87, 1.

130

[. .

21. -, $1, . . ,
/. . . , ^ 13
1) 08 , : .
22. , / ^, /, . .
,. . \. . II. , , () (1.
2. ! ) : ,.
23. , ] . ,. . , ,
( 142, 2.). . .
24. , ). . . . ( 142,
8.). . , ], , ].
^ 3 7 1) ! 3,
1, 1\, ^/ ; .., ,
. , 1 ; , , , , .
& , . , . , . . ( ),
. . . . .

125.

VII. 8
/.

1. , ,/ ( ^ ). ". ,
. >. . <, . (1. < (\. ,),
( 1)^ , ). . . .
. 88. . . ,
&.
2. , 811) . ^, ^. . .
3. , , , . . ^. . .
. . ^/, #. . . .
4. , /. . , &.
,), . . / ?/

126.]

, 8 .

131

5. , . . . . , 1>
.
6. , ,^. . . . . .
, . . '. . <3. &88. . .
. . . 87, 4. .
.

126.

VIII. & 8$
8 / 8//.

1. , , &, . <). ^. . .
. (. -) , . . 88. .
388. ( 98.). . . . .
. . . 87, 3. . !]. ,
.
2. , 1 (/, . ( &(1 3 , ^ , : , , , , .)
. $ ( 137.), . . . ,
.11 0 (, 8 ). (-) : ". ^0. . ?\, \, \, \, \, . .
], ,.
3. , . . . . , . .
. (. -) , . . . . ^. . 88. . . . .
4. , /. . . . . (. 87,
6.) . (. -) , , , , , 18. (
. II. , , 143.) . (. -) (2. . 82, 2.). . ,. . . (1.
&88. , -, &., . . .
. , , ( ^ ,
), &8 & , 7. . 88. , ,
. . . ). .

132

[. .

5. , . (-) . . . . . . . . 88. .
6. , 1>. (-) . . (') . .
^ <1 . II. , . , , , ,
. , . <, . , , &. (-)
. -. . (1. ,88. (-, -
' ). . (1. , , , .
. . -. .
. ,(^. , . .
7. ;/ ( 135, 8.), $/. . , ! 1, . (-) . . , , ,
. , , . . . II. , , ,
( ), , .
. : . . . . . . .
. . III. . '- : . . , , . . &88. . . ^
. . , . . ,
/, , . ). &). , .

127.

8 .

)$ / .

1. " 17 ] ,
9 & ( ! (18
] , ,
II. (1(11 ;
\! .
. 8 3 \1 8 , \

128.]

133

2. , - 8}1&1,
( 123.),
\ 8 . 1>8
, , - ,
8 ; 1> 1)68 , ,
\1, ' ^ 1>1^
, 8)86. & \
33 :
2 '--, .
--, !1.
--, ,

128.

--,
'--, 1 8.

88 / .

. \ ^ :
. 08 ,) <18 ^
-^. 8 :
.
.
.

, &3 : '--, , 2 --,



--,

-, &0

II. 18 ^ 8,
! 8 871.
08 18 :
. 8, , , , .
.
>.
.

, .8 : --, ,
8 2 --,

--, -

134

[. VII.

. , !8 .
. , : -'-, /, 4. , &3 : --, '&. 3<1 , >, 1 /,
! 2-, &31 II. . : .

129.

1. , 1;,
II. \1, (8 3 (^ ^^^(I ^ ; 2& :
"-

1---

--

2. ) ,
)8 , 1) - !868 \!
; ^ , !1
^^, , 8 ^ ,
1)6 , . :
<1 ^ (, 8 )8 ,
</) ; 3 (.);<; (;, : , ) ;

:
-- = -
- =
-- = -
-- = -

--}/ = -
-$ =
--^/ == -
--; =: -^

--- = -^
--- = --/*
--
= -

] 1) &89 3.11 !18


& ] ' ; :
, -, -, &0., -, $, , . , - &. ' ;

1. ^ /
' ; 5 : , ', &0.

3. - ,

8 .

130.]

135

8 ^ ^ , (1
(^ ; :
.
.
.
]', !>. --- = --
--- = --

. . -
-

. 1--
--


--- = --
-

--
- () \3
858 513 11 ; 83 : --, --',
--.

2. 1 , & ^ ; 85 :

130.

(/3,

1. , ! :
, , :
81* 1
2
3

2
3
&

1
2
3

<

--

-|-
--(>)
--

--/

--

(")]

--
'-- --/<(>)

^ 3. & () ^ (),
& ^^ 8-\1 .
&, -, &11\3 118 \ ^
; 3 :

1, '-- (.8 (--)


--
-

-
. --

--

--

. ! (8 ^
II. ( ^ .
4

136

. ; 8.<1 II. :
81

2
9
9
9
1
3
3

&

'--
.,
'-
. II. --
--
--
--
--

--
--
--

--
1--
--
--
--

8 & : 1--, , --, , , , , , , , & .

. (18
II., \! 1. ^&,
83 ,, ), , 1) ; 3 ;
-

--

--

--,

1. & , $
61(1<1, ^ 3. ! 5 ; :
- =
- =

- =
- =

8 83 &11 ; : ,
= , (^ *).
& ', , ,
&13 , 7 , , 3. .

. II. :
81 2

01

&1

&

1&1

2.

*-)
--
--
--
--
'--
*

('--)
--
--
--
--
--
-6'

(--)
--
~-
--
--
--
*

2. ^ -

130.]

8 .

137

< , &, , - - 1 8 1 ; ., , , , ,
-- '-
-- '-
--

--

}) 7 \ .
II. , ', 13 ^ , 18 : - 1> , '- = ?<;, - = ^; 1) . ' 3
8 , 3 : - ; &, 8 , &
, 33 : -, - ( -, 8, 5.).
, ^ ^ 1> ; 8 :
, .

/. 6 6 II.
. ; 5 1,
, ^ ( , , ),
.
63. -()-
. II. -

--
-

--
-

(-()-

8 3 ; $ :
-, \-,

. 8 <1 ; II.
, , , \!1
^^ '^ :
--
--
--
--

= -(), -, -()
= -,
,

= -,
,

= -), ,

<"", ,
, ,
, ,

&11
; 3.3 : -(, , ; /3>-'.

2. ! (18 7 \!
8 , 1>., 2. 1 , <1 ,
^ & 0&868 (
) ; 8.
& 3. ^ & / 3 - &<1 - ^ .

ON THE VERB.

138

[chap. vn.

In verbs in vpi the co-existing forms in via(y) are used, for the whole
present, and generally for the imperfect, especially for the 3. person
plural Indicative, and the Participle ; and exclusively for the Conjunctive
present, and Optative imperfect ; as : IvStiKvvw, ofivvw, ovfifiiyvvw, as well
as ivStiicvviii, o/ivu/ji, av/tfiiyvviu.

TENSE-FOKMATIOX.
131.

I. First Class of Verbs in fU.

1." In the formation of the tenses of the whole active, as


well as of the future and aorist I. middle, the short charac
teristic vowel, a, e, o, is lengthened ; viz. a into rj, s into i)
and (in the perfect active of tLQ^i and vy/u) into st, o into
co ; but it is retained in the other tenses of the middle, and all
the tenses of the passive, with the exception of the perfect
and pluperfect of rlOrj/ii and itjjii, which have the si of the
perfect active (re'deuea, TiQsifiai, etica, sI/mli).
2. The aorist I. active and middle of TiOijfii, fyfu, and
SlSco/ai has k (not <r) for its tense-characteristic :
e-drj-K-a, Tj-K-a, s-Bco-K-a.
But the forms of the aorist I. active, sffijKa, r^ica, and
eSmica, are used only in the Indicative, and principally in the
singular only ; in the other persons, as well as the other
Moods and the Participials, the forms of the aorist II. are
generally used. So, also, those of the aorist II. middle
were used instead of those of the aorist I. middle of Tidrj/u,
irjfii, and Bi&oofu. On the contrary, the Indicative forms of
the singular aorist II. of Tt'0//u, ftyu, and BlScofu (eOrjv, fy,
and sBtov) were not at all used.

VERBS IN MI.

132.]

139

3. The verb la-rrj/ii forms the aorlst I. active and middle,


like verbs in <o, with the tense-characteristic a : s-arrj-a-a,
i-avri-er-d/irjv. The aorist II. middle s<rrdp.rfv is not at all
used. But some other verbs form it ; as : hrrafii)v, hrpir
dfir)v.
Remark 1. The aorist II. and future II. passive are wanting in these
verbs, as well as the future III., except in lorq/u : iarifeu, old Attio, and
tffriiZoiiat.
Remark 2. With regard to signification, the following is to be ob
served respecting the verb i'<rr>;/ : the present, imperfect, future, and
aorist I. active have the transitive signification, to place ; on the con
trary, the aorist II., the perfect and pluperfect active, and future HI.
have the reflective or intransitive signification, to place one's self, to stand;
thus : taTt)v, Iplaced myself or stood; 'iarnKa, I have placed myself, Istand,
sto ; iarriKtiv, stdbam ; effrijfw, eoTTjiopai, stdbo (a^etrrijjw, / shall fall off)
The middle signifies either to place for one's self or have erected, or place
one's self, consistere, or have one's selfplaced, i. e. be placed.

132.

IT. Second Class of Verbs in fU.

The formation of the tenses of the second class ( 128.)


involves no difficulty. After throwing off the ending vwfii
and w/u, all tenses are formed from the stem. The verbs in
o, which have this lengthened into to in the present, retain
the <b through all the tenses ; as : crrpdo-imi-fii, ^o-wv-fjii, pmwv-p,i, yat-vw-iiL, Fut. <rrpa>-cra>, &c. But verbs whose stem
ends in a liquid, take a theme ending in a vowel in the forma
tion of some of their tenses ; as : B/i-w-fii, Aor. w/t-o-aa fr.
'OMO&>. The aorist II. and future II. passive are found
only in a few verbs ; as : %evy-w-fii.

133. Paradigms of
ACTIVE.
6E, put.
S. l
2
3
D. 1
2
3
P. 1
2
3

X-OTTJ-Q
X-otji-oi(v)
X-trra-Tov
X-txrd-Tov
t-ard-'fiiev
X-vrd-rs

AO, gwe.

Ti-Ori-pi
ri-9i\-q
Tl-0I)-(Xt(v)

(fr. lord-am)
r-irrw

ri-Oe-rov
Tt-9t-T0V
Ti-9i-ptv
ri-9t-T6
ri-9t-am(v)
& n-9itm(y)
Ti-0&

i-OTfj

n-9y

l-orij-Tov
t-arij-Tov

Tl-9r\-TOV
Tl-9rj-TOV

SttK-VV-fU \)

fii-do-rov
di~3o-Tov
Si-So-ftiv
di-So-rt
di-So-dm(v)

SeiK-vv-rov
SuK-VV-TOV
Btiic-vv-fitv
SeiK-v{(v)-d<n(v)

61-dtps
&c.

D.
3
p-i

AEIK, show.

P.
Ti-eij-re
Tt-9ui-1Jt(v)
ri-9u
(fr. H9e9t)
Ti-9k-T(a
Tl-Qt-TOV
Tl-dk-TOJV

S. 2

Si-dov
SeiK-vv
(fr. laraBi)
(fr. didoQt)
(fr. deiicvvdt)
3 i-(TTa(a)-Tta
Si-56-ru)
D. 2 X-GTa-TOV
di-do-rov
SUK-VV-'TOV
3 i-OTa(a)-Tij>v
P. 2 X-ard-Ti
t-(rra(a) -rtotrav Tl-Qk-TliMJdV
dt-S6-Ttotrav
and i-aravTtov and Ti-Qkwhiv & 8i-86vtwv SeiK-irfi-Tioffav
i-frrd(a)-vat
ri-dk-vat
af(a), Gt.dvTog
S. 1 t-ffTTJ-V
2

Tt-ddg, t(ra, kv
G. EVTOQ
(-H-9ovv

'l-<JTrj

i-ri-9u

X-vra-Tov
t~<rrd(a)-Trjv
X-tTTa-ftev
7-ora-rc

i-Tl-0l-TOV
i-Tl-9i-Tt\V
c-H-9t-/iev
h-Tl-Qt-Tt
k-Ti-Qt-trav

Si-dovg, ovaa,
6vt Gr.OVTOQ ^(w), Gr. VVTOQ 2)f
i-di-Sovv
e-detK-vvv
e-St-Sovc

D.

impi. tduKwov, vit, ve(v). See 130. Remark 3.

k-Sl-So-TOV

ISftK-VV-TOV
i-Bstic-vv-fiev

s-Si-do-TC
t-dt-do-ffav

i-SttK-vv-trav
So also in the

Verbs in fit.
MIDDLE.
2TA, place.

6E, put.

AO, give.

AEIK, show.

X-ora-oOe
X-ora-VTat

Ti-9i-n<u
rl-9t-aai and ri-9y
tI-9i-toi
Ti-9k-fit9ov
rl-9i-o9ov
Tt-9t-o9ov
Ti-9i-/it9a
ri-9i-o8e
Ti-9i-vTat

1-aTbj-fiai 3)
i-arp
i-VTij-Tai
1-OTW-/K0OJ'
i-ffTij-(r9ov
i-orrj-aBov
i-arta-ixtBa
UoT>j-a8c
l-OTU-VTai

TL'9w-fiai
n-9y
Tt-9i)-Tai
Tl-9li)-fl(9oV
Ti-9rj-<r9ov
Ti-8rj-o9ov
TL-9io-fif9a
Tt-9rj-<r9i
Ti-9io-vrai

'i-ara-ao and
X-artii
t-ffra-(T06>
X-ffra-<r9ov
i-ora-a9oiv
X-ara-oQt
\-rrTa-a9uaav and
\-ara-a9iav

n-Be-ao and
5i-5o-<ro and
ri-9ov
Ti-9e-a9to
SL-So-trBov
t'i-9&-o9ov
Ti-9e-o9uiv
SfSo-aBuiv
Si-do-a8t
Ti-9e<r9e
Ti-8t-a9aoav and Si-So-oBuitrav and
Ti-Bi-aBiav
Si-S6-a0wv

Seuc-vv-ffBu)
SsLK-VV-ffBoV
SiiK-vv-aBiov
Silx-vv-aBt
foiK-vv-oBwaav and
diiK-vv-a6oiv

X-ara-a9ai

Ti-9t-a9ai

SitK-vv-otiqi

X-ara-fiai
X-crrd-ffai
X-ard-Tai
i~t7Ta(a)-fi6ov
X-fTra-aSov
X-trra-a9ov

i-ara(a)-ntvo, t], Tt-9e-fisvoe, tj, ov


ov
l-ri-9't-jir\v
X-ma-co and
i-Ti-9t-ao and
X-I7TU1
l-H-9ov
T-ffra-ro
t-Tl-9t-TO
i-aTa(ji)-iit9ov
i-ri-9t-fit9ov
X-gtci*u9ov
i-Tl-9i-ts9oV
i-ard-tjBrjv
l-Ti-9k~(r8j]v
l-OTa(a)-fii8a
l-Ti-9e-/it9a
X-trra-aBe
i-Ti-9e-o9t
l-Tl-9l-VTO
X-OTCt-VTO

ii-to-fuu
fii-So'Tai
Si-fio-fttBov
51-So-ffBov
Si-So-oBov
li-d6-/i(Ba
Si-So-oBe
It-So-vrai

dtU-vv-fiat
duK-vu-aai
fietK-vij-Tai
ftuK-vvtv^'jitBov
StiK-vv-o8uv
SeiK-vv-aBuv
dtiic-vv(v)-)it8a
SciK-vv-trBt
StiK-vv-vrat
8eucvv-(t}[ica
fcucvv-y
&c.

Si-Shi-fiedop
Si-lw-aBov
Si-fito-ffBov
St-Sw-fieBa
Si-d<S-(r8e
li-Sui-VTai

Si-So-aBm

StiK-vv-ao

di-di-ptvog, ij, ov
k-Si-86'HTjv
l-Si-So-oo and
l-Si-lov
l-Sl-So-TO
i-Si-So-ptBov
t-fii-So-^ov
e-di-do-aBtjv
t-tiL'dv-fitBa
i-Si-Bo-oBi
i-fii-fio-vro

V> ov
i-SuK-vv(y)-)iriv
1-Bt'iK-vv-ao
1-dltK-VV-TO
l-SeiK-vifti') -jicBov
i-fieiK-vv-aBov
i-fciK-vv-o8tiv
i-$tiK-vv(i?)-jitBa
i-StiK-vv-aBe
1-Se'lK-VV-VTO

2) commonly lcwvv(y)-o>v, ovaa, ov. 130. Remark 3.


3) Upon the anomalous accentuation of kmaTa/iai, &c, see } 134, 1.

142

ON THE VERB.

[chap. vtl

ACTIVE continued.
ETA, place.

"8o

eE, jtwtf.

S. l
2
3
D. 1
2
3
P. 1
2
3

l-ffTai-Tov 1)
i-trrai-rtjv
i-<rrai-pev
i-(rrai-Tt
i-arai-ev

S. 1
2
3

1-vTti-v, Istood Q-9r,-v)


t-arrj~Q
t-arr\

D. 1
2
3
P. 1
2
3
S. 1
2
3
D. 1
2
3
P. 1
2
3

Tt-Ott-IJV
rt-Qei-Tjg

AO, give.

Bt-doi-tjs
St-Sot-TJ

i-arai-ij
ti-Oei-tov 1)
Ttr-Btl-TffV
TL-BeX-fiev
rt-Oel-re
Tl-Qti-tV

AEIK, show.

Seikvv (v)~oiq
&c.

Sl-Soi-TOV 1)
St-doi-rtjv
St-dot-re
(e-Bw-p)

(t-oV)
5d ^
wantins;

e-arrj-rov
i-tJTr\-Ty\v

t-9e-rov
t-9e-rrjv
t-9e-fiev
e-9e-te

t-So-fiev
E-do-TE

ffrw 2)

9& 2)

S& 2)

(TTto-fXtV
(TT7J-TE

9j
9rj-rov
9rj-TOv
9w-flV
9i}-Te
9ut-ai(y)
9e'i-tiv
9e'i-tiq

l~UTi\-tsav

fjrca-r\v
vtai-t)

CUJ-TOV
filZ-TOV
ddS-fiEV

Sot-TJV
dot-JJ

D.
(rrai-TjTov 3)
(TTCtl-r}TT]V
arat-ijfitv
(jTa'i-r\TE

9ti-T)TOV 3)
9et-rjrtiv
9ei-T}[1V
9et-rjT
9ei-ev

Soi-rjrov 3)
Sot-r}Tijv
Soi-rjfiEV
So't-rjTE
Sot-EV

1) See $130. Remark 1.


2) The compounds as a-rrooTu, IkQiS, Siadw, have the same accentuation as
the simples ; as : cnrooTuiai, ticfl^rov, SiaSiJfitv.
3) See 130. Remark 1.

133.]

VERBS IN MI.

143

MIDDLE continued.
STA, place.

6E, put.

i-<TTal-pnv 4)
i-oTai-o
i-OTai-ro
\-OTax-pit9ov
l-arai-oGov

Ti-9oi-ptiv 5)
n-9oi-o
Tl-9oX-TO
Ti-9ot-iu9ov
Ti-9oi~c9ov
Ti-9oi-ff9nv
Ti'9oi'fit9a
Ti-9oi-tj9t
TI-961-VTO

ii-$oi-priv
SiSoi-o
li-doi-ro
Si-Soi-/it9ov
St-Soi-a9ov
di-8oi-a9t]v
8t-fioi-nt9a
8t-8oi-<T9
$l-86i-VTO

i-9i-jinv
i-9ov (fr. ?0<ro)
l-9t-TO

i-86-firiv
(Sov (fr. loom)
E-So-TO

i-9'i-fi(9ov
i-9e-<r9ov
i-9i-o9nv
i-9k-fit9a
!-9e-<r9e
-9t-VTO

l-$6-fif9ov
t-8o-a9ov

9(a-/tai 6)
H
9rj-rai
9to-fie9ov
9rj-o9ov
9ij-(r9ov
9(I>-fit9a
9ij-a9e
9(2-vrai
(arai-priv is not Ooi-jiriv 7)
found ; but :
9ol-o
irpiaijxnv, aio, 9oi-ro
airo, &C.)
9ot-fie9ov
9oi-a9ov
9oi-o9t)v
9oi-iii9a
9ol-o9e
9oi-vto

Sw-pai 6)

I'ffrai-fieBa
i-rjrai-n9t
L'UTai'VTO
(i-ord-ptiv is not
found; but:

AO, give.

AEIK, show.

deiKVv(v)-oto
&c.

i-Trpia-fir]v)

(orw-^ai is not
found ; but :
irpi-w/iai)

wanting

l-S6-p.i9a
i-lo-a9c
i-So-VTO

SdS-rat
S(o-fxt9ov
dtS-trOov
Sw-trOe
du>-vTai
Sot-fxrjv 7)
Soi-o
$oT-ro
Sot-fisQov
Soi-aBov
Soi~a9rjv
doi-fieQa
Soi-aOe
Soi-VTO

4) Upon the accentuation in liriaraia, &c see <5 134, 2.


5) See 134, 2.
6) In composition, lv0up.m, y, ijrm, &C., anoQiSpm, y, ijrai, &c, ixiiSfUU,
j>, curat, &c., dicolufiai, , wrai &c.
7) See 134, 2.

144

ON THE VERB.

[chap, to.

ACTIVEcontinued.
Numbers.
Tenses.

Persons.

Moods.

JITA, place.

a
f>
H
MH
o<
ii2

3
1
a
H00
I

S. 2
3
D. 2
3
P. 2
3

BE, put.

AO, give.

OTrj-9l 1)
(rrri-TU)
arij-TOv
<TTl)-rt0V
nrrf-Tt
CTtj-TlOffaV &
ardvruiv

9sg (fr. Sift) 2) S6g (fr. S69i) 2)


9t-T(0
Qt-TOV
9t-TU)V
86-Te
B't-riaaav and do-ruHTav and

OTtj-vai

Qti-vai

AEIK, show.

p-i

ordg(a), a<ra, 9eig, liaa, iv


Gr. 8'lVTOQ
av
Gr. avrof

dove, dovaaf bv
G. SoVTOQ

B
Aob.
I.

NX
&

t-ffrij-ica 3)
sto.

e-9n-Ka
H-ai-Ka
for the dual a nd plural Indicative, and t le other Moods
and Particip lals, aorist II.
( 131, 2.).
re-0i-ica
Ss-Su>-Ka

t-arriZiU) old
Att.

Se-^uxa

i-dt-SJit-Keiv

i-arrj-Ktiv &
i \
F.III.

t-SuiZa

wanting

wanting

wanting

PASSIVE.
AOEIST I.

-ora(a)-0i))>

{-rt-ftjv 4)

e-do-Brjv

i-SttX~6nv

1) And in composition : wapd<TTn9i, irapaard ; air6<rrt]9i, dvoBTa ( 130.


Remark 2.).
2) In composition : irtpWtg, tvQig ; av6Sog, eicfiog ; plur. TrtpiOtrt, exSore.
3) See 134, 3.

VERBS IN MI.

133.]

145

MIDDLE - continued.
2TA, place.

6E, pvt.

AO, give.

(ara-ao and
aria are not
found; but:
irpiaao
or

9oi (fr. 66<T0) 5)


9t-<r6u
9t-a9ov
9k-tr9uiv
0E-<T0E
9k-a9inaav and
9t-a9wv

Soi (fr. Jotro) 5)


d6-o9ut
S6~tr9ov
S6-o9btv
lo-a9c
86-a9(o(rav and
S6-a0uv

AEIK, show.

(ara-aBai) itpi- 9i-<jQai


aaOai
(ffra-/iVOs) 7rpt- 9'i-p.lVOQ, IJ, OV
ajitvoQ

lo-a9m

(TT-q-ffofiai

9ii-aofiai

Su)-ffofiai

i-aTJi-oapriv

t-SttZafit)v
Q-97j'Kd-fjLrjv
(i-Sw-Ka-firjv)
for these the Att ics used the aorist
H. middle, 13 1,2.

i-aTa-fica

T-9et-ftai

Se-So-pat

St-Seiy/iai

l-Tt-9n-fit)v

l-St-l6-p.i]v

ISi-Seiyfitjv

wanting

wanting

i-aTiiXofiai

So-fitvos, n, ov

ItiZopai

wanting

PASSIVE.
Future I.

BTa-Qriaopai

Tf9>'i<roiiai 4)

SiiX-9ti<j<>iiai

4) tTtSnv and 7-0i;(xo/jai instead of I9t9>)v and eteqaofiai, see 8,


5) In composition : naraBov, amBov, mpiSov, av6Sov ; but ivBuv
tisBov, vpodov, Mov ( 84. Kemark 2.).

ON THE VERB.

146

134.

[chap. vn.

Remarks on-the Paradigms.

1. The verbs Svvafiat, I can, iiritrra/iaty I know, Kpe/iafmt, 2 hang, and


irpiaoiat, to buy, have an accentuation differing from that of 'hrafiai, in
the Conjunctive present, and Optative imperfect, viz.: Conj. tivvtoftai,
liri<TTU>iiai, jj, ijrai, nriQov, noBf, tavrai ; Opt. $vva'ipr}v, lmaraiu.r)V, ato, aire,
aioBov, aiade, aivro ; so also, ovatftrjv, ato, atro. ( 135, 4.)
2. The middle Optative-forms of the imperfect and aorist II. in ot :
Ti8oiiinv, Sotpnv, are preferred to those in ft : rtBii/inv, tlo, tiro, &c, Beifiriv,
eTo, tiro, &c. In composition, the accent remains as in the simple verbs,
thus : ivBoiiiriv (iv6ti)i>]v), IvBoto QvBtlo), &c. This is also true with
respect to the compounds of doi/ir/v ; as : diadol/inv, diaSolo, &c.
3. The perfect and pluperfect : to-rtjica, fori/nav (not tlariiKuv) form the
dual and plural immediately from the stem, viz. : i-ara-rov, 'i-o-ra-pev,
e-vra-rt, t-crraff((v) : PIpf. 'i-ara-rov, drijv, t-tjra-fuv, E-ora-rt, E-ora-oav ;
e<rravat(a) is regularly used instead of iarriKkvai. The Participle appears
in the form lartag, Saa, wg, Gr. drog, wane, as well as icrrnnug, via, 6g, G.
orog, vlag.
4. The forms of the imperfect : MOovv, tig, a, idlSow, ovg, ov, are
formed according to the conjugation in km and 6<o. The other forms :
iriffiiv, ng, n, iSiSuiv, tag, w, are not used. ( 130. Kem. 3.)

Survey of Verbs in MI.


I. Verbs in fu which join the Personal Endings immediately
on to the Stem-Vowel.
135.

Verbs in a (Z-trrq-fu, 2TA-).

1. icl-xpTj-fii, Ilend, Ilet out (XPA-), KV)(pavai. Fut. "Xpr\<ra>, &C. Mid. to borrow. Fut. xprjaofiai. (Aor. exprjtraprjv
is not used by the Attics in this sense.) To the same stem
belong :

VERBS IN MI.

135.]

147

2. XPV> oportet (root XPA- and XPE-), Conj. XPV> Inf.


Xprjvai, Part, (to) ypswv. Impf. s^prjv or 'xprjv, Opt. xpsir)
(fr. XPE-) ; and,
3. anb~j(p7], it is sufficient, sufficit, formed regularly from
XPAX1 : aTroypaxTW, Inf. atroj^v. Impf. airi-^pr). Aor.
airi^prjasiv), &c. Mid. airo^pwyiui, I have enough, airoj^rja6ai, is like xpdo/uu.
4. hvivrini, I benefit ('ONA), ovivavai. Impf. Act. wanting.
Fut. 6vrj(ra>, Aor. tovrjcra. Mid. ovivafiai, I Iiave advantage.
Fut. ovrja-ofMU. Aor. II. {bvijfirjv, r)<To, rjTO, &c., Imper. ovTjao,
Part, ovrjfievos, Opt. ovaifitjv, aio, avro ( 134, 1.), Inf.
ovaaOai. Aor. Pass. wvrjOriv instead of mvr\)it\v. The other
forms are supplied by axfrsksiv.
5. 7Ti'-/i-7r\?7-/4t, J
(IIAA-), TTifnrXdvai. Impf. iTr{/j,7r\r]v.
Fut. 7r\?;(reo. Aor. hrXrjcra. Mid. irLfi/irkaixai, trLixirKaaOai.
Impf. sTri,/jLTr\dfirjv. Perf. Mid. or Pass. viifK^aiiat,. Aor.
Pass. ir\tf(r0r}v. Mid.
The /j in the reduplication of this and the following verb, falls away if
a n comes before the reduplication, in composition ; as : ifuriirXa^ai, but
iveirifiirXdfirjv.
6. iri/j,7rprjfjLi, I burn, transitive, exactly like Trt/nrXTj/u.
7. TAH-MI, I bear. Pres. and Impf. wanting (instead of
these, mroixhw, avs^o/j,ai). Aor. efKqv, rXavrjv, rXfjOi, rXds.
Fut. rXtfcrofiai. Perf. rhX^Ka (upon the forms TirXafisv, &c,
(see 134, 3.).
8. <fyrj-fih 1 say (stem <E>A-) has the following formation.

Indie.

Present.
<t"wl *)
S. 1
2 Ms
3 <pijai{v)
D. 2 $CLT&V
3 Qarov
P. 1 tpa/iev
2 (pare
3

ACTIVE.

Indie.

V 2

Imperfect.
S. 1 tfrjv
2 tym, usually eipqada
3
D. 2 ttyaTOV
3 l(pdrriv(a)
P. 1
2 itpart
3 ifaaav

148

Conj.
Imper.

ON THE VERB.
Present.
pu, <pyg, </>$, prjrov, fwptv, Opt.

[chap. vir.
Imperfect.
fjLiv and Qaipsv, 0at^r,
and 0air, <pauv

0a 0t or 0d0t(d), 0arw(a),
^arov(a),
0drwi'(d),
Fut.
Aor.

Infin.
Part.

(6ae, 0d<ra, <pav, G. favroq,


facing

MIDDLE.
Verb. adj. (parog, fariog.
Perf. Imper. vKjiaaQto, let it be said.
In composition, as : dvn'0>;/, oifupniii, dvriiprig, aijifyg, avrifnoi, avjitynai, &c. ; but Conj. avntyiZ, avrupyg, &c.
Remark 1. In the 2. person : <py"g, both the accentuation and the i sub
scribed are contrary to all analogy. Upon the inclination of the accent
of this verb in the Indicative present (except <Pye), see 15.
Remark 2. This verb has a double signification : a) to say, in general ;
b) to affirm (aio~), to assert, to advance, to assent, &c. The future friuta,
however, has only the latter signification, the former was expressed by
XiJ-w, Ipii. The imperfect *nv, with favai and fag, is used aoristically.
The following deponents should be added :
1. dyafiai, I admire. Impf. rjydfiTjv. Aor. rp/da6r)v. Fut.
a/ydcrofj.ai.
2. hvvaficu, I can, hvvacrai, &c., Conj. Svvcofiat. ( 134, 1.),
Impr. Svvacro, Inf. Suvacr6ai, Part. Svvdftsvos. Impf. iSwdfwjv and rjhw., iSvva, &C., Opt. hx/vaifjuqv, Zvvaio ( 134, 1.).
Put. hvinjaoixat. Aor. hhvvr)Qi]v and r$. and shwdaOrjv ( 85.
Rem.). Perf. hehvvqfiat,. Verb. adj. SvvaTos, possible and
powerful.
3. siriaraixai, I know, sTriaraaai, &c., Conj. hrurrwftai
( 134, 1.), Impr. hrierTW, &c. Impf. rjirurrdpvqv, rjirlarai, &c,
Opt. STrurraLyi/rjv, sirlcrraio ( 134, 1.). Fut. hricrrqcrojj.ai,.
Aor. rfrru7Tr\dr\v. Verb. adj. hrurrTjros.
4. spafiai, I love, ipdco is used for it, in prose, in the Pres.
and Impf. Aor. qpdaO^v, amavi. Fut. spacrdrjcrofiai, amabo.
5. Kpsfutfuii, I hang, pende.o. Ooni. Koiiunaai ( 134, 1.).

136.]

VERBS IN MI.

149

Impf. sKpsfidfirjv, Opt. Kpsfiaifirjv, aio, airo ( 134, 1.). Aor.


SKpsfidad'qv. Fut. Kpsfirja-o/jxti, pendebo.
6. irplaaQai^ to buy, hrpidfiTjv, defective. Aor. Mid. hrpidfirjv, which the Attics used instead of the Aor. of wviofuu:
icovrjadfiTjv (87, 4.), not used by them; Conj. irpUop,ai
(134, 1.), Opt. Kpiaifj.rjV, aio, avro ( 134, 1.), Impr. irptaao
or irpla>, Part, jrpidfisvos.

136.

Verbs in s (Ti-6y-/M, E-).

1. Z-ij-fii (stem 'E-), I send.


found only in composition.

Many forms of this verb are

ACTIVE.
Ind. ir/fu, 'irje, 07<rt(v) ; 'Utov; 'Ufifv, urt, trtfft(j') or U~ioi(v)
Conj. id, lye, ifj; iijrov; t&)itv, iijrt, iwai(v) ; a<piu, d^ifjc, &c.
Imper. (i'ffli) hi, ierai, &c. Inf. Uvai. Part, ic, iflira, iiv
Impf. Ind. "wvv (fr. 'IEQ), a<piovv or r)ipiovv (seldom Veiv), Vtis, t'tt ; Tfror,
tsr/v ; Xe^iev, fcrf, Vcffai*. Opt. iti'i/v
Perf. t Ka. Plpf. ti'icfii'. Fut. ?/(Tw. A. I. f/Ka ( 131, 2.)
A.H. Ind. Sing, is supplied by Aor. I. 131, 2.); D. tiror, tlrjjv;
P. tlfiiv, KaOtTfitv, tire, avtiTt, uaav, aQtZuav. Conj. a, d^w,
yCi &0. Opt. efyv, tfyc, tT?7 ; firov, efrijv ; ffytti', Jrt, elev.
Imper. fc, a0tf, srw ; sVoj', erwi> ; ere, 'iriaaav and tVrwi'.
Inf. elvai, a<j>tivai. Part, etc, ei<7, fr, G. evroc, ffoi/c, 0fvtoc.
MIDDLE.
Pres. Ind. Tf/im, Tc(ra(, frrat, &c. Conj. tuifiai, afiwfiai, iy, cctpty, &c.
Imper. frixo or Ton. Inf. leadai, Part, ie/ifvof, rj, ov
Impf. i&lirjv, 'Uoo, &c. Opt. ioifLjjv (letfiqv), iolo, cupioto, Sec.
Conj. tiifiai, d(pw/j.ai, r], d$y, firm, dfijTai
ATIL Ind. iXfLtiv
elao, dipiioo Opt. wpooipriv, oio, olro, otfuBa, &C.
tiro, dipeXro Imper. ot>, eoflw, &c.
f?ju9a, &c.
Inf. Mat. Part. t'lUfvof, rj, ov
Perf. iiimi, fitdti/icu. Inf. tiaSai, fufeioSai. Plpf. i1inr}v, ilao, dftiao, &c,
Fut. riaofmi. Aor. I. r/icri/iijv only in the Ind. and that very seldom.
Pres.

PASSIVE.
Aor. I. iX8r\v, Part. iBitg. Put. ISriaofiat. Verb. adj. eroc, trloc (a^trof)
Remark. Upon the augment of a<j>itiiii, see $ 91, 3.
L 3

ON THE VERB.

150
137.

[chap, vn

TZt/ii (stem 'E2-), I am ; and Et/xt (stem '!-), Igo.

Present.
Indicative, Conjunctive.
Zi
S. 1 fifit, I am
S. 1
2 el
2
ft
3 IotI(v)
3
i
D. 2 iarov
ryrov
D. 2
ryrov
3 tffTOV
3
utjiev
P. 1 tophv
P. 1
flTS
2 ItfTS
2
3 tlot(v)
3
Imperative.
Infinitive.
S. 2 lo9i
tlvai
S. 2
3 tOTht
3
Participle.
D. 2 tdTOV
tZv, ovaa, ov D. 2
3 tOTUtV
3
Gen. ovTog,
P. 2 tare
P. 2
ovaijQ
3
3
more rarely iarttiv
(still more rarely
ovtwv)

Indicative. Conjunctive.
Igo
iu
el
"iyt
eloi(y)
"lV
irov
iqrov
Irov
lijrov
ifief
lIDfUV
ire
itjTe
laai(v)
Mdl(v)
Imperative. Infinitive.
ievai
ITU), irpogLru} Participle.
irov
i'wj>, iovaa lov
Gr. IOVT0Q,
in
iovatjg
iTUoav or
iovruv

Imperfect.
Optative.
Indicative.
Optative.
eiijv
S. 1
S. 1 fietv of
loifii or
this
!?a, I went
ioiriv
2
eh)
yeiQ or
3
lotc
eh}Tov
D. 2
yeiaQa
3
tot
eh'lTTjv
foirov
D. 2 yeirov or
yrov
eirifiev (elfiev^
P. 1
loirr/v
8 yeirtjv or
etrjTe (ft")
2
yrijv
P. 1 yei/iev or
ioipev
eirjaav and
rjp.ev
tiev
"wire
2 yeire or
yre
"oiev
3 rjeffav
Fut. tnofiat, effy or effei, tffTcu, &c,
Upon the signification of the
Opt. Itjoifirjv, I. eveoQat, P. iaofievog
present, see Remark 3. below
TIndicative.
i\v
r\tjQa
tjv
rfTov or
7]<7TOV
r/rriv or
ijoTtjv
rjjiev
r\re or
ijerre
rjaav

Remark 1. Upon the inclination of the present of dpi, I am (except


the 2. person fl), see J 15. In compounds, the accent rests upon the
preposition as far as the general rules of accentuation allow ; as : Trdpet/it,
jzapei, naperiTi, &C, Imper. 7rapi<rfli; but irapr\v, on account of the
syllabic augment; irap'eorai on account of the e which has fallen away
(irapeoerai) ; wapeivai as an Infinitive with the ending vai ; irapS>, ye, y,

VERBS IN MI.

138.]

151

&c, on account of the contraction ; irapwv, G. ovrog, according to 84.


Kern. 2.
Remark 2. The compounds of et/jt, eo, follow the same rules as those
of tlpi, sum ; hence many forms of the compounds of both verbs are alike ;
as : Traptifiiy irapu and Trapuai (3. singular of ci/u and plural of fi/iQ ; but
Inf. Trap'uvai, Part, Trapiav.
Remark 3. The present of cT/ii, eo, principally in the Indicative, but
also in the Infinitive and Participle, has the signification of the future,
in the Attic dialect : I shall go or come. Hence, the present is supplied
by Ipxopcu ( 126, 2.).

138. II. Verbs in fit which affix the Personal Endings, after
the Addition of the Syllable wv or vv to the Stem- Vowel.
Tense-Formation of Verbs whose Stem ends in a, t, o, and those whose Root ends
in a Liquid.
A. Verbs with a Stem ending in a, c, o.
Voice.

Tense.

a. stem in a.

b. stem in .

c. stem in o(w).

VKtSd-VVV-fil*
KOp't-VVV-m*
orpw-vvv-fiL *
e-GKt$a-vvv-v *
b-KOp&-VVV~V * i-GTph)-VVV-V *
Kt-KOpl-KO.
i'ffKsda-Ka
i-arpw-Ka
{.-(TKeSd(a)-KEtv i-Kt-KOp'k-KHV
l-arpiii-Ktiv
GKt$d(a)-<jw
CTpO)-(JU)
Att. KOptD, -ft, -l
Att. okeB&j -fa,
i-Kope-aa
i-arpb)-<ja
Aorist
GKtSd-vvv-fiai
Kopk.-vvv-p.ai
(TTpto-VVV-flClt
Present
l-ffKtda-vvv^v^l-(rrpw-wv(i))Impf.
firjv
fiTJV
firjv
t-GKeSa-a-fiat
Kt-Kope-a-fiat
E-orpw-fiai
Perfect
t-aRedd-ff-fitjv i-KE-KOps-a-firiv
E-<jrpdj~p,i}v
Middle Plupf.
KOpk-G-Ofiai
Future
1-KOpt-ff-dfllJV
Aorist
Ki-Kopk-a-Ofiat
Fut. m.
E-Kope-(T-9rjv
l-GKi8d-G-9riv
l-orpw-Orjv
Aorist
KopE-o-'Orjaofiai oTptii-9i)<TOfiat
(TKBda-G-OrjffoPassive Future
ftat
(TKeSa-G-TOQ
KOpi-O-TOQ
(TTptO-TVQ
Verb. adj.
0K6da-(X-TEOQ
KOpf-<T-TOQ
<TTp(O-TE0
* And <TK$a-VVVlO) i-(TK8a-VVVOV KOpt-VVVW, l-KOpk-WVOV OTjOW-WlSw,
i-(TTp(b,-vvvov (y always short).
L 4
Present
Impf.
Perfect
Active Plupf.
Future

152

ON THE VERB.

[chap, vil

B. Verbs with a Stem ending in a Consonant.


oX-Xi>-/u* perdo o\-\v-fiai
pereo
wX-Xi-v*
it\-\v(v)-fir]v
Impf.
Perfect L (iX-ciXt-ea ('OAE 0), perdidi,
89. .
Perf. 11. oX-wX-ar, peril
Plupf. I. iX-iuXs-zccix, penlideram
Plupf. H. S\-u\-uv, perier am
ok-ovfiati ft
<5X-<3, eij
Future
A. II. iA-ojir]v
Aorist I. <3Xs-<ra

Ofi-vv-fiai

Present

Wfi-VV-V *
6[i-b>fio-<r-pai
(OMOQ)
89.
<5/i-W/iO-KlV

6p-<i>ii6-o-ni]ii

o/i-ovfiai, ti

d)flO-ffOflIJV
A. I. Pass. i)fw-9r]v
F. I. Pass, bp
* And tSXXu-w, <Z\\v-ov ofivi-m, w/ivv-ov (u everywhere).

Remark. "OWv/ii arises by assimilation from SK-vv-fii. For an example


of a stem ending in a mute, see Sukvvixi above, among the paradigms,
$ 133. The Participle perfect, middle or passive, of opvvfti is dfnofioopivoQ. The other forms of the perfect and pluperfect, as well as the
aorist I. passive, are usually without the a among the Attics ; as : fyid/jorai,
ifUOflOTO,

Survey op Verbs belonging to these Two Classes.


The stem ends :
139.

A. In a vowel and takes -wv.

a) In a.
1. Kspd-wv-fu, I mix. Fut. Kspaaa>(a), Att. icepS). Aor.
ttdpaaa. Perf. niicpaica. Perf. Mid. or Pass, /cd/cpafiat. Aor.
Pass. iicpd6r]v{a), also eKSpdcrdrjv. Mid.
2. Kpsp^-wv-jii, 1 hang, transitively. Fut. -aow(a), Att.
KpsfiS). Aor. sKpifiatra. Mid. or Pass. KpspAvw/uu, I hang my
self or am hanged (but Kpe/j,a/xai, I hang, intrans. 135, 5.).
Fut. Pass. KpEixaaOrjooiuu. Aor. iKpsfjuurBrjv, I teas hanged
or I hung, intrans.

139.]

VEUBS IN ML

153

3. TTSTti-wv-fii, I spread out, I open. Fut. irsraaa>{a), Att.


7TST0). Perf. Mid. or Pass, irhnapMu Aor. Pass, hirsrao-drjv.
4. a/csSd-wv-ixi, I scatter. Put. aKsBdo-a>(a), Att. cvesSw.
Perf. Mid. or Pass. icr/ciSacruai. Aor. Pass. eo-KsBda0Tjv.
b) In s.
1. s-vvv-fj,i, I clothe, in prose dp,<pilwvp,i. Imperf. without
augm. Fut. d/Kpisaeo, Att. a/i<pi&. Aor. rjfupieo-a. Perf. Mid.
or Pass. rj/j,(f>isafiai, ijfupleaai, qft<pUoTai, &c, Inf. r/fMpUaOat.
Fut. Mid. dfj.<ptsao/j,ai. Augm. 91, 3.
2. g-wv-/ii, I boil, trans. Fut. &ra>. Aor. s^eo-o. Perf.
Mid. or Pass, s^so-fiai. Aor. Pass. V^iaQip.
on the
contrary, usually intrans.)
3. Kopi-vvv-y.i, I satiate. Fut. Kopsam, Att. o/3w. Aor. copfcra. Perf. Mid. or Pass, /ce/copso-fiai. ' Aor. Pass. EKopiaOrjv.
Mid.
4. a-^i-vvv-fii, I quench. Fut. <r/3io-a>. Aor. I. io-fizaa, 1
quenched. Aor. II. ia$r)v, I went out, or / was extinguished.
Perf. so-^rjKa, I am gone out, or quenched. Perf. Mid. or
Pass. Eo-fteo-fiai. Aor. Pass. sa^ea6r]v. Besides this verb,
there is no other in vw/ii with an Aor. II.
5. arop^-wv-fii,, I spreadforth ; shortened, oTopw/u. Fut.
oTopio-co, Att. aTopS). Aor. saropscra. The remaining tenses
from arprnvvvfii: sarpcofiai, earpwdvv, (rrponos. See 138,
A, c.
c) In o, which, however, is lengthened into a>.
1. %co-wv-fj.i, Igird. Fut. fajow. Aor. ifyoaa. Perf. Mid.
or Pass. itfocjiaL ( 95.). Mid.
2. pdn-wv-fu, Istrengthen. Fut. pmaw. Aor. tppascra. Perf.
Mid. or Pass, eppwfiat. Impr. sppcoao, vale. Inf. eppGxrOai.
Aor. Pass, spptoaffrjv (95.)
3. <rrpo>-vvv-fU, I spreadforth. Fut. arpoiffo). Aor. ecrrpa)aa, &c, see aropsppv/ii.

154

ON THE VERB.

[chap. VII.

4. ^pxo-wv-fii, / colour. Fut. "xpwra. Aor. sxpatra. Perf.


Mid. or Pass. Kexpoo/uu.

140.

B. The stem ends in a consonant and takes -vv


w-ft. 133.).

1. wy-w-fti, I break. Put. agoo. Aor. g'a^a, Inf. a|fat


Perf. II. ear/a, I am broken. Aor. Pass. sdr/T]v(a). Augm.
87, 4. Mid.
2. e"py-vv-/u or sipyco, I shut in. Put. eip^a. Aor. etpfja.
(but sipyco, dp%a>, elp%a, I shut out.)
3. %evy-vv-fii, Ijoin. Fut. ev<B. Aor. sevtja. Perf. Mid.
or Pass, s^svypai. Aor. Pass. i^ev^Oijv, e^vyrjvfii).
4. p,vy-vv-/j,i, I mix. "Fut. /u'&>. Aor. e/xt^a, pugai. Perf,
fjjfii^a. Perf. Mid. or Pass, tisLuy/uu. Aor. Pass. spji%6r]v,
s/xlryr)v(i). Fut. III. fiepi^Ofiai.
5. oiy-irii-fii or ot<ya>, in prose dvotr/wfu, avolr/m, I open.
Impf. dvdcoyov. Fut. dvolfjco. Aor. dviqi^a, avoigai. Perf. I.
avsar^a, I have opened. Perf. II. dv^qyya, I stand open, for
which the Attics use dviaypai. Aor. Pass. dvsw^Qrp), avotySrfvai. Augm. 87, 6.
6. 6p,6py-vv-/u, I wipe off. Fut. hpLp^w. Aor. cb/Aopga.
Mid.
7. op-vv-Lu, I stir up. Fut. Spam. Aor. wpaa. Mid. opw/tat, / rowse myself, I rise. Fut. opovpuu. Aor. mpo/irjv.
8. ir^y-vv-fMi, Ifasten. Fut. irrfew. Aor. sinj^a. Perf. I.
irsirrfxa. Perf. II. irsirTfya, I stand fast. Mid. Tnfyiwpai, I
continue to stick. Perf. Treirrjypai,, I standfast. Aor. Pass.
tirdyr}v{a). Mid.
9. prfj-vv-p.1, I tear, Fut. /^fo). Aor. epprj^a. Perf. II.
eppayya, I am torn. Aor. II. Pass. sppdyr]v(a). Fut. payrjaoficu.

141.]
141.

VERBS IN MI.

155

Inflexion of the Two Perfects, Kstfiai and fjfiai.

a) Ka/wu, I lie down.


Ksl/xai, properly, I have laid myself, I am lain down, hence,
I lie down, is a perfect without reduplication.
Perf. Ind. ksi/mu, Kslcrai, Kslrai, xefyuda, iceiarde, Kslvrai. Conj.
Ksa/iai, Kirj, Kslrai, &c. Impr. Ksiao, KslaOco, &c. Inf.
Kslffdai. Part. Kslfievos.
Plpf. Ind. SKEifir/v, sksuto, sksito, 3. PL skslvto. Opt. KSoLfurfv,
KSOiO, KSOVTO, &C.
Put. Kslaofuu.
Compounds, dvdtceifiai, KaraKsifiai, /card/ceio-ai, &c. Inf.
Karaicuadai. Impr. kotokskto, sjKsuro.
b) rH/jLai, I sit.
1. *H/xat, properly, I have set myself, I have been set, hence,
I sit, is a perfect belonging to the poetical active form of the
aorist, eta-a, I did set, Ifounded. The stem is 'HA- (compare
fi<r-rai instead of fjS-rai [according to 8, 2, 7.], and the
Latin sed-eo).
Perf. Ind. rjfuu, fjaai, rjarai, rj(ie6a, r\a0s, r\vrai. Impr. 7)ao,
r\aOw, &c. Inf. rjaOai. Part, rjiievos.
Plpf. tfpTjv, f/vo, rj(TTO, tffisda, r\(T0, 971TO.
2. Instead of the simple verb, the compound Kadr/fiai is
used in prose, the inflexion of which varies from that of the
above in never taking the a in the 3. person singular perfect;
nor in the pluperfect, unless it has the temporal augment :
Perf. KaOij/Mai, KaGrjaav, Ka0T)rai. Conj. xdOcofiai, icady,
Ka6rjTai. Impr. Ka0r}o-o. Inf. KaOTjcrGai. Part. Ka0r\lievos.
Plpf. sica0rffir)v and KaOrffirjv, e/cdOrjao and Ka6rjo~o, eicd0r)TO
and Kadrjo-To.
Opt. KaOoLfirjv, KaQoio, Ka0oi.ro.
Remark. The deficient forms of foai arj supplied by 'iltoBai or t?e<r(?ac
(prose ra0{<70ai, <cafl<?eff9ai).

ON THE VEHB.

156

142.

[chap, vil

Verbs in eo which follow tlie Analogy of Verbs in hi in


the Aorist II. Active and Middle.

1. Several verba with the characteristic a, e, o, v, form an


aorist II. active and middle after the analogy of the forma
tion in fit, inasmuch as it is without a modal vowel, and, con
sequently, joins the personal endings immediately on to the
stem. All the other forms of these verbs follow the formation
in as.
2. The formation of this aorist II. active agrees with that
of the aorist II. active of verbs in /xt, through all the Moods
and Participials. The characteristic vowel is almost univer
sally lengthened, as in sarrjv, viz. a into 17, e into rj, o into w,
11 into v ; and remains, as in i<m\v, through the whole of
the Indicative, Imperative, and Infinitive. The Imperativeending r/0i is also shortened into a in composition; as : Trpofia
instead of TrpofirjOt.

Ind.

S.

D.
P.
Conj. S.
D.
P.

c. charac. 0. d. charac. v.
TNO-U,
yl-yVWGKh), I wrap up.
I know.
iSvv, Idipped
eyvoiv, I
in, intrans.
knew
eyvwQ
tyvta
ISvtov
iyvuirov
lyVWTTJV
tyvuifitv
cyvuife
iSvaav
cyvuaav
yvS>, yvife,
yv$ 1)
(r(3rjTov
/3i/rov
yviorov
SvTJTOV
/%iti', ijrt, txftiajitv, ijrf, yviofiev, >r, Svtofiev, TJTf,
<3<n()')
wot (v)

a. charac. a. b. charac. f.
2BE-S2,
BA-Q, fiaivw,
I walk, Igo. afievvvfit,
I quench.
1 i-fin-v, I iafinv, I was
went
extinguished
2
tafin
3 f-fc
2 e-/3i;-roi>
la(5r)TOV
3 l-(3f)'rriv
1
2 t-(3n-re
3 t-fin-aav
evpnoav
/Ji,j3pc,/3pl)

Moods and
Persons.


H2.]

IRREGULAR VERBS.

Moods and
Persons.
Opt. S. 1
2
3
D. 2
3
P. 1

157

a. charac. a. b. charac. t. c. charac. o. d. charac. v.


TNO-Q,
ZBE-Q,
ii-u,
BA-Q, /3fftvo>,
yi-yvdiffKW,
J wrap up.
I walk, Igo.
I know.
I quench.
yvoiljv
fiainv
ajitiriv
yvoirie
$Mt)Q
yvotrf
pain
o(3tin
jiaiTjrov and of3ettiTov and yvoirirov and
oXtov
airov
HTOV
fiaitirijv and oj3titiTt]V and yvoit\Tnv and
oirnv
tUTt]V
ei'rijv
jiairjfiiv and afkiti/uv and yvoi'ij/itv and

2 jialriTs and ofitinTt and yvoitiTt and


Olrt
aire
yvoTfi*
3 fiaiev
/3ij9t, jj 2) <t/3ij0(, jjrw 2) yvwfli, (irw 2)
Impr. S.
jOjrov, ijruv afirjTOV, r\Tti>v yvutrov, (or(OV
D.
yvwrfi
afirjre
P. 2
3 [3r)Tutffav and <T/3t)Tu><mv and yvwrwffai' and
yVQVTUlV
yvwvai
ofHjvai
Infinitive
/3ae(a), ao-a, <j|3ei'c, eZoa, yvovCf ovffay
Participle
6v
(4).
G. yvovToe
G. o&ivTog
G. (iavroQ

.2)
fivrov, VTioi>(y)
lire
hvTwaav{if) &
ivvai
Sig(v), voa,
G. Uvtoc

1) Compounds, as: avafiSi, ivafifje, &C. ; d7iw/3w; diayvui; avaUui.


2) Compounds, as: avd(3t)6i, avapa, avifitfri ; awoa^ei ; lidyvuidi;
avafivQi.
Remark. The Optative form $vriv(v) instead of ivitiv is not found in
the Attic dialect. The aorist IL middle is found, in ordinary language,
only in a few verbs ; as : irhofim ( 124, 23), TrpiaaBat, to buy ( 185.).
Besides the verbs already given, a few others follow this
formation ; as :
1. h(Zpao~K(o, I run away ( 122, 6.). Aor. (APA-) sSpdv,
as, a, dfisv, are, daav. Conj. BpS), Spas, Spa, Bparov, Spwp.ev,
Spare, Bp&crt(y). Opt. Bpalrjv. Impr. Bpadi, drto. Inf. Bpdvai.
Part. Bpds(a), acra, dv.
2. whofuu, I fly ( 124, 23.). Aor. (IITA-) sVttjv. Inf.
mijvai. Part. Trrds(d).

158

ON THE VERB.

[chap. VII.

3. otcAAgj or aKs\sco, I dry. Aor. II. (2KAA-) scrieXijv, I


wither, intrans. Inf. aKkrjvau Opt. (TicKaLrjv.
4. <p0d-va), 1 get before ( 119, 5.). Aor. II. e<p0rjv, <f>0rjvai,
^>6ds{a), <p0o), (pdatijv.
5. StSaovoa, / teach (BiBcutko/juii, I learn) ( 122, Rem.).
Aor. II. (AAE-) iSdrjv, / learnt; but, Aor. I. iSl&afc, I
taught.
6. Kaico, I burn, trans. ( 116, 2.). Aor. II. (KAE-) sKarjv,
I burnt, intrans. ; but, Aor. I. etcetera, trans.
7. pa>, Iflow (116, 3.). Aor. ('PTE-) ippvqv, Iflowed.
8. xaVQ,> I rejoice ( 124, 24.). Aor. (XAPE-) exdprjv.
9. aXuT/cofiai, Aor. ('AAO-) rjkwv, Att. ed\a>v(5) ( 122,
!)
10. /3ioto, J fee. Aor II. l/3iW. Conj. yStai, q>s, a>, &c.
Opt. ftiqyrjv (not ftiotrjv, like yvofyv, to distinguish it from the
Opt. Impf. fiioirjv). Inf. fiiwvai. Part, fiiovs, the cases of this
are supplied by those of the Aor. I. fiiwaas. So : avefiuov, I
revived, from avafiiaxrtcofiai. The present and imperfect are
little used by the Attics, instead of these they employ ,
which, on the other hand, borrows the remaining tenses from
/3too), thus : Pres. w. Impf. s%a>v ( 97, 3.). Fut. fiuoao/iai.
Aor. ejSuov. Perf. /3s/3(Wa. Perf. Pass. ftefikoTai. Part
y3e/3t</iivoy.
11. <j>vo), I bring forth. Aor. II. e^Cv, I arose, <f>vvai, <j>vf,
Conj. <w. (Opt. is wanting in ordinary language.) But
Aor. I. e<f>vcra, 1 brought forth. Fut. (pvcra>(y), I shall bring
forth. The Perf. "irtyvica, I have arisen or become, I am. Also
Mid. Pres. (pvo/xai. Fut. <pvaoiuu(y).

IRREGULAR VERBS.

144.]

143.

159

OZSa (stem 'EIA, video), I know.

Perfect.
s. 1
a
8
D.
P. 1
2
3

Indicative.
oiSa
olaQa
oUf(v)
larov, UJTOV
la/tiv
WTt

Conjunctive. Imperative.
titijjc

Infinitive.
ti'civai

urdi

lilrjrov, tjrov lOTOV, "lUTUIV


tiSwfiev
tidijre
Ian
itrrwaav

Participle.
liSwc., via, 6q '

Pluperfect.
ilnd.l S. p&iv 1)
D.
P. fiSuuiv
pSae and pJturfla
pjfirov
ySure
2
ylu
ydtirnv
ptWav
3
S. tlStinv, 17c 17, D. tidfhfTOVy tjtijv, P. (tfkiTjfiev, rjre, fiduev.
Opt.
Fut. iiaofiai, I shall know or experience.
Compound of oltia : aivoila, I am conscious to myself, Inf. cvvttSsvai,
Impr. aivioQi, Conj. ovvutiw, &c.
1) Attic, 1. fSj), 2. ySqoOa, 3. fWij

144.

Deponents ( 118. Rem.) and Active Verbs with a


Middle Future Form.
a. Catalogue of the Deponents Middle most in Use.

'AyiDvi^o/iai, I contend.
a(o/x<u, I ill-treat.
alviTropat, I speak in
riddles.
aioBavopai, Iperceive,
alriaofiat, Iaccuse.
axiOfiai, I heal.
diepoao/iat, I hear

axpopoXiiouai, I hurl
weaponsfrom a dis
tance or an eleva
tion.
abXoftat, I leap.
dva^uliaKoftai, Irevive.
avaKoivoopat, I com
municate with.

airtxSavo/iat, I am
hated.
aTvuXoyto/iai, I apolo
gize,
apaofxai, Iplough,
aaird^oftai, I greet.
aQucvtopai, I come.
/3ia?ojat, Iforce.

[chap. VII.

ON THE VERB.

160
yiyvo/iai, I become,
ii^ioofiai, i welcome.
Uxllalt I receive.
SiactKivopai, I rouse.
Swpiopai, Ipresent.
lyttXtvopai, I rouse.
IvriXXopai, I commis
sion.
iiructXtvopai, I rouse.
IpydZeitm, I work.
evxouai, J wish.
riytopai, Iprecede.
Btdopai, I behold.
idopai, I heed.
iXdmcopai, I appease.
iirndZfipai, I ride.
laxvplZopai, I exert
my strength.
Kavxaofiai, I boast.
KoivoXoyionai, I com
municate with.
Krdofiai, I obtain.
Xt]'i6uai, I lay waste.
XoyiZopxu, I consider.
Xvp.aivop.ai, I ill-treat.
Xiajidopai, I insult.

pavretiopai, Iprophesy,
paprvpopai, I call to
witness,
paxofiai, Ifight,
pipjpopai, I blame,
prjxavdopat, I contrive,
pipkopat, I imitate.
pvBsopai, J speak.
pvOoXoyiopai, I relate.
fivKaofiai, I bellow.
ZvXivouai,Ifetch wood.
ZvX'iZ,opai,Ifetck wood.
oSvpofiat, I mourn.
oitoviofiai9 J observe
theflight of birds.
bXofyvpopat, I lament,
opxsopat, I dance,
oaippaivopai, I smell.
Trapairkopai, I beg.
irapaxeXtvopat, 1 rouse.
irapapvBiopai, I comfort.
iraf>p7)Oiaopjxt, I speak
freely,
irkropai, Ifly.
Kpayparivopai, I am
occupied.

irpooip.iaZop.ai, I make a
prelude.
irpoQaoiZopAi, I pre
tend.
irvvSavopat, I learn by
inquiry.
oifiopai, I honour.
oKtirroptii, I consider.
OTa0p.aop.ai, I weigh.
ffToxa%op.ai, I aim.
orpaTtvopat, I go to
battle.
ffrparoiredsvopai, I en
camp.
TtKpaipopai, Ifix, limit.
Titeraivopai, Ifabricate.
Ttxvaop.ai, I devise,
virto'xvaop.ai, Ipromise,
imoicpivopai, I interpret.
tpt'tSopjxi, I spare.
QBtyyopai, I speak.
<piko<ppovkop.ai, I receive
in a friendly way.
Xapgopai, I gratify.
Xpaopai, I use.
iivsopat, I buy.

b. Catalogue of the Deponents Passive most in Use.


"Ayapat, I admire.
Stavosopai, I think.
tvXafisopai, I take heed,
atdeopat, J revere.
livapai, I can.
ydopai, I rejoice.
apAXdopai, I contend. ivavTi6opai,Iamagainst. Kptpapai, I hang,
dpvsopai, I deny.
IvBvpiopat, I take to pvodrropai, 1 loathe.
dx<>op.ai, 1 am displeased.
heart.
o"iopai, I think.
jioiXopai, 1 wish.
ivvoeopai, 1 think.
irpoBvpkopat, I am infipvxaopai, 2 roar.
liriptXkopai, 1 care for.
dined.
Siopai, I need.
iTnvokopai, Ithink upon. QiXoTtpiopai, lam amSiaXiyopat, I converse. tmarapat, I know.
bitious.
Remark. AiXiZopat, I lodge, and Xoidopsopai, 1 scold, have their aori.
both with a passive and a middle form.

144.]

IRREGULAR VERBS.

161

c. Catalogue of the Active Verbs, with a Middle Future Form, most


in Use.
'Ayvoeia, I know not.
aSia, I sing.
aKoiw, I hear.
dpaprdvia, 1 miss.
diravrdw, I meet.
diroXaiu, I enjoy.
apiraZia, I snatch.
paSiZia, I walk.
(3a'ivo>, I walk.
/3i6u>, J live.
/3oaw, I cry out.
ytXdm, I laugh.
ynpuaKopai, Igrow old.
yiyvbJOKii), I know.
Swevu, I bite.
tiapBavu, I sleep.
Siiaai, to fear.
diSpa<rK<o, I run away.
fowl, Ipursue.
lyxu/uaZui, Ipraise.
tlfii, I am.

iraiviw, 1 praise.
imopKeto, Iswearfalsely.
iaBiia, I eat.
BavimZ,u>, I admire.
Bin), I run.
Bnpdu), ptiw, I hunt.
Btyydvu, I touch.
BvtiOKia, I die.
0jO(<TK(ij, I leap.
Kapvto, I labour.
cXatu, I weep.
KXiirriD, I steal.
KoXa?a>, /punish.
Xayxdvw, I obtain.
\ap.f3dvu>, 1 take.
imvOdpw, I learn.
olSa, I know.
otfwZo, I lament.
ofiw/u, I swear.
6pdu>, I see.
nailta, Iplay.

waaxia, I suffer.
a-ijSdui, I leap.
irivo), I drink.
n*i7rrw, Ifall.
n-Xew, I sail.
nvkui, I UoiB.
wviyn), I choke.
iroBiv, I desire.
pita, Iflow.
aiydtu, J am silent.
auavati), I am silent.
mcumrw, Ijest.
airovSAXia, I am earnest.
avpirro), Iblow (theflute)
rural, I beget.
rpsxu.; I run.
rpiiyui, Ignaw.
0vya>, Iflee.
ipBdvu), Iget before.
xdoKw, I gape.
X<pu>, I contain.

162

SYNTAX.

CHAP. L
ON THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

145.

Nature of a Sentence.Subject. Predicate.

1. Syntax is the doctrine of the sentence. A sentence is


the expression of a thought in words ; as : to poSov OdXXei, 6
avdpcoTros OvrjTos sariv, to koXov poBov ddXksi if rm tov irarpbs icrjircp. In every thought or proposition there must ne
cessarily be two notions or ideas related to one another and
combined into one whole, viz. the notion of an action, and the
notion of an object in whom the action is perceived. The
former we call the predicate ; the latter, the subject.
2. Language expresses the relation of ideas, partly by in
flexion, as: to poBov 6a\\-gi, 6 <rrpaTia>rr}s fid^-srai, ol crrpanwrai pM%-o VTai; and partly by separate words, as : the tree
is green, 6 avOpanros Ovryros icmv.
3. The subject is either a) a substantive; or /S) a sub
stantive-pronoun or numeral; or 7) an adjective or participle
used as a substantive ; or S) an adverb invested with the
force of a substantive by means of an article prefixed; or s)
a preposition in connexion with its case; or ) an infinitive
mood ; or, lastly, rf) every word, every letter, every syllable,

145.]

NATURE OF A SENTENCE.

163

every combination of words may be conceived of as a neuter


substantive, and hence may appear as a subject, usually in
connexion withthe neuter form of the article.
To p6Sov ddXXei. 'Eyu ypaQto. Tptig riXQov. 'O aotpoc tijSalfMov eariv.
Oi iraXai dvdpeioi r/aav, 01 in t i itiXndSnv KaXwg Ipax^ocLvro. To
SiddffKeiv Kakov iffnv. T6 el o6v$eofWQ lartv.
4. The subject stands in the nominative.
Remark 1. In indefinite and distributive expressions of number, the
subject is expressed by a preposition with its case ; as : tls rirrapag jjXffov ;
80 : xaff UaoTovs, singuli, card IBvn, singula gentes.
Remark 2. The subject, in the following cases, is not expressed by a
separate word :
a. When the subject is a personal pronoun, it is not separately ex
pressed, unless it is required to be brought forward with particular
emphasis ; as : ypdfu), ypdipeig, ypdtpet.
b. When the idea expressed by the verb of the predicate, is of such a
kind that it is not adapted to every subject, but only to some particular
one, and, in a certain degree, includes the notion of this subject in itself;
as : iirei oi noXefjuot dvqXdov, ktcypvKt (sc. 6 KTjpvK) roXg "EXXrjai irapaoKtvd'
aaaBai. So also : anfuilvei tj? adXiriyyi, ieaXmyitv, SC. b daXmyKTrig. The
following are to be thus explained : 'in, vlfei, /3poi rq, darpdirru, sc. 6 %tig.
c. When the subject is easily supplied from the connexion ; thu=, in
expressions like pool, Xlyovm, &c, the subject avBpinwoi is regularly
omitted, as being self-evident.
Remark 3. The indefinite pronoun, one, they, (French, on ; German,
man,') is expressed in Greek by ric, or the 3. person plural, as : Xtyoucri,
$aai ; or by the 3. singular passive, as Xiycrat ; or personally Xeyopai,
dicor; or by the 2. person singular, particularly in the optative with dv,
as : tpairis av, dicas, one may say.
5. The predicate is either a) a verb, as : to p68ov OaKXei ;
or an adjective, substantive, numeral, or pronoun, in con
junction with Aval, which, in this relation, is usually called a
copula or particle of affirmation, since it combines the adjec
tive or substantive with the subject into one whole thought,
as : to poSov koXov ioriv. K.vpos rjv fiaaikevs. 2t> r/a-Qa
wdvTcov irp&ros. Oi avSpss Tjtrav rpsls. Towto to wpar/fid
iari ToSe.
M 2

1G4

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

[chap, l

Remark 4. We must distinguish ilvai, when used to express a definite


idea, such as e.g. that of existing, abiding, &c. (as: tan 6t6g), from the
same word used merely as a copula. In the former signification it may
be joined with an adverb ; as : 6 Zwrparijc rp> dti avp rolg vioig ; KaXug,
KaKu>e tarty, it is well, ill, &c.

146.

On Concord.

1. The verb agrees with the subject in person and number;


the predicative or attributive adjective (or adjective-partici
pial, pronoun, or numeral), and the predicative substantive, or
substantive standing in apposition (if it denotes a living being),
agree with it in gender, number, and case (nominative).
'Eyw ypatpw, ail ypdtytig, ovrog ypdtptt. 'O dvOputwog Bvnrdg tartv. 'H
apery KaXy ioriv. To irpdyfia aia\pbv iartv. Ot "EAXjjj'tc TroXtfuKUTarot
r\aav. 'O icaXbg iraig, i) aoiprj yvvrj, rb piKpbv r'tKvov. HLvpog r\v ^aaiXtvg.
T6p.vpig ijv (laaiXtia. Kvpog b j3aai\tig, T6p.vpig rj jidaiXtia,
2. As a double nominative (viz. the nominative of the sub
ject, and that of the predicate) stands in connexion with eipai,
when a copula ; so the following verbs also, which express
no complete predicative idea, are connected with a double
nominative : mrdp^siv, to be at hand ; "/vyvearOai,, to become ;
<f}vvat, to arise ; avgdvscrffai, to (/row ; fievsiv, to remain ; KaracrTpjvai (fr. Ka0larr)fu), to stand; Bo/ceiv, eoacevai, and <paivsa6ai,
to appear ; Srjkovadai, to show one's self; KaXeiadai, ovofiaQcrOai and ~XjysaOai, to be called ; a/covsw, to be in repute, to be
called (audire) ; aipscaBai, wrrohsiKwcrOai, KplvsaOai, to be
chosen something ; vofii&aOai, to be considered something ; and
other verbs of this nature.
'O Kvpog tyt vtro /SaaiXtvg tUv Tttpawv. Aid roirwv b i>iXnrirog ijuiriBti
Itiyag. 'AXKifitdHngyp'tOii arparnyog. 'Avri ipiXiov (cat Uvuv vvv toXant
cat Stole i\0poi dicovovaiv (audiunf).

H7.]

CONCORD.

165

Remark. Some of these verbs are also connected with adverbs, but
they then express a complete predicate ; as : to dvBos KaXHg av^averai.
The verbs yiyveaBai and ipvvai particularly, are thus connected with the
adverbs &'xa> XwP'e> '*ft eyyfe, u\ig ; as : roie, 'ABnvaiiDV OTparnyolQ
iylyvovro lixa ai yvuip.ai, the views of the Athenian generals were divided;
to. wpdyfutra oiirw irifvictv, the affairs are of such a nature.

147.

Exceptions to the general Rules of Concord. *

a) The form of the predicate frequently corresponds, not


to the grammatical form of the subject, but to its meaning
(constructio Kara avvsaw or ad intellectum).
Tb Tr\rj&0 tTreflorjdijtrav. 'O vrparoQ dir'tfiaivov. T6 arpaToiredov dve\&povv. T6 fXtipaKtov tart KaXog. T6 yvva'iKiov tern KaXi/.
b) If the subject is to be represented, not as a definite ob
ject, but as a general notion, the predicative adjective is put
in the neuter singular, without any regard to the gender and
number of the subject. In English, we generally join the
indefinite word something to the adjective, or the substantives
thing, being.
Owe dyaBbv ttoXvko ipavia' tie Koipavos fir. Al utTaf3o\al Xuttijpov. *H fiovapxia icpdr iutov.
Remark 1. If the predicate is expressed by a demonstrative pronoun,
this agrees with its subject in case, gender, and number, as in Latin ; as :
o^toq ianv 6 dvijp. avrn ioti ^nyrj Kai apx*! ndvrwv rSiv kokuv. tovto
ion to avdoQ. The Greeks, however, very often put the demonstrative
in the neuter singular, both when it stands as the subject, and when as
the predicate; as; tovto ianv r) SiKaioaivn. tovto lari Trnyfi Kai
apxv yvk(T(ttg.
c) Verbal adjectives in ros and rios often stand in the
neuter plural when they are used impersonally, like the
Latin gerund.
M 3

166

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMfLE SENTENCE.

[chap. I.

\Uara tort roic 0iXoif, one should trustfriends, instead of moron tort. So
also when the subject is expressed by an infinitive mood or a whole
sentence; where we in English make use of the pronoun it. Trjv
nnrpujpivijv iiolpav dSvvard lariv dmxpvytiv cat Btif. AqXa, on Sti 'iva
yk riva t'tfiuiv fiaoikka ytviodai.
d) The subject in 4he neuter plural is connected with the
verb in the singular.
Tit <3a rpex"' Td iroa.yna.ra iari KaXd. Kaxov avSpog iwpa 6v>)<nv oiic
Remark 2. When the subject in the neuter plural denotes a person
or living being, the verb is often put in the plural to render the per
sonality more prominent ; as : rd rt'Xij (the magistracy, the magistrates)
roiig orparuorac iXimptyav. This takes place, also, if the notion of in
dividuality or plurality is to be made particularly prominent ; as : ipavipa
ytrav itm) xo>poiivrii)V Kai Xirmov Kal avOpwmov iXprl myXXa.
e) The subject in the dual is very often connected with
the predicate in the pluraL
Alio dvSpe ipaxioavro. 'ASt\<pCt Svo rjaav KaXoi.
Remark 3. The dual is not always used when two objects are spoken
of, but only when they are either two things connected together by
nature, as m>Se, %fip(, wrt ; or such as are considered as standing in a
close and mutual relation to each other, e. g. adtXQw, two brothers.
Remark 4. When a feminine substantive in the dual is connected with
an adjective as an attributive, this latter is put in the masculine dual ; as :
d/.0<i> rw 7toXee. rta yvvaxKi. afiiput rovrw rui t'l/iepa. roiv ytveaeoiv.
rovriit ra> rk%va.
f) When the predicate is a superlative, and this stands in
connexion with a genitive, the gender of the superlative
generally conforms to that of the subject, as in Latin ; more
rarely, to that of the genitive.
4>(fovoe \a\tmorar6g <m ruiv vbotav. 'O yXiog mivrtav XxtfiirporaroQ lorw.
Sol omnium rerum lucidissimus est.

147 6.]

147 b.

CONCORD.

167

Concord in the Case of several Subjects.

1. When there are two or more subjects, the verb or copula


stands in the plural. If these subjects have one gender only,
the adjective takes that gender in the plural ; but if they
have different genders, the masculine, in the case of living
beings, is preferred to the feminine and neuter; and the
feminine to the neuter ; while, in the case of things, the ad
jective takes the form of the neuter plural without any regard
to their gender.
'O ^tKiiriroQ Kai 6 'AXtKavtipog iroWd Kai Qavpaard tpya aTredeiZavro. 'O
"2ti)KpaT7iQ Kai b TVKcltoiv T\aav aotpoi. 'H p-rfTijp Kai 17 Bvydrijp ijaav
Kakai. 'H bpyy Kai ?j davvtaia etai Katcai. fO dvij p Kai 17 yvvi]
dyadoi flaw. 'H yvvi) Kai to. TiKva dyaBai daiv. 'Qg fWf iraripa
re Kai fii]T kpa Kai d S e\tp 0 i) Kai r^v iavrov y v v aiKa aixfia\ti>TOVc.
ytyevrjfiBVOvg, ISaKpvatv. 'H dyopd Kai irpvTaveiov Haply XiBip
r}OKH]iiva rjv. Ai0ot re Kai xXiVGoi Kai fi\a Kai Kipafiog draKTiiiQ
tppififi&va ovSev xpfjffifia iariv.
Remark 1. Sometimes the verb and adjective correspond, in point of
form, to the subject which stands nearest ; as : <pi\ti at 0 irariip Kai 1)
(irjTtjpj and dya9o lanv b irarilp Kai 1) firirijp.
2. When several subjects of different persons are connected
together, the first person is preferred to the, second and third,
but the second to the third; and the verb is put in the
plural.
'Eyu Kai aii ypdipofiev, ego et tu scribimus ; iyuj Kai Ikuvoq ypd^ofivt ego et
ille scribimus ; ai Kai Ikuvoi ypaQtre, tu et ille scribitis ; iyu> Kai Ikuvoi
ypdipofitv, ai Kai Ikuvoi ypdijitTi, r)fiuQ Kai Ikuvoi ypdfo/iev, i/iug Kai
kKeivog ypaQere.
Remark 2. Oftentimes, in addition to one subject in the nominative
which expresses the notion of plurality, we find one or more expressing
the separate parts of which the former consists (axwa Kaff '6Kov Kai
pkpoo)\ as: ot arpariutTai oi piv i\vavTi<jiQr\aav role Tro'hffiioic, ol ci
d-irefvyov.
M 4

168

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

148.

[chap. 1

On the Article.

1 . The subject, and, indeed, every substantive, is connected


with the article 5, r), to, the, when the speaker wishes to de
note an object as definite, and to distinguish it from another
of the same kind. The substantive without the article ex
presses the notion without any limitation, as dv8pa)iros, man ;
but the substantive with the article distinguishes the object
as one that is defined, and related to the view of the speaker,
as 6 avOpayiros, i. e. the man whom I submit to my consider
ation, and regard as a different being from the rest of men. So :
<j>i\ocro<l>ia, philosophy, in general; r] <f>tKoo-ocpia, philosophy, as
a separate branch of knowledge.
2. Hence the article is also used to denote the whole com
pass of the idea, inasmuch as the speaker submits an object
to his consideration, as the representative of all others of the
same kind ; as : 6 avBpmiros 6vtjtos eariv, man (i. e. all men, or
the creature man) is mortal ; rj avSpla icaXri sotiv, i. e. all that
I comprehend under the idea avZpla; to ydXa iarlv qSv.
Remark 1. The English indefinite article a or an has a double mean
ing. It denotes either a class generally, as a man, in which case the
Greeks use the substantive alone, as avepuirog ; or it denotes an
individual of that class, like the definite article, but not one that is
defined and distinguished from the rest, in which case the Greek lan
guage frequently connects the substantive with the indefinite pronoun
rig ; as : &v$pu>ir6e rig (i. e. a certain one of men, homo quidam) ; ywi] rig.
opviv &%tv. In a general way, rig is placed after its substantive as an
enclitic, but, in connected discourse, it sometimes goes before.
3. With regard to proper names it should be observed that
they generally omit the article ; as : Xw/cpaTys ecjyn. 'EviKTjcrav rjfialoi Aa/csSatfiovlovs.
oteaOe fxryrs TLspcrofi\JTrr7]v inrsp ~Keppovrjo-ov, fi^rs <f>l\nnrov vrrep 'AfitjynroKsms
7ro\fi^asiv, orav iBaaiv ^/J,ds fivBsvbs t&v dXKoTpiwv s<j>isfii

H8.]

AETICLE.

169

vovs. They take the article, however, if they have been pre
viously mentioned and are again alluded to, or, even though
not mentioned before, if they are to be denoted as long
known ; as : airb rod 'iXwo-ov Ai-yerat 6 Hopias rrjv ,D,psi9viav
apTrcurai.
Remark 2. Even in connexion with an adjective, proper names gene
rally have not the article with them ; as : coipbg Sowcpanjc, the wise Socrates.
Further, if an apposition with the article follows the proper name, the
article is generally omitted; as: Kpolcrof, 6 w Avlwv PaotXevg. The
names of rivers are generally placed, as adjectives, between the article
and the word irorauoc ; as : 6 IIijMioe mrauoe.
4. When adjectives or participles appear as substantives,
they generally take the article (according to No. 2.). In
English, in such a case, we employ, either an adjective used
substantively, as, ot ayaQoi, the good ; or a substantive, as,
to aryaOov, the advantage, 6 XpyaJV, the speaker ; or the indefi
nite article, a or an ; or resolve the participle by who, which
(is, qui). In Greek, this use of the participle in all tenses is
uncommonly frequent ; as: 6 TrXslo-ra anpsX&v to koivov fisyurrtov rifieov a^iovrai, 6 TfXeicrra dt)<f>e\r]o~as to koivov atjiovrai, -6 ttX. axfrsXtfo-cov t. k. p.. r. dguoOtfo-STai. rToXXous
e^ofisv tow etoI/mos o-waya>viofivovs. But if only a part of
the whole is to be expressed, the article is omitted; as: icaica
Kal alo-xpa eirpagev. The infinitive mood also has the article
when it is to be regarded as a substantive ; as : to ypaqbew.
5. Ot aXXot denotes the rest, r) a\\r} 'EXXay, the rest of
Greece. "Etc/jos, alter, takes the article (6 srspos), in order to
denote one of two definite persons or things ; so : ot srspoi,
the one of two parties. IloXXot denotes many, ot 7roXXot, the
multitude, the general mass (in contradistinction to parts of the
whole) ; irXsiovs, plures, ot wXsiovs, the greater part (in con
tradistinction to the smaller part) ; irXsio-roi, plurimi, ot 7rXetoTot, most (to denote an excess of number).
6. The Greek language has the liberty of using adverbs of

170

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

[chap. X.

place and time (more rarely those of quality), as adjectives or


substantives, by prefixing the article. In like manner, a
preposition with its case may be treated as an adjective.
'if avia irSXig 6 fitraliv t6xoc oi ivBdSt avBpunroi, or ol IvBdSt ; 6 vvv
$a<siKti)Q ol wdXai ao<poi avfptQ ol rdre i) avpwv (sc. ijpkpa) o
dti Kpariiv ; ol irdvv riav aTparumuiv, the best of the soldiers ;
} dyav d/uXew, the too great carelessness ; 6 irpbg tovq nipaas voXs/tog
t) tv Xtppoviiaift rvpavv'is.
7. When the substantive, which has the article, is con
nected with attributive limitations or definitions, such as, e. g.
an adjective, adjective-pronoun or numeral, substantive in the
genitive, adverb, or preposition with its case (No. 6.) ; the
two following cases must be distinguished, with regard to
the placing of the article :
a) The attributive is combined with its substantive into
the unity of one idea, as, the good man = the worthy, the wise
man = the sage ; and expresses an object which is contrasted
with other objects of the same kind by means of the annexed
attributive. The attributive then stands either between the
article and the substantive, or is placed after the substantive
with the article repeated.
'O dyaBbs dvr/p ot 6 dvrjp 6 dyaBoQ (in opposition to the bad man) ; oi
irXovaioi koXXtcu, or ol jroMrai ol ?rAou<rioi in opposition to the Other
citizens); 6 tuv 'ABrivaimv Sijfwg, or 6 drj/ioi b tiSv 'kBrfvaiiav (in oppo
sition to another people) ; ol vvv avOptoiroi, or ot dvQpu>iroi ol vvv ; 6 npbg
roi> Uepoag ir6keiwe, or 6 noXeftog b wpos roit Hipaag.
b) The attributive is not combined with its substantive
into the unity of one idea, but represented as the predicate of
a shortened coordinate sentence ; and forms a contrast, not to
another object of the same kind, but to itself, inasmuch as it
is intimated that the object is o be considered as possessing a
certain quality for itself, without reference to another. In
English, in such cases, we make use of the indefinite article,
a or an, in the singular, and omit the article altogether in the

H8.]

AKTICLE.

171

plural. In this case, the adjective, without the article, takes


its place, either after the article and the substantive, or before
the article and the substantive.
'O dvr]p dyaBog, or dyaBbg b dvrip, a good man (= dyaBbg u>v, the man,
who is good; so far as, because, if, he is good). 01 dvBpwiroi juaovai
rbv avdpa Kanov or KaKov tov dvcpa, men hate a bad man, i. e. hate a man
sofar as, because, if, he is bad. (On the contrary, rbv xaicbv dvSpa or
rbv dvSpa tov Kaxbv the bad man, in opposition to the good ; hence : roic
piv dyaBovg dvBpioirovg dyairuifjttv, roiig Sk KaKobg iitoovpev.) '0 fiaoiXevg
r'lStwg xapi&Tai role woXiraig dyaBolg, good citizens, i. e. if, or because,
they are good (on the contrary, role dyaBotg iroXiraig, or role 7roXi'rate
role dyaBoXg, the good citizens, in opposition to the bad citizens). '0 Btbg
ri)v ipvxvv Kpariarrjv ry dvBpwirqi ivktyvaiv, a soul in its greatest perfec
tion. 01 viro tov r)Xiov KaraXaixiropiVOi rd xp&p-ara ptXavrtpa exovaiv, a
darker skin (the greater darkness of the skin is the consequence of
KaraXdfiiretjBai virb tov r)Xiov).
Remark 3. When a substantive with the article is connected with a
genitive, the arrangement specified under a) takes place, only when the
substantive with its genitive forms a contrast to another object of the
same kind ; as : b riSv 'ABtjvaiwv Sij/iog, or 6 dijpog b rtSv 'ABrivaimv (in
opposition to another people); the emphasis then lies on the genitive. On
the contrary, the genitive, with or without the article, is placed either
before or after the other substantive, when this substantive expresses a
part of the genitive ; and the emphasis then lies upon the governing sub
stantive ; as : 6 Srjpog t&v 'KBr\vamv, or ruv 'ABrjvatoJv 6 Srjfwg, the people,
not the nobles. When the genitive of the substantive-pronoun is used
instead of the possessive pronoun, the reflective pronouns have the
position mentioned in No. 7, a) ; as : d ipavTov irarrip, or 6 irarrip 6 Ipxivrov,
&c. ; but the simple personal pronouns pov, oov, &c, stand without the
article, either after or before the substantive with the article ; as : d irarrip
ytov, or iioi 6 irarrip i irarrip aim, or aov d irarrip ; d irarrip aiirov, or aiirov
6 irarrip ; my, thy, his (ejus) father ; 6 irarrip r)fuSv, i/iav, avT<Sv, or r)p.Civ,
ifiMv, aiiriSv o irarrip, ouri your, their (eorum) father. In the singular and
dual, the enclitic forms are always used.
Remark 4. The distinction between the two above-mentioned cases
appears very plainly in indefinite adjectives ; as : aicpoe, piaog, laxarog.
If the arrangement mentioned under a) takes place, the substantive, with
its attributive, forms a contrast to another object of the same kind ; as :
V pian iroKig, the middle town, in opposition to other towns ; r) taxdrn vijoog,

172

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

.[chap. I.

the outermost island, in opposition to other islands ; if, on the contrary, the
arrangement mentioned under 6) takes place, the substantive is con
trasted with itself, since a more particular definition of it is expressed by
means of the attributive. In English, we express these adjectives, either
by adverbs, or (and indeed usually) by a substantive with the genitive;
as : iiri r$ Spet &xptp, or lir' aicpqt ti$ optt, upon the mountain above, above
upon the mountain; or upon the top of the mountain (properly, upon the
mountain where it is highest) ; Iv pSoy ry iroA or iv ry irokti piari, in the
middle of the city ; Iv luxury rjj vt'iaif, or vi\aip rp la\aTy, on the harder of
the island.
Remark 5. In a similar manner, the adjective iwvoc takes the first
arrangement when it expresses a really attributive definition of its sub
stantive, as : 6 iwvoq irait, the only son ; but the second, when it includes
a more particular definition of the predicate, as : 6 iraig p.6vog, or povos
6 iraic, TraiX,n, the hoy plays alone (without company).
8. With regard to the use of the article in the connexion
of a substantive with an adjective, the following should also
be observed:
a) The article is joined to a substantive connected with an
adjective-pronoun, if the object is to be represented as a defi
nite one ; and the adjective-pronoun takes its place between
the article and the substantive, as, 6 efibs irarrip ; on the con
trary, efws dSeX^os, a brother of mine (undetermined which),
ifios irais.
b) The article is joined to a substantive connected with
toiovtos, rowcrhe, too-ovtos, if the quantity or quality denoted
by them is to be represented as attaching, either to a definite
object, or to the whole class of objects previously mentioned.
The article generally stands before the pronoun and the sub
stantive ; as : 6 toiovtos dvr)p Oavfmoros ioriv, to. Toiaxna
irpdy/JMTa Ka\d icrriv. On the contrary, the article must be
omitted, if the object is indefinite (any one of those which
are of such a kind or so great); as: toiovtov dvSpa ovk dv siraivohji.
c) When a substantive is connected with was, irdvres, the
following cases are to be distinguished :

148.]

. ARTICLE.

173

a) When the notion of the substantive is represented quite


generally, the article is not used ; as : iras avdpa-rros, every
man (i. e. every one, to whom the idea of man attaches), iravrss
avQpomot,, all men. In the singular, iras has then the mean
ing, every.
/3) "When the substantive connected with irds, nravres, is
to be represented as a whole, in opposition to its several parts,
it takes the article, and the arrangement mentioned in No. 7,
a) takes place ; as : 17 iraaa <yrj, the whole earth ; oi 7roXiytuot
airiicrrswav rovs iravras nroXiras, all the citizens without excep
tion. This use is more rare. The singular iras has then the
signification, the whole, all.
7) When the notion of the whole or all is to be annexed to
a definite object (which is, therefore, connected with the arti
cle), merely as a more particular definition, the arrangement
mentioned in No. 7, b) is adopted ; as : oi arpaTiwrai etXov
to arpaTcnrsBov airav, or airav to arpardirsBov ; oi OTpaTiwrai
irdvTSs, or iravrss oi o-TpaTitbrat, koXws ifia^saavro. This 4s
by far the most frequent use of iras, iravTes. In this way the
word oXos also, in connexion with a substantive and the arti
cle, is always used ; as : Bia ttjv iroXiv o\t]v, or Bui okrjv ttjv
jroKiv (not BiA ttjv oKtjv iroKiv).
d) When a substantive is connected with sKacnos, each,
every; the article is omitted, as with iras, in the signification
every, if the idea of the substantive is represented quite gene
rally, as : Kaff SKacrrrjv r/fifyav, every day, on all days ; if, on
the contrary, the idea of the substantive is to be expressed
with emphasis, the article is annexed to it, and the arrange
ment mentioned under No. 7, i) is always adopted, as : Kara
ttjv fjfilpav ejcaorrjv, or, usually, icad' SKcurrqv tt)v fifispav, on
each particular day.
e) When a* substantive is connected with sKarspos, each of
the two, dfufxo and aficpoTspos, both, it always takes the article,
and the arrangement mentioned in No. 7, b) is employed ; as :

174

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

[chap. I.

hrl twv TrXevpwv EKaripcav, or hrl sKwrspav twv TrXsvpoiv ; to,


5)Ta afiffioTipa, or afupoTEpa TaSrra; afujxuv toXv ^epolv, or ralv
Xepolv aficfroiv.
f) When a substantive is connected with a cardinal num
ber, the article is omitted, if the notion of the substantive is
undefined, as : Tpsis avBpss TjXdov ; on the contrary, the article
is employed "with the substantive a) in the position men
tioned in No. 7, a), if the substantive connected with the
numeral implies the notion of a combination, as: oi t&v
fiacriXEcov oivoypoi ScBoaai, tols Tpicrl BaicrvXois o^ovvres tt)v
<j>id\r)v, i. e. with the three fingers (specified) ; and very fre
quently, if it implies a reference to a preceding substantive
(without article) connected with a cardinal number ; /3) in
the position mentioned in No. 7, b), if the number is annexed
to a definite object, merely as a more particular definition,
as : EfuvyiaavTO oi fiera UspucXJovs ottXItui %Xioi, or %tXwi
oi fAEra LT. cnrXlrai.
<?) Further, substantives connected with the demonstra
tives, ovtos, oBs, eksIvos, and avTos, ipse, also generally take
the article ; but it has only the position mentioned in No. 7,
b) : ovtos 6 avr/p, or 6 avrjp ovtos (not 6 ovtos avqp) ; rjBs f)
yvcofirj, or fi yvcofir) tfBs; ekeivos 6 avr\p, or 6 avrjp i/ceivos; ai/Tos
6 fiaaiXsvs, or 6 fiaaiXEvs avTos (but 6 avros idem).
'Remark 6. The article is omitted a) when the pronoun supplies the
place of the subject, and the substantive that of the predicate, as : avri)
lariv dvSpbg dptri), this is the virtue of the man; thus we distinguish
between roury rip liSaardXtp xpuvrm, they have this teacher, and Tobrtp
SiS. \p., they have this man as, or for, a teacher ; 6) when the substantive
is a proper name, as : ovroe, titiivos, avrbc SuMcpdnjj,

H9.]

VERB.

149.

175

On the Kinds of Verbs.

The predicate relating to the subject and expressed by a


verb, may be expressed in- different ways, and hence arise dif
ferent kinds of verbs, which language denotes by different
forms.
a) The subject appears as acting (active form) ; as : 6 -irals
ypacpei, to avdos OaXku. The active form has, however, a
double meaning :
a) the transitive, if the object towards which the ac
tion is directed (object), stands in the accusative, and
accordingly appears as suffering; as : tvtttco tov iralha,
ypd<pco rrjv sttio-toX^v. Transitive verb.
/3) the intransitive, if the action either remains con
fined to the subject, as : to avdos ddWei ; or has an
object in the genitive or dative, or with a preposition, as :
Tri6v/Mb tt)s dpsrrjs, %alpa) ry aocpla, sp^ofiai sis rrjv
iroXiv. Intransitive verb.
b) The subject appears as one which performs an action
that comes back upon itself, so that the subject is at the same
time the object also of the action ; as : TVTTTOfiai, I strike my
self; fiovXevofiai, I advise myself =z I deliberate. Middle
form, Middle or Reflective verb.
Remark 1. When the reflective action of two or more subjects is
directed towards one another, it is called reciprocal; thus: riitTovTai,
they strike one another ; StaKiXiiovrcu, they encourage one another.
c) Lastly, the subject appears as suffering ; as : ol arpariSnai inrb r&v 7to\s/j,1(ov ihtay^Orjirav, were pursued. Pas
sive form, Passive verb.
Remark 2. The active and middle forms are complete. For the
passive, the Greek language has only two tenses formed : the future and
the aorist. All the other forms are denoted by the middle form, inas
much as the passive was represented as a reflective action.

176

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

150.

[chap. I.

Remarks upon the Kinds of Verbs.

1. Many Active verbs, especially such as express motion,


have an intransitive as well as a transitive meaning (compare
the English verbs, to change, to break, to melt; and the
Latin, vertere, mutare, declinare), thus, e.g. : avar/siv, to draw
back, regredi; Sidyuv, perstare ; sXavvsiv, to ride; ififiaWsiv and
etsPdWsiv, to fall in ; e/cftaWeiv, to spring forth ; avoKkwuv,
declinare; rpiireiv, like vertere; <rrpi<peiv, like mutare; e%eiv, in
connexion with adverbs, as: 5, ica/ems, tyi-tv, bene, male se
habere; rsXsmav, to end, to die; and many others.
2. Several Active verbs, having a transitive meaning, and
forming both aorists, have a transitive meaning in aorist I.,
but an intransitive in aorist II.
Mm, I wrap up
A.I. Uvaa, I wrapped up A. II. tow, Iplunged into.
"wti)\u, Iplace
larnoa, Iplaced
larnv, I stood.
<t>vui, I bring forth ltf>vaa, I broughtforth
t<jtvv, I arose.
OKtXKw, I dry
(?<r:ij\a, poet. Idried)
imXtiv, I withered.
So several Actives having a transitive meaning, and forming
both perfects, have a transitive signification in perfect L,
but an intransitive one in perfect II. :
lytipw, I awaken
oWvpi, perdo
iruBu, Ipersuade

Pf. I. eyriytpxa, I have


awakened
6\u\tKa, perdidi
iriiriuta, I have
persuaded

Pf.IL lyp-qyopa, I am awake 6\<o\a, perii.


irimiBa, I trust,

Further, some perfects II., from transitive verbs which


form no perfect L, have an intransitive meaning : ar/w/u, I
break, ear/a, I am broken ; injyvvfii, Ifasten, n-inrrf/a, I stand
fast; prffWfii, I tear, sppur/a, I am torn; arfirw, I make rotten,
aiai)ira, lam corrupt; tt\kxo, I melt, e.g. ice, rsrrjKa, I am
melted; (palvto, I show, irtyrjva, I appear.
.

150.]

VERB.

177

Remark 1 . The passive aXiaKO/im, I am taken, forms its perfect and


aorist with an active form : eaXwico, I have been taken, iaXuv, I was taken.
3. With regard to the signification and use of the Middle
form, the following is to be observed :
a) The Middle form denotes, first, an action which the
subject directs immediately towards himself, where in English
we use the active with the accusative of the reflective pro
noun; as: TVTrTOfiai., I strike myself, inr^rdfirjv, I struck myself,
rvyfrofiai, I shall strike myself. This use of the Middle is
rare. To this head belong the following verbs, which we
will exhibit in the aoristical form: amiyu), I keep from,
awooyia-dai, se abstinere ; dirdy^ai Tivd, to throttle or hang
any one, dirdy1;aa-Qai, to hang one's self; rvyfracrOai, Ko^jraaOai,
to strike one's self; brifiakiaBai nvi, to throw one's self upon
any thing ; TravaaaOai, to cease (fr. rrava, I cause to cease) >
hsi^aadai, to show one's self; and especially verbs which express
the action of a subject directed towards his own body ; as :
Xovaacrdai, vcyfraaOai, dXeiyjraaOai, ypiaaaQau, yvfivdaaadai,
KaXvyfracrdac, Kocrfiijaaadai, evBvcraadai, exBvaaaOai, KelpaaBai,
o~Tt$>avu)cracr8ai, &c. Except the above-mentioned and some
other verbs, this reflective relation is generally expressed by
the active form with the accusative of the reflective pronoun ;
as : erraivelv eavrov, dvaprdv eavrov, to hang one's self up,
diroKpimrsiv eavrov, eOi&iv eavrov, rrapeyew eavrov, diroXvuv
eavrov, to loosen one's self, arroafydrreiv eavrov, dnroicreivuv
eavrov. The Middle form has then the signification of the
passive, thus : erraiveicrOai, dwoicreiveadai, drroa^idrreaOai,
laudari, interfici, jugulari ah alio ; and also has its aorist and
future with a passive form.
Remark 2. In all the above middle verbs, the action is such as does
not necessarily require to be directed towards the subject ; for I can, e.g.,
just as well wash another as myself. But the action may be of such a
kind as to be necessarily directed towards the subject, inasmuch as the
subject performing the action must be considered as actually bound up

178

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

|chap. L

with the object experiencing the action. Since, in this case, the subject
coincides with the object, the middle form expresses the simple idea of
an intransitive action ; to this class especially belong very many verbs
which express an action or perception of the mind. Only a very few
verbs of this kind have their aorist with a middle form ; as : QvXaZaaScu,
to guard one's self (<f>vXaZm riva, to watch one), f3ov\tvaao6cu, to advise
one's self = to deliberate {j3ov\ivaai riva, to advise any one), yivaaoSat, to
taste ; most of them, on the contrary, with a passive form ; the following,
however, have the future with a middle form ; via. dvapvnrrSijvat, dva/iviiataBai, to remember, recordari (dvapvrjaai riva, to remind any one) ; aioyvvBijvat, aiaxvvtiaOai, to be ashamed (atoxvvai riva, to shame) ; ipofinOrfvai,
<pofiti(Tto9ai, to be in fear (tpofiijirai riva, terrere) ; TroptvQiivai, iroptvviaQai,
proftcisci (jrropivaai riva, to convey any one over) ; Kipaiuidrjvai, mpaiwaiadai
(irorn/iov), to cross (vcpauiacd riva, trajicere) ; irXayxdfjvai, irXay%t<r9ai,
circumvagari (wXayKcu riva, to lead astray) ; aviaQrjvai, dviaaeaBai, to afflict
one's self, to grieve (aviaaai riva, to afflict any one) ; further : SidkvQiivai,
SiaKpiOijvai, discedere, airaXXaytjvcu, dbire, KOifinBijvai, to sleep, (pavijvat,
apparere, irayijvai, to coagulate, InapOTjvai, to raise one's self, and many
others.
b) The Middle form denotes, secondly, an action which
the subject performs on an object belonging to him, con
nected with him, or standing in any near relation to him. In
English we then generally use either a possessive pronoun or a
preposition with a personal pronoun; as : Twrrofiai, ETtAjrdfirjv
tt]v KE<pa\tfv, I strike, struck my head (jinrreiv k. the head of
another) ; \ovaao-0ac tovs irdZas, to wash one's feet (\ovsiv t. it.
of another) ; d/iroKpv^aaOai, ra kavrov, to conceal that which is
one's own ; KaTaaTptyacrOai yrjv, sibi subjicere terram ; dvapr^craadal Tiva, sibi devincire, to make dependent upon one's self;
airo\vaao-6al riva, to loosen for one's self, to redeem ; iropLo-aaQai ti, sibi aliquid comparare (iropi^eiv rl rivi, alii aliquid
comparare) ; Krrjo-acrOai, irapao-KSvdaaadai ri, sibi comparare ;
dfivvao-0ai row TroXsfilovs, propulsare a se hostes ; dircoaaadat
Kaicd, a se propulsare mala. This use of the Middle is by far
the most frequent.
Remark 3. As the active may be used wnen tne subject does not
himself perform an action but has it performed by another ; as : 'XXi

150.]

VERB.

179

%av8pog ti)v vokiv KareaKa^/a>, had it destroyed; so also may the middle be
thus Used, with this difference, however, that in the middle the action is
always drawn back in some way upon the subject ; as : 6 irarrip tovq vdiSag
iSiSd^aro, which either means the father instructed his own children, or, if
it is clear from the connexion, had them instructed; KupaoBm, to shave
one's self\ or have one's self shaved; 'Mpyiiot eavruv eUovac troinadjit voi
dvi&Kjav tig AsXtpoig ; irapaBiaBai rpd-ne'Cav^ to set before one's self or have
set before one's self
4. From the reflective signification of the Middle form, the
Passive meaning of it has been developed, according to which
the subject causes an action to be directed towards itself in
such a manner that it appears as the suffering object ; as :
fiacrriyovfiai, fyfiiovfiat (yrro twos), I receive a blow, punish
ment,! cause myself to be struck, punished = I am struck, pu
nished (by any one) ; ^Kairrofmi, aBiKov/xai, I suffer injury,
wrong ; 8i8acrico/j,ai, I have myself instructed, I receive instruc
tion, I learn, hence vtto twos, by any one = doceor ab aliquo ;
irslBo/mi, Ipersuade myself, or suffer myself to be persuaded,
mro nvos, by any one = I am persuaded.
5. For two tenses, however, viz. the future and aorist,
there are separate forms employed to express a Passive
idea, the aorist of which (see Rem. 2.) is used instead of the
Middle form in many reflective and intransitive verbs ; all
the other tenses are expressed by the Middle form. Hence
arises the following rule : the future and aorist Middle have
only a reflective or intransitive meaning, not a passive one,
for this there are separate forms (future and aorist Pas
sive) ; all the other tenses of the Middle serve at the same
time to denote the Passive also. The future Middle, how
ever, has sometimes a Passive signification ; as : 6 ZUatos fisv
wv, Sok&v S' shai aSiicos, fiacrTiydoaeTai, aTpe[S\d>o-Tai,
hshrjosrai, iKKavOijosrai, rw<p0aXfia>.
Remark 4. The author of a passive state is generally expressed by the
preposition itri with the genitive ; as : ol arparuirai virb t<Sv jtoXe^iW
ilu!ixO>iaav. Instead of turd, irpog is sometimes used with the genitive
N 2

180

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

[chap. I.

when the powerful and immediate influence of a person is to be denoted ;


as : arifiaZtoBai, dStxtiaSai irpoc tivoq ; further, irapd with the genitive is
used when the author is to be exhibited as the person from whose neigh
bourhood, environs, inward or outward means, the action has proceeded,
hence especially with Trepm r6ai, SiEooBat, iifeXtiaOai, ovXXkytoDat, Xtyia&ai,
mtpaiveoiai, lirifa'iKvvoBai (demonstrSri) ; as : 6 ayyiXog lirkptpOt) irapa j3aoiAswf, t) fieyioTT) tvTV\ia TovTtp r dvSpi irapa 6t(*iv SkForai, woXXd xPV^ara
Kvpip wapa twv (piXuv evvtiXiyfiiva r\v. If the passive state is caused, not
by persons, but things, the dative is generally used (= Latin ablative) ;
as '. *l ttoKiq ttoXXoaq ffvpipopaXg Imi^eTO.
6. It is a peculiarity of the Greek language that the ac
tive form, not merely of transitive verbs with the accusative,
a8 in Latin and German, but also of intransitive ones with
the genitive and dative, may be turned into the personal
passive form.
<S>$ovovfiai vtto tivoq, invidetur mihi ab aliquo (fr. QOovtiv ran, invidere
alicui). Tliariiopai, airiarovfiai vno tivoq, creditor, noncreditur, mihiab
aliquo (fr. ffiffrtufiv, airiOTiiv tivi.) Kai tirifiovXwovTtQ, cat i irtfiov'K tv
6/isvoi tiiaKovai "ndvra rbv xpovov (fr. ImfiovXtvtiv rtvt). 'Affceirat to
del Tip&fitvov, dfitXtlrai
to dripa^opivov (fr. dpeXtiv tivoq). So:
apxopac, Kparovucu, naratppovovfiai vtto twos (fr. dpxcv, KP-i **r. tivoq).
Remark 5. Deponent verbs ( 118. Remark) are merely verbs which
stand only in the middle form, and have a reflective or intransitive signi
fication. In English, we cannot always render the reflective or intrans
itive signification ; as : /3ia?ouai, Iforce, properly I bring into my power,
Hixopai, I take, properly, I take to myself.
Remark 6. As the reflective meaning often came very near the passive,
Deponents were frequently used in that sense, especially in the perfect
andaorist; as: ptpifir/pivoQ, ad imitationem expresses; vijtQ ovk txPV"Srioav, adhibitas sunt. Several verbs have the middle as well as the passive
meaning ; the passive form has then a passive meaning, e. g. idtZaprir,
except, iiixQnv, exceptus sum ; Ifiiaaapnv, coegi, Ij3ida9nv, coactus sum ;
lKTt\adf.nv, mihi comparavi, ecrijQjjv, comparatus sum (/ am gained).

VERB.

152.]

151.

181

On the Tenses and Moods of Verbs.

1. Next to the kinds of verbs, we distinguish, secondly,


the Tenses by which the time of the predicate is expressed, in
asmuch as it is represented either as a present, future, or
past, as : the rose blooms, will bloom, bloomed.
2. Thirdly, we distinguish in verbs the Moods, by which
the' manner of speaking in the predicate is expressed, inasmuch
as the relation of the subject to the predicate, is represented
either as a fact, a conception, or an immediate expression
of the will. The mood of fact, as : the rose blooms, is called
the Indicative ; that of conception, as : should the rose bloom,
the Conjunctive ; and that of immediate or direct expression
of the will, as : give, the Imperative.

152.

A. On the Tenses of Verbs, in Detail.

1. All tenses are divided into two classes according to their


form and signification, viz. a) into Principal tenses, which,
both in the indicative and conjunctive, always denote a pre
sent or future ; and b) into Historical tenses, which, in the
indicative always denote a past, in the conjunctive (optative),
sometimes a past and sometimes a present or future.
2. The principal tenses are the following :
a. The Present : a) in the indicative, as : ypatpo/iev, scribimus ; V) in the
conjunctive, as : ypaputfiiv, scribamus.
b. The Perfect : a) in the indicative, as : ytypcujiafnv, scripsimus ; b) in
the conjunctive, as : ytypdipui/uv, scripserimus.
c. The Future: in the indicative, as: ypd\po/ttv, scribemus, we shall
write.
N 3

182

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

|chap. t

d The Future Perfect in the indicative, as : j}tj3ov\tvoofiai, I shall have


deliberated or have been advised.
3. The historical tenses are the following :
a. The Aorist: a) in the indicative, as : Zypafa, I wrote ; b) in the
optative, as : ypn^/aiju, 1 might write or have written.
b. The Imperfect : a) in the indicative, as: Zypaipov, scribebam ; V) in
the optative, as : ypd^oifii, scriberem.
c. The Pluperfect : a) in the indicative, as : iytypd<ptiv, scripseram; b) in
the optative, as : ytypaQoipi, scripsissem.
d. The optative of the simple Future, as : ypd^oi/ii, I should write, and
of the Future Perfect, as : fStfiovktvooiiiriv, I should have deliberated or have
been advised, when in narration (and consequently in reference to the past),
the conception of a future action, or one completed at a future time, is to be
expressed ; as : 6 dyyeXog iXiytv '6n ot 7ToXe/4iqi viKi}aoitv, the messenger said
that the enemies would conquer; tXeyev ori wdvra vtto tov arparriyov tv
fiifiovXtiooiTo, he said that every thing would (have been =) be well
considered by the general.
4. The Present (in the indicative) places the action in the
time present to the speaker. In narration of past events, the
Present is often used, since in the liveliness of description the
past is regarded as present. (Historical Present.)
Tavrnv rffti rd<ppov /3a<nXiig p.iyag irotcl dvri Ipii/iaTog, InciSr) irvvBdverai
Kvpov irpofftXavvovra. THV rig HptapiSuiv v&iZirarog HoXvdtopog,*Ending
waif, ov K Tpoiag lp.oi irariip diSwoi Hpiapog tv 86/ioig Tpifuv.
Remarh 1. The present, cl/u (eo), with its compounds, has a future
signification in the indicative and conjunctive : / shall go ; the infinitive
and participle present have the signification of both the present and
future; e.g. oiiK tvBvg dtpr/su airbv o&S' airiipi (abibo), dXX' ipriaopat
aiirbv xai IXtrdaiji col tXiy%u>, The two present forms, olxopai and
jJkm, are often translated in English by the perfect : viz. dixofuu, I am
gone away, and ijicw, / am come ; but oixop.ai properly means, I am away,
and tjkoi, lam present (adsum); as: firj Xu7ro5 on 'Apdairag ofxerai tig
roiig woXe/tiovg, that A. is off (= transfugif) to the enemies. "Htu vtKpCiv
Ktv9jiiova Kai okotov iriiXag Xnrwv. 'Y/itTg fioXtg dtpiKvuadi, '6koi ly/ittj irdXat
yKo/iev.
5. The Perfect (in the indicative) places a past action in

152.]

VERB.

183

the time present to the speaker. The action appears as one


that is completed in the time present to the speaker.
Tkypaipa }v iirwToXrjv, I have written the letter, the letter is now written,
it matters not whether just now, or a long time ago; >} iroXig UruiTat,
the city is now built, stands there now built.
Remark 2. Many Greek perfects (and pluperfects) are translated in
English by the present (and imperfect) of other verbs which express the
condition occasioned by the completion of the action j as : ntyriva (I have
shown myself), I appear ; olla, novi {I have seen, ascertained), I know ;
ridrjXa (I have bloomed), I bloom ; niiroiSa {I have convinced myself), I
trust; /3f/3>/ica (I have stepped out), Igo ; fiinvrj/xm, memini (I have reminded
myself), I am mindful ; KE<crr;/iai (I have procured for myself), Ipossess ;
KuXjjpcu, (Z have been named), I am called; and many others.
6. The Future (in the indicative) points out an action as
future in relation to the time present to the speaker. In ac
cessory sentences, the Greeks very often use the indicative
Future, even after an historical tense, to express that which
ought, must, or may happen, where the Latins use the con
junctive ; all the forms of the Future (especially the partici
ple) are so used.
Hofiovg virapXal iii roioirovg, Si Ziv Toig fiiv dyaSoig tvriuog Kal IXevBipog o
filog TrapaffKtvatjOiiatTai, roig tit KaKoig rairuvog re xai dXyttvbg Kat
df3i<A>ro o aluiv iwavanttaeTai. 'Hyepovag tXapov oi arpaTidrm, ol
airotig dZovoiv, tvStv eou<7i ra Iwirvlua.
7. The Future Perfect (in the indicative) points out the
action as past (completed) in the future in relation to the
time present to the speaker.
Kai roig taicoig utuitirai ladXa. 'H iroXirtia reXiwg KCKoaftriairai,
l&v 6 Toiovrog a{iTi)v tiri<rK07rp QvXai 6 rourwv lirurrr)uu>v. The future
perfect of those verbs whose perfect we translate by the present of
other verbs (see Rem. 2.), must be translated by the simple future ;
as : ni/ivriaoum, meminero (1 shall have reminded myself), I shall be
mindful.
Remark 3. The future perfect is, in other cases, used in Greek, only
in principal sentences and those accessory sentences which are introduced
N 4

184

ELEMENTS OF TIIE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

[chap. I.

by 8 and <lc (that). In all other accessory sentences, the conjunctive


aorist (more rarely perfect) is used instead, in connexion with a con
junction compounded of dv, such as : idv, Indv, iirtiSdv, orav, irpiv dv,
tar dv, is dv, &c. ; as : idv tovto Xefpe, si hoc dixeris.
Remark 4. The conjunctive present and perfect, as well as the aorist,
always have the signification of the future, in relation to the time present
to the speaker.
8. The Aorist (in the indicative) expresses the past, sepa
rated from the time present to the speaker, altogether gene
rally, without any accessory relation ; as : eypayfra, I wrote, 6
KOpos TroWa ednj eviKrjcrev. It forms a contrast with the
other tenses which denote a past time, but may be used in
the place of all those tenses, inasmuch as it denotes the past
quite generally.
9. The Imperfect (in the indicative) also represents the
action as past indeed, but always as standing in relation to
another past time.
'Ev if> ov t Traifef, eyui typatyov. "Ore iyyi) t)<rav ol fidpfiapot, ol"E\X)jvig tpaxovTO. "Or ot fidpfiapoi iTreXrjXvOerTav (or iwttXGov), oi"EXXqv
Iftaxovro. Tort (= iv ravrt) Ty /*xp) "EXXqvts OappaKturara
ifxa^ovro.
10. Hence the Aorist (in the indicative) is used in his
torical narration, to express the principal facts, while the
Imperfect (in the indicative) is used to denote the accom
panying circumstances. The Aorist narrates, the Imperfect
describes.
tovg iriXraoTas kde%a vto ol jidpfiapoi xal I p.dxovTO' Ivii 8 iyyilS 5 oav
ol oirXXrai, It pdnovro' (cat ol wtXTaarai iv9is tXirovro.
Remark 5. The aorist (in the indicative) is often used in general
sentences, which express a fact drawn from experience, and then is
translated in English by the present or the verb "to be accustomed" with
the infinitive; as: kuXXos y xpovos dvdXtoatv, ri voaos ip.dpavev.
11. The Pluperfect (in the indicative) points out the action
as past (completed) before another past time.

152.]

VERB.

185

Eirtidfj oi "EXXjjvtf i JTtXijXuflecra v, oi iroXijiwi dirnrttj>tvytoav."OTe


ot trvfiftaxoi tTrkrjtriaZov, oi 'AOijvciioi Toig Tlkpaag IvtviKiiKtoav. 'Eyfypatpuv t>)v liriaTo\i)v (when the friend came).
Remark 6. It should be observed, that when the relation of one past
time to another is easily perceived from the connexion, and no particular
stress lies upon it ; the Greeks are fond of using the aorist instead of the
pluperfect; as: iirtiSri oi "EXXi/vt lirijXBov, oi voXi/uol d-Ktiritytiytaav.
In fact, the aorist is often used instead of the perfect, when the relation
of the past to the present is not required to be emphatically brought
forward.
12. As the Aorist (in the indicative; represents a fact of
past time as isolated and ended, not depending upon another
past time ; while the Imperfect, on the contrary, causes the
action to be considered in its duration and progress, since it
always refers a transaction in the past to another past time,
and is used in description and representation : so the other
moods also (conjunctive, optative, and imperative), together
with the infinitive and participle, of the Aorist, are used
when the speaker wishes to point out an action as ended, in
itself ; but the moods, with the infinitive and participle of
the Present, as well as the optative of the Imperfect, when
the speaker wishes to exhibit the action descriptively, in its
duration and progress. In this way the following forms stand
contrasted together :
a. The Conjunctive Aorist, and the Conjunctive Present ; as : <pvy<aptv
and (pivyiafitv, let usflee ; Xtyut, Xva (idOyg and tva pavQdvpg, that thou mayest
learn.
b. The Imperative Aorist, and the Imperative Present ; as : ipvye and
<j>ivyt)flee ; Sog and SiSov fioi to /3i/3XiW, give.
c. The Infinitive Aorist, and the Infinitive Present ; as : WsXm Qvyiiv and
^cuyfiv, I wish toflee ; KtXevu) at Sovvai and hdovat fioi rb fiifiXlov : but the
infinitive aorist may also denote a past time, and supply the place of the
infinitive perfect, when the relation to the^finite verb is not required to
be prominent ; as : rjyyeiXt roig iroXtfitovg diroQvytiv and diromfvyivat,
nunciavit hostes fugisse.
d. The Optative Aorist, and the Optative Imperfect ; as : iXtyov, Iva fidSoig

186

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

[chap. I.

and Xva pavQavoif, in order that thou mightest learn, ut disceres ; i'8e tqvto
yivoiro and yiyvoiro, O that this may happen ! The Optative Aorist may
also supply the place of the Optative Pluperfect, when the relation to
another past time does not require to be prominent ; as : yyyuXiv on,
iirtidt) oi"EXS.nvft iireXQoiev, oi fiapfiapot T/fli; diroipvyoitv.
The Participle of the Aorist always denotes a past time, and hence
appears in contrast with that of the Perfect, since the former merely
points out the action as past, while the latter, on the contrary, places it,
at the same time, in relation to the finite verb ; as : oi airopoXoi yyyiiXav
tovq iroXifiiovs diroQvyovrac and diroirtiptvyorac..

153.

B. On the Moods, in Detail.

1. We distinguish the three following moods : the Indica


tive, the Conjunctive (Optative), and the Imperative ( 151,
2.).
a. The Indicative is the mood offact; as : to poBov ddWsi
6 irarrjp yy pa<f>s ttjv imaroX^v oi iroXifiioi airi<j>vyov oi TroXirai tovs iro\s(i(ovs viKija-ova-tv
b. The Conjunctive is the mood of conception. The Con
junctive of the historical tenses is called, in Greek grammar,
the Optative ( 73, 2.).
a) The Conjunctive of the principal tenses, (the present
and perfect,) as well as that of the aorist, in Greek always
represents that which is conceived as future. Hence the
future has no Conjunctive form corresponding to that of the
Indicative. The Conjunctive of the principal tenses is used
in principal sentences : 1) in the 1. person singular and plural
to denote an exhortation or admonition ; 2) in the 2. person
singular and plural of the aorist (not the present) to express a
prohibition ; 3) in doubtful questions (in principal sentences,

153.]

VERB.

187

almost exclusively in 1. person singular and plural; in acces


sory sentences, through all the persons).
"Iu/itv, eamus, let us go ! Mi) iu/uv. M) 0o/3ij0??f, ne metuas. Tt
Trotufiev ; quid faciamus f what must we do? In accessory sentences :
ovk ex>, 'oiroi rpairupat, non habeo quo me vertam, where to go. Owe ex<>
bjroi TpdirtiTCU,
0) The Conjunctive of the historical tenses, the Optative
of the aorist, imperfect, and pluperfect, as well as that of the
future ( 152, 3, <T), represents what is conceived, either as
past, present, or future. The Optative denotes a present or
future time, only in conditional propositions, and such ellipti
cal propositions as are thence derived; as : d ti e%ois, BoItjs
av, if thou hadst anything, thou wouldst give it. The condition,
eX n e^ois, as well as the consequence, Solrjs av, is here ex
hibited as a present ; mostly, as an uncertain future, an un
determined possibility, a mere supposition, idea, or conjecture.
See 185. From this form of the conditional proposition,
el with the Optative, the expression of a wish was evolved,
the consequent proposition belonging to it being suppressed ;
as : el tovto yivono! if this were to take place (then I should be
happy, svrv%r)s av evqv). Instead of the simple el the strength
ened eXOe, el yap, O that, are generally used in such cases; as :
elds (el yap) ifwl 6sol ravrrjv ttjv Bvvafiiv irapaOelev! Very
frequently, the consequent proposition is used elliptically,
the condition belonging to it being suppressed ; as : r)Mws av
a/covoraifii, I should like to hear (viz. if it were allowed, el
e^elrf). (Compare No. 2, c.) With the exception of the
cases just enumerated, the Optative always refers to the
past.
Remark 1. If a wish is to be pointed out as one to the fulfilment of
which the speaker knows he cannot attain, the indicative of the historical
tenses is used; as: ilde tovto tytyvtro! O that this might happen! eWt
tovto lyivtro, O that this had happened!
c. The Imperative is the mood of an immediate expression

188

ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

[chap. r.

of the will ; as: Bos and BiBov pot to fii/ikiov, give ; ypa^fraTO)
and ypcufrira) ttjv hrurroXriv, scribito, let him write or he should
write. With regard to the difference between the Aorist and
Present see 152, 12.
Remark 2. In negative or prohibitory forms of speech with a preced
ing pii (tic), the Greeks use the imperative present, not the imperative
aorist ; but, instead of this latter, the conjunctive aorist ; as : pi) ypcupt
or u>) ypa\fog (but not ui) ypaifiov).
Remarks upon the Modal Adverb av.
2. The discussion of the modal adverb av is closely con
nected with the subject of the moods. The power of this
particle consists in showing the relation of a conditional asser
tion to its condition, since it implies that the predicate of the
proposition connected with it is contingent upon another pro
position, either actually expressed or to be supplied, and ac
cordingly the realisation of this predicate is dependent upon
that of another. A thorough insight into the use of av can
only be gained hereafter, from the account given of condi
tional propositions ; for the present, the following remarks
upon its construction will be sufficient. It is connected :
a. With the Indicative of the historical tenses, viz. the
Imperfect, Pluperfect, and Aorist, for the following pur
poses.
a) To denote a consequence, the reality or possibility of
which is denied or annulled, i. e. it implies that something
might have taken place on a certain condition, but did not
take place, because the condition was not fulfilled.
Et TovToiXtyfQ (tktZag), fifiapraveg (rifiapris) av, si hoc diceres, errares
(but I know now, that you would not say it, consequently you do not
err). Et tovto IXtJap, tj/iaprts av, si hoc dixisses, errassesi at hoc non
dixisti, ergo, non, errasti (the aorist here supplies the place of the plu
perfect). Or without a protasis; as: Ix^-ptc av, latareris or latatus
fuisses (sc. si hoc viditses).

133.]

VERB.

189

/3) To denote that an action took place (was repeated) in


past time under certain circumstances, conditions, and rela
tions.
E! ng Tip Swrpdrti irtpi rov dvTiX'eyOi, Iwt tt)v viroQeoiv iirdvtiyev dv
irdvra tov Xoyov (as often as any one contradicted).
Remark 3. av is not connected with the indicative of the principal
tenses.
b. With the Conjunctive, in order to exhibit the conceived
future event which the Greek Conjunctive denotes ( 152,
Rem. 4.), as conditional and dependent upon circumstances.
In ordinary language this case occurs only in accessory sen
tences, and thenthe modal adverb dv unites closely with the
Conjunctive of the accessory sentence, or blends with it into
one word. Thus there arise : lav (fr. si av), orav (fr. ore av),
oVorav (fr. Sttots av), nrpiv av, 061 av, ov av, ottov av, ol av,
oirob av, y av, ottt) av, 56sv av, oiroOev av, and also os av (quicunque or si quis), olos av, ottoios av, ocros av, oiroa-os av, &c.
c. With the Optative (very seldom with the Optative
Future), in order to exhibit a present (mostly a future) uncer
tain event, or an undecided possibility, a mere supposition,
idea, or conjecture, as conditional. The Optative with av
should always be regarded as the principal proposition of an
annexed conditional one, even if the condition belonging to it
is suppressed (No. I, j8).
Ei tovto Xtyoiq, a/iapravote av; without protasis, as : xa'P'S "v> y
would, you might rejoice (viz. if you heard this}, rivoir av irav iv t
fuiKpy xpvV> it might all happen. Atyoig av, thou mayest speak (sc. si tibi
placuerit).Very often, the optative is used with av, when the speaker
wishes to put forth a strong affirmation in a modest way.
d. With the Infinitive and Participle (very seldom with
the Infinitive and Participle Future) when the finite verb, if
put in the place of the Infinitive and Participle, would be
joined with av.

190

ATTRIBUTIVE COMBINATION.

["chap, il

EJ ri <?xv, tyti, Sovvcu av (orat. rect. : tl ri ilxov> tSuiKa av). EJ j-t t^ot,
ttpj), doDvai av (orat.rect. : f! ri txot/"> ioii/v
AqXoe il auaprivtav
av, li tovto Xeyoij (= Srj\6v iariv, 6ri a/iaprdvoic av, ll rovro
Remark 4. Since av expresses the predicate as conditional, it ought
properly to be joined to it ; as : Xiyotfti av, (Xtyov av ; it usually,
however, comes after that member of the sentence which is to be
brought forward with emphasis : hence it is generally joined to those
words by which the smooth utterance of the sentence is affected, viz. to
negative adverbs and interrogatives ; as : ovk av, ovb" av, oviror av, ovdikot av, &C. rig av, ri av, ri I' av, ri Srjr av, iruig av, vug yap av, ap' av,
&c. ; further, to adverbs of place, time, manner, and others by which
the expression of the predicate is in many ways modified and more
clearly defined ; as : IvravOa av, tot av, iUorwg av, "ittiag av, rax av,
pakurr av, (ikutt av, paitwg av, tjUiog av, &c. Hencelt also happens, that
it is sometimes repeated in a sentence.

CHAP. II.
154.

On the Attributive Combination.

1. The attributive combination serves to define more clearly


the idea expressed by a substantive ; as: to ko\ov poSov ; 6
fieyas irais. It is found in the following forms :
a. In the form of an adjective ; as : to ko\ov poSov.
b. In the form of a substantive in the genitive ; as : oi rod
hiv&pov KapiroL
c. In the form of a preposition joined to a substantive; as :
T) trpOS T7)V ttoXiv 6S6s.
d. In the form of an adverb ; as : oi iw avOpayiroi.
e. In the form of a substantive in apposition ; as : Kpouros,
6 ^aaCKsii.

154.]

APPOSITION.

191

Remark. If the substantive which is to be more clearly defined by the


attributive expresses a general notion ; or one which can easily be sup
plied from the connexion of the discourse ; or, lastly, one which may be
supposed to be known by frequent use in a particular connexion ; as :
avdptoirog, avtip {man, consort), yvvr] (woman, spouse), iraryp, fiijTtip, viog, irate,
Ovydrnp, aleXtyog, Trpayfia, %pqja, epyov, xpofog, ripkpa, \ii>pa, yij, 6S6g, oUia,
o'ko, &c. ; it is often omitted, as being the subordinate member of the
attributive combination, and the attributive, generally accompanied by
the article, is treated as a substantive.
Oi dnvroi (sc. av8poiiroi), mortales, rd ij/tertpa (sc. xpypara), res nostra!,
tl varepaia (sc. ij^kpa) i) iroXefiia and i) <pt\ia (sc. x^Pa)y the hostile
and friendly country, ij oiKoviiivn (sc. yij), the inhabited earth, the
habitable globe, rijv rayiarnv (sc. otov), quam celerrime, ri imw,
the evil, rd kciki'i, the evils, 'AXtKavSpog 6 $Mmrov (viog) iv tfScv
(iiLKtft) tlvtti tig SiSao-KdXov,tig HXdriovog <poiTav, rd rijg tv\i\q, fortune
and all that belongs to it, rd rijg woXtwg, the affairs of the state, rd roO
iroXtpov, the war in its whole extent, oi vvv, oi rort, oi irdXai (avQpunroi),
rd oIkoi (vpaypara), res domestical, oi Ka6' vpdg, our contemporaries,
oi Ajujii or irtpi nva, a person with his companions, dependants, or
disciples, oi d/xijii Heiaiarparov, Pisistratus with his companions ; oi d/iQi
OaAijV, Thales and his disciples.
2. Apposition is affixed not merely, as other forms of the
attributive, to the substantive, but also to the substantivepronoun ; as : ^/xets, oi o-o<poi i/cslvos, 6 ftacrCkevs ; and
even to the personal pronoun implied by the verb.
Ot/iiaTOKX^g Ijkij) irapa at. 'O Maiag rijg "ArXavTOg CiaKovovfiai
airuig (instead of iyo) 6 Maiag SC. viog).
^
3. When an apposition is added to the possessive pronouns,
it stands in the genitive, because these pronouns supply the
place of the genitive of the personal pronouns.
'JZpbg tov dBXiov (3tog rdfia rov Svorrjvov xaxd <ri) rijg KaXXiorng li/iop<pia. In English we generally translate the genitive by an exclam
ation, since we connect the person implied by the pronoun and the
adjective in the nominative with one another ; as : / unfortunate, my
life, &c. Upon the expressions : 6 ^fi'trtpog, vfdrtpog, aftrtpog ai/rutv
irarlip, see below, in the account of the pronouns.

192

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap m.

CHAP. III.

155.

On the Objective Combination.

As the attributive combination serves to define the subject


(a substantive-idea) more particularly, so the objective serves
to define the predicate (a verbal idea) more particularly. By
the object we understand, in a wider sense, every thing by
which the predicate is more particularly defined, viz. a) the
case, i) the preposition, c) the infinitive, d) the participle, and
e) the adverb.
'K-jriOvfiui rye aoQiaQ ypafto ri\v imtTToXTjVm evxofiai toXq fooic t<JTi\
jrapd T<p fiaaiXtl imBv/id ypaftiv ytXiiv iliriv KaXws IfiayiaaTO.

ON THE CASE.

156.

I. Genitive.

The Genitive is the case denoting whence, and hence ex


presses, a) in a local sense, the out-going or removal and sepa
ration of an object, since it points out the object or point
from which the action of the verb proceeds ; as : siksiv 6SoO,
cedere via ; b) in a causal sense, the cause, origin, or author,
especially the object which calls forth, engenders (gignit), ex
cites, or occasions the action of the verb ; as : eiriOviMo Trjs
dperrjs.

GENITIVE.

158.]

157.

193

A. Local Sense.Separate Genitive.

The Genitive, in a local sense, is found in expressions of


removal, separation, and disjoining ; of commencement and be
ginning; of releasing, keeping one's selffrom, abstaining from,
desisting from, ceasing, keeping offfrom, freeing from, missing,
deviating from, being differentfrom, and depriving.
OX TfSv AcuciSaifloviuyv veilntpoi roi irpE'j^VT'ipoiQ avvrvyxdvovTiQ tiKOvoi
rijcolov. 'Airsx*' TtSv dpyvptiui* i) lyyvrara iroXig. Miyapa tto\v
nXetov rwv TrtVTaKoaiwv trradlojv. Myrrjp iratSbg tipyti pvTav. Havov
T7) {j/3pWf. 'H TroXig ri\ev8epw9rj tujv rvpdvvtov. 01 TroXipioi TOVQ
iroXirag riHv dyaQwv dTrttrrepqaav.
vtp oi avQpwiroi Siatphpovtrt Ttov
dWtov Ztau>v. "kpxtoQai nvos signifies to begin something, generally
as : aiv rdiq Btolg dpxtoOat XP$ iravrbs ipyov ; but apx"> lS&pxtlvi virapand tcarapxtiv, signify to do one thingfirst among others, to begin,
hence also, to be the author, as : ot iroXtpwi tjpav ddixuv ipymv. Oi
'A0i;va(oi km AaKtCaipovwi virijp^av rijs l\tv6ipia anday rp 'HXXddi,
libertatis auctoresfuerunt.

158.

B. Causal Sense.

The Genitive, in a causal sense, likewise denotes an out


going, yet not, as in the local sense, a mere outward one, but
an inward and active one, since it expresses the object by
whose inward power the action of the subject is calledforth
and engendered (gignitur).
a. The Genitive as an Expression of Activity generally.
1. In the first place, the Genitive of activity appears as the
genitive of the origin or author, and is found with verbs of
becoming, arising, having become or arisen, producing, and
creating ; as : yiyveo~6ai, <pvsiv, <j>vvat, elvai.
O

194

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. in.

'ApioTiav dvSpiSv dpiara PovXiiiiara y iy v tr ai. Tlarpbi plv fli} Xiycrat


6 Kvpos ycvetrdai Kafipvoov, Htpauiv flaeiXtw;' 6 Si Ka/ifivtnjg ot;7-0
rov Htpmiduv y'tvovQ ijv, pnrpbs it ofioXoytirai NavSavije yevko-Qai.
2. In the second place, the Genitive of activity appears as
the object which has acquired another, made it its own, and
possesses it, as an owner or possessor {Genitivus*possessors,
s. possessivusy This genitive is found with the verbs ehcu
and ysvda0ai ; and with the adjectives, iScos, oIkuos, iepos,
icvpws.
Trjg tpvaiuQ iikyiarov koXXoq lariv. Toi SwKparovc ttoXXj) r/v dptrt].
Hence the genitivus qualitivus, to which in English we affix the sub
stantives, business, nature, custom, property, duty, mark, &c. j as :
dvSpog itjTiv dyaOov lu irouiv tovq QiXovq. Ot pXv kivSvvoi ttoXXclku;
tiov i)yfi6vu/v idiot, purObg c" ovk toriv. Kvpog ravrijg rijfg \uipag Kvpiog
lykvtro.
3. Thirdly, the Genitive of activity appears as the object
which includes and holds together one or more other objects,
as parts belonging to it, as the whole in relation to its parts
( Genitivus totius, s. partitivus). This genitive is found :
a) With the verbs etvcu and yiyvecrdat. *
'Hv Kai 6 SwKparijc tiSv a/i0i WiXnTov OTpaTCV0)*evii>v. 'H ZiXua
itrri rijf 'Aaiag. Tov Qavarov iiyovvrai iravrig oi aXXoi tiZv /xtyiariov KaKuv clvai. In English we generally make use of the
prepositions, of, among.
Remark 1. The partitive genitive very often has an attributive force .
a) With substantives; as: arayoves USaros, oiApaToc pipoc.. '/3) With
adjectives used as substantives, especially with superlatives, and with
substantive-pronouns and numerals ; as : oi xpnvroi tv dvdpairiav, oi tv
QpovovvTEQ twv dv9pu>irwv. IloXXot, oXiyoi, nvig tujv dvBpiairttiV. (On
the contrary : oi Ovnroi dvBpwiroi, because the property of mortality
belongs to the whole class ; voXXoi or bXiyat dvOptowoi expresses a whole,
consisting of many or few, but iroAAoi or bXiyoi dvOpoiwuv denotes the
many or few as a part of the whole) y) With adverbs, 1) of place ; as :
ovfiajiij AiyvTzrov. Ovk olSa, 8 Trot/ yq toriv. HavTa%ov rijc yife,

158.]

GENITIVE.

195

ubique terrarum. 2) of time ; as : fyi rrjs ypipas, tov xpovov, Tijc i)XiKiai
rpig rijs t'l/iipae iroXXaKtg rijs iipipag,
b) With words which express the notion of participation,
share, communication, association; touching, seizing, laying
hold of, being connected ; obtaining, reaching, or striving to
obtain.
HoXXaKig oi KaKoi dpx&v Kai Tipwv fitrixovaiv. QaXmvg fiiv Kai ty!>x"VQ
Kai aWwv Kai ttotiSv Kai iirvov dvayxr) Kai toiq SoiXoig piTaSiiovai,
TroXepiKrjz d' iiriaTrtprjg Kai peXtrijg ov fitraSoTtov. 'O oofybg Ttjc
vfiptwc dpoipog (ttiv. "AirTtaGat tt}q \tipoQ. Aifivtj i^Erai (borders
upon) tov artfiaroQ ptyaXn. "Epyov f^w/itSa, opus aggrediamur.
"O arparnyoQ TtSv avrwv roig ffrpariwraig avvaipiTat KivSivtav. 'Eirudtl
Bvtjtov awparog tri/^ff, dOavdrov Sk i/w^'/Ci TrapaJ Tijg i^i'X*fff dB&varov
pvr\pr\v KaTaXnrtiv. Tvyxdvtiv, Xayxavtiv xp*lpdT(i>v, evrvxiag tvx&iv
TiXtvTTjc, 6v6paTog 'Optyto6t or i<j>u<s9e Trjg dpiTtjg.
4. Fourthly, the place in which, and the time when, an
an action takes place, appear as the Genitive of activity. The
deed or event belongs, as it were, to the place and time, pro
ceeds in a certain measure from them, and is dependent upon
them.
The genitive of place is rare in prose. Adverbs of place with a genitive
inflexion often appear ; as : oi, where, airov, there, at that very place,
oiSafiov, no where, &c. "Av8r) BdXXu tov tapoc, the spring is considered
as the producer and sustainer of flowers. So : Oepovc, x('^vo(, ijptpar,
rijs avTrjc i/pipag, vvktoq. BaoiXtig ov fiaxiirat Sua ypipuv, within ten
days.
5. Lastly, the Genitive of activity appears as the matter of
which an object is made, formed, and, as it were, produced.
This genitive is found :

a) With verbs of making or forming from any thing: with


expressions of abundance or want of any thing ; with verbs of
eating, drinking, enjoying, having benefit or advantage; of
smelling, and smelling of any thing.
XoXkov jt jr o i r\ p. i v a iari rd dydXpara. 'Earpufitvr) iariv oldg Xi9ov.
Hence, with an attributive force: tKirwpa ZiXov TpdiriX,a apyvpiov
O 2

196

OBJF.CTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. III.

OTttyavog vaKivOuv. 'H vavg atoayjx'tvi) i\v dvOpwTTiav. Ta 'Avaayopov fiifiXia ykfiei aoQutv Xoytov. 'Evrai>6a ijaav K&fiat iroXXai fitarai
airov Kai otvov. 'Airoptlv, Tr'tvtaQai, oiravlZ&iv ruiv xpri^LaTiav.
'EaQitiv Kpt&v KopkaaoOai Qopfiijg irivtiv otvov 'AiroXaveiv
iravTuiV Ttav dyaQiav. TtvtaBai Tipijg. yeptiv nvd rip.rjg. "O^tiv
"wiv, fivpov irvdv Upoaf3aX\e iv p.ipov. Xlviiv rpayov. "0fiv
Kpofiviav. 'Qg tjSv fioi itpoatTTvivo't xoiptitav Kpt&v.
Remark 2. The accusative stands with verbs of eating and drinking
when the substance a) is consumed as a whole or in a large mass, or 6) is to
be pointed out as the customary food which any one takes ; as : Trivia rbv
olvoVf iroXiiv olvov. 'ATroXavtiv rivog ti signifies to receive good or
evil from any one.
5) With verbs of sensation and perception, as : ukovsiv,
cucpoacrOai, irvvddvso'Oai, alcrdavecrBai, 6a(f>palvsa0at, cvvisvaiy to understand; and with verbs of remembering and
forgetting.
Kai KUHpoir ovvir) p.i, Kai oil tpiovovvrog die ova. 'Qg wafpovro ra\WTa
Twp KapqXwv oi Xmroif Kai elSov avrag, biziau) avkarpttyov. Ovk aKpoiZiptvot rov adovrog cjpvvere aSetv apwra. 'Akovhv diKrjc, to hear a cause,
aiaOaviaBat. Kpavyrjc, 6opv0ov, IwifiovXfjg. Frequently the thing is put
in the accusative, and often also the accusative of the thing is used
together with the genitive of the person; as: 6 'Appiviog, ug ijKove
rov dyysXov to. irapd rov Kvpov, t&irXayij. Oi dyaQoi Kai airovriav
tu/v tptXajv fikfivrtvrai." Mr) iirtXavQdvov tQv tvipytaiijiv.
c) With expressions of being acquainted with and ignorant
of, of being skilled and unskilled in, of being experienced in any
thing, of ability and dexterity.
"Epireipogari7Ti.o-Tr)iiu)v eipi rrjg rixvyg. 'Airaib'tvTog aptrrjg, povaiKtjg,
irvyy v&pbtv Tiav dv9po>7riv(ov irpaypdriav. 'Aireipuig t%tiv Ttvog.
'AiroirttpaaQ at yvwfing. Kai TrapaaKtvaftTiKbv TtSv tig rbv iroXtjiov rbv ffTpartjybv elvai XP'I Ka* TroptariKbv tuv eiriTrtc'uwv Toig
arparihiTaig.
d) With verbs of seeing, considering, examining, and the
like, especially, admiring, praising, or blaming something in
any one, e. g. any action, external manifestation, or particular
circumstance.

158.]

GENITIVE.

197

To ppaSv Kai /liWov, o p.ip-<povTai paXwra ijjiwv, ft?) alaxivtoBt. Ei


ayaaai tov irarpbg rj oaa /3ij3ov\tvTai q oaa mTrpaxs, irdvv not avpfiov\ivia tovtov iiipiioBai. 'Ey<i Kai tovto iiraivH '\ynai\dov, ro Trpbg
to dptOKtiv rolg "EXXjjffiv vwipiSiiv ti)v (3aai\tu>Q %iviav. Topyiov
fiaXtOTa ravra ay a pat. "O Bavp dw tov iraipov, rode lar'tv.
IloXXd 'Opiipov liraivov fiev.
Remark 3. When these last-mentioned verbs are merely related to
a thing which one admires, blames, or praises ; they govern the ac
cusative, sometimes also the accusative of the person alone ; liratviiv,
ij/eyuv, jiifiiptadai riva ; SO also, dyaaBat, BavpaZuv Ttvd, to gaze at any
one, the person or whole being of the person.
b. Genitive as an Expression of Cause (Or. causes, G. causativus).
6. The second division of the causal Genitive comprehends
the genitive which expresses the cause, i. e. the object which
calls forth and causes the activity of the subject. The English
avails itself of various prepositions, as : towards, for the sake
of, over. This genitive is used :
I. With many verbs which express a condition of the mind,
a, feeling of the soul {verba affectuum), viz. a) with verbs of
longing and desiring ; b) of care; c) of pain, sorrow, and
compassion; d) of being angry and displeased;- e) with
tpOovsiv (jlvL twos, dat. of the person and genit. of the thing) ;
f) of admiring, praising, commending, and blaming (rivd
tivos, accusative of the person, and genitive of the thing).
Ovfitig 7T0T0V kirtBv jue7, dXXd xpnffrov ttotov, Kai ov atrov, dWu xpyl7Tv
ffiTOV irdvTeg ydp dpa Ttav dyaBdiv iiriBvpLovaiv. Td dvop-otov dvcftoitav eirtBvp.t Kai epa\ Hetvrjv tiZv atTuv, twv ttot&v, tov t-jraivov. Oi vopoi tov kowov dyaBov tirtp\k\ovTat. Oi yovtig nivBtKoig
t\xov rv TTatSbg TtBvvKorog. IloattSuiv KuicXw7rog tice^oXwro, ov
'OSvaaebg rjXdhjazv. Ot KaKoi tpBovovat roig dyaBoig Trjg aotpiag.
"Ay apat as rijg dvSpiag. Qav[idofjisv rbv StoKodrij rij aotpiag.-
ZjjXw as tov ttXovtov. 'Evdatfiovi^to as rwv dyaButv. AivtH as rrjg
npoBvu-iag.
Remark 4. The verbs ayawdv, tpiKslv, aripyitv, to love, are joined, not
to a genitive, but an accusative. The verbs Bavp.dl.siv and dyaaBat
O 3

198

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. in.

have the following constructions: a) accusative of the person or ac


cusative of the thing alone, when the admiration extends itself to tbe
whole person or thing, or the whole being of the person or thing ; as :
OavpdZto (dyafiai) riiv arparnyov Qavfid^ia Ttjv aotpiay ; b) genitive of the
person and accusative of the thing, when I admire an action, external
manifestation, or particular circumstance of any person ; as : rovro
Bavp&Zu oov Oavpa%u (dyafiai) aov, Si6n ovk dpyvpiov icai \pvaiw
irpoeiKov Qnaavpoi-Q KiKTijaQai fidWov fi aoipiag. Compare 5,d; c) accu
sative of the person and genitive of the thing, when I admire a person on
account of a property ; as : 0au/jd?w (dyafiai) rbv Suwpdri] ri/c ampiag.
Compare 6, 1. Instead of the genitive of the thing, a preposition may
also be used, generally liri, with the dative : BavfidZw at liri rfj aotp'ta.
II. The Genitive expressing the cause is used with verbs
which express the notion of requital, vengeance, accusation,
and condemnation. The genitive points out the fault or ,
crime as the cause of the requital, vengeance, &c.
'Otvaatig IriaaTO tovs nvnOTtjpas rijt inrtpfiaoiaq. TipwpiioOai riva
tpovov.>-,ETraiTida6ai Ttva Qovov. MiXriddnv oi I^Opoi tSito^av
(Judicially pursued) rvpavvidog Trjg Iv Xippovi'itrtp. Tpd(f>ta9ai nva
(to accuse) xapavofiuv. Qtvyeiv (to be accused) ic\oiri], 0ovou, d<refit'iag. KpivtaOai (to be accused) datfitiag, * AixdZoveri v oi Yltpaai
Kai iyK\i]ixa.TO, ot5 tvtica dvOpiowot fiurovtn pe.v d\\rj\ovg fidkiora, ducdZ,ovrai 8i i'lKtora, dxapiariag. 'AXwvat kXottj/c. The punishment
of the crime also stands in the genitive ; as : Oavdrov Kpivuv,
KpivtaOai.
c. Genitive to denote certain Ideas of Exchange.
7. The third division of the causal Genitive comprises the
genitive by which certain ideas of exchange are expressed, in
which one notion is the condition of another, and thus, in a
certain sense, calls it forth and causes it. Accordingly the
genitive is found :
a) With verbs of ruling, preeminence, surpassing, being pro
minent, and the contrary : viz. of being subject, yielding to, and
being inferior,
'O \6yog tov tpyov Ixparei, fama superabat rem ipsam. Td poxOnpa
avOptiiiria 7ra<r<5j', ofyiai, riv iiriBofxiiiv dicparrj iariv. IloXXdicic \iiry

159.]

ACCUSATIVE.

199

virepfidXXei rb dStKtiv tov aSiKticQai. Oi irovnpol tjTT&vrai rwv


tTTlOvfilUIV.
8) With the comparative degree, and with adjectives in
the positive degree, when the notion of the comparative is
involved in them, the object of comparison stands in the
genitive. (Genitivus comparativus.)
'O vibe jitiZwv Iotl tov irarpoQ, greater than the father. Xpvabq Kpiiaeuiv pvpiuv X6yuv PporoiQ. Tb 'EXXijvikov OTpaTiv/ia (paivtrai noXi
XairXdo-iov iatoOai rov ^fitrtpov. OvSevbg devrepO9'%0Tpog.
Tuv ApKOVvruv iripiTTCt KTriaaoQai.
7) With verbs of buying and selling, of exchange, and ex
pressions of value (a^wvv, agios).
Oi QpaKtg ttvovvrai rag yvvtuKag irapa rdv yovttov xpTJiidrwv fttydXiav.
Twv irovtov irwXovaiv fifiiv ndvra ray&Q' oi 6eoL Oi dya9ol oitfitvbg
av KtpSovg tijv rrjc irarpiSog iXtvOtpiav dvTaXXd%avro. 'larpbg TroXXwv
aXXuiv dvT&Xiog ianv. "Eywyi oMiv dviawrtpov vopitZu) riSv iv dv9pwTroig elvai tov rwv ifftov tov t( Kaicbv icai dyaQbv d^iovaOat.

159.

II. Accusative.

1. The Accusative expresses whither, and denotes : a) in a


local sense, the aim or point to which the action of- the verb
moves ; here, however, a preposition is generally affixed in
prose, as : sis aarv eX.8siv ; b) in a causal sense, the effect
(the result, consequence, work), as the object which is put
into a suffering condition, affected and worked out by the
action.
a. Accusative of Effect.
2. The Accusative of effect is used as in other languages ;
as : ypd<f>c0 hn,o-To\^v. In reference to the Greek language,
it should be remarked, that very often a verb, whether trans
itive or intransitive, is connected with the accusative of a
o 4

200

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap, m,

substantive which is either from the same stem, or of a


kindred meaning. An attributive adjective or pronoun is
generally joined to the accusative.
'E trifit Xovvrat irdcrav I irip.kXe ta i>. ofiai vfiijUv Sucaiav $kt}0iv.
So : KaXdg irpdtug irpdrretv, tpyd&aQai ipyov KaXov, dpx^tv dpxvv,
SovXtiav SovXevtiv, iroXfftov iroXfpetv, vbaov voaiiv. "OpKOvg bftvvvai,
dffQtvtiv voapv, XJ\v (3iov.
Remark I. The accusative also sometimes expresses the merely in
tended effect, the aim of the action, mostly, however, only with pro
nouns ; as : ravra at kirorpvvio, while, with a substantive, a preposition
is generally used ; as : iff* n)v dpTt)v iiroTpvvw tre.
* b. Accusative of the suffering and accomplished Object.
3. "We mention here, for the most part, only such verbs as
in the Latin are construed with another case than the accu
sative or with a preposition.
1) The verbs : dxpsXsiv, ovivdvat, bv'waudai (XvairsXslp
always with dative) to benefit, pXairreiv, aZucelv, vftplfav,
\v/j,alvscr9ai, XcoftacrdaL ; evasfislv, aasfislv ; Xo^av, ivsSpsvsiv,
insidiari ; ripMpslaOat, ; Ospaireveiv, Bopv<popeiv, hrtrpoireveiv, to
put under a guardian ; KoXaiceveiv, Bwirevuv, danrruv, irpocrKvvelv ; irsldsiv ; afislftecrOai, respondere and remunerari ;
(^vkoTTSadai, eiikafisicrdat, ;. pLi^surdav, fyjkovv.
Qtpdntvt rovg dOavdrovg. Mi) QHjirre rbv Kparovvra. 'AXKifiiaStig
iirtiQe rb TrXijQog. TlXeitTTapxov, rbv Aewvidov, ovra f3a(ri\ea Kai vkov
tri, lirtTpoirfvev b Tlavaaviag. Mi) KoXaKeve roitg QiXovq, 'QQ&Xft
roiig QiXovg, icai /ii) |8\airre rovg ixOpovg. Mi) aSiKii roig fiXovg,
M/) vftptZs rovg 7raiSag.- noWaiag Kai SovXot ripoipovvrat rovg
ddtKOvg SeairoTag. 'KfiiijiitrBai riva pvdoig, Xoyoig, 'AfisifieoOat xdpiv,
tvepyeaiav, Or dfjtil3ea9ai riva xapirt.
2) Verbs which express the notion of causing good or evil
to any one, either by word or deed.
"AvQpwmt fiij dpd rovg rtQvrjKorag KaKutg. Mj) xaxovpyti rovg fiXovg.
Evepysret ri)v irarpiSa. EC rroiti roiig <pCXovg. Ew Xiyc rbv
iv Xtyovra, Kai ev ttoUi rbv tv iroiovvra. So we say: KaXd, Kaxd
iroulv, Xiyuv nvd. See the account of the double accusative.

159.]

ACCUSATIVE.

201

3) Verbs of persevering, awaiting, and the opposltes of these;


as : ixevsiv, Bappsiv ; <f>svysiv, airohiSpacncsiv, hpairsrsveiv.
Mr) <ptvye rbv tivlwov. Xpr) Bapptiv Oavarov, non reformidare mor
tem, 'O EovXog airiSpa rbv fteairoTqv, Ot rtZv irpaynartav Kaipoi oil
[isvovai rr)v yfitrkpav fipaSvrijra.
4) The verbs, to be concealed, to conceal : XavOdvsiv, icpvtttsiv (celare), KpvirrsaOai; also the verbs, <$>Qavetv (antevertere), \shrsiv, hrikeliruv, deficere ; verbs of swearing and
others.
Qtovg ovrs \av9dvuvt ovrs fiiaffatrQat Svvarov. Ot xoXsfiwi tipBriaav roig
'ASrivaiovQ ac/Mco/itvoi ei's rb darv. ''EiriXtiirti fie 6 xpovos, r) yfiepa.
"O/ivviii irdvraQ roif 9tovQ (I swear by).
5) Very many verbs of the feelings and affections, as:
<>o/3cr0at, Bsiaai ; aleryyvzaQai, alBsladai ; a^deadat ; Sw^spaivuv ; i/arXfyrrsadai, KarairXriVTScrBai, oucrsipetv, iKseiv,
bXofyvpso-Oai, and others.
Xp>) aititiod at robg GtovQ. At'tr^u vopat rbv Qtov, 'OXoQvpov roijg
irivnrac.
6) Space or distance stands in the Accusative with verbs of
motion, as the suffering object subject to the motion ; so also
the time during which an action takes place (in answer to
the questions : when ? how long ?) ; and the size and weight
(in answer to the question : how much ?).
Balvttv, rrtpdv, epmiv, iroptviaBai 6S6v like itque reditque viam. Xpovov,
rbv xpv0vi time long; vvKra, r/fispav. 'H 2u/3aoi ijicpaZe rovrov rbv
Xpovov paXtara. 'laxvaav ri tcai Qnpaioi rovg reXsvraiovg rovrovai XPV0V fieri rr)v tv XivKrpoiQ fi&xyv. MtArtac^ a7T67r\ft
TIapov rro\iopKT]aa.Q t Kai tiKOtriv t)fiepas* To Ba(3vXutviov rdXavrov
Svvarai Eu/3oo'ac t(38ofir)Kovra fivaQ.
7) Lastly, the Accusative of the suffering object is found
with intransitive or passive verbs, and intransitive adjectives
of every kind ; in order to point out the object to which the
subject directs and refers its intransitive action, expressed by
the verb or adjective (Accusative of more particular definition).

202

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. m.

Kd/irnv roig i<p9a\povt;, rag ppivag vyiaivtiv, iXyttv roig iroSag,


tul ou/taTa, rag if/x<ic <w irtfvKtvai. Aiatyipet yuvi) avlpbg tt)v
$vaiv.'0 avOpuijrog rbv SoktvXov AXytX. 'AyaBbg rkxvt)v Tiva.
Auf9appkvog ti)v i|fv^^v. Tig ovk av raig t/Sovaig SovXeviov aiaxp&g
SiaTtOtiri Kai to tytap\a jcai ri)v tyvxvvi Qavrjg KaX yvwprjv ixavbg,
Kai ra iroXipua aXxtpog riv. 'Aviart) QipavXag to a up a oix aQvrjg
xai ri)v i^x')v "I" ayivvd ivlpi ioticwg. In Knglish, we generally
make use of various prepositions, as : in, of, as to ; or turn the ac
cusative of the thing into a personal substantive, and join the adjective
to it, as an attributive, as: dyaObg rixvr\v, a good artist ; or prefix the
prepositions, of, with, to the substantive of the thing, with the attri
butive adjective, as : vtaviag KaXdg ri}j> Tf/vx^v, of, or with, a noble
spirit.
Remarh 2. In this way, many adverbial expressions are to be ex
plained, as : tvpog, ityoc, piytQog, (3a9og, pijicog, irXijQog, apiBpov, yivog,
bvopa, pipog; as: KXtavSpog ytvog r]V QiyaXivg air 'ApnaSiag. Mtrd
ravra d^Uovro kni top 2,af}arov irorapov to evpog Ttrraptov 7rX9p<*tv.

160.

Double Accusative.

In the following cases, the Greeks connect two objects In


the Accusative with a verb :
a. When, in the connexion mentioned above, 159, 2
the verb has a transitive meaning, as : <j>i\iav cfitXeiv ; the no
tion of activity, formed by the combination of the verb and
the substantive (the latter of which generally has an adjec
tive), may also be extended to a personal object ; as : <pi\&
fieydXrjv cfiiKlav ( fjJya ^>t\<) rbv waiSa, koXS> as tovto to
ovofia.
b. The phrases, to do or say good or evil, take the object
to which the good or evil in word or deed is done, as a suffer
ing object, in the Accusative ; as : iroisiv, Trpd-rreuv, epiydeo-dai,
and others, \iysiv, ehrslv, and others, aryaOd, icaicd riva.

160.]

ACCUSATIVE.

203

Tort ii) o Bt/utTTOKKije Ueivov Tt Kai roitg Kopiv8lovg iroXXd re Kai kuku
IXeytv. OiStiruirort inavovro iroXXd k8k<x ripdg iroiovVTtg.
c. Further, the double Accusative is found in the expres
sions: to make somebody something, as in verbs of making,
choosing, nominating, considering as any thing, declaring, ex
hibiting, regarding, knowing, saying, naming, and others.
'0 Kvpog roig ipiXovg liroitfat irXovaiovg. Haititvuv Ttvd ao<p6v. A'ptiv
rivd ptyav. "HopiZtiv, fiytiaBai riva avtipa dyaO&v. 'Ovopd&iv Tivd
cofyiariyv. AXptiaQai riva arpaTtjyov. Tdv Twflpvav avvtitiirvov iraptXafiev. JloXttog irXovrov qyovpai avppdxovg, ttlotiv, evvoiav.
Remark 1. In the passive construction, this accusative becomes the
nominative, and agrees with the subject.
d. With verbsa) of entreating, beseeching, desiring, enquir
ing, and asking, as : avreiv, irparrsiv (to demand), irpdrrsaOai,
ipcorav, igerdQiv, laropsiv ; Z>) of teaching, as : SiSdcriceiv,
nraiZevsw ; c) of dividing, disjoining ; d) of depriving, as :
d<paipeio-6ai, aTspsiv, diroa-Tspslv, avXav, and others ; e) of
concealing or hiding ; f) of putting on and off.
Htpipag Ka/i]3(ri) tig Alyujn-ov KtjpVKa, tjrf i "Ap,aaiv Ovyartpa. AvTovg
tKarov TaXavTa tTTpaZa v.-~-'Apyvpiov irpaTTtiv nvd.IIoXAd ti i 5 d a k 1 1
pt 6 iroXig fitorog. Haiti ivovai roig waTtiag rpla p6va. TXCbrrdv Tt
ryv 'ArTiKtjv Kai rpoirovg tuiv 'AQr}vaiwv ItiitiaaKov roig iraitiag, Tptlg
poipag 6 SipZtjg itidaaro irdvra rov 7teoV arparov. Ttpvtiv, tiiaiptXv
ti pipy], poipag. 'O Kvpog to arpdrtvpa xarive ipt tiwtiuca pipr). Toy
fiovov poi Kai fiXov iraitia d(psiXero rr/v ipvxqv. Tfjv ripfjv air OGTtptX
/if. Td -qpirtpa ripdg diroaTtpiX 6 friXnrirog. Kp6rru> at to drvxnpa.
TlaZg fityag, piKpov ?xwv Xtr^^a) 'trtpov -rrditia piKpov, ptyav txovra
Xir&va, iKtivaag avrov, tov ptv iavrov IkiXvov rj pip it at, rov tit Ike'ivov
avrdg kvttiv. '
Remark 2. In the change of the verbs mentioned under d, from the
active into the passive, the accusative of the suffering object becomes the
nominative, but the accusative of the thing remains (according to 150,
4.); as: ipiar&pai ti)v yvwpnv, I am asked my opinion. Haidtvopat,
tiitidaKo/iai povaiKriv, I have myself taught, or i" learn music. rij Si
Kai oUrjattg rd avrd pipn tiiavtprjO-tjTo). 'AtpaiptOrjvai, diroortprj9ijvat<
ti)v dpxijv, YLpv-KTO pat rovro to irpaypa. 'Ap<piti>vvpai xtr&va.

204

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap, ul

Remark 3. Even with some verbs which, in the active, are con
strued with the dative of the person and the accusative of the thing,
the dative of the person is changed into the nominative, but the acsative of the thing is left unaltered, when they are passive. The fol
lowing are generally thus treated, Ittituttuv, iirirpiiruv, iitiariXkuv
Tt ; as : lirirptTrofiat, liriraTTOfiai, iTrirrreXKofini rt)v <*>v\aKrjv.
Remark 4. As in the nominative ( 147. Remark 2.), so also in the
accusative, we find the a\Tjna Ka9' o\ov Kai fitpog ; as : oi iroXi/uoi rovy
vuXirag Toi> ftfv air'tKTitvav rot'c $k IdovXutoavTO.

161.

III. Dative.

1. The Dative expresses where, and hence is first used to


denote a) the place in which an action occurs. In prose,
however, prepositions are generally annexed, as : h> opei, in
monte ; 6) the time in which an action occurs, as : rav-rtj ry
rjpspa, Ty avrf) vvktL, ttoWois srsaiv ; here, also, hi is often
found ; c) society, company, and especially : a) the dative
singular of collective nouns, or appellative nouns in the
plural, connected with a verb of going and coming, as : 'A^vatoi fjXdov TrXrf&ei ovk 6\vya>, or 7roX\ais vavcrlv, or oTparm,
or <TTpaTuiyrabs, &c. ; /8) the dative connected with avros, in
the dative, to express the notion of at the same time with, as :
oi 7roXi/itot ivsirlpmpaGav rtjv itoKiv avrois toIs ispols, to
gether with the sanctuaries.
2. Secondly, the Dative is used to denote an object which
is striven after, indeed, by the action of the subject, but not,
as in the accusative, obtained, touched, or hit, but only made
to participate and be concerned in it. Hence the dative is
found :
a) With expressions of association and union (Dativus communionis). To this class belong expressions a) of social inter

161.]

DATIVE.

205

course, association, and communication ; /3) verbs of going


towards, meeting, approaching, and the contrary, as : retiring
and giving way ; 7) yerbs of'fighting, disputing, and contend
ing;8) verbs offollowing, serving, obeying, and accompanying ;
e) verbs of advising and encouraging, as : irapaivelv, irapaKeksveaOau
'OfiiX'et rotg ayaQoiQ av9puiirotg, E5^(T0 toIq Oeoig. 'Airavrdv, 7rXijoiaKuv, lyyiZttv Ttvi. Mi) tintTt roiq TroXtfi'wtg. Ol "EXXi/yej ca\w
ifiax^ffaVT0 toTq Hkptratg. Oi orpartwrai avr}Kovart)aav roig orpuTtjyoig. UstOov rotf vo/xoif. Tp apcrp ctKoXovOtt ooa.
J) With expressions of probability and improbability, of
likeness and unlikeness, of agreement and difference.
Oi iralotc iptpipioTarot t/aav t<? irarp't. '27rXto-/jEvot 7rdTf ijffai' o! irtpl
tw Kvpov rotf airotf r Kvptp oirXotg.
c) With verbs of assenting to, and the like ; of reproach
ing : fxe/xtpso-dai, (with accusative, it signifies to blame),
hrnifiav, iyKaXslv, hriKaXsiv (jivl ti), eTTi/ifKrjTTSiv, 6vEi8leiv,
&c. ; of being angry, of envying : <f>0ovslv ; of helping and be
nefiting : \va-VTs\slv, trv/xtpspEiv, avfiirpaTTew, and other verbs
compounded with criiv, expressing this idea ; offitting, becom
ing, and pleasing, and many others; the personal object
stands in the Dative. The accusative of the thing is fre
quently found with it. The dative is generally used when
the action takes place, for the benefit or injury of a person or
thing (Dativus commodi et incommodi).
TloaiwiZv a<p6lpa iptviatviv 'Otvaati. 'E7rurXqrrc tv, 6vtiSiZciv,
tytcaXttv Ttvi Tt. Ov roig dpxetv fiovXofitvotg fti/i^Ofiat, dXXa roig
virctKovttv iroipoTtpoiQ ovtrtv. 'livu^Xei 6 QiXiirirog roig iA9r}vaiotg.
OovtTv tivi. 'A/ivviS, oaov Trip Ivvarog tlfu, Tip v6/uf. 'Opeorijc ))0t\rj<rt Tiptopttv iraTpi, rr)v firjHpa airoKTtivaq. 'A^iXXfvc; irifiwprjat
narponXy Ttf tTaiptp tov tyovov. 'H dptri) apt a Kit roig dyaBotg.
d) Lastly, the Dative is used to point out the possessor,
with the verbs, stvai, {map")(siv, and <ylyveo-0ai, ; and, in ge
neral, where an action is performed with reference, and in

206

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. m.

relation, to a person, or a thing considered as a person ; as :


IttoKparqs towvtos wv Ti/xfjs d^oos r\v tt) ttoXel /xaXKov, rj
Oavdrov. Hence the dative often stands, even with the pas
sive, and regularly with verbal adjectives in tsos and tos,
instead of imb with the genitive ; as: &s p,oi vrporepov SeBrjX/BTOt.
3. Thirdly, the Dative, like the Latin ablative (instrumentalis), is used to denote the cause, manner, and instrument
(hence with yjrqadai), the mode and way, the measure (by
which the action is limited), congruity, and often also the
material.
Oi 7roX/ot <p6fi(p air^XQov. ^Ky&XXofiai rfj vucy. 2rpyw, ayaTrSb toXq
virap\ovaiv ayaQoig. 'OfBaXfioig bpuip.ev, wfflv aKovofitv. 'laxvfiv
rip ffw/iari. Ot aTparuHrai avfifopa' fteyaXy IxpqaavTO. 'AXtZavSpoc
SiSaffKaXip IxpritraTO 'ApioTOTtXu. Ot iroXsfitoi /3i etc ri^v TrdXtv HOrjetrav.
Ol 'A9>]vaioi tov MiXridSriv irivriiKOVTa TaXavroiQ k^rtiiiuKsav. 'H
ayopa Haply XiQtp i]<TKr\pkvr\ fjv.

162.

On the Prepositions.

1, As the cases denote the local relations of whence, whither,


and where, so the prepositions express other local relations, in
which the extension (dimension) of things in space, the
conjunction of things (their being together, before, by, around,
or with); or the local contraries of above, below, within and
without, before and behind, &c, are considered.
2. The case connected with the preposition, shows in which
of the three above-mentioned local relations of whence, whi
ther, and where, the local idea expressed by the preposition is
to be conceived.
Thus, e. g., the preposition -rrapd denotes merely the local idea of near,
by the side, or by, but, in connexion with the genitive, as : iJXOt irapa

PREPOSITION.

163.]

207

row (3asi\iu>c, it denotes, at thft same time, the relation of whence (he
came from the side of the king, de chez le roi) ; in connexion with the
accusative, as : p irapdi tov /Sao-iXta, the relation of whither (he went to
the side of the king) ; and in connexion with a dative, as : torij napd r
j3amX{(, the relation of where (he stood by the side of the king).
3. The prepositions are divided, according to their con
struction :
a) Into prepositions with the Genitive : ami, airo, Ik, irpo, cvtxa.
b) Into those with the Dative : iv and aiv.
c) Into those with the Accusative : dvd, tie, iic.
d) Into those ^jth the Genitive and Accusative : Sid, xard, virip.
e) Into those with the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative : dftfi, Iwl, yard,
irapd, iripi, irpoq and viro.
4. The local relations of the prepositions are merged into
the relations of time and causality (cause, effect, &c.) ; as: inrb
Trjs yrjs slvai and inrb <f)6/3ov (psvysiv ; sk Trjs ttoXecos dweXOslv
and rjixspas dtrekOuv.

A.
163.

PREPOSITIONS WITH ONE CASE.


1. Prepositions with the Genitive only.

1. 'Ajrt, Lat. ante, original meaning, before, in the face


of, over against, then, for, instead of in the place of; as: o-rijvai dvrl twos SovXos dvrl fiao-iXeois dvrl rj/jJpas vti^
kyivsTO dvff ov, wherefore.
2. Tlpo, pro, prce, before, for, agrees in all its senses with
dvrl; but is used in many various senses ; e. g. o-rfjvai irpb
rrrvXcbv, irpb fjfiipas (avrl is not used in reference to time) ;
fidysaOai, diroOavelv irpb Trjs irarplZos ; SovXos irpb
SsairoTov ; irpb twvSs, therefore, on that account.
Remark 1. The reason why the prepositions dvrl and vpo are con
nected with the genitive is, that the Greek language regards the relation

208

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. nr.

of before, not merely as local, but as a*elation of dependence, inasmuch


as the genitive denotes the place or object to which another object be
longs, as it were. This holds good in reference to the prepositions vrrip,
jrpof, lid, afi<pi, Trtpi, iiri, and uiro with the genitive ; because the genitive
points out the place or object as the supporter of the action ($ 158, 4.).
3. 'Atto, ab, original sense, from, as: airb rrjs iroXsas r/\6a/', in reference to time, from, since, after, as: airb Ssiirvov
i/xax&cravTo (after the meal) ; slvai, ytr/vso-Qai airb rivos, to
descendfrom ; Tea airb tojv iro\ep,iu)v (f>6j3a>, like metus ab
aliquo ; in reference to the means, from, with, rpdfaw to
vavriKov airb irpoo-bhwv ; airb twos KaXslcrdtLi.
4. 'E/e, eg, ex, original meaning, out of, as : sk ttjs irokeas
u-rrr)X6ev ; in reference to an immediate sequence of time,
after, as : if rjfiipas, ex quo dies illuxit, Ik iraihmv, if alOpias
is Kal vrjvsfiias <rvvihpap.sv s^airovrjs vstjyt] ; 'O o~bs jrarrjp
iv TrjSs Trj fiia rifiipa if a(j>povos o-cb<f>pcov ysyivrp-ai ; slvai,
ylyvscr6ai sk twos, to descend from ; according to, by virtue
of, in consequence of, as : sk rfjs oijrsas rov ovstpov. 'Ovofid&aOai sk twos.
5. "YwsKa (before or after the genitive), for the sake of, in
consideration of, by virtue of
Remark 2. Further, some adverbs and substantives are also very
often used as prepositions, and are, accordingly, called improper pre
positions, as : irpoaQtv and tp.TrpooGtv, before, oiriaQtv, behind, avtv and
X^P'Ci without, ttXi/v, except, ptraZv, between, ^xPh until, xapiv (generally
after the genitive), gratia, for the sake of (instead of the genitive of the
personal pronouns, the possessive pronoun in the same case, gender, and
number, is generally used, as : i/ujv ai)v x<*P'v> mea, tua, gratia).

164.

2. Prepositions with the Dative only.

I. 'Ej; denotes the being in, upon, by, and together with ; in
general, an actual union with an object ; and hence forms a

PREPOSITION

165.]

209

contrast with tic, as : iv vqatp, iv yf}, iv ^irdpTr], iv ottXois, ev


robots hicuyajvL^eaOai, ev irpofidypis, ev re 6sots Kal dvdpdnrois ;
hence : before, coram ; upon : Jv opeaiv, ev 'Omrois, iv Opovois ;
at, by, thus especially with names of towns, and in accounts
of battles, as : 17 if M-avrivsla p-ayr), at or near. It is used in
reference to time, as : iv rovrto too ypovm, ev a>, when, while,
hi Trims rjpJpais. Also in reference to the means and instru
ment, with the expressions, SrjXovv, S^Xw elvai, ai)puLvsw ev
nvi, as : OTt oi 6eol as 'CKsm re, ical evfievels iripvirovai, xal ev
ispols BrjXov Kal ev ovpavwis ar)/teu>is.
Remark 1. With some verbs of motion the Greeks generally use iv
with the dative, instead of c with the accusative ; as : riOivm, KaraTiSivai,
avarSivm (to dedicate), and the like.
2. 2,vv (J;vv, most frequently in old Attic). The original
meaning of avv agrees, almost throughout, with the Latin
cum and the English with, as : 6 arparrf/bs avv rols arpanct)rais ; it denotes assistance, as : avv 6ew ; aw rdyji, avv /8ta
7T01SIV Tl.
Remark 2. The improper preposition tl/ia, at the same time with, be
longs here.

165.

3. Prepositions with the Accusative only.

1. 'Ava, original meaning, on, upon. It forms the strongest


contrast with Kara followed by an accusative. As the latter
serves to indicate a motion from above downwards, so the
former serves to indicate a motion from below upwards, as :
ava tov irorapLov, ava poov ttXsiv, up the stream. (On the con
trary : Kara rrorapAV, down the stream.) 'Ava generally serves
to indicate a local extension from below upwards, throughout,
through : ava rrjv 'EXXaSa ava tov irokifiov tovtov (per,
P

210

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. m.

during) ; thus : ava traaav Ti)v r/fiepav, throughout the whole


day; ava irdv to stos, throughout the whole gear ; hence, with
out article : ava irdaav r\pApav, ava irdv eros, every day,
year, daily, yearly ; ava vv/cra, per noctem; ava xpovov, in time;
to denote the way and manner, as: ava Kpatos, with all
one's might; ava fiepos, alternately; to express a distributive
sense, as : ava irevre -rrapaaarf/as rtjs fjfiepas, Jive parasangs
daily; and to state numbers indefinitely, like the Latincirca, as : ava, hiaKoma ard&ia.
2. Els (is, old Attic) almost entirely corresponds to the
Latin in with accusative, and the English into, as : leva* els rrjv
ttoXiv; in a hostile sense : contra, as: ioTparsvaav els rrjv
'Attikijv ; in numbers, up to, as: vavs els ras Tsrpaicoo-las ;
in a distributive sense, as : els skotov, centeni; els Svo, bini,
coram, with the notion of whither, \6yovs iroielaOai els rbv
Srjfiov. In reference to time : until, towards, upon, els senrepav, towards evening ; els ttjv varepalav, on the following day;
els Tplrrjv rjixipav. It denotes the aim, intention, or respect,
as : e'XpjjaaTO tois xprjfiao-iv els rfjv 7r6\iv, els icepSos ti Spav ;
Biatf>Epeiv rivbs els aperrjv ; els nravra, in every respect.
3. 'Us, ad, to, is only used in reference to persons, or to
things considered as persons, as : levai, irinirsiv ms fiao-ikea,
7]ksw ms Trjv MiXnTOv (to the Milesian).
Remark. From this wc, we must distinguish >c in connexion with us,
Iri, TrpoQ with the accusative ( ii'c, &>t if', <!>ff vpog riva). In this latter
connexion, <ie is not a preposition ; but expresses a direction to a place
which is not actually reached, but only supposed, and hence, intended to
be reached ; as : am-rtKiov wf tt{ rag 'A8i\vas (they sailed away, as they
said or wished, to Athens).

166.]

PREPOSITION.

211

B. PREPOSITIONS WITH TWO CASES.


166.

Prepositions with the Genitive and the Accusative:


Cia, Kara, vrrep.

1. Aid, original meaning, through. A. With the Geni


tive through and out again or forth, as : hl-rfkavvE tov o-rpatov Sid tt)s Qpaicrjs sttI rfjv 'EWoSa ; through, as : Sid irsSiov,
per campum, Sid iro\sp.Las iropevsaOai. See 163, Rem. 1.
In reference to time, it denotes the course of a space of time :
through, in, properly, up to the end of the space of time,
throughout, as : Si stovs, Sid ttoWov, fxaKpov, 6\vyov ypovov,
Sid iravrbs tov ^povov roiavra ovk sjsvsto, throughout the
whole time. So, also, in reference to an action repeated after
definite portions of time, as : Sid rpirov stovs ovvyecrav, every
three years, tertio quoque anno, alioays after three years ; Sid
irsfiTTTOv stovs, Sid ttsvts st>v, quinto quoque anno, Sid TpLrrjs
rifiipas. It denotes the means, as : Si 6(p6aXp,uv opdv ; the
manner and way, as : Sid avrovSrjs, Sid Ta%ovs. B. With the
Accusative in reference to time, as : Sid uv/cra, per noctem.
It denotes the reason, the means, as : Sid tovto, ravra, on this
account, therefore ; Sid fiovkds, Sid firjviv.
2. K.ard, original meaning, from above downwards (desuper).A. With the Genitive, as : sppvnTovv savroiis Kara tov
tei%ovs koto) ; downwards, as : KaTaSsSvKsvai Kara Trjs
6aXd.TTrjs', under, as: /caTa yfjs. It denotes the cause, or
author : de, as : Xeyeiv Kara twos, dicere de aliqua re; especially
in a hostile sense, as : Xiyeiv Kara twos, against any one,
yfrsvSso-dai Kara tov dsov. B. With the Accusative, Kara
forms a strong contrast to dvd, as far as regards the commenc
ing point of the movement of the action, but agrees with it
in denoting direction to an object and extension over it. The
use of dvd is not so frequent in prose as that of icaTcL It
p 2

212

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[CHAP. 1XL

denotes a local extension from above downwards : through,


throughout, over, as : naff 'EWaSa, Kara rraaav rrjv yijv ; it
often signifies over-against. In reference to time, it denotes
extension in time, duration: during, as: Kara top avrbv xpovov,
Kara rbv irporepov rrbXsftov. It denotes the aim, the inten
tion, as : Kara 6sav t)kslv, spectatum venisse ; conformity {se
cundum), the respect, the reason, as : Kara vbfwv, Kara \070v,
ad rationem, pro ratione, koto, ^vd>p,r)v rr)v kp,r]v ; Kara, rovro,
hoc respectu, hence, propter hoc ; Kara, cpvcnv, secundum naturam ; Kara Bvvap.iv, according to one's strength ; Kara Kpdros,
forcibly, with force ; Kara (wepav, nearly, by little and little ;
Kar dvOpwrrov, in a manly manner ; it denotes an indefinite
quantity, as : Kara e^Kovra erij; it denotes the way and
manner, as: Kara rdjfps, Kara avvrvyiav, casu ; it denotes a
division, as: Kara Kcofias, vicatim ; Kara p,r)va, monthly; Kaff
tjfiipav, daily ; Kar Sros, yearly ; Ka6' sirrd, septeni.
3. "Tirsp, super, over, above.A. With the Genitive, as :
inrsp yfjs. It denotes the cause : for, to the good of some one,
as : pAyeo-Qai inrsp rr)s rrarplhos, to fight standing over as it
were; b inrsp rrjs 'EWdSos Qdvaros. B. With the Accusa
tive : over, beyond, as : pLrrrsw inrsp rbv Bbp,ov, over the house;
inrsp 'EWrjcnrovrov oIkslv, beyond, i. e. across the Hellespont ;
inrsp rrjv rfKiKiav, inrsp Svvafiiv, inrsp dvOproirov, inrsp rd rsrrapaKOvra srrj.

C. PREPOSITIONS WITH THREE CASES.


167. Prepositions with the Genitive, Dativz, and Accusative :
dfitpi, rrspi, hrL, fierd, irapd, irpbs, inrb.
1. Au<f>l denotes the environs of things (of two sides), their
being near one another and together. A. With the Genitive,
seldom in reference to place, as : dpjpl rrjs Trb\sa)s oIksIv

167.]

PREPOSITION.

213

( 163, Rem. l.J. In reference to the cause: about, for, as:


/Xd^saOai dfi<f>l twos. B. With the Dative as with the geni
tive. C. With the Accusative, as: a/t$l tt)v irokw. In re
ference to time and number, in indefinite statements, as : dpjpl
senripav, d/j,<f>l tovs fivptovs.
2. Uspt denotes the circuit of things : round about, about
(circumference).A. With the Genitive. In a local sense, it
is not found in prose, but proportionately oftener in the
causal sense, to denote the cause : for, about, for the sake of;
as : fid^so-dai, diroOavslv irspl rrjs irarplSos, \&yeiv irspl twos,
(poftsiaOai irspl irarpthos', to denote a valuation, in the
phrases: irspl iroXKov, irspl ifKslovos, irspl irXslarov, irspl oKvyov,
irspl ovhsvbs iroisladai or rp/stcrOai n, to value, esteem highly,
more highly, &c.B. With the Dative : about, on, near, as :
irspl Tats KS<f>a\als el^pv Tidpas, irspl Trj %sipl ypvaow Sajerv\wv (pfysw, in a causal sense: about, for, on account of, as:
BsBisvai, irspl twi. C. With the Accusative : about, at, on,
through, as : wkow Qowikss irspl irdaav ttjv XiksXIuv, per totam
Siciliam. In reference to time and number in indefinite state
ments, as : irspl tovtovs tovs xpovovs, irspl fivplovs o-TpaTicoras.
In a causal sense, it denotes with respect to, as: aaxppovsw
irspl Toils Bsovs.
3. 'Em' has the original meaning, upon, at.A. With the
Genitive, as : tu a%#? ol fisv dvBpss iirl t&v KscpaX&v (popovaw,
ai Bs yvvaiKSs iirl t>v w/acov (according to 163, Rem. 1.)
pJvsw iirl Trjs dp%fis, sirl rfjs jvtofirjs, to remain in ; ol hrl twv
irpaypATeov, men of business, civil officers. It means towards, if it
is to be implied that any one strives to reach a place, as: ir\sw
iirl LdfJbov (according to 158, 3, b). In a temporal sense,
it denotes the time in, or during which, any thing takes place,
as : iirl Kvpov fiacriksvovros, during the reign of Cyrus. It
denotes the occasion and the author, as : KaXsurOai hrl twos,
to be named after any one ; conformity, as : Kpwsw tl hrl twos,
tojudge according to any thing.B. With the Dative : upon,
P 3

214

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap, iil

at, by, as: hrl rols Bopaai poias sl^ov xpvo-a.s; oIkew hrl
BdXaTTt). It denotes dependence, as: hrl two slvat, penes aliquem esse ; ylryveo-Oai hrl rm, to come into the power of some
one ; the condition, aim, intention, destination, as : hrl tovtw,
hac conditione ; hrl Kaica> avdpanrov o-ihr^pos avsvpyyrai, in perniciem hominis ; the reason, as : yalpuv hrl tivi.C. With
the Accusative : upon, up, towards, over thither (to be distin
guished from hrl with genitive, since, with the accusative,
merely direction to a place is denoted), against, as : avaftaivew e<\> hrirov ; hr avOpamovs (among).In reference to time,
until: etf harrepav; for, during, per, iirl iroWas fjixspas.
It denotes the aim or intention, as : hrl 6r)pav Uvai, venatum ire ; in a hostile sense (against), as : crpaTSvsadai, hrl
llspcras.
4. Mera denotes the middle of things, and corresponds to
the English with. It is derived from picros, as the German
mit comes from mitten. A. With the Genitive it denotes
association and communication, and a communion in an in
ternal sense, an internal connexion, as : per avQpamwv sivai,
among men ; slvai psrra twos, ab alicujus partibus stare ;
ifuv ol irpoyovou tovto to yspas SKTrjaavro icai KaTskiirov fiSTa
jroWaiv Kal psyaXwv kivBvvoov ; it denotes conformity : psra
t5>v voprov, according to tlie laws (twv vopcov h^opsvos, legibus
adherens); pETa tov \6yov, according to reason.B. With the
Dative, only poetical : in the midst of, among, as : per a.6ava~
rots.C. With the Accusative, in prose almost exclusively in
reference to succession in 'space, time, and arrangement, as :
eTrsa-6ai pETa Tiva, after ; psra tov filov, after life ; TroTapbs
psyioros psTa *lo~Tpov ; and in the phrase psra ^slpas ayew n,
to hold any thing between, in the hands.
5. Tlapd denotes the side of things : by, near.A. With
the Genitive it shows a removal from the side of a person :
from, as : sXBslv irapa twos, like the French de chez quelqu'un.
- It denotes the author, as: irspcpOrjvat, irapa twos ( 150,

167.]

PREPOSITION.

215

Kern. 4.), dyysKoi, irpecrfisis irapd twos, dyyiWsw irapd twos,


to. irapd twos, the commissions, commands, &c, of some one ;
fiavOdveiv irapd twos, d/covsw irapd twos.B. With the
Dative, it denotes a quiet resting near a place or object, as :
sar-q irapd t&> f3aai\si.C. With the Accusative, it denotes a
direction or movement towards the side of a person or thing,
as: a<piKEo-0ai irapd Kpotow; a direction or motion past a
plac3, by, close by, along, as : irapd T-qv Haf3v\a>va irapiivai,
by Babylon. Hence : irapd Bo^av, prater opinionem ; irap
iXirlBa, irapd <f>vo-w, irapd to Sticaiov, irapd tovs opicovs, irapd
Bvvafiw ; also, except, prceter, irapd Tavra, prater hcec ;
it denotes a local extension by the side of an object, along, as:
irapd tov 'Acranrov, along the Asopus. In a temporal sense, it
denotes the extension of time, as : irap' r)pApav, irapd tov iroKefiov, during ; irapd ttjv irbaw, inter potandum. So also in re
ference to important periods of time during which any thing
takes place, as : irap' avrbv tov Kwhvvov, in ipso discrimine.-
In a causal sense, it denotes a comparison, as : fjklov etcketysis
irvKVOTSpat Tjaav irapd Ta ek tov irp\v yjpovov p,vr)[wvsvbfisva.
6. Tlpos (arising from irpo) denotes the presence of things :
before.A. With the Genitive, it denotes a direction or motion
from the presence of an object, especially in reference to the
situation of a place, as : ouceiv irpbs votov dvsfiov (towards the
south), like ab oriente. Sometimes it is to be translated by :
according to the judgment of some one (properly before some
one), as : 6 ti hucadrraTov ical irpbs Oewv koX irpbs avOpdyircov,
tovto irpdjfw, further ; to the advantage of some one, on the
side of some one, for some one, as : So/eety fioi tov \6yov irpbs
ifiov \syew.It denotes the cause, occasion, or author, hence
with passive or intransitive verbs, as : d,Tifid%eo-6ai irpbs no-iorpaTov ; in swearing, as : irpbi 0ewv, per deos, properly, be
fore the gods.B. With the Dative, it denotes a local, resting
before or near an object, as : irpbs Tjj iroXet, before, near ; irpbs
P 4

216

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. m.

toIs KpiTais, before ; elvai, ylryvsa-Oai irpos tivi, to be earnestly


occupied with any thing, as : irpbs irpdy/Moat, irpbs rq> \070j.
Then : close by, besides, as : irpbs Tovrtp, irpbs tovtois, prater ea.
C.With the Accusative, it denotes the local aim, the direction,
or motion before an object, both in a friendly and a hostile
sense, as : S\6siv irpos riva, to ; diro/3XJirsw irpos two, upon ;
Xeyeiv irpos riva, to ; avfifm^iav iroiziaQai irpos Twas, with ;
(tdxetrdai, iro\sp,ew irpos riva, against ; irpos nearifi^piav, to
wards ; aSsw irpbs avhbv, to.It denotes an indefinite state
ment of time, as : irpbs rjpJpav, towards daybreak. Similarly
in other indefinite statements.In a causal sense, it denotes
the aim, as : iravroSaira, evp^jfisva rals iro\so~i irpbs <$>vKaKT]v
koX &a)TT)pLav ; conformity : conformably, according to, as :
irpbs rr}v oi]riv, ravrrjv rbv ydfiov tovtov eo-irsvaa. Thus :
Kplveiv ti irpos tu Further : irpbs fiiav, forcibly, against the
will, irpbs dvayicrjv, hence : on account of, propter, as : irpbs
Tama, properly, conformably to this, hence, on this account,
for the sake of this;hence, it denotes a comparison like contra,
and with respect to, in general, as : aicoirsw, fiXsirsw irpos ti,
&ia<pepew irpbs dpsrqv.
7. "Tiro, sub, original meaning, under.A. With the Geni
tive, it denotes a motion from out of the depth : forth from
under, away from under, as : virb dirrjvqs \vuv "irirovs; it
denotes a quiet resting under an object ( 163, Rem. 1.), as :
virb yfjs olicew. It denotes the author, with passive and in
transitive verbs, Krswso-8ai virb twos, diroQavfw biro twos ;
the cause, occasion, and acting influence, as : virb Kavp,aTos,
for the heat ; inr bpyrjs, out of anger ; it denotes the means
and instrument, especially in reference to the accompaniment
of musical instruments, as : iffTparsvovro virb aaXirvyycov, vir
ai/\ov xppsvew.B. With the Dative, as : virb yfj ewai, &c,
as with the genitive.C. With the Accusative, it denotes di
rection or motion downwards, as : levai virb yrjv ; extension
under an object, as : vttso-tw oiKijp,aTa virb yt)v. It denotes

168.]

VERBAL ADJECTIVES.

217

an approach to a point of time, as : vnro vvicra, sub noctem, to


wards ; it denotes the extension of time, as : vtto ttjv vvicra,
during.
Remark. When the article in connexion with a preposition, either
alone or with a substantive, expresses a substantive-idea, and the pre
position iv ought to be used ; this preposition iv is attracted, as it were,
by the verb which is in the sentence (or to be supplied), if it imply the
relation whence, and changed into diro and tK ; as : oi iic ri/f dyopac dvQpwiroi cnretpvyoi1, instead of oi iv rp dyopa" dvGputiroi lie Ttjg dyopdc dirifvyov.

168. Remarks upon the Construction of Verbal Adjectives


in teos, Tea, riov, and of the Comparative and Superlative.
1. Verbal adjectives derived from transitive verbs, i. e. such
as govern the accusative, are either used impersonally like
the Latin gerund in the neuter forms tsov or ria ( 147, c) ),
or personally like the Latin participle in -dus ; but those" de
rived from intransitive verbs are always used impersonally.
2. The verbal adjective, when used impersonally, takes its
object in that case with which its verb is usually connected.
The agent stands in the dative ( 161, d)).
'Atncnriov (or rla) tort' <roi rrjv aperi'iv. iiuBupijTtov tori <rot rij dperijc
iirixitpnreov iari aot Tip tpytp KoXaffTtov (or Tea) tori cot tov
dvQpwirov. So from deponent verbs ; as : ptuqreov (or -Ha) iari aot
tovc dyaQovc (fr. fiifitlaQai Tiva).
Remark 1. But not unfrequently, among the Attics, the person also
is denoted by the accusative, because the idea of the impersonal verb lit
with the infinitive, is involved in the verbal adjective ; as: tov (iov\6fitvov tvdaifiova etvat auttppoavvnv diuiKTeov Kal daKijHov ( tov /3ow\ofttvov ctZ Slwksiv).
3. When two objects are compared with one another, that
which is employed as the object ol comparison stands, either
in the genitive ( 158, 7, /3)), or is connected by the conjunc

218

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. lit

tion J, than ; as: 6 iraTrjp fieityov m tov vlov, or 6 it. fi. lo-riv
rj o viot.
Remark 2. The first form is always used when the subject is com
pared with itself, i. e. when it is to be represented that the subject at
any time shows a quality in a higher degree than usual. In this case,
the Greeks annex the genitive of the reflective pronouns, ifuwrov,
ffiavrov, iavrov, to the comparative, and avrog is joiried to the pronoun of
the 3. person ; as : (iikriuiv tlpi iuavrov fieXritov tl aeavrov fltXriuv
iariv airoe iavrov. . The superlative is also used in a similar way, in
connexion with aiiroe and the genitive of the reflective pronouns, when
the subject is to be represented as at any time exhibiting a quality
dwelling in him in the highest degree (in a higher degree than at any
other time) ; as : dpiaTOQ avroc ifiavrov itfit.
Remark 3. When two qualities in an object are compared with one
another, both are denoted by the comparative of the adjective, and
connected by ij ; as : Barroiv f) ao<pwrep6e iariv, celerior quam prudentior,
he is more quick than prudent. Similarly with adverbs ; as : tovto Bdrrov,
tl aotpurcpov iiroiriaaQ, celerius quam prudentius.

169.

Remarks upon the Use of the Pronouns.

1. The subject, predicate, attribute, and object are ex


pressed by pronouns, when these parts of the sentence are not
to be represented as ideas of objects or qualities, but it is only
to be shown that an object or quality is related either to the
speaker himself, or another (second and third) person or thing
(55.).
2. All the rules given upon the substantive and adjective
relate also to substantive- and adjective-pronouns ; there arc,
however, a few remarks upon the use of personal pronouns to
be added here.
3. Both the substantive-personal pronouns in the nomina
tive eya>, av, avroi (fi, o), fijxels, &c, and the adjectivepossessive) pronouns as attributives, e. g. efws irarrjp,

169.]

PRONOUN.

219

are, in Greek as in Latin, used only when a particular stress


lies upon them, hence especially in antitheses; as: xal <ri>
Tavra hrpa^as ; ical <rbs irarrjp airedavsv ; iya> fiev airei/u,
(rv Be fisve. But when this is not the case, they are omitted,
the substantive-pronouns being supplied by the verbal end
ings, and the adjective- (possessive) ones by the article pre
fixed to the substantive; as : ypdcpco, ypa<f>us, ypafat, 17 /M^rtjp
elire jioi (my mother) oi yoveis oTepyovo-t, to, rixva (their
children). (See above 56. and 59.)
Remark 1. The difference between the accented and the enclitical
forms of the personal pronouns, as ijjtov and /*ou, lies in the greater or
less emphasis with which they are uttered in discourse. Thus, in an
titheses, e. g., the accented forms are naturally used ; as : l/iov plv Kartyi\aaf, oe le iiryvtatv. Upon the use of the genitive of the substantivepersonal pronoun instead of the adjective- (possessive) one, see above,
148. Rem. 3. and 59. Upon the apposition to the possessive pronouns
in the genitive, as : ij/urtpoe avriiv irarnp, see Rem. 3.
4. The reflective pronouns are always used in such a man
ner that they relate to a person or thing already mentioned,
this being put in opposition to itself as an object (in the geni
tive, dative, or accusative, or in connexion with a preposition)
or as an attributive.
'O aotpoQ lavrov Kpartl ai aeavrif ap'taKUQ 6 7rai iavrov iiraivtt oi
yoviig ayairCjm tovq eavruiv iraZSag yv(Z9i aeavrov o^jtoq 6 avt)p
iravra li eavrov fiend9>iKtv 6 orpaTqyog Jrd t&v kavrov arpanoiTuiv
a-itiQavtv.
5. The person or thing mentioned, to which the reflective
pronouns refer, is :
a) The subject of the sentence, as in the examples in
No. 4.
b) An object of the sentence; as : Kvpos Bwrjveyice t&v aXKmv
^aaiXJwv, t&v apxas BC eavT&v /crrjaafievrnv fxiaovjj,ev tovs
avdpdmovs tovs (pdovovvras eavrols curb aavTov iyd> eg
BiBdljco.

220

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap, nt

6. The reflective pronouns may, in Greek as in Latin, be


also used in the above cases, when they are connected with
an infinitive (accusative with infinitive), or with a participle ;
and even when they stand in a subordinate proposition.
The English language, in such cases, makes use of the per
sonal pronouns, him, her, it, instead of the 3. person of the
reflective.
'O rvpavvog vopiZti roig iroKirag virnptTtiv tavrif. IIoXXiSj' iOviav yjpKev
6 Kvpog ov& iavTy oftoyXutTTttiv ovtwv, oure aWftXotQ. 'O Karijyopog
i$r\ rov StoKpaTqv ava-KtiQovra roiig vtovg, utg aiirbg tit} ffoQuyrarog re xai
dWovg iKavtararog iroirjaai ffoipovg, ovrto SiartOevai roitg ccvt$ o-vvovrag,
Hart /HiSapov Trap' avroig rovg dWovg ttvai irpog iavrov, pr<E se, in
comparison with him.
7. On the contrary, the dependent cases of the pronoun,
avros, r\, 6 : avrov, rjs, avrp, fj, avrov, rjv, 6, avr&v, &C, or
even of a demonstrative pronoun, are always used, if an ob
ject is set in opposition, not to itself, but to another ; as : o
rrarr^p avrm (to him, to the son) e8a>/ce to (SifiXlov arspyeo
avrov (him), airs^ofiai avrov (from him). The pronoun avrov
is here nothing more than the personal pronoun of the third
person.
Remark 2. The personal pronoun, of, oT, &c, regularly has, among
the Attics, a reflective meaning. But it is generally used, only when the
reflective force relates, not to the object standing next, but to the more
distant one ; as : 6 rvpavvog vofii^u rove Trokirag VTrrjpertXv oi (but not
i rvpavvog xapiZtrai oi). The forms oi and oflm (rarely afdg) have
sometimes also the meaning of the personal pronoun oT, to him, to her,
o$im, to them (o<pdg, them). However, with respect to the use of this
pronoun it should be remarked, that the compound reflective pronoun
(avrov, fjg, &c, is generally used, by the Attics, for the reflective signi
fication, and the corresponding forms of avrog for the signification of a
personal pronoun of the 3. person. The forms e and, particularly, of;
are very rare ; oi is found far more frequently, and oipiig, afHv, o-Qiai,
otpdg pretty often.
8. In the cases mentioned in No. 6., the corresponding forms
of aiiros are very often used instead of the reflective pronoun ;

109.J

PRONOUN.

221

and this always takes place when a member of a sentence, or


a subordinate sentence, is represented as proceeding, not from
the mind of the person to whom the pronoun is related, but
from that of the speaker (the author).
Kvpog Ifieiro row Xaica TrdvrbiQ ffrjfiatveiv avrtp birore lyxtopoirj tiaitvat irpog
tov irairrrov, Cyras rogabat Saccam ut indiearet sibi quando tempestivum
esset. Oi TroXtpioi tv9v dQyaovoi rr\v Xtiav, irriifiav Xfititoi rivaq lir
avrovt; IXavvovreq (contra se). Tijv tavrov yvwpnv dirtQatvtro ^uiKpdrrjQ
irpbg tovq opiXovvrag avrtp. Swcparj/g tyvw tov tri
to rtOvavai
aiirip Kptirrov tlvai.
9. In the compound reflective pronouns, airros either keeps
its exclusive power, or gives it up.
a) AUaiov lari QtXovg ulv iroulaOat rovg bpoiwg avroig re (or a<pifft Tt
avroig) Kal toiq dXXoig ^pwp;tvoif, <pofitia9ai fit Kai fitfitivai rove rrpuq
a<pag n'tv avTovg (or iavrovg) oiKtiorara fitaicttpsvovG, rrpoQ fit rovg
dXXovg dXXorpiiog (se ipsis and se ipsos). i) Oi ffrpartwrai iraptixop
iavrovg (or opag avrovg) avfiptiordrovg (se~). Ot TroXefitoi wapefioaav iavrovg (or oQag avrovg) rotg "EXXijffiv (&&)
Remark 3. The reflective possessive pronouns are either used simply,
as: ptrafi'ifitDpi aoi ruiv ip&v xptipdrwv fiucaibrepov iari ra i/pertpa ijpag
tX*lv h rovrovg vptig uiravrtg rovg vptr'tpovg iratfiag dyandrt ot iroXtrat
ra o-tphepa ow&tv ImipUvro, or with the addition of the genitive of air6s
(according to 154, 3.) ; or the genitive of the compound substantivereflective, is used instead of the possessive; and, in good writers, the
latter form is always used in the singular of the pronoun, and in the
3. person plural more commonly; but the former one in the plural
(except the 3. person). Thus in the following manner :
S. d ifiavrov (azavrov, iavrov) warrip, not d tpog (aog, ids) 71*.
Tt/v ipavrov (ocaVTOv, iavrov) ptjripa, not ti)v tpi)v (ai)v, i>)v) p.
roij ipavrov (atavrov, e'auroS) Xoyoig, not roif ipoig (ooig, tote) X.
P. d r/ueTtpog avrwv iraryp,
seldom d iipwv avrwv rr.
tt)v vperkpav avrwv pnripa,
seldom ri)v ipwv avrwv p..
ra /ft6rfpa avrwv dpaprt)para, seldom ra 7'ipuiv avrwv d.
6 ofkrtpog avrwv irarrip, more frequently d iavrwv Trarrjp.
but never 6 oQwv avrwv rr.
Here, also, the pronoun oArde either keeps its exclusive force, or gives it up :
a) o wait vfipi&i tov iavrov naripa, suum ipsius patrem, vptig t'/Spt'Stre
roue vp-tripovg avrwv rrartpag, vestros ipsorum patres, oi iralfitc vj3pi

222

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[cnAP. m.

Zavat roi'f *avrwj' varipag, suos ipsonlm p. 6) SrparovHeqv, rijv kavrov


6i\fr)v, liSuim TivOy, svam sororem.
Remark 4. The pronoun airoe, in the reflective signification, is re
gularly placed after both the substantive- and adjective- (possessive)
personal pronouns, whether its exclusive force be prominent or sup
pressed ; as : r/fiuiv avrwv, v/ui' avroXg, oQdc avrovg, 6 vptrfpoQ avruiv irarrip,
&c. But when the personal pronouns are used without reflexion, airog
may be placed either before or after the personal pronoun, provided it
have an exclusive force: a) avrov e/iou (jiov), aiiT<p iftoi (/*oi), airov
Ip't (/xf), avTovq i7/ta, &C. ; as: aurqi kftoi (or fiot) rovro o'vtwq l-^nv donei
Kai avTtZv u/iwv KaTityp6vr\aav oi n-oXi/iioi. ft) spoil avrov, e/ioi avr$ ok
ahr6v% ripuiv avruc, &C. ; as: iroQfv aKkoQiv la\vpbg y'&yovev r\ Trap' rjfibiv
airuv $iXi7r7roc; roiJ 9spovg 6 ij\iog virip r/fitSv avrtiiv Kai ruiv o-rsyJp
iropevofuvoQ ffKidv Trapi\u.

170.

On the Infinitive.

The infinitive denotes the idea of the verb as an abstract


substantive-idea, but differs from the substantive in so far
retaining the character of the verb as, on the one hand, to in
clude within itself the quality of the action continuance,
completion, and futurity, as: <ypd<f>siv, yeyptupsvai, ypdyfrai,
ypdyfrscv ; on the other, to retain the construction of the
verb, i. e. to govern the case of the verb, as : ypdfaiv hriaro\rjv, hriOvfislv T7)s dpsTrjs, svavrbovcrOcu rols iroKefilois ; and to
take the attributive definition in the form of an adverb, as :
KctiuSis dirodavslv (on the contrary icctXbs ddvaros). We shall
consider the infinitive, first without article, and then with the
article.

171.

A. Infinitive without Article.

1. The infinitive without article appears, first, as the sub


ject.

172.]

INFINITIVE.

223

Ov KaKbv (iaffiXtvuv. 'A jjtf to7q ykpovtriv tv paBtiv. M6\Bog pMyiarog


yijg iraTpiag OTtptoBai.
2. The infinitive appears, secondly, as the expression,
either of that which is done and effected, or desired, intended,
about to be done, and effected; of the intention, aim, and
consequence, in the objective relation of the accusative to the
following classes of verbs and adjectives :
a) Verbs which denote the idea of an action of the will,
as: wishing, desiring, longing, venturing, asking, commanding,
advising, permitting (eav), fearing, delaying, keeping from.
b) Verbs which denote the idea of an action of the thinking
faculty or its manifestation, as: believing, thinking, hoping,
seeming, learning, saying, denying. c) Verbs which denote
the idea of being able, effecting, or having power, of strength,
or capability. d) Many other verbs and adjectives, in order
to express a destination or aim, a consequence or effect.
BovXopait pkXXu) ypd(pttv tTtiBvpS) iroptvivQai roXpti v7ropivttv tqv kivSvvov
irapaivia trot ypcupuv ofTog roiig SovXovg itriwtv ImBioQat rolg StaTroraig ry aXXrj GTpariq. apa iraptGKtva&TO fiorjBeiv iir* avrovg kuXvo) as
TCLVTa iroitiv Qotovpai SuXkyxav ae vo/ufa dpaprtiv eXtti^g} tvTvxwtniv fj iroXig iKivfivvtvas Traaa Sut^Baprjvai tfrj elvai arpaTTjyog Xtyuj
tidkvai ravrapavOdvut iTrir&vuv SiSaaKd) ffs ypatpttv Svvapai ttouiv
Tavra 7rou<J at ytXav a%i6g ton Savpc&eaBat yKoptv pavOavttv.
Remark. It is a peculiarity of the Greek, as of the English, that with
these adjectives it generally puts the infinitive active or middle, in
stead of the passive ; as : koXoc iariv iSiiv, i.e. it is beautiful to see ; aWc
hart Savpaoca Xoyog dvvarog tort Karavoijoai (can be understood).

172.

Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and Accusative, with


the Infinitive.

1. Most verbs which take the infinitive have also a per


sonal object ; as : fjyovfiai as dfiaprstp, or rjyov/iai as si/Bat-

224

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. m.

fiova that. This personal object stands in the case which


the verb requires; as: Sdofiai aov iXdelv avfifiovKeva) aoi,
acoippoveiv i-rrorpvvm as p.d%sa9ai tcsXevto as ypdcpsiv.
2. But when the principal verb is one that governs the
accusative, verbum sentiendi or declarandi, and the subject of
this principal verb is also the object of it (or when in English
the subject of the principal sentence is, at the same time, the
subject of the subordinate one also, as, /think that / have
made a mistake), the accusative of the personal pronoun is
not annexed to the infinitive, as in Latin, but entirely
omitted ; as : oiofiai (otei, oisrat) dfuzprslv (instead of oio/mu
Sfjiairrov dfiaprslv, oisi asavrbv dp,., oisrai savrbv dp,., credo me
errasse, credis te errasse, credit se errasse).
3. When an adjective or substantive is joined to the infini
tive as a predicate, it stands in the same case as the personal
object, viz. either in the genitive, dative, or accusative ; and
if the subject of a verbum sentiendi or declarandi is, at the
same time, the object of it (or if in English the subject of
the principal sentence is, at the same time, the subject of the
subordinate one also), in the nominative (Attraction with the
Infinitive).
Nom. with Infill.
Gen. with Infin.
Dat. with Infin.
Acc. with Infin.

'O orpnrijyic
irpoOvfioQ tlvm imtoti9tiv,
Atofiai aov irpoGiifiov tlvat.
2vpov\tvu> aoi vpoOv/iip tlvat.
'Etrorpivta at Tp&Qvuov tlvat. *JE0i; at tiSai/iova
tlvat.
Remark 1. If in the case when the subject of the governing verb is the
same as that of the infinitive, the subject of the infinitive is to be ren
dered emphatically prominent, as especially occurs in antitheses; the
accusative stands with the infinitive, as in Latin ; as : ol Alyvirnot ivofiitov iavrovQ wptiirovc ytvtadat vavrtav avQpuiTwv (se, non alios ho
mines). KpoTaoe tvoftt^tv tavrbv tlvat Trdvrwv oXSturarcv.
Remark 2. The predicative definitions annexed to the infinitive, and
relating to the object of the governing principal verb, very often stand,
not in the case in which this object stands, but in the accusative.

INFINITIVE,

173.]

225

a) Instead of the genitive; ol <rvppa\oi iSirjOriaav 'AQrjvaiwv iavroig


^orj&ovQ ytviaQai.'Avdptov owtppoviov pXv ttrriv, U ptj aSiKovvrai^ 7]ou\aZuvt
dyaBwv If, aSiKov/ievove t e^)l/vijc woXepttv.
6) Instead of the dative; 'EvenlXaTo toiq Supairovai \a6vrag aiirbv
diroKTeivai.ZZtviq; tfictiv irapriyyei\e. \a6vra rovg &vdpag.
Remark 3. When the infinitive appears as the subject ( 171, 1.), and
a subject or predicate is joined to such an infinitive, both the subject and
the predicate are put in the accusative ; as: virep Ttje varpidoe pa%op.ivovq diroBavflv KaKov Igtiv.
Remark 4. The Greeks are fond of changing the impersonal con
struction with the infinitive into the personal, by making the subject of
the dependent infinitive the subject of the principal verb, and referring
the impersonal expression, as a predicate, to this subject; as: StKaiog
tipi tovto np&TTtiv, instead of Mkcuov iari pi tovto vparruv. A Ik a tog
dpi tlvai iXtiOfpos."Aiuit lap.ev rov ytytvrip&vov irpayparog tovtov airoKaiaai
ti dyaQov,

173.

B. Infinitive with the Article.

1 . The infinitive with the article (to) is treated, in lan


guage, exactly like a substantive, since, by means of the arti
cle, it may be declined through every case, and is capable of
expressing all those relations which the cases of the substan
tive denote. On the other hand, its verbal nature appears in
this use of it, just as in that without the article ( 170.) ; as :
to eTriaroXrjv ypdtpeiv, to icaXcos ypdcpuv s7riaTo\ijv, &c. ; to
koK&s diToQvr\aK.uv, to xmsp Tvjy irarptSos diroOavsiv. In this
way, by prefixing the article, whole sentences may be ex
pressed in the form of one extended substantive-idea.
2. When a subject and predicate are joined to the infini
tive, whether it appear as subject or object, both the former
and latter are put in the accusative, as in the case of the
infinitive without article. If, however, the subject of the
infinitive is not different from the principal subject of the
sentence, it is not expressed ; and the predicate appears in
Q

226

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. rrr.

the same case as the principal subject of the sentence, L e. in


the nominative, by means of attraction ( 172, 2. and 3.). In
English, we must generally translate the infinitive with the
article, by a subordinate sentence with the conjunctions, that,
because, in order to, &c.
To i'nro9avtXv Tiva virip Trjg irarpiSoQ KaXj; Tig Tv%ri. To dp-apTaveiv
av8puinov( ovrag oiSiv, ol/iai, BavpaaTov. KAcapxos fwcpbv iZktpvyt
row KaTaiTiTptoOrivai. ^utKpdrrjg iraptKaXu lirifitKiioBai rov dif
QpovtfiuiTaTov tlvai Kai ii^tXifibiraTov. "Very often rot; or
rov firi is used with the infinitive to denote a purpose or aim; as:
Svvapiv irapaaKiva&Tat rov /li) dSiKeiaBai. Oi dvOpumoi itavra firi\aviZvTai liri T$ f iiri>xf "O KEpoe Sid to QiXop-aBr/g tlvai 7ro\X<l
rove TTapovTag avrjptltTa, Kai oaa avrog vir aXKtav (avijpwraTo) Sid to
ay%tvovg eivat Taxi direKpivtTO.

174.

On the Participle.

1. The participle is joined to verbs or adjectives, 1) to


complete the idea expressed, as : %aipa> top <f>tXov axpsktfcras,
I rejoice in having assisted the friend ;2) it serves not merely
to denote a simple attributive definition, as: to OdWov poBov
or to pohov to OaWov, the blooming rose, but may also, as the
enlarged attributive of a substantive, express the adverbial
relations of time, causality, manner, and way, and, in general,
every accessory idea.
2. The participle .expresses the notion of the verb as an
adjective-idea, and agrees with the adjective both in respect of
its form and attributive use ; but, like the infinitive, retains
the indication of the nature of the action (<ypd<pa)v, <yeypaxpeos,
ypatyaf, ypdtjrcov), and the construction of the verb (ypdfpav
hrurro\r\v, koX&s ypdqbmv). As the participle has an attri
butive form and signification, it can never appear standing
alone, but always depends upon a substantive, since it takes
the same gender, number, and case as the substantive.

175.]

175.

PARTICIPLE.

227

A. Participle as the Complement of a Verbal Idea.

1. As the participle is an attributive, and accordingly


expresses the action as already attaching to an object, only
those verbs can receive their completion in the form of a
participle, which require an action as their complement, and
that action attached as an attribute to an object in such a
manner, that the object seems to be in some action or condi
tion. There are the following classes : a) Verba sentiendi,
i. e. of sensation or perception, as : hearing, seeing, observing,
knowing, understanding, experiencing, remembering, and forjetting ;J) Verba declarandi, as : showing, revealing, appear
ing, being known or evident ; c) Verba affectuum, i. e. of the
conditions of the mind, as : rejoicing, sorrowing, being contented,
displeased, ashamed, and regretting ; d) Verbs of neglecting,
enduring, persevering and being weary (jrspiopav, hrurpstrsuv,
avs^scrOai, Kaprspsiv, icdfivsiv* and others; but sav always with
infinitive); e) of beginning, ceasing, causing to cease, omitting,
and neglecting ; f) of being fortunate, distinguishing one's
telf, exceeding, being inferior, benefiting, erring, enjoying, being
full of or filled with any thing.
Remark I. In English, the participle is often to be translated by
a substantive, or a subordinate sentence with thai, or an infinitive
mood.
2. The construction is self-evident. The participle stands
in the same case as the substantive-object of the principal
verb ; and this object, as a matter of course, stands in the
case which the principal verb requires. But when the sub
ject of the principal verb is, at the same time, its object also,
as : olha (syd)) s/mlvtw OvrjTov ovra ; the personal pronoun,
which exhibits the subject as an object, is not expressed, and
the participle is put in the same case as the subject of the
principal verb, i. e. the nominative, by means of attraction
(compare 172, 2.).
Q 2

228

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. m.

Opu rov dvOpunrov rptxVTa olSa dvOptitirov Qvnrov bvra olSa OvnroQ tov
axovu) avrov Xtyovrog ol 'A9nvaioi tfaivovro virtpaxQtoQtvrtg ry
MiXi)rov dXutatipqlitvc IXtyxQyoy iptvfioptvoc ol Qtol xalPovai rip-wptvoi
viro riov avQpMTTiitv xaipuj <roi iXQovri. oi iroXIrat TrtpitlSov rtjv yrjv
viro rwc TroXtp'tuv rpnOtiaav wavti) at ddiKovvra iravopai at dSiKwv
dpxnpai Xiyutv tv tiroinaac. dtpixoptvoQ dpaprdvtiq ravra noiutv
irXi'iptjc tlpi ravra Btupevog.
Remark 2. When the governing verb and the participle have the
same subject, and it is required to be made emphatically prominent,
attraction is omitted; i. e. the accusative of the personal pronoun and
participle is expressed (compare $ 172, Bern. 1.) ; as : irtpitidov avroie
yilfiQ dSvvdrovg ytvop'svovc.
Remark 3. With avvoida and avyyiyvwanui luavrip the participle may
either be made to agree with the subject implied by the verb, or with the
accompanying reflective pronoun ; and accordingly stands, on the first
supposition, in the nominative ; on the latter, in the dative ; as : avvoiSa
(ffuyytyvw(tkw) tpavrip tv iroti)aag, or avvoifia ipavrijj tv icoiipTavri. But
when the subject is not, at the same time, the object also; either the
object, with its participle, stands in the dative, as : avvoiSd aoi tv iroii)aavri, or both are put in the accusative, as : avvoild at tv iroii]aavra.
Remark 4. Some verbs of the above-mentioned classes are also con
strued with the infinitive in a somewhat different sense.
a) aKoitiv, with the participle, implies an immediate perception ; with
the infinitive, one that is not immediate, but derived from hearsay ; as .
ukovu) avrov diaXtyoptvov, i. e. ejus sermones auribus meis percipio ; but IStTv
lirtOvjitt 6 'Aarvdyne rov T/Lvpov, on yicovt (ex aliis audiverat) KaXov xdyaBov
avrov tlvai.
b) tlSkvai, imaraaQai, with the participle, to know ; with the infinitive,
to. know kow to do something (to be able) ; as : oUa (siriarapai) Otoic at(iofiti'oc, 1 know that I honour the gods; but at/3ta8ai, Iknow how to
honour the gods.
c) pavOdvtiv, with the participle, to understand; with the infinitive, to
learn; as: pav9dvu> aotpbq u>v, I know that I am wise; ao(po tlvai, I learn
to be wise.
d) yiyvdio-Ktiv, with the participle, to know; with the infinitive, to learn,
to judge, to conclude ; as: yiyvtoaicw dya9ovc ovrae roif orparmraiQ rove
dytSvag, I know, I understand that contests are beneficial ; but dyaBovs iivai,
Ijudge, I consider that, &c.
e) ptpvrjaQat, with the participle, to be mindful; with the infinitive, to
think of doing something, to endeavour, to intend; as : p'tpvnrai tv Koiiiaae

175.]

PARTICIPLE.

229

Toig mXirae, he remembers having done good; tv irorfoai, he strives (he


wishes) to do.
f) (paivtoQai, with the participle, to appear, apparere, to show one's self;
with the infinitive, to seem, videri; as : ifaivtro kXciuov and tkaitiv.
g) ayyiXXtiv, with the participle, denotes the announcement of a real
event ; with the infinitive, of things uncertain and merely conceived ; as :
o 'Aaavpioc tig rr)v xwpav IpfidXXwv uyyeXXtrat (a fact), tpflaXXttv dyytXXtrai (whether he has already actually invaded the country is un
certain).
h) deiKvvvai and dirotpaivtiv, with the participle, to show, to prove; with
the infinitive, to teach ; as: tStilZa at d^iKrjtravra 1) j3uvXt) Aiaxivnv <ai
irpoSornv ilvai Kai kukovovv vp.tv aTreipaivev (docuit).
i) Ttoiiiv, with the participle, to render ; with the infinitive, to cause ;
as : iroito at ytXuivTa iroiui at ytXdv.
h) aiaxvvtaQai and aidttaOai, with the participle, to be ashamed of a
thing which one does ; with the infinitive, to be ashamed, to fear to do a
thing, to omit something out offear or shame ; as : aiaxvvofiai icnicd rrpaTTwv
tov tp'tXov, and alaxvvojiai Kaicd irpaxTtiv tov i\ov.
I) dpxtoQai, with the participle, to be in the beginning of an action ;
with the infinitive, to begin to do something (something intended) ; as :
ypKavro rd nixi oucoSopovvrec. and oUoSop.Hv.
Remark 5. Instead of the impersonal phrases : SijXov tart, <pdvtp6v tan,
ipaivtrm, apparet; the Greeks make use of the personal, and make the
participle agree with the subject, which now appears in a definite form
( 172. Remark 4.) ; as : SijXoQ tifu, favepdc ti/tt, <paivopai t>)v irarpwa tv
iroiriaac.
3. Lastly, the participle stands as a complement with the
following verbs :a) tvf)(6m>, I am accidental; b) Xavdavto, I
am concealed ; c) BiarsKa), Siayvyvofjuai, Sidyco, which express
a continuance ; d) <j>0dva>, I come before ; e) oi^ofiai, I have
hastened away. The English language quite changes the
construction in the case of these verbs ; since it expresses the
action denoted by the participle, by means of a finite verb,
and that denoted by the above verbs, generally by a mere
adverb.
Kpoi<rof <pov'ta tov jraiMe iXd v9avt poaxuiv (unknowingly, without know
ing if).Aidyw, StartXw, Btayiyvo/iai KaXi iroiwv (perpetually, continually,
always)."Uix1*0 ftvytav (quickly, in haste), < x" v r o d -n oitXiovT t f,
Q 3

230

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. m.

uix/<ni ijiipuv, celeriter abstuli."Etvxov owXirai iv ry dyopf Ka6tulovrts wc irevriiicovTa (Just; rvyxavui is used in every case in
which an event is brought on, not with our intention, but by the casual
cooperation of external circumstances, or the natural course of things ;
generally, however, it cannot be translated in English). XaXtnov r/v
uWov fdaaai roDro jroityffavra (earlier, before).

176.

B. The Participle as the Expression of Adverbial Re


lations and Accessory Ideas.

1. Secondly, the participle denotes the adverbial relations


of time, cause, condition, manner, and way ; also those of in
tention and aim ; and, in general, every accessory idea which
we translate by the relative, who, which, as the enlarged attri
bute of a substantive.
2. In the construction of participles, we distinguish two
cases. The subject of the participle either coincides with
that of the predicate of the sentence, or is different from it.
In the former case, the participle must agree with the sub
ject of the predicate, as an attributive participle, in gender,
case, and number, as : 6 K.vpos <yeXa>v shrev, oi walBs? jsTUbvTfy ehrov, &c. ; in the latter case, the participle stands with
its subject in the genitive, as : rod iraiBos yeXeovros 6 Kvpos
shrev, and this combination is called in grammar, the genitive
absolute.
Remark I. In English, the denning participle is seldom used, since
we employ instead of it, either an accessory sentence with the conjunc
tions, as, since, after, while, because, if, although, &c. ; or a substantive
with a preposition, as : inro9a.v6vTO rov Kvpov, after the death, Qtvywv, in
flight; or an adverb, as: ravra Kotyaag, thereupon. Very often, we use
the finite verb instead of the participle, as : oi 7ro\ep.wi <pvy6vri l$ul>x8r)aav,
fled and were pursued. But in the combination of several transactions into
one whole, the Greek distinguishes the principal one, with great precision,
from the concomitant subordinate circumstances; inasmuch as it ex.

S 176.]

PARTICIPLE.

231

presses the former by the finite verb, but the latter by the participle.
IloWoi ra xpii/iara avaXiooavri f, toy TrpooOiv awtixovro KtpCuiv, aiaxpd
vo/iiZovrtg tivat, toutuiv ovk airixovrai, i.e. after having wasted their
money.Toil lapog iKBovroc, rd dv8n ddXAci.Aiji'^o/ievot {jw, raptu vivurtt.
IloXXy rtxvy xP<",/>'Of rove TtoXtfiiovc ivticnatv. Ei'f AtX^oif iroptvtTat
XnoopivoQ Ttf XP1"T1P'V> oracvlum consvllurus. 'Xovvarov voWd rexvili/icvov dvOpunrov irdvra icaXwc ttouXv. In order to a more particular de
finition of the participle, the following particles are sometimes added :
luraii {during), ilfia {at the same time), Kat, tcaiwep (although).
3. Instead of the genitive absolute, the accusative is also
sometimes used, and, indeed, almost always when the parti
ciple stands without any definite subject ; consequently, in
the case of impersonal verbs, as : 1%ov (from el-eari, it is allowed) ;
or impersonal phrases, as : alo-^pbv ov (from ala-^pov sotlv, it
is disgraceful).
Hapov aiiT(f fiaaiXta ytviaBai, aXXip wtpuBnice to Kparoc.'AfoX^ocrdvor,
oiStv Siov (quum fas non esset, fieri non deberet), yiyova. So: SoKav
ouroif, quum iis visum sit, esset, Iokovv (quum videatur, videretur) avaX<piiv ; irpoaijKov, quum deceat, deceret ; H6v, quum liceat, liceret.Fur
ther, passive participles : 5tfioyp.kvov, quum decretum sit, esset; tlprjpLvov, quum dictum sit, esset.Thirdly, adjectives with ov, as: alaxpov ov,
quum turpe sit, esset ; ddijXov ov, dvvarov ov, aduvarov ov.
Remark 2. The particle of comparison, wc, is joined, both to a simple
participle, and one that is connected with a subject (genitive or accusa
tive absolute), when what is expressed by the participle is to be denoted as
something set before the mind, as a subjective view of the agent. In
English, it may be translated by, as if, because forsooth, because, with the
intention, under the idea, &c.
a. Simple participle. Ot dpxovnc, k&v oiroarovovv xpovov apxovriQ Siayi*
vuiVTai,SavpaKovrai, wf aofo'i re Kai lirvxtic yiyivnp'ivoi.'AyavaKTOvaiv,
){ ptydXuiv Tipwv dwiaTep/iivoi (i.e. rjyoifiivot (ity. r. direoTtprjaBat).
01 iroXtpioi art IKattpvrjQ iTwrioovriQ avSpdiroda 7roXXa tXaGov.
b. Genitive absolute. TlaprjyyuXtv aiiTols irapaaKevuta9m, if fidxic
loo/ievns (i.e. vopifav p^xnv iaiaOai).'EcqpvTTOv sSilvai irdvras QijCaiovq, wg rwv Tvpdvvit)v Tt9viuTh)v, quia tyranni mortui essent.'-'Art tzvkvov
ovtoq tov dXaovg, oi>x ewpwv oi ivrog rove Iktoc.
Remark 3. A peculiar use of the genitive absolute in connexion with
ic, occurs with the verbs, lidivai, imaraaBai, votiv, tx"v yviiftnv, SuuceioBai
Q 4

232

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. hi.

Trtv yvu/iijv, QpovriZtiv, also sometimes with \kyitv and similar verbs, with
which the accusative with the infinitive ought properly to stand, instead
of the genitive absolute. The consequence proceeding from the genitive
is usually denoted by ovtio prefixed to the predicate, as: <i<; IpovoSv
iovrog, ottij av Kai vfitic, o'vTta ttjv yvtofinv t^fre, 'Of SiSaKrov
ova tis riff aptrijg, \iyti.

177.

On the Adverb.

1. The objective relation is expressed, lastly, by adverbs.


Adverbs denote the relation of place, time, and manner of a
predicate or attribute; as: syyvOev ^\6ev, x@*s airier),
Ka\Sis airiOavsv.
2. Besides the adverbs of place, time, and manner, language
possesses other adverbs which do not, like the above-men
tioned, more particularly define what is expressed (the predi
cate), but the mode of expressing it (the copula, the relation
of the predicate to the subject). They denote certainty or
uncertainty, affirmation or negation. We shall here consider
only those which express negation : ov (before a consonant ;
owe before a vowel with the soft breathing ; oir% before a
vowel with the rough) and fir\.
3. Ov (as well as its compounds, oihi, ovts, ovSecs, &c.) is
used when something is denied simply, absolutely, in itself;
fir) (and its compounds), on the contrary, when something is
denied in reference to the conception or will of the speaker, or
some other person. Both are regularly prefixed to the word
which is to be negatived.
Betnark 1. In English we employ the words no one, nobody, even when
the negation belongs to the whole sentence; in this case, not ovStic
(/iqfoi'c), but ov (fir)) is used in Greek ; as : there is no good man, ovk Hotiv
aya9b( avBpwiros ; there is no one who, ovk lariv, font ; he affords me no
help, o v Trapt\u poi /3or)9tiav,

177.]

ADVERB.

233

4. Hence oi stands in all sentences of assertion, whether


they be expressed by the indicative or the optative, as: ov
ytr/vsrai, ovk eys'vsTO, oi ysvr/asTai tovto ovk av yvyvoiro
raina; further, in subordinate sentences with oti, ms, that, as:
olSa, on ravra ovk kyivsro ; in those of time with ore, hreiBrj,
&c. ; of cause with oti, Sioti, &c. ; and of effect with wcrre
followed by the indicative, as: ots ovk r)X6sv eirsl ravra
ovk syivsro ; lastly, when the notion of a single word in the
sentence is to be negatived absolutely, as : ovk aya66$, oi
KaK&s, ov remains, even if the nature of the sentence would
otherwise require fir], as : si ov hwasi (recusabit).
5. Mr}, on the contrary, stands with the imperative and
the conjunctive used in an imperative sense, as : fir) ypdcpe,
fir) ypdifrr/s ; with wishes and exhortations, as : fir) ypd(pois, firj
ypdjxofisv ; in all sentences of purpose with tva, &c, and sen
tences expressing a condition with el, sdv, ordv, sirdv, eco?, dv,
&c, as : Xsyto "va fir) ypd^rjs el fir) ypdcfyeis; in sentences
of effect with wore and the infinitive, as : oi TroXirai dvSpslojs
efiayeo-avro, wars fir) tovs iroXsfiiovs sis rr)v irokiv sla/3a\siv ;
in all relative sentences which involve within them a condition
or intention, as: bs fir) dya66s sari, tovtov ov <f>iXovfisp (i. e.
st tis fit] ay. i.) ; in interrogative sentences which express an
anxiety on the part of the speaker, and hence expect a nega
tive answer, as : fir) vocsh ; dpa fir) voash ; you are not ill,
are you ? (in other interrogative sentences ov is used) ; gene
rally with the infinitive also, and, lastly, with participles and
adjectives which may be resolved by a conditional sentence,
as : 6 fir) ttlo-tsvgov, si quis non credit (but 6 oi ttiotsvow = is
qui non credit, or quia non credit).
6. When indefinite pronouns, as, any one, any how, any
where, at any time, &c, stand in a negative sentence ; they
are all expressed negatively. The negations must be of the
same kind throughout, i. e. all compounded, either with ovk or

234

OBJECTIVE COMBINATION.

[chap. in.

fit) ; as : fuxpa <f>vcris oi/Bsv fisya ovShrore oiihiva ovrs iZidrrrjv


ovrs iro\iv Bpa.
7. After expressions of fear, dread, anxiety, uncertainty,
doubt, mistrust denial hindering,forbidding, and preventing;
the infinitive with fir] is usually employed, instead of the in
finitive without fir) ; as : kcoXvco ere fir) ravra iroislv, I hinder
you from doing this.
Remark 2. When /it) with the indicative and conjunctive (optative)
follows expressions of fear, anxiety, doubt, and the like, it should be
treated as an interrogative, numne, whether not ; as : Silaaca, /i r) airoBdvy,
metuo ne moriatur ; idtSoiiceiv, /ti) tnroQdvot, metuebam, ne moreretur; icoiku, /irj ridvqKtv, ne mortuus sit, I am afraid whether he is not dying, or
dead =1fear he is dying, is dead. Mr) ov, with the indicative and conjunc
tive (optative), on the contrary, are used after the above-mentioned ex
pressions, when it is intimated that the object of fear does not take place,
or has not taken place. AiSoiKa, p.r) ovk a-noBdvy, ne non moriatur, that he
is not dying ; iStdoUtiv, fit) ovk airoBdvoi, ne non moreretur, that he would
not die ; SiSoiKa,
ov riOvnictv, ne non mortuus sit, that he is not dead.
8.
ov with the infinitive Stands instead of the infinitive
without negation, with expressions of hindering, denying, mis
trusting, and others, when the negation ov precedes, and, in
general, after all negative expressions.
OvSiv KwKiu at jii) ovk q.irof)aviiv, nothing hinders you from dying; ovltie
dpvnrai, Ttjv dptrfiv fif/ ov KaXrjv eivai, that virtue is good ; ovk dtrtaxounv pi} ov ravra Xiynv, J could not refrain from saying this
Remark 3. The particles
ov may also follow aiaxvvtvQai, and other
expressions of this sort, without a preceding negation ; as : iramv afoxuvn
r\v ufi ov ovairovtiaZuv, all were ashamed not to be active at the same time
(on the contrary : rr. alax- ry /"> avcrtr., all were ashamed to be active at the
same time, according to No. 7.). After expressions of ability, with a pre
ceding negation, /lo) ov are likewise to be translated by not; as : ov Svvafiai (or ddivoToc tifu, ovx olog t tifit)
ov tovto Xiytiv, non possum non
dicere, facere non possum quin hoc dicam, I cannot help saying this.
9. Ov fir) (usually with the conjunctive or indicative future)
are elliptical, inasmuch as a verb of anxiety or fear, which is
sometimes expressed, is to be supplied with oi ; and fir] must

178.]

COORDINATION.

235

be referred to this verb. Ou firj are accordingly used when we


wish to express, it is not (pi>) to be feared or apprehended, that
(jirj) something will take place, as : ov fj,r) y^mjrai tovto, non
vereor, ne hocfiat, that certainly will not happen.

SYNTAX OP THE COMPOUND SENTENCE, OR ACCOUNT OF


THE CONNEXION OF SENTENCES.

CHAP. IV.
178.

A COORDINATION.

1. In the conjunction of two or more sentences standing in


close connexion with each other, there are two kinds of rela
tion to be distinguished. Either the sentences are so related
to one another that they present the unity of a thought in
deed, but each stands by the side of the other independently,
to a certain extent, as : Socrates was very wise, Plato, also,
was very wise ; or in such a manner that they are entirely
merged into one another, inasmuch as the one completes and
defines the other, or appears as a dependent member of the
other, as: when the spring is come, the trees blossom. The
first kind of connexion we call coordination, the last, subordi
nation.
2. Coordination consists, either in extending or hmiting
the thought. The former we call copulative, and the latter,
adversative coordination. Copulative coordination is either
arrangement in a series, or enhancement
3. Arrangement in a series is made, a) by koX, and, et,

236

COMPOUND SENTENCE.

[chaC. IV.

more rarely, in prose, by t (enclitic), and, que, as : ^coKpdrrjs


KaL nXarwv; b) by Kai Kai, et et, both and, more
rarely te
as: Kai ayatiol ical ica/cot; c) by : re KaL,
both and, as: kuKos ts koi aryaflos, %pr}<7To re ical Trovvpoi.
Remark 1. Kai has also the signification, also, etiam, to which the
negative ovci, not even, not so much as, nequidem, corresponds ; as : Kai
ov ravra tXtZag ovC* cv Taura t\t$a.
4. Enhancement is expressed by the simple Kai, and yet
more definitely, by : a) ov p,6vov dXKa Kai (d\\' oi/Be); b)
ov% uti (ottos), or fj,i) ore, /xfj mra>s (i. e. oxjk epa>, otl, ftrj T^ys,
oTt) d\\a Kai (aXA,' oiBe), not only but also (but not even),
when the less important member precedes the more important;
c) ov% ottws or /j,t) otl (o7rtoi) a\\a /cat (aW' oi/Bs), not
only not but even (but not so much as), when either the more
important member precedes the less important, or when two
strongly contrasted ideas are opposed to one another.
2tA>icpdTt]Q ov fiovov <ro0of
aXXa Kai aya9oQ. Kai pt)v vTTtpairoQvii(tkhv ys povov WkXovaiv ol epuipTtg, oil p.6vov on avdpcg, d\\d Kai
yvvaiKSQ (non modo sed etiam). Ovy, ottwq tovs iroXtfiiovg irptyavro
oi "EXXi^fc, aXXa Kai ti)v vwpav avrwv tKaKtaoav. Aiff\ivijQ ov% oirtog
Xaptv Tulg 'AdrjvaioiQ ei^tr, a\\d pio-Qdxrag tavrbv Kara rovrutvi tiroXiTiiiro (non modo non sed etiam). Mi) owwq 6p\uoQai iv pvBpf,
dXX' oils' opdovoBai ilvvavro (non modo non)
5. Adversative coordination consists either in restriction or
entire abrogation; as: he is poor, indeed, but brave- he is not
brave, but cowardly. Restriction is generally, and most fre
quently, expressed by Be, autem. To this Be, the conjunction
pAv, in the preceding contrasted sentence, generally corre
sponds, which originally signified, indeed, but has commonly
a weaker signification, so that in English it is scarcely to be
translated ; as : to tiev w(f>e\ipx>v koXov, to Be /3\a/3epbv alaypov
scttiv. MeV oV is especially used in divisions, as : ol p,sv
ol Be, some others, to p,ev to Be, on the one hand on the
other hand ; and also in the repetition of the same word in

178.]

COORDINATION.

237

two different sentences, as : iya> avvu/u p.sv dsois, avveifit S'


dv0p<!)7Tois rots dyaOols.
6. The following also are worthy of remark : aii, generally
in connexion with he (S1 av), rursus, again, on the contrary,
Kairoi, however, verum, sed tamen ; fxevroi, however ; ofiws,
nevertheless, yet ; and dXkd, which, according to the nature
of the preceding member, either denotes just the opposite of
that which is expressed in the former member, so that the
former is annulled by the latter, and the one cannot exist
with the other at the same time (but), as : 01% ol ttXovcrioi eiihaifioves slcriv, d\\' ol dryaOol; or merely something
different from what is set forth in the former member is
expressed in the latter, so that the former is only partly an
nulled by the latter, t. e. is only restricted (still, however, but),
as : tovto to trpayfia axpe'Xifiiov fiiv eortv, dW' 011 koXov.
7. The arrangement of negative sentences in a series is
made by -outs ovts (p-rfre A"7T)> nec nec> neither nor ;
as : ovts deoi, ovts av9p(oiroi. Oihi either expresses a con
trast (but not), or serves for the annexing of a new additional
sentence (and not, also not).
Remark 2. When a negative sentence follows a positive, it is regularly,
in prose, introduced by Kal ov or Kai fxi] ; as : tpatvoftai \apiTog TtTvx>lK(o<;,
Kal ov fie/uptug, ovSi ri/iupiag.
8. Disjunctive coordination consists in combining into one
whole, sentences, the one of which excludes the other, so that
the one can only be considered as existing, when the other is
considered as not existing. This relation (disjunction) is ex
pressed "by means of the (disjunctive) conjunctions : j? aut
aut, or vel vel, either or; sits eirs (with indicative),
idvre idvrs (or r)vrs rjvre) (with conjunctive), sive sive,
whether it be that or that ; as : r) 6 Trarrjp r) 6 vios dirWavev
(the first fj may also be omitted; as : 6 Trarrjp rj 6 vlbs dir.)
sirs Kawa sirs TraXaia ravrd icrnv. sdv re irarrjp ypdyjrrj,
sdv re fiijTTjp.

238

COMPOUND SENTENCE SUBORDINATION.

[chap. v.

9. Lastly, sentences may also be arranged together, the


latter of which denotes either the cause or the effect, of
the preceding. The sentence denoting the cause is expressed
by yap, for, enim, nam; and that denoting the effect, by ovv,
therefore; apa, then, consequently; toLvw, therefore, thus then;
rotr/ap, ergo, therefore ; rovyaproi, just for that and no other
reason ; roiyapovv, on this account, then ; as : 6avp,d%op,ev tov
^coKparr} ' dvrjp yap J)V KaXbs ical drya06s.~'2i. avr/p r\v Kahbs
koX dyados * Qavp.wCpp.sv apa axrrov.

CHAP. V.
B. SUBORDINATION.
179.

Principal and Accessory Sentence.

1. When sentences which, in conjunction, present the


unity of one thought, are so connected, as to their contents,
that the one appears as a dependent and merely completing
member of the other; their connexion may be expressed,
either by coordinate conjunctions, as, 8/, yap, apa, &c, as :
to tap rfk6e, to. Bs SsvBpa 6dXXei ; or in such a manner that
the sentence which, as to its contents, forms a mere comple
ment to the other, appears even externally, in respect of form,
evidently the mere completing member of the other, as : ore
to sap rjX0s, to, SevSpa ddWei. This mode of connexion
we call the subordinate.
2. The sentence to which the others belong as completing
members, we call the principal sentence, but the completing
one, the accessory sentence ; and the two together, a compound
sentence ; e.g., in the compound sentence : ots to sap rjKds, ra

ISO.]

SUBSTANTIVE-SENTENCES.

239

BsvSpa OaXKei, the sentence ra BsvSpa OdXXsi is the principal


sentence, and the sentence ots to sap rj\6s, the accessorysentence.
3. Accessory sentences express either the subject, or the
attribute, or the object of the whole sentence : and hence are
to be regarded as substantives, adjectives, or adverbs formed
into sentences. We accordingly distinguish three sorts of
accessory sentences: substantive-sentences, adjective-sen
tences, and adverbial sentences.
Thus, e. in the sentence, " The victory of Cyrus over the enemy was
announced," the subject may be extended into an accessory sentence :
" that Cyrus had conquered the enemy, was announced," or " it was an
nounced, that Cyrus, &c. ;" further, in the sentence " Sing to me, O
Muse, the far-wandering man," the attributive, far-wandering, may be
extended into an accessory sentence : " who has wandered far." Com
pare, " He announced the victory of Cyrus over the enemy," with " He
announced, that Cyrus had conquered the enemy :" "In the spring the
flowers bloom," with " When the spring is come, the flowers bloom."

180.

I. Substantive- Sentences.

1. Substantive-sentences are substantives formed into sen


tences or infinitive moods, and appear, like substantives, both
as the subject and as the object of the sentence.
A. Substantive-Sentences introduced by ore or as, that.
2. Substantive-sentences introduced by the conjunctions
6t and toy, that, denote the object (accusative) of verbs be
longing to the class verba sentiendi et declarandi, i. e. those
which express sensation or perception, as : opav, dicovsiv, vosiv,
ixavddveiv, jtyvcoo-KSiv, &c, or the manifestation of a sensation
or perception, as : "Keysiv, hsiKVvvai, cvyyiKkeiv, BrjXov slvai, &c.

240

COMPOUND SENTENCE .SUBORDINATION.

[chap. v.

3. The predicate of these substantive-sentences may be ex


pressed a) in the infinitive, b) in the optative, c) in the op
tative with dv, d) in the indicative of the historical tenses
with dv.

4. The indicative of all tenses is used when what is ex


pressed is to be set forth as a fact, as something certain or
actual. The indicative is especially used when the verb of
the principal sentence is a principal tense : present, perfect,
or future.
5. The optative, on the contrary, is used, when that which
is expressed is exhibited as something merely conceived, and
therefore, especially when what is quoted from the sentiments
of another is to be pointed out as such.
*Xfyof, on dpKTOi ttoWovq yStj TrXrjmdaavrag SiefQtipav. "Ore drj ravra
iptQv^iovfif9af ovTb>Q tyiyvuiGKOfitv irtpi avrtav, of dvQpiairtp mtpVKori irav~
rwv nijv dWo)v paov tirj <awp rj av9pu7ru>v ap%eiv.
Remark 1. "On is also used when the words of another are quoted in
the same form as. they were expressed by him, where we are satisfied
with merely inverted commas, or the colon ; as : elmv, on Ei's xaipov ijictig,
he said, " You are come at the right time."
6. The optative with dv is ujed, when what is expressed
is to be pointed out as a conditional supposition, conjecture, or
undetermined possibility. ( 153, 2, c.)
Atyw, on, ei ravra \tyoi, apaprdvots dv. Mefivrjpai aKovoag rrori ffov, on
fcucoYtoc av teal Trapd BttSv TrpaKTiKcorepog tii], iouirtp teal irapa dvQpwTrdjv,
oo-ng fir), oVorf iv d-ropoiQ
Tore' KoXantvoi, dXX' on rd dpusra vpdrroi,
Tort \iakiara rtSv OetSv fisfivaSro.
7. The indicative of the historical tenses with dv is used
when what is expressed is to be pointed out as something
conditional, . the actuality or possibility of which is denied
( 153, 2, a, a)); as : hfjXov kartv, ore, d ravra e'Xayss, f)fidp~
raves dv.
Remark 2. Impersonal phrases are often changed into personal ones,
as: dij\6s tipu (<pavtp6g ti/ii), on ravra iv In-pa^a, it is evident that I
SrjXol (iaiv, on ravra tXilav. Compare $ 1 72, Remark 4. ; and 1 76,
Remark 5.

181.]

181.

FINAL SUBSTANTIVE-SENTENCES.

241

B. Final Substantive-Sentences introduced by


(os, iva, Sfc.

1. The second kind of substantive-sentences are final sen


tences, which denote an intention or aim. These sentences
are introduced by the following conjunctions : ws, ottcos, 'Iva,
tas fir), ottws fix), "va fiij.
2. The mood of final sentences is regularly the conjunctive
or optative. When the verb of the principal sentence is in a
principal tense present, perfect, or future, or an aorist with
present meaning ( 152, 12.) the conjunctive follows the
final conjunctions; but when the verb of the principal sen
tence is in an historical tense imperfect, pluperfect, or aorist
the optative follows them.
Tavra ypdipw, yiypafya, ypaijw, Xv tX9r>g, id venias, that thou mayst come
\toi', tv ii'w, die, ut sciam, say, that Imay know ; - ravra iypatpov, tyiypdr
ij>uv, typaif/a, 1v tXOoif, id venires, that thou mightst come.' 'Ek rijc ran/
Hepauiv iXevBepag ceyopde. KaXovpevng rd fitv wvia Kai ct dyopaloi a 7r X jj*
Xavrai tic d\\ov tottov, ilf ft)} inyvinrai 7) tovtidv rvpfin rp twv
m-Traidtvfiivuiv ivKoafilq. "Iva oaty'ioTtpov EtjXwOrj irdaa y) UipoiZv TroXiriia,
fiiKpdv iirdvufii (paucis repetam). Kanfivanc rov Kvpov diriKaXn,
o irwe r& iv Iliptraie. im-^iapm i irirtXoin.
Remark 1. The conjunctive often follows an historical tense, inasmuch
as the writer, in a lively mode of description, regards the past as present,
and the purposes then entertained, as falling in the time present to him
and existing in it j frequently, also, when the effect is to be represented
as lasting and continuing up to the present time, in relation to the speaker,
26X(ov dnsSrifiijaev trif d&ica, %va di) p.i] riva TtSv vofiutv dvayieaaGy Xvtrai
utv tOtro (instead of owe tOtro).^vXXoyov Tltpouiv t&v apiartav jirotcTro,
Xva yvdjuag T irvQrjrai avrtov Kai avrbg kv iraffiv i7rp, & iOkXti.
3. The final conjunctions, a>s and oVtoy, and also "va, are
sometimes followed by the modal adverb av, which refers to
a condition (generally not expressed, but to be supplied); as;
Zia Trjs crr\s %<opas a^sis fifias ottchs av siB&fisv, a re Ss2 <piXia
Kai Tro\s/j,ia vofiitpiv, i. e. that we, when we have set our foot
upon the land, may know, &c.
B

242

COMPOUND SENTENCES SUBORDINATION.

[chap. v.

4. After verbs of anxiety, consideration, endeavouring,


striving, effecting, and admonishing, as : Tri/j,e\s2o-0ai, <f>povri%SIV, <pv\aTTlV, CTKOTTSIV, /3ov\sVa0ai, 6paV, TTOLSIV, ITpaTTSiV,
curare, fir]^avacr6ai, irapa/caXstv, TraparyysXkeiv, nrpowrrsiv,
avnuHku, aye, and the like, the conjunction ottcos (oVtwy ^-q)
follows, either with the conjunctive according to No. 2., or
(and indeed generally,) with the indicative future ; not only
after a principal, but also very often after an historical tense ;
in the latter case, the fulfilment of the intention is certain
and continuing.
Ol WtpaiKoi vofioi eTTL[ie\ovrai,oirb)C rijv apxvv PV toiovtoi tffovrat ol
iroXTrai, otoi Trovqpov i) aia\pov tpyov ItyUa&ai. "ZKOirzladt tovto, w
AvSptg 'AGt]vaioi, o 7T to g pit \6yovg epovffi fiovov oi Trap' rjfiutv irpiofitig,
aXka Kal tpyov ri htiKvmiv eZovaiv.
Remark 2. "Omag or oirug p.ri with 2. person indicative, future, or
conjunctive, is sometimes dependent upon opa, 6(art, vide, videte, understood, in order to denote an admonition or warning ; as : oirwg ovv iatade
avSpig dfioi rijg l\tv9epiag, behave yourselves, then, as men who are worthy
offreedom.
5. The final conjunctions, "va and cos (more rarely ottous),
are connected with the indicative of the historical tenses,
when a purpose is to be expressed, which is not attained, or
not to be attained.
'Expiiv <7 Tlnydtrov ri/at irrtpov, 'oiriog eipaivov roig 9toig rpayucwTtpog.

182.

II. Adjective-Sentences.

1. Adjective-sentences are adjectives or participles formed


into sentences, and denote a more particular definition of the
idea expressed by the substantive ; as : ol TroXefJuoi, ot sk rrjs
iroKews ajricpvyov ( = ol iro'Xjfiioi sk t. tt. a/rroabvyovrss). They
are introduced by the relative pronouns, os, rj, o, oans, tfns,
oti, olos, &c.

182.]

ADJECTIVE -SENTENCES.

243

2. The relative pronoun agrees in gender and number with


the substantive in the principal sentence to which it relates,
as the attributive adjective with its substantive ; but its case
is determined by the predicate in the accessory sentence ; as :
6 dvrjp, bv slSss 97 dpsTr), fjs irdvrss ol dyadol siriOvfiovaiv
oi (TrpaTuoTat, ots fxa^pixsOa, &c.
Remark 1. When, in the accessory sentence, the relative with an
infinitive or participle is dependent upon a finite verb, we generally
connect the relative with the finite verb, in translating into English ; as :
o <j>tXoe, ov a-TroBavuv ifyovu-nv, t\X8e trap i/ii, whom I thought to be dead;
6 0i'Xof, ov olSa TtQvnicora, whom I know to be dead.
Remark 2. When there is a predicative substantive in the adjectivesentence, very often the gender and number of the relative are con
formed, not to those of its own substantive, but, by means of a sort of
attraction, to those of the predicative substantive. The verb of the ad
jective-sentence is usually a verb of being or naming; as : 1/ oS'oq jrpoc
tw Tptjrtraig 0 KaXtirat TlnXouatov OTOfia. 'Aicpa at KaXovvrai icXeTdeg Ttjg
lLv-Kpov. UepffiKov %i<poc, ov aKivatcnv KaXovaiv. Aoyot fijjv liaiv iv
tKaaroiQ ypiiov, tig IXiriSaQ 6vofiao[itv.
Remark 3. A deviation, in respect of number, takes place in the
formula: tariv o'i, e.g., Xiyovat, sunt, qui dicant. This formula is treated
exactly like a substantive-pronoun (ivwi, nonnulM), inasmuch as neither
the number of the relative has any influence upon the verb ianv, nor
does the tense undergo any change, when the discourse relates to the
past or future.
Nom.
ioriv 0! (= ivioi)
iviipvyov.
Gen.
tarty utv 0=ivtwv)
airkirxtTO.
Dat.
tor iv olf (= Iv'ioiq)
ovx oSrwe ZBoZtv,
Acc.
ttsriv oi)e (= sviovg)
air'zKTHviv.
3. The person of the verb in the adjective-sentence is de
termined by the substantive, or the pronoun expressed or
understood, to which the relative relates. 'E7&>, bs jpdaico
ov, bs <ypcupeis 6 dvrjp or sksivos, bs ypdxpsi. Hence the
second person stands regularly after the vocative ; as : avdpanre,
bs r)iMas roiavra ica/cci iirovrjcras.
4. When the relative relates to two or more objects, it is
put in the plural ; and, when the substantives are of like
E 2

244

COMPOUND SENTENCES SUBORDINATION.

[chap. v.

gender, has the same; but it is frequently in the neuter,


when the substantives denote objects without life.
"J5v ixtivy Ti; <poivy re Kai r$ Tpomp tXeyov, iv olvnep iTt9pdfiu,rjv.
'Opui aiiTuv KKotr[iJifievov Kai etyQakpuiv viroypatyij, Kai xpdifiarog ivrptyet,
Kai Kofiaig irpoffGiToig, &
vApijia ijv iv M*;$o;.
5. If the substantives have different genders, the relative
pronoun is put in the masculine, rather than the feminine,
with living beings, but in the neuter, in .the case of things
without life.
'O dvT/p Kai i) yvvi'i, ot napu al ))\9ov. "HKopev iKK\nma,ovTeg irtpi re
iroXtfiov Kai eipyvTjQ, d piy'wTnv
dvvajiiv iv Ttp rwv dv0pu>iru)v /3ty.
6. When the relative ought properly to stand in the accu
sative, and relates to a substantive in the genitive or dative,
it usually takes the form of its antecedent, if the adjectivesentence retains almost entirely the force of an attributive
adjective or participle ; t. e. the relative appears in the case in
which its antecedent stands.
'Apiuiv SiQipapfiov irp&TOQ dvBpiiiroiv oiv ripelc lapiv eiroinotv (instead
of ouf top.ev), of the men known to us. 'O orpaTiiyoQ riyt rr/v trrpariav
&7TO T&V 7r6\U)V biV 7TFl<T V ( = TWV 7T{l<x9H<Jutv). ' 2vV TOIQ Ql)UaV~
poiQ o\q 6 irari/p KariXnr ev (= roig viro tov TrarpoQ KaraXtifQiToiv').
Kvpoe 7rpoaij\9tv avv $ tl^f Svvap.li. 'Ey> aoi vmaxvovfiai, jjv
o 9ioq tv Sidf, avff iv dv i/ioi Savtiayg, dWa ttXuovoq dia tvtpytrit<y&iv.
7. The relatives, olos, ocros, oancrovv and r)\wcos, undergo
attraction, not only in the accusative but also in the nomina
tive, when the verb slvai and a particularly emphatic subject
are in the relative sentence, as : olos crv si, olos skbIvos or 6
^coKpdrrji' sariv; and in the following manner : the demon
strative in the genitive, dative, or accusative, to which the
relative relates, is omitted, but the relative is put in the
case of the preceding substantive or (omitted) demonstra
tive used as a substantive ; the verb of the relative sentence,
elvat, is likewise omitted, and the subject of the relative sen

182.]

ADJECTIVE-SENTENCES.

245

tence is put in the case of the relative. Such a blended


or attracted adjective-sentence assumes entirely the form of
an inflected adjective ; and the connexion of the adjectivesentence with its substantive becomes still more perfect, and
intimate, when this substantive is received into the adjectivesentence ; e. g. from ^apl^o/mi dvSpl toiovtoi, olos aii si arises
"Xapi^o^ai avBpl oiq> aoi, or, by transposition, ^apifo/xat o"m
crol avSpl. In English we translate the relative by, as.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.

ipw otov gov dvSp6c.


XCtpiZfipat ottp aoi dvopi.
t-jraivSt o\ov ai dvfipa.
lpt otutv vfitov dvSpuv.
\apil^opai otoig vfiiv dvdpdaiv.
iwaivw otovc t^af avtipaQ,

epu> otov (roil.


\apit.opai o'ttfi rroi.
tiraiv&t o\ov <re,
Iput otuv v[ijv.
XapiZojiai otoig vptv.
ItraivSi otovg vpdg.

Remark 4. Attraction takes place, even when owg rt stands instead


of wore with the infinitive, in the signification, lam so disposed, so formed,
of such a hind, that, is sum qui with the conjunctive; hence, / can; as:
iuKk\9ifv SrwVVy roioury ottp prjTi XvirtTaOat, pi]T opyiZtaQctt, who can
neither be grieved nor irritated. The demonstrative is generally omitted ;
as: povnv Ti)v twv av9pu)7rtov yXwrrav iiroinaav oi 6eoi otav apOpovv ti)v
<t>wvi]V.
Remark 5. Sometimes the article is placed before the attracted 0I04,
yXiKoe, and the adjective-sentence assumes quitij the character of an in
flected word ; as : xapiZopai riy otu 001 avlpi, instead of avlpl rotovTip,
oXoq ov tl.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.

0 oioq ov avi\p.
tov otov aov avSpog.
Ttji oXip ooi avSpi.
rbv o\ov ol dvdpa.

0 oloi vpttc avepte.


1 iV otiov vptov avdpwv.
rote otoig vpiv dvSpdoiv.
rov oXovg vpae dv8pa.

Remark 6. Sometimes, with adjective-sentences, there is an attrac


tion directly the reverse of the above mentioned ; in which the relative
does not take the inflexion of its substantive, but the substantive that
of the relative relating to it (attractio iuversa); as: ti)v oiotav ijv
KaHXiire rip vhjS, oi ttKiwvoq dia loriv. This inverted attraction is very
frequent with ovdiis ootiq ov (no one who not = every one) after
tori omitted
B 3

246

COMPOUND SENTENCES SUBORDINATION.


Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.

ovtitig
ovotvoc
oiiivi
oiSiva

SffTif
otov
ortp
ovriva

ovk
oil
ovt
oi

[chap. v.

civ Tavra iroiiiamv.


Kartytkaatv.
inriKpivaTo.
KarUXavacv.

8. With regard to the use of the moods in adjective-sen


tences, the following is to be observed :
a) The Indicative is' used when the attributive definition
is pointed out as a fact ; as : 17 iroKis, rj kti&tcu, fj gicriaOr), r)
KTiaOrjcreTai. The indicative future is very often used (even
after an historical tense, 188, 5.) in reference to that which
certainly must happen ; as : o-rparrryovs aipovvreu, oi ra>
4>t\t7T7r&) TroXsfiriaovaiv. Also after negations, the Greeks
use the indicative, while the Latin language, in such cases,
employs the conjunctive; as: trap s/x,ol ovSsls, octtis p,rj
iicavos ecrriv laa iroielv sfiol, nemo, qui non possit.
b) The relative in connexion with av : os av, f) av, b av,
ocrrti av, &c, is joined with the Conjunctive when the predi
cate of the principal sentence is a principal tense (present,
perfect, or future), if the attributive definition is to be pointed
out as merely conceived. Hence, also, in indefinite represent
ations of character or size ; and also in descriptions of an inde
finite frequency. The adjective-sentence may generally be
regarded as a conditional sentence, and the relative with av
resolved into the conjunction lav with rls or some other pro
noun and the conjunctive mood.
Oi>c av /3fXn'oc tiv'iq iavr&v r)yr)iru)VTai, rouroif iroWaKig Kai avev
avayKtii i9i\ov<rt Tri'StaOm. ~"Av9po>Troi lir ovltvag ftdWov avvioTavrai,
fi liri tovtovq, oOc & v ata&OiVTai, apxtlv avrutv kirtxetpovvraG. *
c) The relative (without av) is joined with the Optative,
first, in the same signification as with the conjunctive, but
in relation to an historical tense. Hence in general and in
definite accounts ; and also in accounts of an indefinite fre
quency ; in which case, the predicate of the principal sentence
generally stands in the imperfect.

183.]

ADVEKBIAL SENTENCES.

247

01 TroXi/iwt vavrag fi}<,', oriji tvrvxoitv, Kai iraib'aq Kai yvvaiKag Ikthvov.
&tXovg, Offovg iroirjffaiTO Kai ivvovg yvoin ovrag, Kai iKavotig
Kpivnt ovvtpyovg (Inn, 3 ri rvyxdvoi /3ouX6/itvoc Kartpyd^taBai, tyioXoytirai Trpbg vdvrwv Kpanaroe ytviaBai Oepairevtiv.
d) Secondly, the Optative is used when the attributive de
finition is to be represented as a present or future undetermined
possibility, mere supposition, or conjecture. The adjectivesentence appears as an uncertain doubtful condition ( 153, 1,
/S) ), or forms part of a wish.
Toi avrov Xtyuv, 3. fit/ aacjiuie littill, ^iStaBai Iti, he ought to refrain
from saying a thing, when, perhaps, he does not thoroughly know it.
"EpSoi 71Q, j}v exaoroQ tldttq rt^i/tyr.
e) The Optative is used with av, when the attributive de
finition is to be represented as a contingent supposition, conjec
ture, conception, or undetermined possibility ( 153, 2, e.\
Tovg Xapfidvovrag Tr)g ojiiXiac fiur&ov avSpairoSiffTdg tavrwv airtKaXti Swicparijc, Sid rb dvayKaiov avToig tlvai c'laXiyiaQai, Trap' Zv dv Xdfioitv ruv
fiwdov. Ovk tarty o n av Tig fitiZov rovrov kokov itdBoi.
f) The Indicative of the historical tenses (imperfect, plu
perfect, and aorist) is used when it is to be intimated that the
attributive definition could only be realised on a certain con
dition, but was not realised, because the condition was not
fulfilled ( 153, 2, a, a) ); as: 1) irokis, rjv ol TroXj/MLoi ovk av
lirbp6i)o-av, si ol arpariGnai efiorj&wo-av, quam hostes non diruissent, si milites auxilio venissent.

183.

III. Adverbial Sentences.

Adverbial sentences are adverbs, or participles used ad


verbially, formed into sentences ( 176, 1.); and denote, like
adverbs or participles, an adverbial object, i. e. one which
E 4

248

COMPOUND SENTENCES SUBORDINATION,

[chap. v.

merely defines the notion of the predicate (not, as the object


expressed by the substantive-sentence, completes it) ; as : ore
To sap rjkds, ra. avffr) ddWsi ( = tov iapos sKBovtos).
A. Adverbial Sentences of Time and Place.
1. Adverbial sentences of place, are introduced by the re
lative adverbs : ov, ft, 07177, ottov, svOa, Zva, ubi ; oOsv, svBsv,
unde ; 61, oiroi, 77, 07177, quo ; and express, like adverbs of
place, the three local relations of : where, whence, and whither.
The use of the moods, in adverbial sentences of place, entirely
agrees with that in adjective-sentences.
2. Adverbial sentences of time, are introduced by the fol
lowing conjunctions :
a. In accounts of similarity of time :
"Ore, o7rorfi wf, tivixa, which denote a point of time; and lv, twe,
while, which denote a space of time.
b. In accounts of precedence :
'Ettb, iiruSti, postquam; i ov, t orov,'ex quo; and dip' ov", since.
ct In accounts of succession :
TIpiv, priusquam ; taic, eu> ov, tig '6, tore, pkxpi oft pixP1 orov, p-ixP13. With regard to the use of moods, the following should
be observed :
a) The Indicative is used when the predicate is to be re
presented as a fact ; hence in narration of deeds.
'Q ijfitpa raxurTa lytyovti airijXBov (a> rax""~a, quum primum, as soon
as). Oit irportpov iiravaavro, irpiv tov re irarkpa Ik tov CTparoireSov
fisTeirspypaTOi icai rwv tpiXwv avrov tovq filv airtKTtivav, rove o Ik
tyiq TroXeatQ t%k{SuXov. 'EfiaxovTO, fiexp1 oi 'AOrjvaioi dveirXtvaav.
b) The Conjunctive is used when the predicate is expressed
as something conceived, and relates to a predicate of the prin
cipal sentence, standing in one of the principal tenses. The
conjunctions take the modal adverb av orav, oirorav, rjviic
ai>, eirav {errrjv), sirsioav, trpw av, z<os av, ^XP1 av> saT av'

183.]

ADVERBIAL SENTENCES.

249

Accordingly, the conjunctive is used with the above conjunc


tions from otov to irpiv av, when the statement of time is also
to be pointed out as the condition upon which the predicate
of the principal sentence is realised. But with the conjunc
tions which signify until, the conjunctive expresses an ex
pected and intended aim. The conjunctive is also used to
denote an indefinitefrequency.
'Eirtifiav ail f3ov\y dia\eyeo6at, (is lyii Svvapai eirtoBai, rort aot SiaXi^o/iai.
Ov irportpov iravffofiaty irpiv dv Xw re Kai irvp&ota rag 'ABrjvag.
"E<og av awKrirai to oxaQog, t6t XP$ Kai vavrqv Kai KvfScpvrjrijv wpoGvfiovg tlvai (dum servari possit). 'Oirorav (as often as) orpaToirtSfiwvTai
ol [}apf3apot (3aai\ti, ratppov irepipdWovrai tinriT&g Sid t$v iroXv
Xtiplav,
c) The Optative is useda) when what is supposed is related
to an historical tense in the principal sentence. When the
optative is used in reference to an indefinite frequency, the
imperfect mostly stands in the principal sentence, and the
conjunctions ore, etrsl, &c, are to be translated by, as often
as ;/3) when the account of time is also to be represented as
a cmdition of the principal sentence, and such a condition as
appears a present or future uncertainty, a mere supposition,
conjecture, or undetermined possibility ( 153, /8). With the
optative, the conjunctions are used without av; as : ore, hrel,
&c. (not otov, sirdv, &c.)
Oi irpoTipov ciravaaro, irpiv iXoi ti Kai irvpwane rag 'ABlpiag. 'Oirort (as
often as) aTpaToirtStvoivro oi (3dp(3apoi fiaoiXtXg, rdfpov irepufidXXovro
evirerwQ Sid t?)v iroXvxtipiav. 'Ottote to tpiXoaoiptXv altrxpov riyrjtraifiTjv
elvat, ovS' av dvBpuiirov vopioaifu ipavrov tlvai (if I thought). So also,
ore pi], with the optative, nisi.
Remark. The conjunction irpiv is also construed with the Infinitive,
especially after affirmatory sentences having a principal tense, when the
action is to be pointed out as a casual indication of a point of time. The
subject with the infinitive stands in the accusative. (Upon attraction,
see $ 172,3.) AaptXog, irpiv alxfiaXiliTOvg ytviaBai tovq 'Epirpuag, ivtX%tv avTolg Seivov x^ov' ~ 'Hffav Aapiitp, irpiv (iaatXtvaai, yeyovortg
TptXg iraXSeg.

250

COMPOUND SENTENCES SUBORDINATION.

[chap. v.

B. Causal Adverbial Sentences.


184.

a. Adverbial Sentences expressing the Cause.

There are two classes of adverbial sentences expressing the


cause :
a) Those which are introduced by the temporal con
junctions, ore, ottots, W?, sirel, quoniam, puisque, since, the
cause being considered, either as contemporaneous with the
predicate of the principal tense (ore, birine, d>s), or preceding
it (eirei, eweiBij). The prevailing mood in these adverbial
sentences is the indicative; as: M?} fie kteIv, sir si oir% o/toydarpios "Fiicropos elfit, quoniam sum. "Ots roivvv Tariff
ovras %f, irpoa^KSL irpoOvfitos ideXeiv axovsiv.
b) Those which are introduced by the conjunctions Sri
and Sloti, because. The prevailing mood in this case also, is
the indicative; as: apa to ocriov, on oaibv ecrTi, <pi\eiTai inrb
T&v decbv, rj, on (piXeirai, ocriov icrriv.

185.

b. Conditional Adverbial Sentences.

1. The second kind of causal adverbial sentences are, con


ditional sentences, which express a condition, and are intro
duced by the conjunctions el and edv (tfv, dv, which must
not be confounded with the modal adverb dv). The principal
sentence expresses that which is subject to the condition stated
in the accessory sentence, or that which follows from, and is
the effect of, the accessoiy sentence. As the condition precedes
that which is subject to the condition, we call the accessory
sentence the antecedent clause, and the principal sentence the
consequent clause.

185.]

ADVERBIAL SENTENCES.

251

2. The Greek language has the following four different


conditional combinations :
1) In the antecedent clause el stands with the Indicative ;
and the Indicative (or Imperative) stands also in the conse
quent clause. Then, both the condition, and that which is
subject to it, are represented as matter of fact, and hence, as
certain.
Ei rovro \eyuc, aixapravtiq. Ei Ual Puifiot, elai cat 6eoL Ei lari Qt&qt
aoipoz ionv. Ei ravra imroinKaQ, {iraivtiaQai d^iog el. El n eixf Kal
iSiCov. Ei' Ifipovrnoe, Kai ijarpaipev. Ei ravra immiiftti, ij/taprqcci.
Ei rovro Xffif, dfiaprijffri. Et n e\etc, ^ff*
2) In the antecedent clause, el stands with the Indicative
of an historical tense ; in the consequent clause, the Indicative
of an historical tense stands also, but in connexion with av.
The Greek language employs this form, when the reality,
both of the condition and that which is contingent upon it, is
to be denied. It is represented that something might have
happened on certain conditions, but did not happen because
the condition was not fulfilled.
E! ri &x(v> ttttov av, si quid haberet, daret (nunc autem nihil habet; ergo
nihil dare potest) ; if he had any thing, he would give it (but now he has
nothing ; consequently he can give nothing). Ei rovro tXeyes (tXfc)
Ti/idpraves (i'lpaprec) av, si hoc diceres, errares. Ei rovro Zke%a{,
tjpaprtg av (aorist instead of the pluperfect), si hoc dixisses, errasses, if
you had said this you would have erred (but now you have not said it;
consequently thou canst not have erred). Ei littia9t]v, ovk av t)pp>arovv,
si obedissem, non cegrotarem.
3) In the antecedent clause, eav stands with the Conjunc
tive ; and in the consequent clause, the Indicative present,
commonly the future (also the Imperative). The condition
is then denoted as a supposition, the accomplishment of which
is still expected ; that which follows from the accessory sen
tence is represented as certain and necessary.
'Eav (r;y, av) rovro Xe-ypc, au.aprrjari, if thou sayest this thou wilt err.
(Whether thou wilt really say this, I do not yet know ; but I expect,

252

COMPOUND SENTENCES SUBORDINATION.

[chap. v.

I put the case, thou wilt say it, and, accordingly, the necessary con
sequence is, that thou errest). 'Eav ti e\<apev, Swaoptv. 'Eav rije
aptTijc opiyno&e, eiiSaipovtiTe. 'Eav tovto Xtjpf, dpaprriori, si hoc dixeris,
errabis.
4) In the antecedent clause, el stands with the Optative ;
and the Optative stands also in the consequent clause, but in
connexion with dv. (The Optative future is not used in this
case.) By this form, both the condition and that which is
contingent upon it, are represented as a present, mostly future,
uncertainty, as an undetermined possibility, mere conjecture,
conception, or supposition, without any regard to realisation or
non-realisation, possibility or impossibility.
EI ti exniq, Soint av, ifthou hadst any thing, thou wouldst give it. Ei tovto
Xeyoif, apapravoiQ av. Ou* av vireveyKaipev ovrt rb Kavpa, oire to <^x>
ti iairivtiQ yiyvoiTo. Ei dvaynalov til) aSixtiv fj dcmtiadai, i\oipi)V av
paKXov dSiKelaBai ?; aducsiv.
Remark 1. The Optative with av often follows ti with the Indicative,
or idv with the Conjunctive, as : el tovto Xeyuc, apapravotc av, if thou
(really) assertest this, thou mayst err, idv tovto Xeyyc, dpaprdvoic av, if
thou (as I expect) assertest this, thou mayst err ; on the other hand, the
Indicative sometimes follows el with the Optative, as: ei tovto Xeyoig,
dpaprdveiQ, if thou shouldst assert this, thou wouldst certainly err.
Remark 2. Frequently, ei with the Optative is used instead of a tem
poral conjunction ( 183, 3, c), in reference to an indefinite frequency in
past time. Then el is to be translated by as often as, and the Indicative
of the historical tenses stands in the principal sentence, generally the
imperfect, with or without av; as: el rig avrif vokoii) tuv Trpbg tovto
Teraypivuiv fiXaneveiv, e iraiev av. Et Tig SatKpaTU irepi rov dvnXiyoi,
iiri rijv vTroOeoiv lnavr\yev dv iravra rov Xoyov.
Remark 3. With the Indicative of the historical tenses, dv is omitted
in the consequent clause, in expressions which imply necessity, duty,
justice, possibility, freedom, and inclination ; thus, e. g., with xptfv, edet,
uiipeXov, verbal adjectives in twq, wpoaijice(v), Kaipbc r)V, ukoq ifv, xaXbv rjv,
ahxpbv r\v, KaXutg el^e(v), iKijv, ifiov\6pr)v, as : ei aio~xpov ti tpeXXov
ipydaaoBai, Oavarov dvr aiiTov irpoaiptreov r\v, mors praferenda
erat.

186.]

186.

ADVERBIAL SENTENCES.

253

c. Adverbial Sentences of Consequence or Effect.

1. Adverbial sentences of consequence or effect are intro


duced by the conjunction &ots (more rarely cos). With
regard to the use of the moods, the following should be
observed :
a) The Indicative is used when the consequence or effect
is to be represented as actual and carried into effect; the In
finitive, on the contrary, when it is to be represented as
merely thought of, not carried into effect, but merely possible or
intended, or as the conditional result of what is expressed in
the principal sentence (on condition that, or supposing thai).
ApyoQ dvSpGiv ixi\pwQr\ ovtoic, wore oi o*oiiXot avrutv tff^ov iravra rd irpdyfiaTa.- EwKparqc TrpoQ to- pirpimv SliaOai Triiraii'tvp-'ivoQ r\v ovruir, aiare
wavv fUKpd KiKTrtiitvoQ ttuvv paSLiog t%etv aptcuvvra (for, in this case, the
consequence is not carried into effect, but only founded upon the
character of Socrates).
Himark I. If the Infinitive after &art has a different subject from
that of the principal sentence, this subject is put in the accusative ; but
if the subject of both is the same, attraction takes place ( 172, 3.).
b) The Optative is used in connexion with av, when the
consequence or effect is to be represented as a contingent con
jecture, supposition, or conception ( 153, 2, c).
c) Lastly, the Indicative of the historical tenses with av,
or the Infinitive with av, is used, when it is to be implied
that the consequence or effect would take place, only on cer
tain conditions ( 153, 2, a. a) and d.).
roZiKrjv Kai iarpiKi'jV Kai fiavnKrlv 'AiroWwv aveipev, imBviiiaq Kai tpoiroe
I'lyi/xovivaavTos, &ari Kai ovtO "Epioros av tin fiaBnrriQ. Havre oi
jroXIrai TroXtpicd oirXa KareaKtva^ov, Hare ri/v iroKiv ovrws yyriaw av
ttoXe^ou ipyaarripiov tlvai (sc. u flfoc). Oi 9toi ovritig poi iv toIq UpoiQ
larjfinvav, mart Kai iSnoTnv av yvuvai, on Trjg fiovapxiag airextaOai us
lii, so that even a private individual (if he had been present) would have
understood.

254

COMPOUND SENTENCES SUBOBDINATION.

[chap. v.

Remark 2. Instead of wore with the Infinitive, in the signification ea


conditione ut, or ita vt, i<p' yrt is used, either with the Indicative future,
or with the Infinitive ; as : ivi tov Tip vTriKiarafiai rrjc A-pxAS^
VTt
oufavbg tlfuav dpKo/iat.
d. Adverbial Sentences of Comparison.
2. Comparative adverbial sentences of way and manner, are
introduced by the relative adverbs, tos, wars, moirep, ottws,
as, just as. The use of the moods in these adverbial sentences
agrees with that in the adjective-sentences ( 182, 8.).
3. Comparative adverbial sentences of quantity or degree,
are introduced by the relative oaa> (oaov) ; and to this, the
demonstrative toctovtw (too-ovtov) corresponds in the princi
pal sentence, so much as; with a comparative or superlative,
the the.
Toaovrov SiaQkpuv >//ia ei r&v fiovXwv, ouov ot fitv $ov\ot aKovrtg Toig
SeGiroratg virrjptTOvffiv. "Oay (oaov) aocpwrepog rig tori, Toaovrtp (rocourov) awippoviaTepoQ toTiv. "Oaif ((Sow) otxpwraTog rig itsri, TOOOVTtp (roaovrov) aioQpovtffraTog loriv.

187.

On Interrogative Sentences.

1. Questions are either independent or dependent upon a pre


ceding sentence; as: Is the friend come? and: I know not,
whether the friend is come. The former, we call direct, and the
latter, indirect questions. Both the latter and the former either
consist of one member, or of two or more members ; as: Is the
friend come, or is he not yet come ? Knowest thou whether he
is coming or not coming. Lastly, according as the question
relates to an object (a thing or person), or to the predicate,
questions are divided into nominal and predicative questions ;
as: Wlxo has done this? and: Hast thou written the letter?
2. Nominal questions are introduced by substantive- or
adjective-pronouns of interrogation, as : ris, irolos, iroo-os, e. g.

137.]

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

255

rls ravra siroitjasv ; predicative questions, by adverbial inter


rogative pronouns, as apa, e. tj., apa ravra kiroirjcras ;
Remark 1. Predicative questions are frequently known by the mere
accentuation and position of the words, inasmuch as the predicate, or
that word upon which the stress of the sentence lies, occupies the first
place in the sentence. Thus especially in negations; as: ovk WiXtig
Itvai ;
3. With regard to the use of interrogatives, the following
should be observed :
1) *H, generally in connexion with other particles, involves within it
an assertion, since it represents the object of the question as actually
existing, as : r) ovtoi iro\kp,mi t'unv ; ij ttov, num. forte, yet not perhaps,
when the questioner expects a negative answer, as : ; ttov Ttr6\ni)K
tpyov alaxiOTOv ToSt ; r) yap, is it not true f as : rt yap, u 'l7nria, idv
ti ipiorti at ^uncpdrijc, airoKpivu ;
2) 'Apa is properly used in doubtful, uncertain, wondering questions ;
but often, also, with a certain modesty in definite questions, e. g., up'
olaOd rivac, ol aw</>fXtt uvrtc w0cXi'/fouf dvvavrai QiXovt; TroutoQa ;
3) Oi or nil is annexed to apa, according as the questioner expects a
definitely affirmative or negative answer ; as : ap' ovk tortv daBtvljQ ; nonne
agrotat? JEgrotat. apa iartv da9tvr)s ; numnam agrotat f (he is not
ill perhaps ?) Nbn aegrotat.
4) Mi), yet not perhaps, always expresses anxiety on the part of the
questioner ; and hence implies that a negative answer is expected ; as :
aXXd fir) apxirticrutv /3otXei ytvsoQai ; Ou'k ovv tymy\ ttjtri. Hfinime gen
tium. 'AXXd /it) yf<D/ierpr]s imBvfitig, ift), ytviadai ayaBog; OvSi ytwpirptjc, l<p7], k. r. X.

5) MCiv (arising from the interrogative fit) and oiv) corresponds en


tirely to the Latin, num, yet not perhaps ; and hence always implies that
a negative answer is expected ; as: p&v Ttro\p,t)Kac ravra Spdaai ; For the
sake of clearness, the particles ovv and
are often added iidv ovv,
v,tiv fit) ; as : n&v ovv reroX^ijicae ; or p.uv fir) TtTokptficag ; But when
the negative ov is added to uuv, the question becomes affirmative (nonne) ;
as : fiwv ov TtroXftrjKag ; nonne ausus es f
6) Ov, non, nonne f and ovkovv, with the accessory notion of a con
sequence from what has preceded, non or nonne ergo? always express
an affirmative question ; as : ooiv yiXtog rjSioToc tic ex^poic yt\dv ;
7) Elra and iirtira are used in questions of displeasure and wonder ;
and express an objection: and yet; since they imply that an unex

25G

COMPOUND SENTENCES SUBORDINATION.

[chap. v.

pected consequence is drawn from what has preceded ; as : eireir ovk


otti QpovTi&w Qeovc dvOpwTTMv ',
8) Direct double questions are introduced :
a) by irlrepov (iroTfpa) ?/, utrum an, as : Trorepov oiroi vfiptorai
cimv, t) ^iXoEevot ; (jrortpov, in the first member, is sometimes omitted ;)
J.'Apo j/, nean; c) My tj, yet not indeed; or, d)"AXko n 7) (instead
of dXXo n y'evoir' dv, ?/) and dXXon, nonne, as: dXXo rt 7) XftVerai to
ivrevdev ipoi Kivlvvtav b peyiarog ; nonne relinquitur mihi ? "AXXon
ovv o'tye tpiXoKepdelg tftiXovci to KepSog ;
9) Simple indirect questions are introduced ;
a) by the interrogative pronouns, 'banc, biroloe, ojtoo-oc, birbrtpot, oitutQ,
oirov, oTrtjf birbre, &c. ($62, Remark 1.); as: ovk otSa, 'boric lar'tv ovk
olSa, 07rwc to irpaypa tirpn'^tv.
Remark 2. But frequently, the direct interrogatives, rig, irotog, ir&g,
&c, supply the place of the indirect, the indirect question assuming
the character of the direct ; as : ovk olda, Hg ravra eTrpa%ev (instead of
iiffTig),
b) Ei (si), whether, is properly used, like rj, only in double questions,
and denotes a vacillation between two possibilities ; but frequently only
one member is expressed, while the other is present to the mind of the
speaker. Thus, after verbs of considering, deliberating, enquiring, ashing,
trying, knowing, saying, bpav, oKoireiv, OKOTruoQai, tiSkvai, <po/3eTa6ai, and
the like ireipdoBat, lirivoetv, Ipuirdv Xlyeiv, fpd&iv, &c. ; as : OKt^iai, ei
b 'E\\i)vwv vbpog KaXXiov ?x. Also lav, with the conjunctive, is used in
such questions, when the discourse is about expected circumstances, and
those which are yet to be proved ; as ; ani^iai, lav rode 001 paSXov
dpltjKy.
c) Mi, as in direct questions, whether however not, after expressions
of asking, considering, deliberating, enquiring, and questioning, as well as
after those of anxiety and fear, which likewise involve within them the
notion of deliberation. In English, this 111) after verbs of anxiety and
fear, is translated by that, e. g., bpa, pi) tovto ovrwg i"x. <p/>oj>Wa>, pr)
KpariOTOv y pot aiydv.
10) An indirect double question is introduced by : a) mrepov (wbrepa)
if ,* as : ovk olda, irbrepov Zfi i\ TlQvrjKev. 6) el q, = irbrepov 7),
with this difference, however, that ei i) express uncertainty and
choice. c) elre elre, in the same signification as ei ?;, only that elre
e'ire, denote the corresponding relation of the two members ; as : Kai
BeiZtig rdxa, eir evyevr]g irkfvKag, eir' laOXSv KaKi).

188.]

INDIBECT SPEECH.

257

Remark 3. With regard to the use of the moods, the following should
be observed : the Indicative is employed in direct and indirect questions,
as in English ; the Conjunctive or Optative is used in doubting ques
tions, according to the tense of the predicate in the principal sentence ;
as: ovmt\ta, ojroi tpaviafxeu ; and oil* tlxovi ottqi rpawotfitiv
153, 1, 6).
Upon the indicative and optative of the historical tenses with dv, see
153, 2, a, a) and c.
Remark 4. The answer is expressed :
a. -By the repetition of the word standing in the question ; as: ipde
pe, Siairoiv, (if i\<n, rov aOXtov ; 'Opd. A negative answer annexes the
negation; as: otoff ovv j3porotg 8f KaOiartiKtv vofiog; Oi! olSa.
b. By fr/pi, friii lyei, iywyf ; negative, ov fipi, ovk lymyt, 06.
c. Very often, by yi, equidem, ulique, assuredly, by all means, which
implies that the answer completes the thought of the question, extends
it further, advances, strengthens, and enhances it, or restricts and corrects
it, by an additional sentence. Thus, also, by yap, which is stronger,
however.
d. By vai, vf) rov Ala, iravv, tcdpra, tv yt, and the like.

188.

On the Form of Oblique or Indirect Speech.

1. The words or thoughts of a person whether he be a


second or third person, or even the speaker himself may be
given again, either unaltered, in the same form in which they
are uttered by the person, and then his discourse (thought)
appears independent of the representation of the narrator, and
is called direct speech (oratio recta); as: I thought: all men are
mortal; he announced : peace is concluded; and without a pre
ceding verb: all men are mortal ; or may be made to relate to
the representation of the speaker or another, and so consi
dered dependent upon a verb of perception or communication
(verbum sentiendi or declarandi) in the principal sentence. The
predicate is quoted according to the view of the person spoken
8

258

COMPOUND SENTENCES SUBORDINATION.

[chap. v.

ofas thought of in his mind. This form of speaking is


called indirect or oblique speech (oratio dbliqua) ; as : he an
nounced that peace was concluded.
2. Principal sentences of direct speech, i. e. the grammati
cal sentences to which the logically subordinate sentences,
introduced by the coordinate conjunctions yap, ovv, jcatroi,
&c, belong, are expressed in oblique speech (if they contain
a sentiment), either by the accusative with the Infinitive
( 172, 2.) ; or by oti and cos with the finite verb ( 180, 2.) ;
or by the participial construction ( 175, 1.) ; as : hrriyyeiXs
tovs ttoXs/mlovs aTrocfuryslv on ol iro\sfii,oi. airocpvyoisv or aire<f>vyov roils TroXsfiwvs dTro<piry6vras ; or by the Infinitive,
when they express commands, wishes, or desires ( 171, 2.);
as : eKiljs tow arpaTUOTais sTriOsadai rols ir6\sfiiots. (or. recta:
brWeo-ee).
3. Accessory sentences of direct speech, do not alter their
form in indirect speech, except that, as we shall see, they put
the Optative in the place of the Indicative and Conjunctive.
4. When, e. g., the assertion of the governing principal sen
tence is expressed by an historical tense, the Optative neces
sarily stands, either instead of the Indicative, or Conjunctive
of direct speech ; if the indirect speech is to be represented as
such.
Thus, e.g., from: iixv rovro Xiyyg, afiaprrjay arises: tXte <rt, ei tovto
Xtyotg, afiapTTiGtffQai. TeXsvriov tXtytv oaa dyaQa Kvpog tlsprrag 7TfiroirjKoi (fecissei). TMTaaQtpvrjg wfioafv 'Ayi/<rt\ay, ti (Tirsiaairo, eu)g
IXBottv, ot)g jre/ii^fie irpog fiaaiXsa dyytXovg, $iairpa$taQai avrip dtptGrjvai
avTovofiovg rag iv rij 'Aaiq. iroXtig 'EXAijvtflaf.
5. Very frequently, however, oblique speech, in Greek, as
sumes the character of the direct mode of expression, inasmuch
as, in the accessory sentences, it retains the Indicative and
Conjunctive of direct speech, even in the indirect, and often
uses the Indicative of the principal tenses and the Conjunc
tive, even after an historical tense in the principal sentence.

188.]

IKDIEECT SPEECH.

259

The actions and thoughts, in the accessory sentences, which


belong to the past, are transferred to the time present to the
speaker. The use of the Indicative has become a rule, when
the assertion of the governing principal sentence is plaeed in
time present with regard to the speaker, as : Xeyco oti 6 avdpanros OwjTOi scrTiv; or it is expressed by the accusative with
the Infinitive instead of ot* with the finite verb, Xeyeo, tov
av6punrov 0vt]t6v slvai.
'Aei liriuiXtiro o Kvpog, oirore avatr]vditv, oiriaq ivxapurroraTOt Xoyoi
ififi\7i9iiaovTat. "EdoZt r<j> Sti/iip rpidicovTa eXeaGm, ot roig irarpiovg
vop.ovg ffvyy pd^ovtri, Ka9' otg iroXire vaovaiv. 'OpKtotg fitydXoig
KartixovTO 'AQrjvaZoi, fieica trrj xpypnaBai vopoig, ovg av avroig XoXajv
BijTai.Toig Xirir'tag lic&Xtvffe TLvpog tpvXarreiv rovg ayayovrag, swj av
Tig <rij /jjji'jj.
6. The Greek language has also the liberty of using the
accusative with the Infinitive, instead of the finite verb, in all
kinds of accessory sentences.
SicvQag 0a<ri rows vojidlag, lirti at rot{ Aaptlov tiaflaXtlv tig Ttjv xwpav,
ftira ravra /leupvsvai avrov riaaaOat, i. e. postqiiam invasisset.

THE END.

4
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