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Chapter 3

Biosystem Engineering (CLB 20303)

TUTORIAL 2 ( CHAPTER 3: MATERIAL BALANCES)

1.

One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture of benzene (B) and toluene (T)
containing 66% benzene by mass is separated by distillation into two
fractions. The mass flow rate of benzene in top stream is 520 kg B/h and that
of toluene in the bottom stream is 590 kg T/h. The operation at steady state.
Write balances on benzene and toluene to calculate the unknown components
flow rates in the output streams.

2.

Two methanol-water mixtures are contained in separate flasks. The first mixture
contains 35.0 wt% methanol, and the second contains 55.0 wt% methanol. If 320
g of the first mixture is combined with 180 g of the second, what are the mass and
composition of the product?

3.

An experiment on the growth rate of certain organisms requires an environment


of humid air enriched in oxygen. Three input streams are fed into an evaporation
chamber to produce an output stream with the desired composition.
A: Liquid water, fed at a rate of 35.0 cm3/min
B: Air (21 mole% O2, the balance N2)
C: Pure oxygen, with a molar flow rate one-fifth of the molar flow rate of stream B
The output gas is analyzed and is found to contain 2.3 mole% water. Draw and
label a flowchart of the process, and calculate all unknown stream variables.

4.

Strawberries contain about 15 wt% solids and 85 wt% water. To make strawberry
jam, crushed strawberries and sugar are mixed in a 45:55 mass ratio, and the mixture
is heated to evaporate water until the residue contains one-third water by mass.
(a) Draw and label a flowchart of this process.
(b)Calculate how many pounds of strawberries are needed to make a pound of jam.

Chapter 3

Biosystem Engineering (CLB 20303)

5. A 60-40 mixture (by moles) of A and B is separated into two fractions. A flowchart
of the process is shown here

It is desired to achieve the same separation with a continuous feed of 1850 lbmoles/h. Scale the flowchart accordingly.

6. A liquid mixture containing 30.0% benzene (B) and 70.0% toluene (T) by mass is fed
to a distillation column. A product stream leaving the top of the column (the
overhead product) contains 95.0 mole% B, and a bottom product stream contains
8.0% of the benzene fed to the column (meaning that 92% of the benzene leaves with
the overhead product). The volumetric flow rate of the feed stream is 1500 L/h and
the specific gravity of the feed mixture is 0.872. Determine the mass flow rate of the
overhead product stream and the mass flow rate and composition (mass fractions) of
the bottom product stream.

8. A liquid mixture of benzene and toluene contains 55.0% benzene by mass. The
mixture is to be partially evaporated to yield a vapor containing 85.0% benzene and
a residual liquid containing 10.6% benzene by mass.
(a)Suppose the process is to be carried out continuously and at steady state, with a
feed rate of 100.0 kg/h of the 55% mixture. Let mv(kg/h) and ml(kg/h) be the
mass flow rates of the vapor and liquid product streams, respectively. Draw and
label a process flowchart, then write and solve balances on total mass and on
benzene to determine the expected values of mv and ml. For each balance, state
which terms of the general balance equation (accumulation = input + generation
output - consumption) you discarded and why you discarded them. (See Example
4.2-2.)

Chapter 3

Biosystem Engineering (CLB 20303)

(b)Next, suppose the process is to be carried out in a closed container that initially
contains 100.0 kg of the liquid mixture. Let mv(kg) and ml(kg) be the masses of
the final vapor and liquid phases, respectively. Draw and label a process
flowchart, then write and solve integral balances on total mass and on benzene to
determine mv and mi. For each balance, state which terms of the general balance
equation (accumulation = input + generation - output - consumption) you
discarded and why you discarded them.
(c)Returning to the continuous process, suppose the evaporator is built and started
up and the product stream flow rates and compositions are measured. The
measured percentage of benzene in the vapor stream is 85% and the product
stream flow rates have the values calculated in part (a), but the liquid product
stream is found to contain 7% benzene instead of10.6%. One possible
explanation is that a mistake was made in the measurement. Give at least five
others. (Think about assumptions you made in obtaining the solution of part (a).)
9.

Draw and label the given streams and derive expressions for the indicated
quantities in terms of labeled variables. The solution of part (a) is given as an
illustration.
(a)A continuous stream contains 40.0 mole% benzene and the balance toluene.

Write expressions for the molar and mass flow rates of benzene,

nB

(mol C6H6 /s)

and

mB

it(mol/s).

(kg C6H6 /s), in terms of the total molar flow rate of the stream,

Chapter 3

Biosystem Engineering (CLB 20303)

(b) The feed to a batch process contains equimolar quantities of nitrogen and
methane. Write an expression for the kilograms of nitrogen in terms of the total
moles n(mol)of this mixture.
(c)A stream containing ethane, propane, and butane has a mass flow rate of 100.0 g/s.

Write an expression for the molar flow rate of ethane,

nE

(lb-mole C2H6/h), in

terms of the mass fraction of this species, xE.


(d)A continuous stream of humid air contains water vapor and dry air, the latter
containing approximately 21 mole% O2 and 79% N2. Write expressions for the
molar flow rate of O2 and for the mole fractions of H 2O and O2 in the gas in terms

of

n1

nB2
(lb-mole H20/s) and

(lb-mole dry air/s).

(e) The product from a batch reactor contains NO, NO2, and N2O4. The mole fraction
of NO is 0.400. Write an expression for the gram-moles of N2O4 in terms of
n(molmixture) and yNO2(molNO2/mol).
10. Fresh orange juice contains 12.0 wt% solids and balanced water, and concentrated
orange juice contains 42.0 wt % solids. Initially a single evaporation process was
used for the concentration, but volatile constituents of the juice escaped with the
water, leaving the concentrate with a flat taste. The current process overcomes this
problem by bypassing the evaporator with a fraction of the fresh juice. The juice that
enters the evaporator is concentrated to 58 wt% solids, and the evaporator product
stream is mixed with the bypassed fresh juice to achieve the desired final

Chapter 3

Biosystem Engineering (CLB 20303)

concentration.
(a) Draw and label a flowchart of this process, neglecting the vaporization of
everything in the juice but water. First prove that the subsystem containing the
point where the bypass stream splits off from the evaporator feed has one degree
of freedom. (If you think it has zero degrees, try determining the unknown
variables associated with this system.) and write in order the equations you would
solve to determine all unknown stream variables. In each equation, circle the
variable for which you would solve, but don't do any calculations.
(b) Calculate the amount of product (42 % concentrate) produced per 100 kg fresh
juice fed to the process and the fraction of the feed that bypasses the evaporator.
(c) Most of the volatile ingredients that provide the taste of the concentrate are
contained in the fresh juice that bypasses the evaporator. You could get more of
these ingredients in the final product by evaporating to (say) 90% solids instead
of 58%; you could then bypass a greater fraction of the fresh juice and thereby
obtain an even better tasting product. Suggest possible drawbacks to this
proposal.

11.

A stream containing 5.15 wt% chromium, Cr, is contained in the wastewater from
a metal finishing plant. The wastewater stream is fed to a treatment unit that

Chapter 3

Biosystem Engineering (CLB 20303)

removes 95% of the chromium in the feed and recycles it to the plant. The
residual liquid stream leaving the treatment unit is sent to a waste lagoon. The
treatment unit has a maximum capacity of 4500 kg wastewater/h. If wastewater
leaves the finishing plant at a rate higher than the capacity of the treatment unit,
the excess (anything above 4500 kg/h) bypasses the unit and combines with the
residual liquid leaving the unit, and the combined stream goes to the waste
lagoon.

(a)Without assuming a basis of calculation, draw and label a flowchart of the


process.

(b) Wastewater leaves the finishing plant at a rate

m1

= 6000 kg/h. Calculate the

flow rate of liquid to the waste lagoon,

m6

(kg/h), and the mass fraction of Cr in

this liquid, x6(kgCr/kg).


(c) Calculate the flow rate of liquid to the waste lagoon and the mass fraction of Cr
in this liquid for ml varying from 1000 kg/h to 10,000 kg/h in 1000 kg/h
increments. Generate a plot of x6versus ml. (Suggestion: Use a spreadsheet for
these calculations.)

Chapter 3

Biosystem Engineering (CLB 20303)

(d) The company has hired you as a consultant to help them determine whether or
not to add capacity to the treatment unit to increase the recovery of chromium.
What would you need to know to make this determination?