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2.

21

single-mode step index fiber which is designed for operation at a wavelength of


1.3 m has core and cladding refractive indices of 1.447 and 1.442 respectively.
When the core diameter is 7.2 m, confirm that the fiber will permit single-mode
transmission and estimate the range of wavelengths over which this will occur
= 1 (n2/n1)
= 1 (1.442/1.447)
= 3.455 x 10-3
d=2a
2a= 7.2m
a=3.6 m

= [2 x 3.142 x 1.447 x (2(3.445x10-3))1/2 ] / 2.405


= 1130nm
= [2 x 3.142 x 1.447 x (2(3.445x10-3))1/2 ] / 0.01
= 27209 nm
# down to 1130nm

5.12

Briefly describe the types of demountable connector that may be used with single
mode fibers. Further, indicate the problems involved with the connection of single
mode fibers. A single-mode fiber connector is used with a silica (refractive index
1.46) step index fiber of 6 m core diameter which has a normalized frequency of
2.2 and a numerical aperture of 0.9. The connector has a lateral offset of 0.7 m
and an angular misalignment of 0.8. Estimate the total insertion loss of the
connector assuming that the joint is index matched and that there is no
longitudinal misalignment.
Type of demountable fiber connectors used with single mode fibers.
Type
Insertion loss
Features and applications
(dB)
D4
0.301.00
A slotted screw-on type of multimode and
single-mode fiber connector; used for data
communications, instrumentation connections
and telecommunication applications
ST

0.200.50

A slotted bayonet (push-in, twist-out) type of


metallic multimode or single mode fiber
connector with a ceramic ferrule; widely used in
inter/intra building, data communication and
also telecommunication applications

SC
(simplex
and
duplex)

0.200.45

A push-on, pull-off type of multimode or singlemode connector with a ceramic ferrule and an
SFF design in a simplex or a duplex plastic
housing; often used for LANs and data
communication

FC

0.251.00

A screw-on metallic connector with a ceramic


ferrule; widely used with single mode fiber, for
active device termination and in high-vibration
environments

MU

0.100.30

A push-on, pull-off type of multimode or singlemode fiber connector with plastic housing and
ceramic ferrule; SFF and SFP designs with
packaging density that is greater than the SC
connector and can be simplex or duplex; useful
for
board-mounted applications and high density
interconnections

LC
(simplex
and
duplex)

0.100.50

A push-on, pull-off, multimode or single mode


fiber type of connector containing a standard RJ
45 telephone plug housing with a ceramic ferrule
in a simplex or duplex plastic housing; SFF and
SFP designs are suitable for high density
interconnection and also useful for
instrumentation and test equipment
interconnections

E2000

0.120.30

A push-on, pull-off type of connector, mostly


preferred for single-mode fiber operation; SFF
and SFP designs similar to the SC type but also
contains an eye protection safety cover built into
the end face

n1 = 1.46, = 8o, V = 2.2, NA = 0.9, 2a = 6m, y = 0.7m

T = T1 + Ta
= 0.172 + 0.03712
= 0.175dB