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SMALL SHIPS AND SPECIAL DUTIES Health and safety at work – in brief Guidance for

SMALL SHIPS AND SPECIAL DUTIES

Health and safety at work – in brief

SMALL SHIPS AND SPECIAL DUTIES Health and safety at work – in brief Guidance for crews
SMALL SHIPS AND SPECIAL DUTIES Health and safety at work – in brief Guidance for crews
SMALL SHIPS AND SPECIAL DUTIES Health and safety at work – in brief Guidance for crews

Guidance for crews on small ships

“Even though the ships are small, the risks surrounding you are not.” Bo Jacobsen, Seahealth

“Even though the ships are small, the risks surrounding you are not.”

Bo Jacobsen, Seahealth Denmark

Contents

Introduction

4

Using chemicals on board

12

 

- Chemicals are dangerous

12

Risk assessments

6

- Register products

13

- Mapping

6

- Replace the most hazardous products

13

- Assessment

7

- Use workplace instructions

14

- Action plan

7

- Understand what code numbers

- Risk assessment document

8

mean and how to use them

14

- Follow-up

8

 

Storing paint

16

Prevention principles

9

- Paint shop

16

 

- Store room

16

Safety takes time! – less than a minute

10

- Paint locker

17

Publisher:

Seahealth Denmark

© Seahealth Denmark 2012, Copenhagen.

Responsible Editor:

Connie S. Gehrt

All rights reserved.

Written & edited by:

Bo Jacobsen

All trademarks acknowledged. Limited copying

Illustrations:

Lars-Ole Nejstgaard

permitted with acknowledgement of source.

Graphic design:

martinsonnedesign

Printed by:

Grefta Tryk A/S

ISBN: 978-87-92084-28-6

3

SMALL SHIPS

INRODUCTION

Introduction

Sometimes health and safety at work becomes a little too academic and involves too much paper- work. Sometimes all that is needed is a simple solution and a short explanation to the question:

What should we do here?

This guidance gives brief answers and explanations. It should be regarded as a basis for workplace health and safety as it explains how to tackle the fundamentals of risk assessments and handling chemicals.

We assume that you are using our ”Health and Safety at Sea” software. The programme is available from I.C. Weilbach and supports both English and Danish.

The guidance will be supplemented with a series of more specific guidelines that specifically address the challenges you face on board. These guide- lines will build on the general foundation and

will typically address other issues than those in this basic guidance. They may deal with manage- ment, communication, safety culture, ergonomics and other issues. They may answer the question, for example, ”What is the best way to circulate incoming e-mail round the ship?” or ”How can we separate passengers from cars when disembarking from small ferries?” The guidelines will be drawn up with assistance of you in the industry to keep the focus precisely on the challenges facing you.

Specific guidelines will also be drawn up for:

INTRODUCTION

SMALL SHIPS

SMALL SHIPS AND SPECIAL DUTIES Health and safety at work – in brief VAGTSKIBE GUARD
SMALL SHIPS AND SPECIAL DUTIES
Health and safety at work – in brief
VAGTSKIBE
GUARD SHIPS
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En vejledning til mindre skibe og deres besætninger
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SMALL FERRIES
MINDRE FÆRGER
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Guidance for crews on small ships
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En Vejledning til mindre skibe og deres besætninger
Guidance for crews on small ships

SMALL SHIPS

RISK ASSESSMENT

Risk assessment

A risk assessment is the same process as for

a workplace assessment. We prefer to use risk assessment since that is most common used

in the maritime industry.

You are now about to tackle a job. But what is the best way of doing it? And how can you do

it without coming to harm? The answer is: risk

assessment!

With a risk assessment, you collect and describe the best working methods using the experience

of the job that you already have. Experience that

you are now passing on to relief crews or the new people who join ship in future.

The most important reason for doing so in writing

is that it shows how you have agreed the job

should be done - every time. It also means you

have a document to which you can add improve- ments appearing when preparing to do the job the next time.

The frameworks and tools for helping with risk assessments are structured around five phases.

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1

2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
assessments are structured around five phases. 1 2 3 4 5 1 Here you identify the
1
1

Here you identify the risks of each individual task and duty. There are different ways of identifying jobs that can be risky to do. You could for example ask at the next safety meeting. Talk to your work- mates about what they think is hazardous in their daily duties.

You can also make inspections with the safety orga- nization and divide the ship into smaller areas and review them for risks. The ideal method is naturally a combination – an open dialogue on the jobs you have to do and the risks associated with them, with everyone on board getting involved with health and safety.

2 You need to assess the various risks involved in a job. Do so by
2
2

You need to assess the various risks involved in a job. Do so by asking two initial questions:

1) How likely is it that you will have an injury? 2) How serious might it be?

The two questions are to agree on the risks you need to protect yourselves against, and how much protection is required. If you do not take this approach, many risks may be overlooked and it is often the minor risks that lead to injury.

RISK ASSESSMENT

SMALL SHIPS

minor risks that lead to injury. RISK ASSESSMENT SMALL SHIPS 3 Here you should describe how
3
3

Here you should describe how you mean to protect yourselves against the risks you have identified (see p. 9). You should use the principles of prevention when identifying how you should protect yourselves.

In your instructions, you provide directions for who is to be notified before work starts and how. For example which piping systems should be blanked off and how. Or the pumps that are to be disconnected and how.

The information that should be included in the action plan must enable the supervisor or who- ever is responsible for doing the job to manage and do the job without the risks. So the action plan must give details of who should be informed and how before work starts. For example which pumps should be switched off and how. Finally, an action plan should include instructions on how to involve the people who will be doing the job and how to check that the job has been completed - correctly.

SMALL SHIPS

RISK ASSESSMENT

SMALL SHIPS RISK ASSESSMENT 4 The written risk assessment document is generated by the process you
4
4

The written risk assessment document is generated by the process you have gone through. You have identified the risks of a job, you have assessed them and described how and why protection against these risks is needed.

The fact that you have done a written risk assess- ment document means that the supervisor or the person doing the job can consider how you have agreed the job should be done on board. Because everything you do is done on the basis of an existing risk, work is done the right way and without ”forgetting” the safety precautions you have chosen.

”forgetting” the safety precautions you have chosen. 5 When you have made a risk assessment, it
5
5

When you have made a risk assessment, it is important to check whether it works in practice. This might mean that some of the preventative methods you have used could lead to new risks that you have not taken into account in the first instance. Then it is a matter of implementing the work process on board.

Working with a risk assessment is an on-going process and should be used as a dynamic tool. So your preventative action should be reasses- sed when something new happens or at regular intervals.

Something new could be if you discover something that is not appropriate while you are doing the job, if there is a near miss or if there is an accident.

PREVENTION PRICIPLES

SMALL SHIPS

Prevention principles

The principles of prevention should be used to select the best form of protection against a risk, and they are listed here in the order you should use them – also as required in the legislation.

you should use them – also as required in the legislation. Remove the hazard! You most
you should use them – also as required in the legislation. Remove the hazard! You most
you should use them – also as required in the legislation. Remove the hazard! You most
you should use them – also as required in the legislation. Remove the hazard! You most
you should use them – also as required in the legislation. Remove the hazard! You most

Remove the hazard! You most often get the opportunity to remove hazards when buying new equipment. Buy equipment that does not cause noise or vibration, which has guards against crush injury and provides protection against accidents in general. It could also be that when you buy detergents, why not buy something that is not hazardous? Then you do not need to have extraction or use personal protective equipment.

Reduce the hazard! You can reduce the risk when selecting tools for the job. There is less vibration when using a small needle-gun scalar that with a big one. And you cannot use water to remove HFO stains on the deck, but neither do you have to use diesel or thinners - there are alternatives.

Guard the hazard! Have guards for lathe chucks, and for disks in angle grinders. Install barriers around the place you are working, if you are pulling up deck plating or if you can drop tools to a level below you. Or pressure test fuel injectors into a closed container with extraction.

Get away from the hazard! Instead of doing maintenance work on a small pump/ electric motor in the engine room, take it up to the workshop where there is no noise or heat. You can check valve operation, winch remote controls and automation in general.

Protect yourselves from hazards! Personal protective equipment can be used as a supplement to the principles of prevention above and in some cases, it is the only way you can protect yourselves against a risk.

SMALL SHIPS

SAFETY TAKES TIME! - LESS THAN A MINUTE

Safety takes time! – less than a minute

Well, I knew that perfectly well. I should have

seen it. I just hadn’t noticed it. We had actually

agreed not to… and I just wanted to

in explanations when we make mistakes in con- nection with a routine job. You might have done the job many times before so why did it all go wrong this time?

We often let our minds wander when doing a routine job. Which means we are not so aware of those around us, that we make assumptions and that we generally do not think carefully before tackling a job.

But hold on for a moment! Think about the job you are about to tackle, even though it is something you often do. And then take less than a minute to remember the simple rules, which are:

All phrases

AND AND THINK THINK STOP STOP ASSESS THE JOB ASSESS THE JOB SINCE LAST TIME
AND AND THINK THINK
STOP
STOP
ASSESS THE JOB
ASSESS THE JOB
SINCE LAST TIME
SINCE LASST TIME
OTHER’S SAFETY
OTHER’S SSAFETY
DON’T DON’T BE BE TEMPTED TEMPTED

”We have policies, procedures, checklists, risk assessments, toolbox meetings, equipment and personal protective equipment. But things still go wrong if we don’t think carefully.”

10

Bo Jacobsen, Seahealth

SAFETY TAKES TIME! - LESS THAN A MINUTE

SMALL SHIPS

STOP AND THINK
STOP AND THINK
ASSESS THE JOB
ASSESS THE JOB
SINCE LAST TIME
SINCE LAST TIME
OTHER ´ S SAFETY
OTHER ´ S SAFETY
DON’T BE TEMPTED
DON’T BE TEMPTED

SMALL SHIPS

USING CHEMICALS ON BOARD

Using chemicals on board

SMALL SHIPS USING CHEMICALS ON BOARD Using chemicals on board Chemicals are dangerous Chemicals can cause

Chemicals are dangerous

Chemicals can cause sickness. When using chemicals, it is often the low concentrations that you breathe in over a long time that have the worst after-effects since you are not aware of the danger. If concentrations are high, you will realise that there is something in the air and you will move away. Getting chemicals on your skin can also be dangerous and cause eczema.

Paint for outdoor use contains organic solvents, it is flammable and generally not healthy to be around. You are surrounded by chemicals on board: hydraulic oil for cranes, lubricating oil for the engine, paint for the deck and detergents in the galley and accommodation. One estimate is that we now use at least 50 different kinds of chemicals on board small ships, possibly even more.

It is impossible to avoid chemicals but you can use those that are less hazardous and you can use chemicals with care and protect yourself against the risks. Here are some ideas and solutions for what you can do:

1
1

2
2
3
3
4
4
1 Registration means you first need to get on over- view on what products you
1
1

Registration means you first need to get on over- view on what products you have on board and where. So walk around your stores with an A4 pad and jot down the products you have on the shelves. If you do not use the product anymore, get rid of it.

In the first instance, note:

1) Storage locations on the ship (e.g.: under the forecastle) 2) Trade name (e.g.: Enviromate 2000) 3) Supplier/manufacturer (e.g.: Drew).

When you have been round your storage locations, sit down at your computer and get your list of chemicals set up for their correct locations in your Health and Safety at Sea program.

Paint products must be disposed of according to current legislation and company procedures.

USING CHEMICALS ON BOARD

SMALL SHIPS

company procedures. USING CHEMICALS ON BOARD SMALL SHIPS 2 Generally, there are many more chemicals on
2
2

Generally, there are many more chemicals on board than those actually used. Often because some products change trade name or supplier over time or because a product may only have been needed once for a specific job. At other times we stick with a product because ”we have always used it” but in the meantime, less hazardous, better products have appeared on the market.

Try reviewing the points below and see whether you can get rid of some of the chemicals or sub- stitute them for less hazardous products.

1) Do we use this product anymore? 2) Is the product necessary or can we do without it? 3) Can the product be replaced by one that is less hazardous? 4) Do we have another, less hazardous product that we use for the same purpose on board? 5) Does the Health and Safety at Sea program recommend a substitution product? 6) If you cannot see what is in the pot or container, it should be thrown out. 7) If there is no safety data sheet for the product or you cannot get one, throw it out.

SMALL SHIPS

USING CHEMICALS ON BOARD

3
3

A workplace instruction is a safety data sheet zipped

up with information specifically for the ship on how to work safely on board.

We use workplace instructions when safety data sheets are too general, comprehensive and techni- cal. A safety data sheet only relates to the product regardless of whether you are using a detergent on board or in a children’s play school.

A good, informative workplace instruction should

include the ship-specific information below:

1) The location of eye-wash stations 2) The location of fire fighting equipment 3) The location of materials for cleaning up product spills, etc. 4) Technical prevention and the location of personal protective equipment 5) Disposal methods for any spilled products/ chemicals 6) Any safety committee comments on using the product.

You are now ready to work!

comments on using the product. You are now ready to work! 4 We also have code

4
4

We also have code numbers for all paints and we are used to using the number as a quick reference for how we should protect ourselves when painting. In Denmark we take code numbers for granted. But these are solely Danish numbers which are only found on products sold in Denmark.

CODE NUMBER Read the codenumber on the label or in the Workplace Instruction. Choose product
CODE NUMBER
Read the codenumber on the label or in the Workplace
Instruction.
Choose product using the Product Selection Table.
Use ventilation and
personal protective equipment in
accordance with
these instructions.
The first figure
The second figure
Risk
when inhaling the product
Risk when in contact with the product
KODENR. 1993
There are 7 code numbers:
There are 6 code numbers:
3–5
00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
The higher the code number,
higher
the in code
number,
the greater
the
greater the
risk when
in-
The risk
the
when
contact
and ingestion
of
haling
vapours.
the product.
Product Selection Table
allowed to be used for painting indoors
The table states
the maximum allowed figure before the hyphen (-)
(mixture ready for house)
Code no.
exposure and requirements
Normale
1 -
incl. toilets and deck/bulkheads in machinery spaces and on car decks.
E.g.
crew accommodations
High exposure and requirements
2 -
galleys, bathrooms, locker
rooms, floors in machinery
E.g.
spaces and on car decks.
i l ex osure and
requirements

So it is important that what code numbers tell us about health and safety protection is passed on

to non-Danish crew.

A code number tells us how dangerous a product is

and consists of two numbers separated by a dash.

The figure before the dash indicates the danger

of inhaling the product and is used to decide

whether mechanical ventilation should be established or whether a respirator should be used. The number after the dash indicates the danger from swallowing or contact with the substance and indicates whether you should use gloves for example, safety glasses or overalls.

You can order a code number schedule from the Danish Maritime Authority to post where paint

is used. The schedule gives the requirements for

establishing mechanical ventilation, for example

in tanks, and it also lists the personal protective

equipment and special work clothing to be used.

At www.seahealth.dk you can download the code number schedule.

USING CHEMICALS ON BOARD

SMALL SHIPS

USING CHEMICALS ON BOARD SMALL SHIPS Remember the safety equipment required 15

Remember the safety equipment required

SMALL SHIPS

STORING PAINT

Storing paint

Most ships have paint on board and storing and handling it properly is highly significant for health and safety.

You may remember perhaps that paint is hazardous when you are holding a paintbrush but the dangers get forgotten when you ”only” have to store paint or have to mix it or handle it in some other way.

In this section we provide suggestion on solutions for storing and handling paint that you can use on board. You need to decide on the health and safety aspects of the suggested solutions and also choose the solution that best matches the ship’s maintenance requirements, tasking and routes.

Paint shop

This is where opened and unopened paint can be stored. This workplace should have local extraction installed so you can mix paints, clean paintbrushes and the like.

Paint shop requirements:

per hour)

runs constantly with at least six air changes per hour, there is no requirement for additional mechanical ventilation) extraction functionality 2 deck area free Ro/Ro deck.

2 2

Store room

A store room can be used to store unopened

paint. In the store room you may not keep opened

paint or mix paint and in any other way handle it

in the room.

Requirements for storerooms:

(min. 6 air changes per hour)

Paint locker If there is a shortage of space, with no possibility of establishing a

Paint locker

If there is a shortage of space, with no possibility of establishing a paint shop, the solution is a paint locker for storing paint.

Paint lockers can only be used to store paint. Paint must not be mixed or handled in any other way. This must be done out on deck.

We describe two examples of paint lockers and the requirements you must comply with if you opt for one of these solutions. Solution 1 is a locker placed on deck and solution 2 is a room in the ship used for paint storage.

STORING PAINT

SMALL SHIPS

Requirements for solution 1

bulkhead (remember to install natural ventilation in the locker) of 200 litres of paint, thinners and hardener

Requirements for solution 2

(min. 6 air changes per hour)

These solutions may be used on ships up to 1600GT and with a crew of 1-6 seafarers.

SMALL SHIPS

Visit www.seahealth.dk

This guidance gives brief answers and explanations. It should be regarded as a basis for workplace health and safety as it explains how to tackle the fundamentals of risk assessments and handling chemicals.

You can find information about Seahealth Denmark on our webpage www.seahealth.dk and you are welcome to contact us.

webpage www.seahealth.dk and you are welcome to contact us. Seahealth Denmark Amaliegade 33B, 2 DK-1256 Copenhagen

Seahealth Denmark Amaliegade 33B, 2 DK-1256 Copenhagen K www.seahealth.dk