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1. What isethernet?

Ethernet is a physical and data link layer technology for local area N/W


2. What is meant Data Communication?

Data Communication is a exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission medium.

3. What are the fundamental characteristics of data communication?


The system must deliver data to the correct destination.


The system must deliver data accurately.


The system must deliver data in a timely manner.

4. What are the components used in data communication? Message, Sender, Receiver, Medium, Protocol.

5. How can you considered data communication ,what are they?

Data communication is considered , Local- if the communicating devices are in the same building Remote Geographical area.

6. What is token ring?


ring local


network (LAN)






network protocol which resides at

the data link layer (DLL) of the OSI

model. It

uses a

special three-byte frame called a token that travels around the ring. Token-possession grants the possessor permission to transmit on the medium. Token ring frames travel completely around the loop.

7. What is token bus?

Token bus is a network implementing the token ring protocol over a "virtual ring" on a coaxial cable. A token is passed around the network nodes and only the node possessing the token may transmit. If a node doesn't have anything to send, the token is passed on to the next node on the virtual ring. Each node must know the address of its neighbour in the ring, so a special protocol is needed to notify the other nodes of connections to, and disconnections from, the ring.

8. Define networks. A network is a set o f devices connected by media links.

9. Define Communication channels The links connecting the devices are often called communication channel.

10. What is meant by distributed processing & write any two advantages. Networks use distributed processing in which a task is divided

among multiple computers. Advantages: Security, Faster problem sloving, Collaborative processing

11. What is stop and wait ARQ protocol?

Stop- and- wait ARQ is a method used in telecommunications to send information between two connected devices. It ensures that information is not lost due to dropped packets and that packets are received in the correct order. It is the simplest kind of automatic repeat-request (ARQ) method. A stop-and-wait ARQ sender sends one frame at a time; it is a special case of the general sliding window protocol with both transmit and





receive window sizes equal to 1. After sending each frame, the sender doesn't send any further frames until it receives an acknowledgement (ACK) signal. After receiving a good frame, the receiver sends an ACK. If the ACK does not reach the sender before a certain time, known as the timeout, the sender sends the same frame again.

12. In which layer error detection & error correction find? Data can be corrupted during transmission. Transmission errors detected at physical layer of OSI model. Transmission errors corrected at the data link layer.

13. Write the types of error & define it. There are two types of error a. single bit error only one bit in the data unit such as a byte, character , or packet changed from 1 to 0 or from 0 to1.

b. burst error

A burst error means that two or more bits in the data unit has changed from 1 to 0 or 0 to1.

14. Define data link layer. Data link layer is the second layer in OSI model. The DLL lies between the network layer & physical layer. It receives services from physical layer and provides services to the network layer. The DLL is responsible for carrying a packet from one hop to next hop.

15. List out the duties of DLL? Duties of DLL are Packet zing,Addressing,Error control,Flow control, Medium access control

16. What is selective reject ARQ protocol Selective Repeat ARQ / Selective Reject ARQ is a specific instance of the Automatic Repeat-Request (ARQ) protocol used for communications. It may be used as a protocol for the delivery and acknowledgement of message units, or it may be used as a protocol for the delivery of subdivided message sub- units.

17. What is Go back N ARQ protocol

Go-Back-N ARQ is a specific instance of the automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol, in which the sending process continues to send a number of frames specified by a window size even without receiving an acknowledgement (ACK) packet from the receiver. It is a special case of the general sliding window protocol with the transmit window size of N and receive window size of 1.

18. Define parity bit. The simplest form of error detectio n is to append a single bit called a parity bit to a string of data.

19. Define hamming distance. The number of bits positions in which two codeword differ is called the hamming distance.

20. What is meant by codeword & block length? Codeword is the encoded block of ‘n’ bits. It contains message bits





and redundant bits. Block length: the number of bits ‘n’ after coding is called the block length of the code.

21. What is Routing algorithm? Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network (Circuit switching),electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks.

22. What is Distance vector routing algorithm? A distance-vector routing protocol is one of the two major classes of

routing protocols, the other major class being the link-state protocol. A distance- vector routing protocol requires that a router informs its neighbors of topology changes periodically. Compared to link-state protocols, which require a router to inform all the nodes in a network of topology changes, distance -vector routing protocols have less

computational complexity and message overhead.

23. Define parity bit. The simplest form of error detection is to append a single bit called a parity bit to a string of data.

24. Define hamming distance. The number of bits positions in which two codeword differ is called the hamming distance.

25. What is meant by code word & block length? Codeword is the encoded block of ‘n’ bits. It contains message bits and redundant bits. Block length: the number of bits ‘n’ after coding is called the block length of the code.

26. What is link state algorithm? The basic concept of link - state routing is that every node constructs a map of the connectivity to the network, in the form of a graph, showing which nodes are connected to which other nodes. Each node then independently calculates the next best logical path from it to every possible destination in the network. The collection of best paths will then form the node's routing table.

27. List out the services provided by the network layer.

The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet possibly across multiple networks specific responsibility of a network layer includes the following.

a. logical addressing


28. What is a virtual circuit?

A logical circuit made between the sending and receiving computer.

The connectio n is made after both computers

connection; all packets follow the same route and arrive in sequence.

do handshaking. after the





29. What are datagrams? In datagram approach, each packet is treated independently from all others. Even when one packet represents just a place of a multipacket transmission, the networks treat if as though it existed alone. Packets in this technology are referred to as datagrams.

30. What is meant by congestion Congestion in a network occurs if user sends data into the network at a rate greater than that allowed by network resources.

31. Why the congestion occur in a network? Congestion occurs because the switches in a network have a li mited buffer size to store arrived packets before processing.

32. What is data encryption?

Data encryption refers to mathematical calculations and algorithmic schemes that transform plaintext into cyphertext, a form that is non- readable to unauthorized parties. The recipient of an encrypted message uses a key which triggers the algorithm mechanism to decrypt the data, transforming it to the original plaintext version.

33. What is RSA algorithm? An public-key encryption technology developed by RSA Data Security, Inc. The acronym stands for Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman, the inventors of the technique. The RSA algorithm is based on the fact that there is no efficient way to factor very large numbers. Deducing an RSA key, therefore, requires an extraordinary amount of computer processing power and time.The RSA algorithm has become the de facto standard for industrial-strengthencryption, especially for data sent over the Internet.

34. What is the function of FECN? The FECN bit is used to warn the receiver of congestion in the network. The sender and receiver are communication with each other and are using some type of flow control at a higher level.

35. Define FTP. File transfer protocol is the standard mechanism provided by the TCP/IP for

copying a file one host to another. Transferring files from one computer to another is one of the most common takes expected from a networking or internetworking environment.

36. How does FTP differ from other client server applications?

FTP differs from other client server applications in that it establishes two connections between the hosts. One connection is used for data transfer and other for control information.

37. What is SMTP?

The TCP/IP protocol supports electronic mail on the internet is called Simple mail transfer protocol. It is a system for sending messages to other computer users based on e-mail addresses.

38. What is Http? The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a protocol used mainly to access data on the World Wide Web. The protocol transfer data in the form of plaintext, hypertext, audio, and video and so on.





39. How does HTTP differ from SMTP?

a. HTTP differs from SMTP in the way the messages are sent from the client to the server and from the server to the client.

b. Unlike SMTP, the HTTP messages are not destined to be read b y humans.

c. HTTP messages are delivered immediately.

40. Relate HTTP and FTP. HTTP is similar to FTP, because it transfers files and uses the services of TCP. However it is much simpler than FTP, because HTTP uses only one TCP connection. There is not a separate control connection.

41. What is parallel communication?

parallel communication is a method of sending several data signals simultaneously over several parallel channels. It contrasts with serial communication; this distinction is one way of characterizing a communications link.

42. What is serial communication?

serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus. This is in contrast to parallel communication, where several bits are sent as a whole, on a link with several parallel channels. Serial communication is used for all long-haul communication and most computer networks, where the cost of cable and synchronization difficulties make parallel communication impractical.

43. Define DNS?

System that can map a name to an address and conversely a n address to a name. In TCP/IP, this is the domain name system.

44. Name different sections used in internet DNS.

a. Generic domain b. Country domain c. Inverse domain

45. What does a generic domain define? The generic domains define registered hosts according to their generic behaviour.

46. Mentions the usage of inverse domain.

a. Inverse domain is used to map an address to a name.

b. To determine if the client is on the authorized list , it can send a query to the DNS server and ask for the mapping of address to name.