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Project:DesignandOptimizationofRaceCarFrame

Objective:TodesignaTubularFrameStructurebasedonindustrialstandardsfor
FormulaCarandoptimizeitforbetterstrengthtoweightratioandagility.
Steps:
1. Modeling
2. StudyofVariousSimulation(Analysis)
3. Optimization
Animprovedstrengthtoweightratiowasanimportantparameterwhile
designingvehicle.Theonlymeanstoimprovethiscriticalparameteristoreducethe
overallvehicleweight.Anotherchallengeduringthedesigningofthevehiclewas
maintainingtheoverallsafetyofthedriver.
Thefunctionofthespaceframeistoprotectthedriverandsupportfrontand
rearsuspensionsystems,engine,steeringsystemandothersystems/subsystemsin
thevehicle.Theobjectiveoftheframedesignwastosatisfythesefunctionswhile
meetingtheSAEregulationswithspecialconsiderationsgiventosafetyofthe
occupants,easeofmanufacturing,cost,quality,weight,andaesthetics.Moreover
carehasbeentakentoensurethatthereareminimumweldsontheframepipes
andmaximumbendsensuringbetterstrengthandlesscostofproductionofthe
vehicle.Chassismembershavebeenutilizedefficientlytoreducetheconstraints
duringfabrication.

PresentStatus:Wehavecompletedthemodelingstage.FirstwiththeReverse
EngineeringMethod,wehavemadearoughmodel.DesignFrameshouldhave
adequatespaceforthedriverandhismovements.Thenweelaboratethemodelin
theSoftware(SolidWorks).InthiswaywegotaWireFrameModel.
Wechoosecircularcrosssectionforthetubularframeascomparedtorectangular
crosssection.Reasonforthisistobecalculatedfromsectionmodulusstudy,stress
concentrationfactorandbendingstressrelations.
MaterialSelection:
Wehavewideno.ofmaterialsavailableinthemarketwithvaryingcost.We
considerfollowingmaterialsontheiravailability.

AISI 4140
Category

Steel

Class

Alloy steel

Type

Standard

Common Names

Chromium-molybdenum steel

Designations

France: AFNOR 40 CD 4 , AFNOR 42 CD 4


Germany: DIN 1.7225
Italy: UNI 38 CrMo 4 KB , UNI 40 CrMo 4 , UNI G 4O CrMo
4
Japan: JIS SCM 4 , JIS SCM 4 H
Sweden: SS 2244
United Kingdom: B.S. 708 A 42 , B.S. 708 M 40 , B.S. 709
M 40
United States: AMS 6378 , AMS 6379 , AMS 6381B ,
AMS 6382 , AMS 6382G , AMS 6390 , AMS 6390A ,
AMS 6395 , ASTM A322 , ASTM A331 , ASTM A505 ,
ASTM A519 , ASTM A547 , ASTM A646 , MIL SPEC MIL-S16974 , SAE J404 , SAE J412 , SAE J770 , UNS G41400

Composition

Element Weight %
C

0.38-0.43

Mn

0.75-1.00

0.035 (max)

0.04 (max)

Si

0.15-0.30

Cr

0.80-1.10

Mo

0.15-0.25

Mechanical Properties

Conditions
Properties
T (C)
Density (1000 kg/m3)

7.7-8.03

25

Poisson's Ratio

0.27-0.30

25

Elastic Modulus (GPa)

190-210

25

Tensile Strength (Mpa)

655.0

Yield Strength (Mpa)

417.1

Treatment

25

annealed at 815C more

Elongation (%)

25.7

Reduction in Area (%)

56.9

Hardness (HB)

197

25

annealed at 815C more

Impact Strength (J)


(Izod)

54.5

25

annealed at 815C more

AISI 1018
Category

Steel

Class

Carbon steel

Type

Standard

Designations United States: AMS 5069 , AMS 5069A , ASTM A108 , ASTM A29 ,
ASTM A510 , ASTM A513 , ASTM A519 , ASTM A544 , ASTM A545 ,
ASTM A548 , ASTM A549 , ASTM A576 , ASTM A659 , MIL SPEC MIL-S11310 (CS1018) , SAE J403 , SAE J412 , SAE J414 , UNS G10180
Composition
Element Weight %
C

0.15-0.20

Mn

0.60-0.90

0.04 (max)

0.05 (max)

Mechanical Properties
Conditions
Properties
T (C)
Density (1000 kg/m3)

7.7-8.03

25

Poisson's Ratio

0.27-0.30

25

Elastic Modulus (GPa) 190-210

Treatment

25

Tensile Strength (Mpa) 634


Yield Strength (Mpa)
Elongation (%)

25

carburized at 925C, cooled, reheated to 775C, water


quenched, tempered at 175C, core properties (round
bar (19-32 mm)) more

25

carburized at 925C, cooled, reheated to 775C, water


quenched, tempered at 175C, core properties (round
bar (19-32 mm)) more

386
27

Reduction in Area (%) 48


Hardness (HB)

197

Aluminumisalsooneofthematerialunderconsideration.Butitspropertiesarenot
availabile.
Alsoaluminiumiscostlyanditsjoiningisdifficultandexpensive.Sowewillstudy
bothAISI1018andAISI4140.
Worktobedonebefore5december:

Reasonforcrossectionselection
Diameterordimensionofcrosssection.
ErgonomicsstudyusingCATIA.
Calculationoftotaltubinglengthrequired.
PreliminaryWeightofthechassis.

WireFrameModel

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