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## ME 232 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES

2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
UNIT-I
1. Differentiate between a machine and a structure.(Nov/Dec 2002)
SI. No

Machine

Structure
No relative motion exists
1
Relative motion exists between its parts.
between its members.
It transforms available energy into
It does not convert the available
2
useful work.
energy into work.
Members are meant for
Links are meant to transmit motion and
3
carrying loads having straining
forces.
action.
2. State and sketch any two inversions of a double slider mechanism.
(Nov/Dec 2002)

3. How many inversions are possible from a four-bar kinematic chain? Name them
based on their input-output motions.(Apr/May 2003)
Three in versions are possible from a four-bar kinematic chain. They are:
Crank-rocker mechanism or Rotary oscillating converter.
Double crank mechanism or Rotary rotary converter.
Double rocker mechanism or Oscillating oscillating converter.

4. What are the three conditions to obtain a four-bar crank rocker mechanism?
(APR/MAY 2003)
The linkage should be class I four bar linkage. That is, if the sum of the lengths
of the largest and the shortest links is less than the sum of the lengths of the other
two links, the linkage is known as a class I, four bar linkage.
The shortest link should be made a crank (which can revolve) and any of the
The link opposite to the crank i.e., rocker should oscillate.
5. State at least one similarity and one difference between a helical pair and a cylindric
pair. (Nov/Dec 2003)
Similarity

Difference :

## Both are lower pairs.

Helical pair has a incompletely constrained motion whereas

## cylindric pair has completely constrained motion.

6. Define transmission angle of a four- bar mechanism. What are the worst
values of transmission angle? (Nov/Dec 2003)
Definition : The angle between the coupler and the follower in a four-bar
mechanism is called the transmission angle.
Worst value of transmission angle is less than 45.
7. State any four types of kinematic pairs according to the types of relative motion
between them. (Nov/Dec 2004)
i) Sliding pair;
(iii) Rolling pair; and

## (ii) Turning pair ;

(iv) Screw pair

8. Explain with a neat sketch, the space centrode and body centrode. (Nov/Dec 2004)

The locus of the instantaneous centre in space during a definite motion of the
body is called the space centrode.
3

The locus of the instantaneous centre relative to the body itself is called the body
centrode.
The space and body centrodes are illustrated in Fig.l.

9. What is a machine? Give two examples. Also differentiate between a machine and a
structure. (April/May 2005)

A machine is a device which receives energy and transforms it into some useful
work.

## Examples : Machine tools such as lathe, shaper, planer.

Difference : For machine, relative motion exists between its parts. But structure is
an assemblage of number of resistant bodies having no relative motion between
them.

(April/May 2005)

3l 2 j 4 0

Where
l

## The Grublers criterion applies to mechanisms with only single degree of

freedom joints and the overall mobility of the mechanism is unity.
11.Define kinematic chain(Nov/Dec 2005)
A kinematic chain may be defined as a combination of kinematic pairs, joined in such a
way that the relative motion between the links or elements is completely of successfully
constrained.
12.Define lower pair and higher pair, give two examples for each pairs. (Nov/Dec 2005)
Lower pair : If a pair in motion has a surface contact between the two elements, it
is called a lower pair.
Examples: Nut and bolt; Bolt and socket joint.
Higher pair : If a pair in motion has a line or point contact between the two
elements, it is called a higher pair.
Examples: Belt, rope and chain drives; Gear, cam and follower.

13.Draw a four bar mechanism and show that it has one degree of freedom as per
Kutzbach criterion. (May / June 2006)
The four bar mechanism is shown in Fig.1. it has four links and four binary
joints, ie., l = 4 and j =4.
Kutzbach criterion, n 3 (l 1) 2 j h
3 (4 1) 2 (4) 0 1

## Thus the four bar mechanism has one degree of freedom.

14.Define inversion of mechanism. (May / June 2006)
The method of obtaining different mechanisms by fixing different links in a kinematic
chain is known as inversion of the mechanism.

15.Identify the possible motion (s) and name of the kinematic pairs of the following
combinations: (a) Members of a scissor. (b) A two pin plug inserted in a two pin
socket.
(May / June 2006)
(a) Incompletely constrained motion and closed pair (also known as self closed pair)
or lower pair.
(b) Completely constrained motion and unclosed pair (also known as open pair or force
closed pair) or lower pair.

16.State the differences between a crank rocker mechanism and a drag link
mechanism. (May / June 2006)

In a crank rocker mechanism, one link oscillates while the other link rotates
about the fixed link, as shown in Fig.1.

If the shortest link, i.e., link 1 (crank) is fixed, the adjacent links 2 and 4 would
complete revolutions, as shown if Fig.2. The mechanism thus obtained is known
as drag-link mechanism or double-crank mechanism.
17.Define kinematic pair and illustrate any two types of constrained pair.
(May / June 2006)

When any two links or elements are connected in such a way that their relative motion
is completely or successfully constrained, they form a kinematic pair.
6

Examples :
(i)

## Square bar moving in a square hole (Refer Fig.1) and

(ii)

A shaft with collars at its ends moving in a round hole (Refer Fig. 2).

## 18.What is Kutzbach criterion for planar mechanism? (Nov/ Dec 2006)

A kinematic chain having l links and j binary joints then the mobility according
to Kutzbach criterion, is n = 3(l-1) -2j.
19.Sketch an exact straight line mechanism, with link proportions. (Nov/ Dec 2006)

## 20.Write expression governing Kutzbach criterion for mobility of a planer mechanism.

(Nov/ Dec 2006)
A kinematic chain having l links and j binary joints then the mobility according
to Kutzbach criterion, is n = 3(l-1) -2j.
7

21.Name any four common mechanisms with specific application. (Nov/ Dec 2006)
SI .No.
Mechanism
1.
Crank and lever mechanism

Application
Beam engine

2.

3.

4.

## Shaping and slotting machines

22.Enumerate the difference between a machine and a structure. (May / June 2007)
SI. No

Machine

useful work.

## Links are meant to transmit motion and

forces.

Structure
No relative motion exists
between its members.
It does not convert the available
energy into work.
Members are meant for
carrying loads having straining
action.

23.List out the inversions of a double slider crank chain. (May / June 2007)
1) Elliptical trammel.

## 2) Scotch yoke mechanism.

3) Oldhams Coupling.

24.Define Degree of Freedom and give the DOF for a shaft in a circular hole. (Nov /
Dec 2007)

## The Mobility of a mechanism or Degree of freedom is defined as the number

of input parameters (usually pair variables) which must be controlled
independently in order to bring the device into a particular position.

## Two DOF for a shaft in a circular hole.

25.State Grashoffs laws for a four bar linkage. (May / June 2007)
Grashoffs law state that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be
greater than the sum of the remaining two links lengths, if there is to be continuous
relative motion between two members.
26.Define Degree of Freedom. (April / May 2008)
8

## The Mobility of a mechanism or Degree of freedom is defined as the number of

input parameters (usually pair variables) which must be controlled independently in
order to bring the device into a particular position.
27.Define Grashoffs law. (April / May 2008)
Grashoffs law state that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be
greater than the sum of the remaining two links lengths, if there is to be continuous
relative motion between two members.
28.Define Degree of Freedom. (Nov / Dec 2008)
The Mobility of a mechanism or Degree of freedom is defined as the number of
input parameters (usually pair variables) which must be controlled independently in order
to bring the device into a particular position.
29.State Grubblers criterion for planar mechanisms. (Nov / Dec 2008)
(i)

## According to Kutzback criterian,

Mobility,

n 6 (l 1) 5 p1 4 p2 3 p3 2 p4 1 p5

where

p1

p2

## 30.Give any two inversions of a single slider chain. (May/June 2009)

Whitworth quick return mechanism
Crank and slotted lever mechanism.
Oscillating cylinder engine.
Gnome engine.
31.Write Grashoffs law for 4- bar mechanism. (May/June 2009)
According to Grashoffs law,
S l p q

9

## p and q be the length of the other two lines.

32.State Grueblers criterion for spatial mechanism. (Nov/ Dec 2009)
Grueblers criterion states that the overall mobility of the mechanism is unity.
The Grueblers equation for spatial mechanisms is given by
6 l 5 p1 7 0

where

p1

## 33.Define Mechanical Advantage. (Nov/ Dec 2009)

Mechanical advantage is defined as the ratio of the load to the effort.

34.Explain the term kinematic link. Give the classification of kinematic link (Nov/ Dec
2011)
A link or an element is defined as that part of machine which has motion relative
to some other part.
There are three types of links as classified below:

35.Explain the terms: (a) Lower pair, (b) higher pair. (Nov/ Dec 2011)
Lower pair : If a pair in motion has a surface contact between the two elements, it is
called a lower pair.
Examples: Nut and bolt; Bolt and socket joint.
Higher pair : If a pair in motion has a line or point contact between the two elements,
it is called a higher pair.
Examples: Belt, rope and chain drives; Gear, cam and follower.

10

36.What is the significance of Grashofs law for a four bar mechanism? (Nov/ Dec
2011)
Grashofs law specifies the order in which the links are connected in a kinematic
chain.
Grashofs law specifies which link of the four-bar chain is fided.
s l pq
If this inequality is not satisfied, no link will make a complete revolution relative
to another.
37.State the application of an offset slider-crank mechanism. (Nov/ Dec 2011)
The offset slider crank mechanism is used to get reciprocating motion of the
slider and is also used as a quick return mechanism.

## 38.Write Grashoffs law for 4-bar mechanism(Nov/ Dec 2012)

Grashoffs law state that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be
greater than the sum of the remaining two links lengths, if there is to be continuous
relative motion between two members.
39.What is meant by indexing mechanism? Where do we use it? (Nov/ Dec 2012)
Indexing mechanism is used when intermittent rotary motion is required
generally in machine tools where turret or work table is required to be indexed.
40.Define sliding connectors. (Nov/ Dec 2013)
Sliding connectors are used when one slider (the input) is to drive another slider
(the output). Usually the two slider operate in the same plane but in different directions.
41.Differentiate rotation and translation. (Nov/ Dec 2013)
Translation is defined as a stat of motion of body for which the displacement
difference between any two points is zero.
Rotation is a state of motion of the body for which different points of the body
are equal.
42.Differentiate between the machine and structure.( May / June 2014)
SI. No

Machine

Structure
11

useful work.

forces.

## No relative motion exists

between its members.
It does not convert the available
energy into work.
Members are meant for
carrying loads having straining
action.

## 43.Classify the constrained motion. ( May / June 2014)

There are three types.
Completely constrained motion (eg. Square bar moving in a square hole)
In completely constrained motion ( eg. Circular shaft in a hole)
Successfully constrained motion (eg. Piston and cylinder)
44.Define Degree of freedom (or) what is meant by mobility?
The Mobility of a mechanism or Degree of freedom is defined as the number of
input parameters which must be controlled independently in order to bring the device
into a particular position.
The degrees of freedom of a mechanism (n) is given by
n = 3(L-1)-2j-h
L = Number of links
j = Number of joints
h = Number of higher pairs.

## 45.What is meant by spatial mechanism?

Spatial mechanism have special geometric characteristics in that all revolute axes
are parallel and perpendicular to the plane of motion and all prism axes lie in the plane
of motion.

12

1)

2)

3)

## Successfully constrained motion (eg. Piston and cylinder)

47.How to determine the given assemblage of links forms the kinematic chain or not?
If the given assemblage satisfies the following two equations (for lower pair) then it is
called as kinematic chain.
l 2p4

3
l 2
2

where

l = Number of links,
p = Number of pairs, and
j = Number of joints.

## 48.What is meant by number synthesis?

Expressing mobility or degree of freedom of a mechanism in terms of the number of
links and the number of pair connections of a given type is known as number synthesis.
49.What are the some important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
1.

## Crank-rocker mechanism (or) Crank-lever mechanism (or) Rotary-oscillating

converter.
2.

Crank crank mechanism (or) Double crank mechanism (or) Rotary rotary

converter.
3.

## 50.What is toggle position?

It is the position of a mechanism at which the mechanical advantage is infinite and the
sine of angle between the coupler and driving link is zero.
13

## 51. What is pantograph?

Pantograph is a device which is used to reproduce a displacement exactly in an
enlarged or reduced scale. It is used in drawing offices, for duplicating the drawings,
maps, plans, etc. It works on the principle of 4 bar chain mechanism.
52.What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
1) Rotary or Grome engines.
2) Crank and slotted lever mechanism.
3) Oscillating cylinder engine.
4) Bull engine
5) Hand pump.
53.Compare machine and structure.
SI. No
1
2
3
4

Machine

Structure

parts.

its members.

useful work.

and forces.

## 54. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.

1) Crank and connecting rod
2) Connecting and piston rod
3) Piston and engine cylinder.

## 55.Discuss Elliptical trammel

14

Elliptical trammel is an instrument used for drawing ellipses. It is the best example for
first inversion of double slider crank chain.
56. Compare Movablility and Mobility.
Movablility includes the 6 degree of freedom of the device as a whole, as though the
ground links were not fixed, and this applies to a kinematic chain.
Mobility neglects these and considers only the internal relative motions, thus applying a
mechanism.

## 57.What is meant by transmission angle?

In a four bar chain mechanism the angle between the coupler and the follower
link is called as the transmission angle.

## 58. What is meant by Ackermann steering?

Ackermann steering is the one of the mechanism used in vehicles. It is obtained
by inversion of four bar chain.

59. Write down the Grashofs Law for a four bar mechanism?
Grashofs law states that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be
greater than the sum of the remaining two links lengths if there is to be continuous
relative motion between two members.

## 60. Explain the working principle of bicycle bells.

Bicycle bells are working on the principle of snap action mechanism or toggle
mechanism or flip flop mechanism.

## 61. What is meant by motion adjustment mechanism?

15

The mechanism used to adjust or modify the motion of the link is known as
motion adjustment mechanism. Motion adjustment is obtained by wedges, levers and
rack and pinion.
62. Whether a cycle chain is kinematic chain or not?
A cycle chain is a combination of several links with turning pair. Hence it is not a
kinematic chain.
63. Define instantaneous centre.
Instantaneous centre of a moving body may be defined as that centre which goes
on changing from one instant to another.
64. What is instantaneous axis?
Instantaneous axis is a line drawn through an instantaneous centre and
perpendicular to the plane of motion.
65. What is resistant body?
A body is said to be resistant if it is capable of transmitting the required force
with negligible deformation. A link need not necessarily be a rigid body, but it must be
a resistant body.
66. What is link?
A link or an element is defined as that part of a machine which has motion
relative to some other part. A link need not to be a single unit, but it may consist of
several parts which are manufactured as separate units.
67. What are the different types of links?
68.What is meant by spatial mechanism?
Spatial mechanism have special geometric characteristics in that all revolute axes
are parallel and perpendicular to the plane of motion and all prism axes lie in the plane
of motion.
16

## 69.What is the use of oldhams coupling?

It is used for transmitting motion between two shafts which are parallel but not
coaxial.

## CHAPTER -2 : KINEMATICS OF MOTION

1. Define rubbing velocity. What will be the rubbing velocity at a pin joint when the two
links move in and opposite directions? (Oct/ Nov 2002)

Definition: The rubbing velocity is defined as the algebraic sum between the angular
velocities of the two links which are connected by pin joints, multiplied by the radius of
the pin.

Rubbing velocity at a pin joint when the two links move in the opposite directions
= 1 2 r
Where 1 and 2
r

## = Angular velocities of the link 1 and link 2 respectively, and

= Radius of the pin.

2. Define Instantaneous centre. How many instantaneous centres are in a single crank
mechanism? (Oct/ Nov 2002)
Definition: Instantaneous centre of a moving body is defined as the centre which goes
on changing from one instant to another.
17

## In a single slider crank mechanism, there are four links.

Number of instantaneous centres,

n n 1 4(4 1)

6
2
2

3. Sketch the Geneva wheel indexing mechanism and state its application. (April /
May 2003)
Geneva mechanism is used in rotary tables and indexing turrets in machine tools
and in automatic machines. The sketch is shown in Fig.1.

## 4. Distinguish normal component of acceleration and tangential component of

acceleration. (April / May 2003)
Normal (or Radial or centripetal) component is perpendicular to the velocity of
the particle at the given instant. In other words, the normal component acts
parallel to the link.
r
2 Length of the link

2
Length of the link

## Tangential component is parallel to the velocity of the particle at the given

instant. In other words, it acts perpendicular to the link.
t
Length of the link

5. Define instantaneous centre of rotation and write the equation to determine the
nuber of instantaneous centres of a mechanism. (Nov / Dec 2003)
Definition: Instantaneous centre of a moving body is defined as the centre which
goes on changing from one instant to another.
Number of instantaneous centres,

18

n n 1
, where n Number of links
2

## 6. In a revolving stage with a speed of 3rpm, a person is walking with a speed of

0.5m/sec along a radial path. Determine the magnitude of the coriolis component of
acceleration in this motion. (Nov / Dec 2003)
Given Data: N = 3rpm;

2 (3)
0.314 rad / s; v 0.5 m / s.
60

c
Solution: Coriolis acceleration, a 2.v.

## 2 0.5 0.314 0.314 m / s 2

7. Define rubbing velocity at a pin joint. What will be the rubbing velocity at pin joint
when the two links move in the opposite direction? (Nov / Dec 2004)
Definition: The rubbing velocity is defined as the algebraic sum between the
angular velocities of the two links which are connected by pin joints, multiplied
by the radius of the pin.
Rubbing velocity at pin joint when

= (1 2 ) r

where 1 and 2
r

## = Angular velocities of two links, and

= Radius of the pin.

## 8. When coriolis component of acceleration occur? (Nov / Dec 2004)

Coriolis component of acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding
along another rotating link, such as in quick return mechanism.
9. Briefly explain the types of instantaneous centres. (April / May 2005)
Three types of instantaneous centres are (refer Fig.1) :
Fixed instantaneous centres: From the Fig.1, I12 and I14 are called the fixed
instantaneous centres as they remain in the same place for all configurations of
the mechanism.
Permanent instantaneous centres: I23 and I34 are called the permanent
instantaneous centres as they move when the mechanism moves, but the joints
are of permanent nature.
19

Neither fixed nor permanent centres: I13 and I23 are neither fixed nor permanent
instantaneous centres as they vary with the configuration of the mechanism.

10.What type of link will have only centripetal component of acceleration and what
types of link will have only linear acceleration? (April / May 2005)
The link which rotates at a constant velocity will have only centripetal i.e., radial
component of acceleration.
The link which moves in a linear direction will have only linear i.e., tangential
component of acceleration.

(Nov / Dec 2005)

3l 2 j 4 0

Where
l

## The Grublers criterion applies to mechanisms with only single degree of

freedom joints and the overall mobility of the mechanism is unity.

20

12.Define rubbing velocity. What will be the rubbing velocity at a pin joint when the two
links move in and opposite directions? (Nov / Dec 2005)

Definition: The rubbing velocity is defined as the algebraic sum between the angular
velocities of the two links which are connected by pin joints, multiplied by the radius of
the pin.

Rubbing velocity at a pin joint when the two links move in the opposite directions
= 1 2 r
Where 1 and 2

## = Radius of the pin.

13.A four-bar mechanism has coupler pin centres at A and B, and fixed pivot centres at
A0 and B0 Write the two vector equations involving the output velocity vector of B.
(May / June 2006)

vBA BA . BA

## vBB0 BB0 . BB0

vBB0 v A vBA

14.How will you determine the total acceleration of a point on a link, when the normal
component of acceleration and the tangential component of acceleration are known?
(May / June 2006)
The total acceleration of a point on a link is the vector sum of their components of the
radial acceleration and tangential acceleration.

15.Illustrate the instantaneous centres of a typical four bar. (May / June 2006)
Three types of instantaneous centres are (refer Fig.1) :
21

Fixed instantaneous centres: From the Fig.1, I12 and I14 are called the fixed
instantaneous centres as they remain in the same place for all configurations of
the mechanism.
Permanent instantaneous centres: I23 and I34 are called the permanent
instantaneous centres as they move when the mechanism moves, but the joints
are of permanent nature.

Neither fixed nor permanent centres: I13 and I23 are neither fixed nor permanent
instantaneous centres as they vary with the configuration of the mechanism.

16.State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.`(May / June 2006)
Coriolis acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding along another
rotating link, such as in quick return mechanism.

17.Illustrate the space centrode and body centrode. (Nov / Dec 2006)

The locus of the instantaneous centre in space during a definite motion of the
body is called the space centrode.

The locus of the instantaneous centre relative to the body itself is called the body
centrode.
The space and body centrodes are illustrated in Fig.l.
22

18.Write the condition for coriolis component of acceleration. (Nov / Dec 2006)
Coriolis acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding along another
rotating link, such as in quick return mechanism.
19.Explain normal component of acceleration. (Nov / Dec 2006)
Normal or radial component of acceleration is perpendicular to the velocity of

r
a BA
2 . AB

v 2 BA
AB .

## 20.State coriolis law (Nov / Dec 2006)

Whenever a point on one link is sliding along another rotating link, then the total
acceleration will have one additional acceleration component known as Coriolis
component.
21.What is the speciality of a planar four bar linkage with regard to coupler curve?
(May / June 2007)
The connecting rod of a four bar linkage is also
known as the coupler and the points belonging to it are
called coupler points the following figure shows part of
a coupler curve S, traced by the coupler point C.
The shape and state of the coupler curves changes
with the changing positions of the coupler point C. some
of the important characteristics of these curves are known as double points, cusps and
symmetry.
22.Define instantaneous centre of velocity? (May / June 2007)
Instantaneous centre of a moving body is defined as the centre which goes on
changing from one instant to another.
23

## 23.Define rubbing velocity. (May / June 2007)

The grublers criterion for plane mechanism is given by
3l 2 j 4 0

Where
l

## = Number of binary joints.

The Grublers criterion applies to mechanisms with only single degree of freedom
joints and the overall mobility of the mechanism is unity.
24.Define Coriolis component of acceleration. (May / June 2007)
Coriolis component of acceleration occur when a point on one link is sliding
along another rotation link, such as in quick return mechanism.
25.What is Coriolis component of acceleration? (Nov / Dec 2007)
Coriolis component of acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding
along another rotating link, such as in quick return mechanism.
26.State the Freudensteins equation for a four-bar mechanism. (Nov / Dec 2007)
The Freudenstein equation that gives length ratios (design parameter) of a four
bar mechanism is as below:
k1

l1
;
l2

k2

l1
;
l4

k3

## l12 l22 l32 l42

2 l2 l4

Where l1 l3 and l4 represent the length of the four links of four bar mechanism
respectively. k1 , k2 and k3 are the three length ratios.

C
aBC
2v

where

## = Angular velocity of oA and

24

V = Linear velocity of B.
28.What is higher pair? (April / May 2008)
If a pair in motion has a line or point contact between the two elements, it is
called a higher pair.
29.Define Actual Mechanical Advantage (Nov / Dec 2008)
The mechanical advantage is defined as the ratio of output torque to the input
torque. It is also defined as the ratio of the load to the effort.
M . A.(ideal)

TB
TA

where TB

TA

Driving torque

## 30.How the direction of coriolis component of acceleration is determined? (Nov / Dec

2008)
The direction of Coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector
for the two coincident points rotated at 90 in the direction of angular velocity of
31.Draw an acceleration polygon for a crank rotating at an angular speed of rad/sec
and angular acceleration of rad/ sec2. (May / June 2009)
Refer Fig.1.

ar 2 .r

ar

at .r

at

Fig.1

32.Explain how the direction of Coriolis acceleration is obtained. (May / June 2009)

25

## The direction of Coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector

for the two coincident points rotated at 90 in the direction of angular velocity of
33.What is Coriolis acceleration? (Nov / Dec 2009)
Coriolis component of acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding
along another rotating link, such as in quick return mechanism.
34.What is meant by virtual centre? (Nov / Dec 2009)
The combined motion of rotation and translation of the link may be assumed to
be a motion of pure rotation about some centre known as virtual centre or instantaneous
centre.
35.Define transmission angle of the four-bar mechanism. What is the worst value of
transmission angle? (Nov / Dec 2011)
Definition: The angle between the coupler and the follower is a four-bar
mechanism is called the transmission angle.
Worst value of transmission on angle is less than 45.
36.What is coriolis component of acceleration? (Nov / Dec 2011)
Whenever a point on one link is sliding along another rotating link, then the total
acceleration will have one additional acceleration component known as Coriolis
component.

26

37.For what kind of relative motion, the Coriolis component of acceleration occurs?
Sketch the links to illustrate. (Nov / Dec 2011)
When a point on one link is sliding along another rotating link, then the point is
known as coincident point. At the coincident point the Coriolis component of
acceleration occurs Refer Fig.1.

38.State the relationship between crank angle and connecting rod angle of a
single slider crank mechanism. (Nov / Dec 2011)
r
sin
sin sin
l
n

## 39.What is a configuration diagram? What is its use? (Nov / Dec 2012)

Configuration diagram is a line sketch of a given mechanism drawn to a suitable
scale.
The configuration diagram forms the basis for the construction of both velocity and
acceleration diagrams.
40.Define rubbing velocity. What will be the expression for rubbing velocity at a pin
joint when the two links rotate in opposite direction? (Nov / Dec 2012)
Definition: The rubbing velocity is defined as the algebraic sum between the
angular velocities of the two links which are connected by pin joints, multiplied
by the radius of the pin.
27

Rubbing velocity at a pin joint when the two links move in the opposite directions
= 1 2 r
Where 1 and 2

and
r

## 41.Define number of instantaneous centre. (Nov / Dec 2013)

Number of instantaneous centres,

where

n n 1
2

n = Number of links

## 42.What is low degree of complexity? (Nov / Dec 2013)

In a complex mechanism if only one radius of path curvature of one motion
transfer point is not known such a mechanism is called a mechanism with low degree of
complexity.
43.Define instantaneous centre (May / June 2014)
Instantaneous centre of a moving body may be defined as that centre which goes
on changing from one instant to another.
44.What is the expression for Coriolis component of acceleration? (May / June 2014)
C
aBC
2v

where

## = Angular velocity of oA and

V = Linear velocity of B.
45.Define instantaneous centre and instantaneous axis.
Instantaneous centre: Instantaneous centre of a moving body is defined as the centre
which goes on changing from one instant to another.
Instantaneous axis: Instantaneous axis is a line drawn through an instantaneous centre
and perpendicular to the plane of motion.
28

A angular

## velocity and B rotates with

angular velocity in opposite direction. What is the rubbing velocity of that pin?
Rubbing velocity of pin = 1 2 r
Where r is the radius of the pin.

## 47.What is meant by the efficiency of a mechanism?

Efficiency of a mechanism is defined as the ratio of product of force and velocity in
driven link to the product of force and velocity in driving link.
FB v B
FA v A
T
B B
TA A

or
where A

T
= Torque
V
= Velocity, and

B = Driven link,
F = Force
= Angular velocity.

48.How to represent the direction of linear velocity of any point on a link with respect to
another point on the same link?
The direction of linear velocity of any point on a link with respect to another point on
the same link is perpendicular to the line joining the points.
49.What is the magnitude of linear velocity of a point B on a link AB relative to A?
The magnitude of linear velocity of a point B on a link AB, which rotates with
angular velocity with respect to A is:
v BA BA AB

C
a BC
2 v

29

Where

## = Angular velocity of OA, and

V = Linear velocity of B.

## 51.What are the properties of instantaneous centre?

A rigid link rotates instantaneously relative to another link at the instantaneous
centre for the configuration of the mechanism.
The two rigid links have no linear velocity relative to each other at the instantaneous
centre. At this point the two rigid links have the same linear velocity relative to the
rigid link. In other words, the velocity of the instantaneous centre relative to any
third rigid link will be same whether the instantaneous centre is regarded as a point
on the first rigid link or on the second rigid link.
52.How many instantaneous centres are possible in a four bar chain mechanism?
Number of instantaneous centres,

n n 1
2

where
n = Number of links
in four bar chain mechanism, n = 4
N

4( 4 1)
2

## 53.What are the two components of acceleration?

Radial component of acceleration,
r
2
aOB
OB
OB

t
aOB
OB OB

30

where

OB
OB
OB

=
=

## Angular acceleration of link OB, and

Length of link OB.

## 54.Define kennedys theorem.

The Kennedys theorem states that if three bodies move relatively to each other,
they have three instantaneous centres and lie on a straight line.
55. In a four bar chain mechanism crank AB = 0.3 metre rotates with 100 r.p.m and
lever CD oscillates with a linear velocity of 5 m/s and what is the mechanical
advantage of the system.

v AB
v DC

=
v AB AB AB
2 N AB
AB
60
2 100

0.3 3.14 m / s.
60

v DC 5 m / s

3.14
0.628
5

56. In the four bar chain, considering mechanical advantage of 0.7, FB = 50 N, what is
the force acting on pin C.
Given Data :

Solution :

M.A = 0.7
FB = 50 N
FC = ?

FC
M.A = FB

0.7

FC
50

31

FC = 35N

## CHAPTER -3: KINEMATICS OF CAM

1. Sketch any four types of follower used in cam. (Oct / Nov 2002)

2. Sketch the velocity and acceleration profile of a follower which moves with simple
harmonic motion. (Oct / Nov 2002)

32

Fig.3. Displacement, velocity and acceleration diagrams when the follower moves with
SHM
3. State the advantages of cam mechanisms over linkage mechanisms. (April / May
2003)
Cam mechanisms are simple and inexpensive. They have few moving parts and
occupy a very small space. The versatility and flexibility of the cam design are more
than that of the linkage mechanisms.
4. Briefly write about undercutting in cam mechanisms. (April / May 2003)
The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the curvature of
the pitch curve is too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter
the intended cam motion would not be achieved. Such a cam is said to be undercut.
5. Define pressure angle of a cam mechanism and state the best value of the pressure
angle. ( Nov / Dec 2003)
Definition: It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a
normal to the pitch curve.
Best value of the pressure angle is 30.
6. State the advantages of tangent cam ( Nov / Dec 2003)
Tangent cams are symmetrical and easy to manufacture.
They are less costly to manufacture.
They are used for operating the inlet and exhaust valves of I.C. engine.
7. State law of gearing( Nov / Dec 2004)
The law of gearing states that the common normal at the point of contact
between a pair of teeth must always pass through the pitch point.
8. Explain the term interference as applied to gears. ( Nov / Dec 2004)
33

The phenomenon when the tip of tooth undercuts the root on its mating gear is
known as interference.
9. Sketch a cylindrical cam, the follower reciprocates in a direction parallel to the cam
axis and also a cylindrical cam with oscillation follower. (April / May 2005)
A cylindrical cam with a follower reciprocates in a direction parallel to the cam
axis is shown in Fig.2(a).
A cylindrical cam with oscillating follower is shown in Fig.2 (b).

10.Derive the equation to determine the maximum velocity and the maximum
acceleration when the follower has simple harmonic motion. (April / May 2005)

v0 max S ;

vR max S ;

2 2 S
0 max
;
202

2 2 S
R max
;
2 R2

2 0

2 R

11.Sketch displacement, velocity and acceleration diagram for simple harmonic motion
and indicate the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration position.
(Nov/ Dec 2005)

34

Fig.3. Displacement, velocity and acceleration diagrams when the follower moves with
SHM

12.Sketch any four types of follower with cam arrangement. (Nov/ Dec 2005)

13.Enumerate any four different types of follower motions of a cam. (May / June 2006)

35

14.State the expressions to determine the maximum velocity and acceleration when the
follower moves with simple harmonic motion. (May / June 2006)

v0 max S ;

vR max S ;

2 0

Maximum velocity:

Maximum acceleration:

0 max

2 R

2 2 S

;
2 02

2 2 S
R max
;
2 R2

## Where S = Stroke of the follower,

= Angular velocity of the cam in rad/s, and

## 0 and R = Angle of ascent and angle of descent.

15.State, atleast, one disadvantage of flat faced follower over roller follower in a cam
mechanism. (May / June 2006)

## Advantage: Limited space and reduced failure at pin points.

Disadvantage : Comparatively more surface stress and wear rate.
16.What are undercutting and its effect on a cam-roller follower system?
(May / June 2006)
The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the curvature of
the pitch curve is too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter
the intended cam motion would not be achieved. Such a cam is said to be undercut.
17.What are the advantages of roller follower than knife-edge follower? (Nov / Dec
2006)
The rate of wear at the contacting end of the roller follower is comparatively
lesser than that of the knife-edge follower.

36

18.Sketch the displacement, velocity and acceleration diagram when a follower moves
with uniform velocity. (Nov / Dec 2006)

19.What are the classifications of cams based on contact surfaces? (Nov / Dec 2006)
Cylindrical cam and Radial or Disc cam.
20.State the basic requirements for high speed cams. (Nov / Dec 2006)
For any high speed cam application it is extremely important that not only the
displacement and velocity curves but also the acceleration curve be made continuous
for the entire motion cycle. No discontinuities should be allowed at the boundaries of
different sections of the cam.
21.What are high speed cams? Give examples. (May / June 2007)
..
22.Construct the displacement diagram for the follower motion to be cycloidal. (May /
June 2007)

37

23.State the expressions for maximum velocity and acceleration of a follower moves
with cycloidal motion. (May / June 2007)

## vC max 2 S ; vR max 2 S ; O max 2 2 S ; R max 2 2 S

2

( 0 )

( R )

24.What is prime circle of a cam? What is the radial distance between the prime circle
and base circle for a cam with knife edge follower? (May / June 2007)
The smallest circle drawn tangent to the pitch curve is known as the prime circle.
The radial distance between the prime circle and base circle for a cam with knife
edge follower is zero.
25.What is a circular arc cam? (Nov / Dec 2007)
When the flanks of the cam connecting the base circle and nose are of convex circular
arcs, then the cam is known as circular arc cam.
26.State the expressions for maximum velocity and acceleration of a follower moves
with cycloidal motion. (Nov / Dec 2007)

2

( 0 )

38

( R )

## 27.Define pitch curve of the cam. (April / May 2008)

The locus or path of the tracing point is known as the pitch curve.
28.Define undercutting in gears. (April / May 2008)
Fig.1 shows a pinion and a gear wheel in mesh. If the addendum of the mating
gear is more than the limiting value, it interferes with the dedendum of the pinion and
the two gears are locked. (Refer Fig.1(a))

Now, instead of the gear mating with the pinion, a cutting rack is used to cut the
teeth in the pinion. Then the portion of the pinion tooth will be removed as shown in
Fig.1(b).

29.Draw at least any four types of cam with followers. (Nov / Dec 2008)

30.What are the different types of motion with which a follower can move? (Nov / Dec
2008)
Uniform velocity or uniform motion
simple harmonic motion SHM
Uniform acceleration and retardation, and
39

Cycloidal motion
31.What is the significance of pressure angle in cam? (May / June 2009)
As the pressure angle increases, the force required to lift the follower increases.
32.What is the follower motion used for high speed cams? Why? (May / June 2009)
Cycloidal motion because it results in lower jerks.
33.Why is roller follower preferred to knife edge follower? (Nov / Dec 2009)
Because rate of wear is greatly reduced in roller follower. Also side thrust exists
between the follower and guide is less in roller follower.
34.Define under cutting in cam. (Nov / Dec 2009)
The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the curvature of
the pitch curve is too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter
the intended cam motion would not be achieved. Such a cam is said to be undercut.
35.Define pressure angle of a cam mechanism and stat the best value of the pressure
angle. (Nov / Dec 2011)
Definition: It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a
normal to the pitch curve.
Best value of the pressure angle is below 30.
36.State the advantages of tangent cams. (Nov / Dec 2011)
Tangent cams are symmetrical and easy to manufacture.
They are less costly to manufacture.
They are used for operating the inlet and exhaust valves of I.C. engine.

40

37.Sketch the shapes of displacement, velocity and acceleration diagrams for uniform
acceleration and retardation motion of a follower. (Nov / Dec 2011)

38.Why sometimes the axes of translating roller followers in cam follower mechanisms
are offset from the axis of rotation of cam? (Nov / Dec 2011)
The offset causes a reduction of the side thrust present in the follower

39.Define rubbing velocity. What will be the expression for rubbing velocity at a pin
joint when the two links rotate in opposite direction? (Nov / Dec 2012)
amax

2 S 2

41

## = Angular velocity of cam, and

= Angle of ascent / descent.
40.Why sometimes the axes of translating roller followers in cam follower mechanisms
are offset from the axis of rotation of cam? (Nov / Dec 2012)
An offset is usually provided to decrease pressure angle and thereby the side
thrust in guides of follower.
41.Define pressure angle in gears. (Nov / Dec 2013)
Pressure angle is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the
point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point.
42.Write the procedure to draw the cam profile. (Nov / Dec 2013)

## 43.Define tangent cam. (May / June 2014)

When the flanks of the cam are straight and tangential to the base circle and nose
circle, the cam is known as tangent cam.
44.What are the different motions of the follower? (May / June 2014)
Uniform velocity or uniform motion
Simple harmonic motion SHM
Uniform acceleration and retardation, and

Cycloidal motion
42

45.What is a cam?
A cam is a rotating machine element which gives reciprocating or
oscillating motion to another element known as follower.
46.Give some examples of cam.
1) Radial or disc cams.
2) Cylindrical or barrel cams.
3) End or face cams.
4) Wedge cams.
47.Define tangent cam.
When the flanks of the cam are straight and tangential to the base circle
and nose circle the cam is known as tangent cam.
48.What ate the different motions of the follower?
1) Uniform motion.
2) Simple harmonic motion.
3) Uniform acceleration and retardation.
4) Cycloidal motion.
49.How can high surface stress in flat faced follower be minimized?
High surface stress in the follower is minimized by machining the flat end
of the follower to a spherical shape.
50.Where are the roller follower extensively used?
Roller followers are extensively used where more space is available such
as in stationary gas oil engines, and aircraft engines.
51.Define dwell period?
The period during which the follower remains at rest is called dwell period.
52.Explain offset follower.
43

When the motion of the follower is along an axis away from the axis of the
cam centre, it is called offset follower.
53.Define trace point.
It is a reference point on the follower and is used to generate the pitch
curve. In case of knife edge follower the knife edge represents the trace point and the
pitch curve corresponds to the cam profile.
54.Define pressure angle with respect to cams.
It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a normal to
the pitch curve. This angle is very important in designing a cam profile. If the pressure
angle is too large, a reciprocating follower will jam in its bearings.
55.Define lift or stroke in cam.
It is the maximum travel of the follower from its lowest position to the topmost
position.
56.Define undercutting in cam. How it occurs?
The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the
curvature of the pitch curve is too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost
and thereafter the intended cam motion would not be achieved. Such a cam is said to be
undercut.
Undercutting occurs in the cam because of attempting to achieve too great
a follower lift with very small cam rotation with a smaller cam.

## 57.What do you know about nomogram?

In nomogram, by knowing the values of total lift of the follower and the
cam rotation angle for each segment of the displacement diagram, we can read directly
the maximum pressure angle occurring in the segment for a particular choice of prime
58.How can you prevent undercutting in cam?
1) By decreasing the follower lift.
44

## 2) By increasing cam rotation angle.

3) By increasing the cam size.
59.What do you know about gravity cam?
In this type, the rise of the cam is achieved by the rising surface of the cam
and the return by the force of gravity or due to the weight of the cam.
60.Write the different types of follower.
1) Knife edge follower
2) Roller follower
3) Mushroom or flat faced follower
4) Spherical faced or curved shoe follower.
61.What is cam profile?
The surface of cam which comes into contact with follower, is known as
cam profile.
62.What is base circle?
It is the smallest circle that can be drawn to the cam profile. The radius of
the base circle is called the least radius of the cam.

## 63.What is trace point?

It is a reference point on the follower to trace the cam profile. In case of a
knife edge follower, the knife edge itself is a tracing point and in roller follower, the
centre of the roller is the tracing point.
64.What is pitch curve?
The locus or path of the tracing point is known as the pitch curve. For the
purpose of laying out the cam profiles, it is assumed that the cam is fixed and the
follower rotates around it.
65.What is prime circle?
45

The smallest circle drawn tangent to the pitch curve is known as prime circle.
66.What is pressure angle?
It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a normal to
the pitch curve. This angle is very important in cam design as it represents steepness of
the cam profile.
67.What is pitch point?
It is the point on the pitch curve at which the pressure angle is maximum.
68.What is pitch circle?
It is the circle passing through the pitch point and concentric with the base circle.
69.What is cam angle?
It is the angle of rotation of the cam for a definite displacement of the follower.

## CHAPTER -4: TOOTHED GEARING

1. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
(Oct / Nov 2002)
i.

ii.

iii.

## 2. State the law of gearing. (Oct / Nov 2002)

46

The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any
instant of teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through
a pitch point (fixed point), situated on the line joining the centres of rotation of the pair
of mating gears.
3. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module. (April / May 2003)
Circular pitch Pc mod ule (m) .
4. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch. (April / May 2003)
When the axes of the first gear (i.e., first driver) and the last gear (i.e., last driven
or follower) are co-axial, then the gear train is known as reverted gear train. Refer
Fig.2.

bar

Pitch
curve

5. Prove or disprove that in a spur gear pair, pure rolling occurs only at one point along
the path of contact. (Nov / Dec 2003)
We know that in a spur gear pair, at the pitch point there is no sliding. The action is
pure rolling. We also know that the path of contact should always pass through the pitch
point. Thus the pure rolling occurs only at one point along the path of contact.

47

6. What is meant by an epicyclic gear train? Give a practical example. (Nov / Dec 2003)
When the gears are arranged in such a manner that one or more gears move upon
and around another gear, then the gear train is known as epicyclic gear train.
Examples : Differential gears of automobile, back gear of lathe, wrist watches,
etc.
7. Define : (a) normal pitch and (b) axial pitch relating to helical gears. (Nov / Dec
2004)
Normal pitch: It is the distance between similar faces of adjacent teeth, along a het
on the pitch cylinder normal to the teeth.
Axial pitch: It is the distance measured parallel to the axis, between similar faces of
8. List any four types of cam followers. (Nov / Dec 2004)
(i) Knife edge follower ;

## (ii) Roller follower ;

(iii) Mushroom or flad faced follower ; and (iv) Spherical faced follower

9. What is meant by contact ratio in gear? And write the equation to determine this
value.
(April / May 2005)
48

## Contact ratio in gear refers to the number of teeth in contact.

Length of are of contact
Circular pitch
Contact ratio =

10.How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train
without changing the direction of rotation of input gear? (April / May 2005)
By using intermediate idle gears.

## 11. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives.

Centrifugal tension will increase the tension on both tight and slack sides.
Centrifugal tension has no effect on the power transmitted by the belt drive.
12.What is the condition to be satisfied for self-locking of screw jack?
For a screw to be self-locking, friction angle must be greater than helix angle
. The efficiency of self-locking screws should be less than 50%.

49

50

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, April / May 2003
ME 232 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
13.How many inversions are possible from a four-bar kinematic chain? Name them
based on their input-output motions.
Three in versions are possible from a four-bar kinematic chain. They are:
Crank-rocker mechanism or Rotary oscillating converter.
Double crank mechanism or Rotary rotary converter.
Double rocker mechanism or Oscillating oscillating converter.

14.

## What are the three conditions to obtain a four-bar crank rocker

mechanism?
The linkage should be class I four bar linkage. That is, if the sum of the lengths
of the largest and the shortest links is less than the sum of the lengths of the other
two links, the linkage is known as a class I, four bar linkage.
The shortest link should be made a crank (which can revolve) and any of the
The link opposite to the crank i.e., rocker should oscillate.
15.

Sketch the Geneva wheel indexing mechanism and state its application.
Geneva mechanism is used in rotary tables and indexing turrets in machine tools

## and in automatic machines. The sketch is shown in Fig.1.

51

16.

Distinguish

normal

component

of

acceleration

and

tangential

component of acceleration.
Normal (or Radial or centripetal) component is perpendicular to the velocity of
the particle at the given instant. In other words, the normal component acts
parallel to the link.
r
2 Length of the link

2
Length of the link

## Tangential component is parallel to the velocity of the particle at the given

instant. In other words, it acts perpendicular to the link.
t
Length of the link

## 17.State the advantages of cam mechanisms over linkage mechanisms.

Cam mechanisms are simple and inexpensive. They have few moving parts and
occupy a very small space. The versatility and flexibility of the cam design are more
than that of the linkage mechanisms.
18.Briefly write about undercutting in cam mechanisms.
The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the curvature of
the pitch curve is too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter
the intended cam motion would not be achieved. Such a cam is said to be undercut.
19.State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
Circular pitch Pc mod ule (m) .
20.Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.

52

When the axes of the first gear (i.e., first driver) and the last gear (i.e., last driven or
follower) are co-axial, then the gear train is known as reverted gear train. Refer Fig.2.

## 21.State the laws of dry friction.

The force of friction directly proportional to the normal load between the
surfaces.
The force of friction is independent of the area of the contact surface for a given
The force of friction depends upon material which the contact surfaces or made.
The force of friction is independent of the velocity of sliding of one body relative
to other body.
22. The coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley in a belt and the pulley in
a belt drive is 0.3. The angle of lap is 165. If the tension on the tight side is 3000 N,
determine the tension on the slack side.

0.3 ; 165

## 2.879 rad ; T1 3000 N .

180

Given Data :

Solution :

T1
e .
T
2
We know that,
3000
e 0.3 2.879
T2

or
or

T2 1264.49 N
53

54

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, November/December 2003
ME 232 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
23.State at least one similarity and one difference between a helical pair and a cylindric
pair.
Similarity

Difference :

## Both are lower pairs.

Helical pair has a incompletely constrained motion whereas

## cylindric pair has completely constrained motion.

24.

Define transmission angle of a four- bar mechanism. What are the worst

## values of transmission angle?

Definition : The angle between the coupler and the follower in a four-bar
mechanism is called the transmission angle.
Worst value of transmission angle is less than 45.
25.Define instantaneous centre of rotation and write the equation to determine the
nuber of instantaneous centres of a mechanism.
Definition: Instantaneous centre of a moving body is defined as the centre which
goes on changing from one instant to another.
Number of instantaneous centres,

n n 1
, where n Number of links
2

26.In a revolving stage with a speed of 3rpm, a person is walking with a speed of
0.5m/sec along a radial path. Determine the magnitude of the coriolis component of
acceleration in this motion.
Given Data: N = 3rpm;

2 (3)
0.314 rad / s; v 0.5 m / s.
60

c
Solution: Coriolis acceleration, a 2.v.

55

## 2 0.5 0.314 0.314 m / s 2

27.Define pressure angle of a cam mechanism and state the best value of the pressure
angle.
Definition: It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a
normal to the pitch curve.
Best value of the pressure angle is 30.
28. State the advantages of tangent cam and
Tangent cams are symmetrical and easy to manufacture.
They are less costly to manufacture.
They are used for operating the inlet and exhaust valves of I.C. engine.
29.Prove or disprove that in a spur gear pair, pure rolling occurs only at one point along
the path of contact.
We know that in a spur gear pair, at the pitch point there is no sliding. The action is
pure rolling. We also know that the path of contact should always pass through the pitch
point. Thus the pure rolling occurs only at one point along the path of contact.
bar

Pitch
curve

## 30.What is meant by an epicyclic gear train? Give a practical example.

When the gears are arranged in such a manner that one or more gears move upon
and around another gear, then the gear train is known as epicyclic gear train.
Examples : Differential gears of automobile, back gear of lathe, wrist watches,
etc.
56

31.Prove or disprove that the efficiency of a screw jack is independent of load raised.
screw jack

Ideal effort P0
W tan
tan

tan ( )

## Thus the efficiency of a screw jack is independent of the load raised.

32. State the condition and the equation for the velocity of the belt for the transmission
of maximum power in a flat belt drive.
Condition: The power transmitted shall be maximum when the centrifugal
tension (Tc ) is one third of the maximum belt tension (T).

## Equation: Maximum velocity,

vmax

57

T
3m

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, November / December 2004
ME 232 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
33. State any four types of kinematic pairs according to the types of relative motion
between them.
i) Sliding pair;
(iii) Rolling pair; and

## (ii) Turning pair ;

(iv) Screw pair

34.Explain with a neat sketch, the space centrode and body centrode.

The locus of the instantaneous centre in space during a definite motion of the
body is called the space centrode.

The locus of the instantaneous centre relative to the body itself is called the body
centrode.
The space and body centrodes are illustrated in Fig.l.

35.Define rubbing velocity at a pin joint. What will be the rubbing velocity at pin joint
when the two links move in the opposite direction?
Definition: The rubbing velocity is defined as the algebraic sum between the
angular velocities of the two links which are connected by pin joints, multiplied
by the radius of the pin.
Rubbing velocity at pin joint when

= (1 2 ) r

where 1 and 2

58

## 36.When coriolis component of acceleration occur ?

Coriolis component of acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding
along another rotating link, such as in quick return mechanism.
37.State law of gearing
The law of gearing states that the common normal at the point of contact
between a pair of teeth must always pass through the pitch point.
38.Explain the term interference as applied to gears.
The phenomenon when the tip of tooth undercuts the root on its mating gear is
known as interference.
39.Define : (a) normal pitch and (b) axial pitch relating to helical gears.
Normal pitch: It is the distance between similar faces of adjacent teeth, along a het
on the pitch cylinder normal to the teeth.
Axial pitch: It is the distance measured parallel to the axis, between similar faces of
40.List any four types of cam followers.
(i) Knife edge follower ;

## (ii) Roller follower ;

(iii) Mushroom or flad faced follower ; and (iv) Spherical faced follower
41.Obtain an expression for length of an open belt drive
Lopen

d d

d1 d 2 2 x 1 2
4x
2

Where d1 and d2

## Distance between the centres of two pulleys

42.What is the minimum force required to slide a body on a rough horizontal plane ?
Refer Fig.2. The minimum force required to slide a body on a rough horizontal

plane is

W sin ( )
sin ( )

59

Fig.2.
ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, April / May 2005
ME 232 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
43. What is a machine? Give two examples. Also differentiate between a machine and a
structure.

A machine is a device which receives energy and transforms it into some useful
work.

## Examples : Machine tools such as lathe, shaper, planer.

Difference : For machine, relative motion exists between its parts. But structure is
an assemblage of number of resistant bodies having no relative motion between
them.

3l 2 j 4 0

Where
l

## The Grublers criterion applies to mechanisms with only single degree of

freedom joints and the overall mobility of the mechanism is unity.
45.Briefly explain the types of instantaneous centres.
Three types of instantaneous centres are (refer Fig.1) :

60

Fixed instantaneous centres: From the Fig.1, I12 and I14 are called the fixed
instantaneous centres as they remain in the same place for all configurations of
the mechanism.
Permanent instantaneous centres: I23 and I34 are called the permanent
instantaneous centres as they move when the mechanism moves, but the joints
are of permanent nature.

Neither fixed nor permanent centres: I13 and I23 are neither fixed nor permanent
instantaneous centres as they vary with the configuration of the mechanism.

46.What type of link will have only centripetal component of acceleration and what
types of link will have only linear acceleration?
The link which rotates at a constant velocity will have only centripetal i.e., radial
component of acceleration.
The link which moves in a linear direction will have only linear i.e., tangential
component of acceleration.

47.Sketch a cylindrical cam, the follower reciprocates in a direction parallel to the cam
axis and also a cylindrical cam with oscillation follower.
A cylindrical cam with a follower reciprocates in a direction parallel to the cam
axis is shown in Fig.2(a).
A cylindrical cam with oscillating follower is shown in Fig.2 (b).
61

48.Derive the equation to determine the maximum velocity and the maximum
acceleration when the follower has simple harmonic motion.

v0 max S ;

vR max S ;

0 max

R max

2 0

2 S
;
202

2 R

2 S
;
2 R2

49.What is meant by contact ratio in gear? And write the equation to determine this
value.
Contact ratio in gear refers to the number of teeth in contact.
Length of are of contact
Circular pitch
Contact ratio =

50.How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train
without changing the direction of rotation of input gear?
By using intermediate idle gears.
51.What is the condition for self locking in screws?
A screw will be self locking if the friction angle () is greater than helix angle
() or coefficient of friction () is greater than tangent of helix angle (tan ).

62

52. Find the power transmitted by a flat belt over a pulley of 600 mm in diameter at 200
revolutions per minute. The maximum and minimum tensions in the belt are 2500 N
and 124 N.
Given Data : D = 600 mm;
Solution:

N = 200 rpm;

T1 = 2500N;

D N (0.6) 200

6.28 m / s
60
60

Power transmitted,

## P (T1 T2 ) v (2500 124) 6.28 14.92 kW

63

T2 = 124 N.

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, November / December 2005
ME 232 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
53. Define kinematic chain
A kinematic chain may be defined as a combination of kinematic pairs, joined in such a
way that the relative motion between the links or elements is completely of successfully
constrained.
54.Define lower pair and higher pair, give two examples for each pairs.
Lower pair : If a pair in motion has a surface contact between the two elements, it
is called a lower pair.
Examples: Nut and bolt; Bolt and socket joint.
Higher pair : If a pair in motion has a line or point contact between the two
elements, it is called a higher pair.
Examples: Belt, rope and chain drives; Gear, cam and follower.

3l 2 j 4 0

Where
l

## The Grublers criterion applies to mechanisms with only single degree of

freedom joints and the overall mobility of the mechanism is unity.

64

56.

Define rubbing velocity. What will be the rubbing velocity at a pin joint

## when the two links move in and opposite directions?

Definition: The rubbing velocity is defined as the algebraic sum between the angular
velocities of the two links which are connected by pin joints, multiplied by the radius of
the pin.

Rubbing velocity at a pin joint when the two links move in the opposite directions
= 1 2 r
Where 1 and 2
r

## = Angular velocities of the link 1 and link 2 respectively, and

= Radius of the pin.

57.Sketch displacement, velocity and acceleration diagram for simple harmonic motion
and indicate the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration position.

Fig.3. Displacement, velocity and acceleration diagrams when the follower moves with
SHM
58.Sketch any four types of follower with cam arrangement.

65

## 59.State law of gearing

The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any
instant of teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through
a pitch point (fixed point), situated on the line joining the centres of rotation of the pair
of mating gears.
The law of gearing states that the common normal at the point of contact
between a pair of teeth must always pass through the pitch point.
60.State any two advantages of in volute gears.
In volute tooth gears, variation in centre distance does not affect the velocity
ratio.
In volute tooth gears are easier to manufacture when compared to cycloidal tooth
gears.
61.Distinguish between simple gear train and epicyclical gear train.
When there is only one gear on each shaft, it is known as simple gear train.
When the gears are arranged in such a manner that one or more gears move upon
and around another gear, then the gear train is known as epicyclic gear train.
62. What is the condition for self locking in screws?
For a screw to be self-locking, friction angle

## . The efficiency of self-locking screws should be less than 50%.

A screw will be self locking if the friction angle () is greater than helix angle
() or coefficient of friction () is greater than tangent of helix angle (tan ).

66

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, May / June 2006
ME 232 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
63. Draw a four bar mechanism and show that it has one degree of freedom as per
Kutzbach criterion.
The four bar mechanism is shown in Fig.1. it has four links and four binary
joints, ie., l = 4 and j =4.
Kutzbach criterion, n 3 (l 1) 2 j h
3 (4 1) 2 (4) 0 1

## Thus the four bar mechanism has one degree of freedom.

64.Define inversion of mechanism.
The method of obtaining different mechanisms by fixing different links in a kinematic
chain is known as inversion of the mechanism.
65.Illustrate the instantaneous centres of a typical four bar.
Three types of instantaneous centres are (refer Fig.1) :
Fixed instantaneous centres: From the Fig.1, I12 and I14 are called the fixed
instantaneous centres as they remain in the same place for all configurations of
the mechanism.
Permanent instantaneous centres: I23 and I34 are called the permanent
instantaneous centres as they move when the mechanism moves, but the joints
are of permanent nature.

67

Neither fixed nor permanent centres: I13 and I23 are neither fixed nor permanent
instantaneous centres as they vary with the configuration of the mechanism.

## 66.State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.

Coriolis acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding along another
rotating link, such as in quick return mechanism.
67.Enumerate any four different types of follower motions of a cam.

68.State the expressions to determine the maximum velocity and acceleration when the
follower moves with simple harmonic motion.

v0 max S ;

vR max S ;

0 max

R max

2 0

Maximum velocity :

Maximum acceleration :

2 R

2 S
;
2 02

2 S
;
2 R2

## Where S = Stroke of the follower,

= Angular velocity of the cam in rad/s, and

## 0 and R = Angle of ascent and angle of descent.

69.Define the following terms used in gears : (a) Pitch circle, (b) Circular pitch, (c)
Diametral pitch and (d) Module.
(a) Pitch circle : It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would give the
same motion as the actual gear.

68

(b) Circular pitch : It is the distance measured along the circumference of the pitch
circle from a point on one tooth to the corresponding point on the adjacent tooth.
(c) Diameteral pitch : It is the ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle diameter.
(d) Module : It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter to the number of teeth.
70.Define the terms velocity ratio and sliding velocity in a spur gear pair.
Velocity ratio : It is the ratio of speed of driving gear to the speed of the driven gear.
Sliding velocity : It is the velocity of one tooth relative to its mating tooth along the
common tangent at the point of contact.
71.With a neat sketch show that angle of repose is equal to the limiting angle of
friction .
W sin

= F = . RN
= W cos

or tan

= = tan

Thus,

=.

## Hence the angle of repose is equal to the limiting angle of friction .

72. Define mechanical efficiency of screw and nut assembly.
The mechanical efficiency of screw and nut assembly may be defined as the ratio
between the ideal effort (P0) (i.e., the effort required to move the load, neglecting
friction) to the actual effort (P) (i.e., the effort required to move the load taking friction
into account).

69

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, May / June 2006
ME 1252 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
73. Identify the possible motion (s) and name of the kinematic pairs of the following
combinations: (a) Members of a scissor. (b) A two pin plug inserted in a two pin
socket.
(c) Incompletely constrained motion and closed pair (also known as self closed pair)
or lower pair.
(d) Completely constrained motion and unclosed pair (also known as open pair or force
closed pair) or lower pair.
74.State the differences between a crank rocker mechanism and a drag link
mechanism.

In a crank rocker mechanism, one link oscillates while the other link rotates
about the fixed link, as shown in Fig.1.

If the shortest link, i.e., link 1 (crank) is fixed, the adjacent links 2 and 4 would
complete revolutions, as shown if Fig.2. The mechanism thus obtained is known
as drag-link mechanism or double-crank mechanism.
75.A four-bar mechanism has coupler pin centres at A and B, and fixed pivot centres at
A0 and B0 Write the two vector equations involving the output velocity vector of B.

vBA BA . BA

## vBB0 BB0 . BB0

70

vBB0 v A vBA

76.How will you determine the total acceleration of a point on a link, when the normal
component of acceleration and the tangential component of acceleration are known?
The total acceleration of a point on a link is the vector sum of their components of the
radial acceleration and tangential acceleration.
77.State, atleast, one disadvantage of flat faced follower over roller follower in a cam
mechanism.

## Advantage: Limited space and reduced failure at pin points.

Disadvantage : Comparatively more surface stress and wear rate.
78.What are undercutting and its effect on a cam-roller follower system?
The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the curvature of
the pitch curve is too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter
the intended cam motion would not be achieved. Such a cam is said to be undercut.
79.Prove or disprove that pure rolling is possible at one point only, on the line of action,
between two meshing gear teeth profiles.
This statement is known as law of gearing or conditions of correct gearing. For
its proof, ..
80.Distinguish, with suitable free hand sketches, a non-reverted gear train and a
reverted gear train.
Reverted gear train : If the axes of the first and the last wheels of a compound gear
coincide, it is called a reverted gear train. Refer Fig.4.

71

Non -reverted gear train : If the axes of the first and the last wheels of a compound
gear do not coincide, it is called a non- reverted gear train. Refer Fig.5.
81.In a screw jack, the coefficient of friction between screw and nut is 0.1 and the helix
angle of the screw thread is 3.5. Find the efficiency of the screw jack.
Given Data : = 0.1; = 3.5
Solution : = tan = 0.1 or = tan -1 (0.1) = 5.71

tan
tan 3.5

37.72 %
tan ( ) tan (3.5 5.71)

82.A force of 80 N is applied to the brake of a bicycle rear wheel and the distance
covered by the bicycle before coming to rest is 12.5 metres. If the coefficient of
friction is 0.6, find the work done against the friction.
Given Data : F = 80 N; S = 12.5m; = 0.6.
Solution : F = RN or RN = 80/0.6 = 133.33 N
Workdone = RN x S = 133.33 x 12.5
= 1666.6 N.M

72

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, November / December 2006
ME 232 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
83. Define kinematic pair and illustrate any two types of constrained pair.

When any two links or elements are connected in such a way that their relative motion
is completely or successfully constrained, they form a kinematic pair.

Examples :
(iii)

## Square bar moving in a square hole (Refer Fig.1) and

(iv)

A shaft with collars at its ends moving in a round hole (Refer Fig. 2).

84.Explain Kutzbach criterion for the movability of a mechanism having plane notion.
A kinematic chain having l links and j binary joints then the mobility
according to Kutzbach criterion, is n = 3(l-1) -2j.
85.Illustrate the space centrode and body centrode.

The locus of the instantaneous centre in space during a definite motion of the
body is called the space centrode.

The locus of the instantaneous centre relative to the body itself is called the body
centrode.
The space and body centrodes are illustrated in Fig.l.

73

## 86.Write the condition for coriolis component of acceleration.

Coriolis acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding along another
rotating link, such as in quick return mechanism.
87.What are the advantages of roller follower than knife-edge follower?
The rate of wear at the contacting end of the roller follower is comparatively
lesser than that of the knife-edge follower.
88.Sketch the displacement, velocity and acceleration diagram when a follower moves
with uniform velocity.

## 89.State the condition for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.

The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any
instant of teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through
a pitch point (fixed point), situated on the line joining the centres of rotation of the pair
of mating gears.
The law of gearing states that the common normal at the point of contact
between a pair of teeth must always pass through the pitch point.
90.Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
74

91.Derive the minimum force required to slide a body on a rough horizontal surface.
.
92. Write the equation to determine the efficiency of a screw jack.

screw jack

tan
tan ( )

## Where = Helix angle, and

= Friction angle.

75

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, November / December 2006
ME 1252 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
70.What is Kutzbach criterion for planar mechanism?
A kinematic chain having l links and j binary joints then the mobility according
to Kutzbach criterion, is n = 3(l-1) -2j.
71.Sketch an exact straight line mechanism, with link proportions.

## 72.Explain normal component of acceleration.

Normal or radial component of acceleration is perpendicular to the velocity of

r
a BA
2 . AB

v 2 BA
AB .

## 73.State coriolis law

Whenever a point on one link is sliding along another rotating link, then the total
acceleration will have one additional acceleration component known as Coriolis
component.
74.What are the classifications of cams based on contact surfaces?
Cylindrical cam and Radial or Disc cam.

## 75.State the basic requirements for high speed cams.

For any high speed cam application it is extremely important that not only the
displacement and velocity curves but also the acceleration curve be made continuous

76

for the entire motion cycle. No discontinuities should be allowed at the boundaries of
different sections of the cam.
76.Define module of gears and its relation to circular pitch.
Module is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter to the number of teeth.
Pitch circle, Pc = x Module
77.Explain briefly the use of differential in an automobile.
The function of a differential gear in an automobile is to :
(i) Transmit motion from engine to rear wheels, and
(ii)Rotate the rear wheels at different speeds while the automobile is taking a turn.
78.What are timing belts?
Timing belts provide a precise speed ratio. They have teeth that mesh with
grooves in the sheaves in such a way that no slippage occurs.
79. Explain briefly significance of friction in braking.

77

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, May / June 2007
ME 232 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
80.Write expression governing Kutzbach criterion for mobility of a planer mechanism.
A kinematic chain having l links and j binary joints then the mobility according
to Kutzbach criterion, is n = 3(l-1) -2j.
81.Name any four common mechanism with specific application.
SI .No.
Mechanism
1.
Crank and lever mechanism

Application
Beam engine

2.

3.

4.

## Shaping and slotting machines

82.What is the speciality of a planar four bar linkage with regard to coupler curve?
The connecting rod of a four bar linkage is also
known as the coupler and the points belonging to it are
called coupler points the following figure shows part of
a coupler curve S, traced by the coupler point C.
The shape and state of the coupler curves changes
with the changing positions of the coupler point C. some
of the important characteristics of these curves are known as double points, cusps and
symmetry.
83.Define instantaneous centre of velocity?
Instantaneous centre of a moving body is defined as the centre which goes on
changing from one instant to another.
84.What are high speed cams? Give examples.
..
78

## 86.Define the law of gearing with the equation.

The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any
instant of teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through
a pitch point (fixed point), situated on the line joining the centres of rotation of the pair
of mating gears.
87.What are the principal reasons for the use of non-standard gears?
Non- standard gears are used for obtaining improved performance and for more
economic production.
88.What do you mean by friction angle?
The friction angle () is the angle at which the resultant reaction R makes with
the normal reaction RN. tan = .
89. What are the significance of fiction with regard to power transmission devices like
clutches and bearings?
The power transmission devices like clutches and bearings work on the principle
of friction. When two friction surfaces are brought in contact with each other and
pressed, they are united due to the friction between them.

79

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, May / June 2007
ME 1252 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
90.Enumerate the difference between a machine and a structure.
SI. No

Machine

useful work.

## Links are meant to transmit motion and

forces.

Structure
No relative motion exists
between its members.
It does not convert the available
energy into work.
Members are meant for
carrying loads having straining
action.

## 91.List out the inversions of a double slider crank chain.

1) Elliptical trammel.

## 2) Scotch yoke mechanism.

3) Oldhams Coupling.

3l 2 j 4 0

Where
l

## = Number of binary joints.

The Grublers criterion applies to mechanisms with only single degree of freedom
joints and the overall mobility of the mechanism is unity.
93.Define Coriolis component of acceleration.
Coriolis component of acceleration occur when a point on one link is sliding
along another rotation link, such as in quick return mechanism.
94.State the expressions for maximum velocity and acceleration of a follower moves
with cycloidal motion.

vC max

2 S
2 S
2 2 S
2 2 S

; vR max
; O max
; R max
0
R
( 0 ) 2
( R ) 2
80

95.What is prime circle of a cam? What is the radial distance between the prime circle
and base circle for a cam with knife edge follower?
The smallest circle drawn tangent to the pitch curve is known as the prime circle.
The radial distance between the prime circle and base circle for a cam with knife
edge follower is zero.
96.What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
It is the distance measure parallel to the axis, between similar faces of adjacent
teeth.
97.List out the applications of epicyclic gear train.
Differential gears of automobile, back gear of lathe, wrist watches, etc.
98.What is the condition of maximum efficiency of a screw jack?
For efficiency to tbe maximum sin (2+) = 0,
45
1 sin
2 90 or
; max
2
1 sin
or

## 99.What are the advantages of wire ropes over fabric ropes?

High strength to weight ratio.
More reliable in operation.
Silent operation even at high working speeds.

81

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, November / December 2007
ME 1252 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
100.

Define Degree of Freedom and give the DOF for a shaft in a circular hole.

## The Mobility of a mechanism or Degree of freedom is defined as the number

of input parameters (usually pair variables) which must be controlled
independently in order to bring the device into a particular position.

101.

## State Grashoffs laws for a four bar linkage.

Grashoffs law state that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be

greater than the sum of the remaining two links lengths, if there is to be continuous
relative motion between two members.
102.

## What is Coriolis component of acceleration?

Coriolis component of acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding

103.

## State the Freudensteins equation for a four-bar mechanism.

The Freudenstein equation that gives length ratios (design parameter) of a four

l
k1 1 ;
l2

l
k2 1 ;
l4

k3

## l12 l22 l32 l42

2 l2 l4

Where l1 l3 and l4 represent the length of the four links of four bar mechanism
respectively. k1 , k2 and k3 are the three length ratios.
104.

## What is a circular arc cam?

When the flanks of the cam connecting the base circle and nose are of convex circular
arcs, then the cam is known as circular arc cam.

82

105.State the expressions for maximum velocity and acceleration of a follower moves
with cycloidal motion.

vC max
106.

2 S
2 S
2 2 S
2 2 S

; vR max
; O max
; R max
0
R
( 0 ) 2
( R ) 2

## Differentiate diametral pitch and circular pitch of a friction wheel.

Pitch circle : It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would give the
same motion as the actual gear.
Circular pitch : It is the distance measured along the circumference of the pitch circle
from a point on one tooth to the corresponding point on the adjacent tooth.
107.

## What is reverted gear train?

When the axes of the first gear and the last gear are co-axial, then the gear train

108.

109.

## List out any four desirable characteristics of brake lining material.

A high and uniform coefficient of friction.
Ability to withstand high temperatures, together with high heat dissipation
capacity.
Adequate mechanical and thermal strengths.
High resistance to wear.

83

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, April / May 2008
ME 1252 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
110.

## Define Degree of Freedom.

The Mobility of a mechanism or Degree of freedom is defined as the number of

## input parameters (usually pair variables) which must be controlled independently in

order to bring the device into a particular position.
111.

## Define Grashoffs law.

Grashoffs law state that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be

greater than the sum of the remaining two links lengths, if there is to be continuous
relative motion between two members.
112.

C
aBC
2v

where

## = Angular velocity of oA and

V = Linear velocity of B.

113.

## What is higher pair?

If a pair in motion has a line or point contact between the two elements, it is

114.

## Define pitch curve of the cam.

The locus or path of the tracing point is known as the pitch curve.

115.

## Define undercutting in gears.

Fig.1 shows a pinion and a gear wheel in mesh. If the addendum of the mating

gear is more than the limiting value, it interferes with the dedendum of the pinion and
the two gears are locked. (Refer Fig.1(a))

84

Now, instead of the gear mating with the pinion, a cutting rack is used to cut the
teeth in the pinion. Then the portion of the pinion tooth will be removed as shown in
Fig.1(b).
A gear having its material removed in this manner is said to be undercut and
the process is known as undercutting.
Undercutting will not take place if the teeth are designed to avoid interference.
However, when the actual gear meshes with the undercut pinion, no interference
occurs.
116.

## Define interference in gears.

The phenomenon when the tip of tooth undercuts the roots on its mating gear is known
as interference.
117.

Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angle.
It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a normal to the

pitch curve. This angle is very important in designing a cam profile. If the pressure
angle is too large, a reciprocating follower will jam in its bearings.
118.

## What is creep in the case of belt?

When the belt passes from the slack side to the tight side, a certain portion of the

belt extends. And it contracts again when the belt passes from the tight side to slack
side. Due to these changes of length, there is a relative motion between the belt and the
pulley surfaces. This relative motion is termed as creep.
119.

## Which type of screw thread is preferable in power transmission?

Square thread. Example: Lead screw in lathe.

85

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, November / December 2008
ME 1252 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
120.

## The Mobility of a mechanism or Degree of freedom is defined as the number of

input parameters (usually pair variables) which must be controlled independently in order
to bring the device into a particular position.
121.
(ii)

122.

## State Grubblers criterion for planar mechanisms.

According to Kutzback criterian,
Mobility,

n 6 (l 1) 5 p1 4 p2 3 p3 2 p4 1 p5

where

p1

p2

## Define Actual Mechanical Advantage

The mechanical advantage is defined as the ratio of output torque to the input

M . A.( ideal)

123.

TB
TA

where TB

TA

Driving torque

## How the direction of coriolis component of acceleration is determined?

The direction of Coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector

for the two coincident points rotated at 90 in the direction of angular velocity of

86

124.

## Draw at least any four types of cam with followers.

125.

What are the different types of motion with which a follower can move?
Uniform velocity or uniform motion
simple harmonic motion SHM
Uniform acceleration and retardation, and

Cycloidal motion
126.

## State the law of gearing.

The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any

instant of teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through
a pitch point (fixed point), situated on the line joining the centres of rotation of the pair
of mating gears.
127.

## What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Input torque on the driving member.
Output torque or load torque on the driven member.
Braking torque on the fixed member.

128.

## How centrifugal tension affects the power transmission in belt drive?

During operation, as the belt passes over a pulley the centrifugal effect due to its

self weight tends to lift the belt from the pulley surface. This reduces the normal
reaction and hence the frictional resistance. The centrifugal force produce additional
tension in the belt.
129.

## Define the term Limiting friction.

87

The limiting angle of friction () is defined as the angle at which the resultant
reaction R makes with the normal reaction RN.
ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, May / June 2009
ME 1252 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
1. Give any two inversions of a single slider chain.
Whitworth quick return mechanism
Crank and slotted lever mechanism.
Oscillating cylinder engine.
Gnome engine.
2. Write Grashoffs law for 4- bar mechanism.
According to Grashoffs law,
S l p q

## where S and l be the shortest and longest links respectively, and

p and q be the length of the other two lines.
3. Draw an acceleration polygon for a crank rotating at an angular speed of rad/sec
and angular acceleration of rad/ sec2.
Refer Fig.1.

ar 2 .r

ar

at .r

at

Fig.1

## 4. Explain how the direction of Coriolis acceleration is obtained.

The direction of Coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector
for the two coincident points rotated at 90 in the direction of angular velocity of
5. What is the significance of pressure angle in cam?
As the pressure angle increases, the force required to lift the follower increases.
88

6. What is the follower motion used for high speed cams? Why?
Cycloidal motion because it results in lower jerks.
7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of involute gear tooth profile?
Advantages : Variable centre distance; Constant pressure angle; Easy manufacturing.
Disadvantages: Interference occurs; Weaker teeth; More wear and tear.
8. What are the applications of reverted gear trains?
The reverted gear trains are used in automobile gear boxes, lathe back gears,
industrial speed reducers, etc.
9. What is the apparent coefficient of friction in belt drives?
cosec in the tension ratio equation is known as the apparent coefficient of friction.
10. Distinguish between sliding and rolling friction.
Sliding friction occurs in between two sliding surfaces whereas rolling friction
occurs in between two rolling surfaces.

89

ANNA UNIVERSITY
B.E. Degree Examinations, November / December 2009
ME 2203 KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
2 MARKS QUESTION AND ANSWER
1. State Grueblers criterion for spatial mechanism.
Grueblers criterion states that the overall mobility of the mechanism is unity.
The Grueblers equation for spatial mechanisms is given by
6 l 5 p1 7 0

where

p1

## 2. Define Mechanical Advantage.

Mechanical advantage is defined as the ratio of the load to the effort.
3. What is Coriolis acceleration?
Coriolis component of acceleration occurs when a point on one link is sliding
along another rotating link, such as in quick return mechanism.
4. What is meant by virtual centre?
The combined motion of rotation and translation of the link may be assumed to
be a motion of pure rotation about some centre known as virtual centre or instantaneous
centre.
5. Why is roller follower preferred to knife edge follower?
Because rate of wear is greatly reduced in roller follower. Also side thrust exists
between the follower and guide is less in roller follower.
6. Define under cutting in cam.
The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the curvature of
the pitch curve is too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter
the intended cam motion would not be achieved. Such a cam is said to be undercut.
7. State the law gearing.
The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any
instant of teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through
90

a pitch point (fixed point), situated on the line joining the centres of rotation of the pair
of mating gears.
8. Write the mobility of differential mechanism.
Mobility of differential mechanism is given by
n = 3(L-1)-2j-h
where

L = Number of links
j = Number of joints
h = Number of higher pairs.
9. What do you mean by self-locking screw,
d
T p 2 W tan ( )
2

## If < , then torque required is negative.

If > , then torque required is positive, indicating that an effort is applied
to lower the load. Such as screw is called self- locking screw.
10.Give the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives.
Centrifugal tension has no effect on the power transmitted. However the
centrifugal tension will increase the tension on both tight and slack sides. Its effect is
considerable at higher belt speeds (> 10m/s).

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130.

Explain the term kinematic link. Give the classification of kinematic link
A link or an element is defined as that part of machine which has motion relative
to some other part.
There are three types of links as classified below:

131.

## Explain the terms: (a) Lower pair, (b) higher pair.

Lower pair : If a pair in motion has a surface contact between the two elements, it is
called a lower pair.
Examples: Nut and bolt; Bolt and socket joint.
Higher pair : If a pair in motion has a line or point contact between the two elements,
it is called a higher pair.
Examples: Belt, rope and chain drives; Gear, cam and follower.
132.

Define transmission angle of the four-bar mechanism. What is the worst value

of transmission angle?
Definition: The angle between the coupler and the follower is a four-bar
mechanism is called the transmission angle.
Worst value of transmission on angle is less than 45.
133.

## What is coriolis component of acceleration?

Whenever a point on one link is sliding along another rotating link, then the total

## acceleration will have one additional acceleration component known as Coriolis

component.
92

93

134.

Define pressure angle of a cam mechanism and stat the best value of the

pressure angle.
Definition: It is the angle between the direction of the follower motion and a
normal to the pitch curve.
Best value of the pressure angle is below 30.
135.

## State the advantages of tangent cams.

Tangent cams are symmetrical and easy to manufacture.
They are less costly to manufacture.
They are used for operating the inlet and exhaust valves of I.C. engine.

136.

## What is epicylic gear train? Give a practical example.

When the gears are arranged in such a manner that one or more gears move upon
and around another gear, then the gear train is known as epicyclic gear train.
Examples: differential gears of automobile, back gear of lathe, wrist watches,
etc.

137.
What is the differential in automobile?
The function of a differential gear in an automobile is to:
(i) Transmit motion from engine to rear wheels, and
(ii) Rotate the rear wheels at different speeds while the automobile is taking a turn.
138.
What is the difference between sliding friction and rolling friction? Give
example.
Sliding friction occurs in between two sliding surfaces whereas rolling friction
occurs in between two rolling surfaces.
139.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of V-belt drive over flat belt
drive?
Power transmitted is more due to wedging action in the grooved pulleys.
V-belt is more compact, quiet and shock absorbing.
The V-belt drive is positive because of negligible slip between the belt and the
groove.
High velocity ratio (maximum 10) may be obtained.
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140.

## What is the significance of Grashofs law for a four bar mechanism?

Grashofs law specifies the order in which the links are connected in a kinematic
chain.
Grashofs law specifies which link of the four-bar chain is fided.
s l pq
If this inequality is not satisfied, no link will make a complete revolution relative

141.

to another.
State the application of an offset slider-crank mechanism.
The offset slider crank mechanism is used to get reciprocating motion of the

## slider and is also used as a quick return mechanism.

142.
For what kind of relative motion, the Coriolis component of acceleration
occurs? Sketch the links to illustrate.
When a point on one link is sliding along another rotating link, then the point is
known as coincident point. At the coincident point the Coriolis component of
acceleration occurs Refer Fig.1.

95

143.

State the relationship between crank angle and connecting rod angle of

r
sin
sin sin
l
n

144.

145.

## mechanisms are offset from the axis of rotation of cam?

The offset causes a reduction of the side thrust present in the follower
146.
Define the following terms used in gear: (a) Pressure angle (b) Module.
Pressure angle is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the
point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch pint.
Module is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter to the number of teeth.

147.

## What are the advantages of planetary gear trains?

96

Because they share load between several gear meshes, epicyclic trains take up less
space and have a lighter weight.
Because they share load between several meshes, epicyclic trains have smaller and
stiffer components that lead to reduced noise and vibration while increasing
efficiency.
The input and output shafts of epicyclic trains are concentric so no bending
moments or torques are created from radial forces that develop from the change of
the forces line of action.
The input and output shafts of epicyclic trains are concentric so driver and driven
equipment can be mounted in line, providing additional space savings.
148.
What is limiting angle of friction?
The limiting angle of friction () is defined as the angle at which the resultant
reaction R makes with the normal reaction RN.
149.

## State the functional difference between a clutch and a brake.

The functional difference between a clutch and a brake is that a clutch connects two
moving members of a machine, whereas a brake connects a moving member to a
stationary member.

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150.

## Write Grashoffs law for 4-bar mechanism

Grashoffs law state that the sum of the shortest and longest links cannot be

greater than the sum of the remaining two links lengths, if there is to be continuous
relative motion between two members.
151.

## What is meant by indexing mechanism? Where do we use it?

Indexing mechanism is used when intermittent rotary motion is required

152.

## Configuration diagram is a line sketch of a given mechanism drawn to a suitable

scale.
The configuration diagram forms the basis for the construction of both velocity and
acceleration diagrams.
153.

Define rubbing velocity. What will be the expression for rubbing velocity at a

## pin joint when the two links rotate in opposite direction?

Definition: The rubbing velocity is defined as the algebraic sum between the
angular velocities of the two links which are connected by pin joints, multiplied
by the radius of the pin.
Rubbing velocity at a pin joint when the two links move in the opposite directions
= 1 2 r
Where 1 and 2

and
r

## = Radius of the pin.

98

154.

Define rubbing velocity. What will be the expression for rubbing velocity at a

amax

2 S 2

## Where, S = Follower lift,

= Angular velocity of cam, and
= Angle of ascent / descent.
155.

## mechanisms are offset from the axis of rotation of cam?

An offset is usually provided to decrease pressure angle and thereby the side
thrust in guides of follower.
156.

## Define the term arc of contact in gears.

The arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle for the

157.

## Name two applications of reverted gear train

Back gear of lathes
Automobile gear box

158.

tan
tan ( )

## and for self locking screws, or 1.

Efficiency of self-locking screws,

tan
tan tan (1 tan 2 ) 1 tan 2

tan ( ) tan 2
2 tan
2
2
2 tan
tan 2 1 tan 2

99

1
From this expression, we see that efficiency of self-locking screws is less than 2

or

50%
159.
What is meant by a self-locking and a self energised brake?
When the moment of frictional force helps to apply the brake, then the brake is said
to be self-energising brake.
When the frictional force is great enough to apply the brake with no external force,
then the brake is said to be self locking brake.

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160.

## Define sliding connectors.

Sliding connectors are used when one slider (the input) is to drive another slider

(the output). Usually the two slider operate in the same plane but in different directions.
161.

## Differentiate rotation and translation.

Translation is defined as a stat of motion of body for which the displacement

## difference between any two points is zero.

Rotation is a state of motion of the body for which different points of the body
are equal.
162.
Define number of instantaneous centre.
Number of instantaneous centres,

163.

n n 1
2

where
n = Number of links
What is low degree of complexity?
In a complex mechanism if only one radius of path curvature of one motion

transfer point is not known such a mechanism is called a mechanism with low degree of
complexity.
164.
Define pressure angle in gears.
Pressure angle is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the
point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point.
165.
Write the procedure to draw the cam profile.

166.

## Define gear ratio.

The gear ratio of a gear train is the ratio of the angular velocity of the input gear

## to the angular velocity of the output gear.

101

167.
Write short notes on differentials.
The function of a differential gear of an automobile is:
(i) to transmit motion from engine to rear wheels, and
(ii) to rotate the rear wheels at different speeds while the automobile is taking a turn.
168.
Define anti friction bearing.
An antifriction bearing, also known as a rolling contact bearing, is used when
very little friction is needed for low differential surface speeds.
169.
Differentiate multiplate clutch and cone clutch.
A cone clutch serves the same purpose as a multiplate clutch. However, instead
of mating two or more spinning disks, the cone clutch uses two conical surfaces to
transmit torque by friction. The cone clutch transfers a higher torque than plate or disk
clutches of the same size due to the wedging action and increased surface area.

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170.

SI. No

Machine

useful work.

## Links are meant to transmit motion and

forces.

171.

Structure
No relative motion exists
between its members.
It does not convert the available
energy into work.
Members are meant for
carrying loads having straining
action.

## There are three types.

Completely constrained motion (eg. Square bar moving in a square hole)
In completely constrained motion ( eg. Circular shaft in a hole)
Successfully constrained motion (eg. Piston and cylinder)
172.

## Define instantaneous centre

Instantaneous centre of a moving body may be defined as that centre which goes

173.

C
aBC
2v

where

## = Angular velocity of oA and

V = Linear velocity of B.
174.

## Define tangent cam.

When the flanks of the cam are straight and tangential to the base circle and nose

103

175.

## What are the different motions of the follower?

Uniform velocity or uniform motion
Simple harmonic motion SHM
Uniform acceleration and retardation, and

Cycloidal motion
176.

## State the law of gearing

The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any

instant of teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through
a pitch point (fixed point), situated on the line joining the centres of rotation of the pair
of mating gears.
177.

## What are the methods to avoid interference?

The height of the teeth may be reduced.
The pressure angel may be increased.
The radial flank of the pinion may be cut back (undercutting).

178.

## Define velocity ratio

It is defined as the ratio between velocity of the driver and the follower (or)

driven.
179.

max

1 sin
1 sin

1
Where tan

104