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English version appendix to NN 14, 2013

49

UDC 624.012.45:006.77
VASILII S. PLEVKOV, DSc, Professor,
PVS@tomsksep.ru
ANATOLII P. MALINOVSKII, PhD, A/Professor,
maptgasu@yandex.ru
IGOR V. BALDIN, PhD, A/Professor,
biwem@yandex.ru
Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building,
2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk, Russia

STRENGTH AND CRACK RESISTANCE EVALUATION


OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
FROM SNiP AND IBC
The paper is dealt with the evaluation of section capacity of reinforced concrete structures
subject to static and dynamic stresses, considering the surfaces of strength and crack resistance
relation of concrete members using the deformation model. The proposed structural design,
which considers the stress and strain structural state using stress-strain diagrams, provides the
consensual analysis of ULS and SLS structures. Sequential growth of deformations has been
considered in standard sections depending on the type of structural loading. Conditions
common to strength ratio of concrete structures have been defined which demonstrate the
breaking stress interaction within the whole range of dynamic or static structural stress
depending on section shapes, reinforcement properties, strength and deformation properties of
concrete and steel, and other parameters. The main regularities of changes in regions and
surfaces of strength and crack resistance relation (strength ratio) have been detected in
reinforced concrete members subject to the above stated parameters. The software has been
developed on the basis of the proposed method that allows to significantly simplify the
structural design under static and short term loading.

Key words: reinforced concrete structures; strength; crack resistance; deformation


model; strength ratio surface.

High performance characteristics of the reinforced concrete structures and


a possibility to relatively easy shape and size them in compliance with the specified
strength, have conditioned their extensive use practically in all construction
industries both in Russia and abroad. Reinforced concrete structures will be holding
their position as one of the main building constructions in the foreseeable future.
In the context of integration of the national construction education with the
international standards, and harmonization of the Russian building code in
accordance with the European standards, it is very urgent to teach students,
undergraduates, and graduates the design principles of reinforced concrete
structures in conformity with the national and international building codes.
Based on the long-term authors experience, book Structural design using
national and international building codes was published at Tomsk State University
of Architecture and Building [1] which describes the basic regulations for structural
design meeting the standard requirements of Russia, France, Great Britain,
Germany, the USA, and the CEB/FIP Model Code, and presents the comparative
analysis of calculations performed in conformity with the applicable building codes.

Vasilii S. Plevkov, Anatolii P. Malinovskii, Igor V. Baldin, 2013


Translated from Russian by Vorobeva M.V., 2013

50

Vasilii S. Plevkov, Anatolii P. Malinovskii, Igor V. Baldin

Over the last years, the increasing likelihood of occurrence and affecting the
building constructions is being observed in relation to the internal and external short
term dynamic loading caused by emergency situations [2]. This may lead to
considerable losses of property and lives.
One of the ways of the efficient and reliable reinforced concrete design is the
improvement of its methods. At that, the spatial behavior of buildings and
constructions provides safety improvement and material saving. As a rule, the
reinforced concrete structures are designed in terms of section capacity of
transverse base frames. Under dynamic loadings the additional transverse forces
and bending moments emanating from frames may occur as well as torsional
moments that essentially modify the stress state of structures. Owing to this, it is
necessary to develop and improve the structural design with due regard for the
complex behavior of structures which had not been investigated enough until the
present. Moreover, initial stress and static deformation affect much the structural
behavior in dynamic loading.
The evaluation methods proposed by the authors for strength and crack
resistance of reinforced concrete structures subject to static and dynamic stresses
are based on deformation models which consider the stress and strain structural
state using stress-strain diagrams assisting in the consensual analysis of ultimate
limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) structures. The ULS and the
SLS structural designs require the cross-section deformation conditions; external
and internal stress equilibrium equations pertaining to the center of gravity of
a concrete section; stress-strain diagrams - for concrete and steel depending on
the structural deformation rate, section reinforcement properties, pretensioning,
initial static stresses.
Initial static stresses and deformations significantly affect the mechanical
properties of concrete. The experimental findings [3] have shown that sustained
loading of concrete changes its mechanical and deformation properties. Sustained
compression of concrete under static stress increases its compressive stress and
reduces plastic deformations in the following dynamic loading; the tensile stress
lowers. Reduction of plastic deformations of concrete results in decrease of its
dynamic strength ratio.
Stress-strain relations at different dynamic loading modes for static stress
concrete have been based on proposals by Prof. Rastorguev [4]. Three loading cases
have been suggested under the initial stress state depending on the initial static
stress level (Fig. 1), namely: a b 0,2Rb (conditionally elastic stage);
b 0,2Rb < b R0crc,st (before microcracking); c R0crc,st < b Rcrc,st. At that,
the initial static stress corresponds to curve 01 up to values b, b. The dynamic
loading of concrete is represented by curve 12 which is an area of the dynamic
diagram emerging from point b b. Stress relieving from point b b is shown by
section 10'. In case of tensile stress, it is described by section 0'34.
A calculation procedure for reinforced concrete members having different
sections has been proposed with a glance to nonlinear diagrams of concrete and
steel behavior under static and short term loadings. JBK-DM-SP software has been
designed to make calculations using the deformation model.

Strength and crack resistance evaluation


b

51

c
2

3
static stress
dynamic stress

Fig. 1. Stress-strain diagrams at different initial stress levels:


a at b 0,2Rb; b at 0,2Rb < b R0crc,st; c at R0crc,st < b Rcrc,st

A basic section of concrete members is accepted to be an I-beam section


(Fig. 2, ), the size ratio of which is a reason for studying various types of sections.
Diagram - for concrete is described by the following equation:
b Rbd

( 1) 2
,
1 (2 )

(1)

where = Ebb /Rbd and = b/bu1 are stress and deformation levels in concrete
relative to its dynamic strength and corresponding deformation; is concrete
reinforcement and stress-strain diagram b-b dependency:
[ m m ( m 2 m ) m 2m ] / [ 2m (1 m )].

Here m = m1 /Rbd; m = Ebbm1 /Rbd; m = bm1 /bu1 are true stress and
apparent stress relations and deformations shown at descending branch of b-b.
In its turn, Rbd is dynamic strength of concrete; bm1, bu1 are deformations of
reinforced concrete detected by the following equations:
Rbd = dbc Rb;

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Vasilii S. Plevkov, Anatolii P. Malinovskii, Igor V. Baldin

bm1 = bm(1 + 1,3); bu1 = bu(1 + 0,4),


where dbc is dynamic strength ratio of plain concrete; bm, bu are deformations of
plain concrete, .
a

Fig. 2. JBK-DM-SP structural design

Thus,

(S / S ) 1
A
1, 4 b1 0, 45 0
,
Ab

1 0, 0028P
where Ab1 is effective area of concrete restrained by steel; Ab is compressive zone of
the concrete; S0 is doubled thickness of the member; S is spacing of the transverse
reinforcement; is coefficient found from equation
= Asw /bS.
dbc, ebm, bm, bu are accepted in terms of deformation velocity.
Thus,

bm1 = bm(l + 0,1),


where bm = 0,13Rbd Rb .
When = 0 and dbc = 1, equation (1) identically describes diagram b-b
included into the CEB/FIP Code for plain concrete.

Strength and crack resistance evaluation

53

JBK-DM-SP program envisages relation s-s which is in good accord with


the experimental research related to dynamically stressed reinforcement steel:
112( s sR ) 2 s sR
s yd

60( s sR 2) sm sR

sm

1 ,

yd

(2)

where: yd = 3,1 + 8,28y + (0,65 + 0,345y) lg ;


sm = 17,25y 20 + (0,828y 2,4) lg ;
sR and sm are steel deformations corresponding to yd and sm found from
equations:
yd
sR 0,12 0,16 y (0, 02 0, 0276 y ) lg
ES
and sm 0, 63 0, 07 y (0, 033 0, 005 y ) lg sR .
Sequential growth of deformations in standard sections depending on the
loading type was taken into account as per Fig. 2, c. Position corresponds to
axial tension of the section under review.
Eccentric tension of the standard sections is corresponded to eight-step
rotation of around point up to position D and then 16-step rotation up to
position which describes the strength of normally reinforced bending members.
Eccentric compression is described by 20-step rotation of around point up to
position BF and by 20-step rotation up to position BD, and then by 20-step rotation
of BD around point up to position KK which corresponds to axial compression of
the standard section (Fig. 2, c). Relative axial forces and bending moments of the
standard section are determined by summation of deformation, stress, and force
mean values (Fig. 2, b). At that, the standard section under review is divided into m
layers having thickness = h/m; to calculate m, a range between m = 102 and
m = 103 was used. For the eccentrically compressed and bending overreinforced
sections, position BF (Fig. 2, c) is corresponded to the edging height of section
compressive zone R, starting from which reinforcement stresses go down below Rs.
As it is shown in Fig. 1, c, the value of R is defined by equation:
1 s
R
,
(3)
1 syt / bm1
where syt = Rs/Es.
Reinforcement stresses come to value Rsc at limiting height of section
compressive zone R1 such that position KE corresponds to that shown in Figure 2,
c. Then it is defined by the following equation:
R1

1 s
.,
1 syc / bu1

(4)

where s = a/h; syc = Rsc/Es.


Fig. 3 illustrates the strength ratio regions for rectangular shaped sections of
the concrete member (a) and reinforced concrete member with unsymmetrical (b)
and symmetrical (c) reinforcement obtained by means of the deformation model.
Fig. 3 shows edges of strength ratio obtained from formulas having: 1 rectangular

54

Vasilii S. Plevkov, Anatolii P. Malinovskii, Igor V. Baldin

stress diagram for concrete; 2 dropdown-curve stress-strain diagrams for concrete


and exponential function for steel [1]; 3 parabola diagram for concrete and Prandtl
diagram for steel; 4 and 5 are edges of crack resistance obtained from the
deformation model and SNiP recommendations 2.03.0184*. The unit intervals
were assigned for the section capacity at axial compression and bending section
capacity relative to its center of gravity.

2
1

5
1

b
2

3
4
5

5
4
2
3
1

Fig.3. Strength ratio for rectangular shaped sections of the concrete member (a) and reinforced
concrete member with unsymmetrical (b) and symmetrical (c) reinforcement

The part of strength region located close to axis n corresponds to the


behavior of concrete member without cracks, while the other part has cracks. It is
seen from Fig. 3 that theoretical section capacity does not depend on the calculation
procedure proposed. It should be noted that the above stated formulas overrate
bending moments values up to 5 % as compared to those made by the deformation
models (structural design was made for strength ratio edges at n 0,4). A great
deal of calculations made for concrete members having rectangular, T- and I-beam
sections gave similar results.
Conditions common to strength ratio of the concrete members have shown
a correlation between breaking stresses within the whole range of dynamic or static
structural stress (from axial tension to axial compression) depending on section
shapes, reinforcement properties, strength and deformation properties of concrete
and steel, and other parameters. The main regularities of changes in regions and
surfaces of strength ratio have been detected in reinforced concrete members
subject to the above stated parameters. For all that, the results from the method

Strength and crack resistance evaluation

55

proposed coincide with the experimental findings obtained by other authors and are
not in contradiction with the building code.
The evaluation of the structural section capacity under complex stress states is
carried out by using the surfaces of strength ratio within the coordinate space of the
relative stresses (bending and torsional moments, axial and transverse loads) [5, 6].
To display graphically the evaluation of strength ratio, it is necessary to
superpose its regions and to perform vector representation of applied loads related
to the external stresses in the member sections. At that, such vector components of
applied load relations as ni = Ni (t)/(Rbd A), i = i (t)/(Rbd S) and
qi = Qi (t)/(Rbd A) will correspond to each exposure. Ends of the vectors indicate an
area or a surface of applied load relations caused by the external stresses. At the
same time, vector components of section capacity correspond to points of surfaces
or regions of strength and crack resistance relation:
ui = bi + si; nui = nbi + nsi; qui = qbi + qsi,
(5)
where ui, nui, qui are vector components of section capacity; mbi and msi are
bending moments of concrete and steel section relative to its center of gravity; nbi
and nsi are compressive or tensile strain of concrete and steel section; qbi and qsi
are shear strain of concrete and steel section.
The difference between the vector components of section capacity and
applied load relations is called vector components of section strength reserve of
concrete members. At their positive value, the strength condition is met:
ui i 0; nui nu 0; qui qi 0,
(6)
in the contrary case, it is not. Graphically it means that in case the applied load
related to the external stresses are located inside the strength ratio surface, the
strength condition is met. In case they are beyond the strength ratio surface, strength
condition is not met. It is graphically clear the relation between the loads at which
the concrete member behaves with or without cracking.
In dynamic analysis the strength ratio surfaces are transformed along time
coordinate that characterizes dynamic strength ratio of materials.
The results of structural design represented in graphical forms allow
effectively detecting locations of more unsafe member sections and making valid
decisions. The diagrams of surfaces of strength ratio can be constructed in terms of
mechanical properties of materials throughout the lifecycle of the building,
corrosive effect, etc. The proposed structural design has been implemented in such
software as JBK-DM-SP, JBK-DM-NL, JBK-DM-CRC, JBK-DM-NMM [6, 7, 8]
allowing to considerably simplify the structural design of reinforced concrete
structures under conditions of static and short term loading.
REFERENCES
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zarubezhnym normam [Structural design using national and international building codes].
oscow, ASV Publishing House, 2011, 496 p. (rus)
2. Kumpyak, O.G., Kopanitsa, D.G., Plevkov, V.S., Baldin, I.V. Nekotorye voprosy dinamiki
zhelezobetona [Issues of reinforced concrete dynamics]. Vestnik of Tomsk State University of
Architecture and Building, 2000. No. 1. Pp. 124136. (rus)

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Vasilii S. Plevkov, Anatolii P. Malinovskii, Igor V. Baldin


3. Kotov, Yu.I. Prochnost' predvaritel'no obzhatogo betona pri nemnogochis-lennykh povtornykh
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