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You are on page 1of 7

1.

One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture of benzene (B) and toluene (T)

containing 66% benzene by mass is separated by distillation into two

fractions. The mass flow rate of benzene in top stream is 520 kg B/h and that

of toluene in the bottom stream is 590 kg T/h. The operation at steady state.

Write balances on benzene and toluene to calculate the unknown components

flow rates in the output streams.

2.

Two methanol-water mixtures are contained in separate flasks. The first mixture

contains 35.0 wt% methanol, and the second contains 55.0 wt% methanol. If 320

g of the first mixture is combined with 180 g of the second, what are the mass and

composition of the product?

3.

of humid air enriched in oxygen. Three input streams are fed into an evaporation

chamber to produce an output stream with the desired composition.

A: Liquid water, fed at a rate of 35.0 cm3/min

B: Air (21 mole% O2, the balance N2)

C: Pure oxygen, with a molar flow rate one-fifth of the molar flow rate of stream B

The output gas is analyzed and is found to contain 2.3 mole% water. Draw and

label a flowchart of the process, and calculate all unknown stream variables.

4.

Strawberries contain about 15 wt% solids and 85 wt% water. To make strawberry

jam, crushed strawberries and sugar are mixed in a 45:55 mass ratio, and the mixture

is heated to evaporate water until the residue contains one-third water by mass.

(a) Draw and label a flowchart of this process.

(b)Calculate how many pounds of strawberries are needed to make a pound of jam.

Chapter 3

5. A 60-40 mixture (by moles) of A and B is separated into two fractions. A flowchart

of the process is shown here

It is desired to achieve the same separation with a continuous feed of 1850 lbmoles/h. Scale the flowchart accordingly.

6. A liquid mixture containing 30.0% benzene (B) and 70.0% toluene (T) by mass is fed

to a distillation column. A product stream leaving the top of the column (the

overhead product) contains 95.0 mole% B, and a bottom product stream contains

8.0% of the benzene fed to the column (meaning that 92% of the benzene leaves with

the overhead product). The volumetric flow rate of the feed stream is 1500 L/h and

the specific gravity of the feed mixture is 0.872. Determine the mass flow rate of the

overhead product stream and the mass flow rate and composition (mass fractions) of

the bottom product stream.

8. A liquid mixture of benzene and toluene contains 55.0% benzene by mass. The

mixture is to be partially evaporated to yield a vapor containing 85.0% benzene and

a residual liquid containing 10.6% benzene by mass.

(a)Suppose the process is to be carried out continuously and at steady state, with a

feed rate of 100.0 kg/h of the 55% mixture. Let mv(kg/h) and ml(kg/h) be the

mass flow rates of the vapor and liquid product streams, respectively. Draw and

label a process flowchart, then write and solve balances on total mass and on

benzene to determine the expected values of mv and ml. For each balance, state

which terms of the general balance equation (accumulation = input + generation

output - consumption) you discarded and why you discarded them. (See Example

4.2-2.)

Chapter 3

(b)Next, suppose the process is to be carried out in a closed container that initially

contains 100.0 kg of the liquid mixture. Let mv(kg) and ml(kg) be the masses of

the final vapor and liquid phases, respectively. Draw and label a process

flowchart, then write and solve integral balances on total mass and on benzene to

determine mv and mi. For each balance, state which terms of the general balance

equation (accumulation = input + generation - output - consumption) you

discarded and why you discarded them.

(c)Returning to the continuous process, suppose the evaporator is built and started

up and the product stream flow rates and compositions are measured. The

measured percentage of benzene in the vapor stream is 85% and the product

stream flow rates have the values calculated in part (a), but the liquid product

stream is found to contain 7% benzene instead of10.6%. One possible

explanation is that a mistake was made in the measurement. Give at least five

others. (Think about assumptions you made in obtaining the solution of part (a).)

9.

Draw and label the given streams and derive expressions for the indicated

quantities in terms of labeled variables. The solution of part (a) is given as an

illustration.

(a)A continuous stream contains 40.0 mole% benzene and the balance toluene.

Write expressions for the molar and mass flow rates of benzene,

nB

and

mB

it(mol/s).

(kg C6H6 /s), in terms of the total molar flow rate of the stream,

Chapter 3

(b) The feed to a batch process contains equimolar quantities of nitrogen and

methane. Write an expression for the kilograms of nitrogen in terms of the total

moles n(mol)of this mixture.

(c)A stream containing ethane, propane, and butane has a mass flow rate of 100.0 g/s.

nE

(lb-mole C2H6/h), in

(d)A continuous stream of humid air contains water vapor and dry air, the latter

containing approximately 21 mole% O2 and 79% N2. Write expressions for the

molar flow rate of O2 and for the mole fractions of H 2O and O2 in the gas in terms

of

n1

nB2

(lb-mole H20/s) and

(e) The product from a batch reactor contains NO, NO2, and N2O4. The mole fraction

of NO is 0.400. Write an expression for the gram-moles of N2O4 in terms of

n(molmixture) and yNO2(molNO2/mol).

10. Fresh orange juice contains 12.0 wt% solids and balanced water, and concentrated

orange juice contains 42.0 wt % solids. Initially a single evaporation process was

used for the concentration, but volatile constituents of the juice escaped with the

water, leaving the concentrate with a flat taste. The current process overcomes this

problem by bypassing the evaporator with a fraction of the fresh juice. The juice that

enters the evaporator is concentrated to 58 wt% solids, and the evaporator product

stream is mixed with the bypassed fresh juice to achieve the desired final

Chapter 3

concentration.

(a) Draw and label a flowchart of this process, neglecting the vaporization of

everything in the juice but water. First prove that the subsystem containing the

point where the bypass stream splits off from the evaporator feed has one degree

of freedom. (If you think it has zero degrees, try determining the unknown

variables associated with this system.) and write in order the equations you would

solve to determine all unknown stream variables. In each equation, circle the

variable for which you would solve, but don't do any calculations.

(b) Calculate the amount of product (42 % concentrate) produced per 100 kg fresh

juice fed to the process and the fraction of the feed that bypasses the evaporator.

(c) Most of the volatile ingredients that provide the taste of the concentrate are

contained in the fresh juice that bypasses the evaporator. You could get more of

these ingredients in the final product by evaporating to (say) 90% solids instead

of 58%; you could then bypass a greater fraction of the fresh juice and thereby

obtain an even better tasting product. Suggest possible drawbacks to this

proposal.

11.

A stream containing 5.15 wt% chromium, Cr, is contained in the wastewater from

a metal finishing plant. The wastewater stream is fed to a treatment unit that

Chapter 3

removes 95% of the chromium in the feed and recycles it to the plant. The

residual liquid stream leaving the treatment unit is sent to a waste lagoon. The

treatment unit has a maximum capacity of 4500 kg wastewater/h. If wastewater

leaves the finishing plant at a rate higher than the capacity of the treatment unit,

the excess (anything above 4500 kg/h) bypasses the unit and combines with the

residual liquid leaving the unit, and the combined stream goes to the waste

lagoon.

process.

m1

m6

(c) Calculate the flow rate of liquid to the waste lagoon and the mass fraction of Cr

in this liquid for ml varying from 1000 kg/h to 10,000 kg/h in 1000 kg/h

increments. Generate a plot of x6versus ml. (Suggestion: Use a spreadsheet for

these calculations.)

Chapter 3

(d) The company has hired you as a consultant to help them determine whether or

not to add capacity to the treatment unit to increase the recovery of chromium.

What would you need to know to make this determination?

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