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Death

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Death as an Image/Object , Death as a Statistic


Death as an Event
Death as a State of Being
Death as an Analogy
Death as a Mystery
Death as a Boundary , Death as a Thief of meaning
Death as Fear and Anxiety
Death as Reward or Punishment
Sociocultural definition:
Legal & Medical definitions
- Lack of heartbeat
- Lack of respiration

Legal and Medical Definitions:


Brain Death
No spontaneous movement in response to any stimuli
No spontaneous respirations for at least one hour
Total lack of responsiveness to even the most painful stimuli.

Legal and Medical Definitions


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No eye movements, blinking, or pupil responses


No postural activity, swallowing, yawning, or vocalizing
No motor reflexes
A flat electroencephalogram (EEG) for at least 10 minutes
No change in any of these criteria when they are tested again 24 hours later

Legal and Medical Definitions


The lack of brain activity must prevail both in the brainstem and in the
cortex.
Brainstem involves the vegetative functions such as heartbeat and
respiration.
Cortex involves higher process such as thinking
Persistent Vegetative State:
It is possible for a persons cortical functioning to cease while brainstem
activity continues.
The person does not recover.

Bioethical Issues:
Euthanasia
The practice of ending life for reasons of mercy.
The act of painlessly putting to death persons who are suffering from an
incurable disease or severe disability.
Sometimes called mercy Killing

Active Euthanasia:

Involves the deliberate ending of someones life, which may be based on a clear
statement of the persons wishes or a decision made by someone else who has the legal
authority to do so.
Examples:
- Administering a drug overdose
- Disconnecting a life support system
Passive Euthanasia:

Involves allowing a person to die by withholding available treatment.


Example:
Withholding chemotherapy from a cancer patient
Not performing a surgical procedure
Withdrawing food
Causes of Death & Expectations about death

Death can occur at any point in the human life cycle.


Prenatal Development
Miscarriages or stillborn births

Birth Process
Causes of death & Expectations about death:
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
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The sudden death of an apparently healthy infant.


Usually occurs between 2-4 months of age.
The infant immediately stops breathing and the cause is not yet known.
Causes of Death & Expectations about Death:
Childhood

Death occurs most often because of accidental deaths (drowning , poisoning, fire, fall
rom a high place, automobile accidents)
May also be due to some illness.
Causes of Death & Expectations about Death
Adolescence
Death occurs most often because of suicide, motor vehicular accidents secondary to
alcoholism.
Causes of Death & Expectations about Death
Causes of Death & Expectations about Death
Adults
Younger adults and middle-aged adults may die of accidents and diseases.
Younger adults who are dying often feel cheated more than do older adults who are
dying.
Causes of Death & Expectations about Death
Adult
Younger adults are more likely to feel they have not had the opportunity to do what
they want to with their lives.

They might perceive they are losing what they might achieve.
Causes of death & Expectations about Death:
Older adults are more likely to die from chronic diseases.
Their diseases often incapacitate before they kill, which produces a course of dying that
slowly leads to death.
They perceive losing what they have.
Ideas about Death Through Life Span :
Infants
Researchers believe that infants do not have even a rudimentary concept of death.
As infants develop an attachment to a caregiver, they can experience loss or
separation and an accompanying anxiety.
The reappearance of the caregiver provides a continuity of existence and a reduction of
anxiety.
Ideas about Death through life span
Childhood
Preschool age children tend to believe that death is temporary and magical.
3-5 years of age have little or no idea of what death really means.
They may confuse death with sleep.
They believe that the dead can be brought back to life spontaneously by magic or by
giving them some food or medical treatment.