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Notice: Cross Sections This document is issued for the sole purpose of stakeholder engagement in

Notice:

Cross Sections

This document is issued for the sole purpose of stakeholder engagement in advance of a stakeholder workshop to be held on 18 and 19 June 2013.

The contents of the document are draft and must not be used for any purpose other than preparation for the said workshop.

Note that the document is a work-in-progress and as such may contain inaccuracies in cross referencing, table and figure referencing and page numbering. It may also contain rough drafts of figures and could include inconsistencies and areas of text yet to be developed.

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Contents

1 Introduction

1

1.1

General

1

1.2

Departures

2

2 Design Principles

3

2.1 Network Objectives

3

2.2 Cross-Section Elements

6

2.2.1 Paved Width

6

2.2.2 Shoulders

6

2.2.3 Hard Strips

7

2.2.4 Medians

8

2.2.5

Verges

10

2.2.6 Parking Bays and Lanes

10

2.2.7 Side Slopes

12

2.3 Auxiliary Lanes

13

2.4 Service Roads

14

2.5 Facilities

Pedestrian

14

2.6 Clearances

15

2.6.1

Utilities

17

2.7 Road Restraint System

17

2.8 Fencing

18

2.9 Road Closure and Partial Closure

18

3 Level of Service

21

3.1 Introduction

21

3.2 Level of Service

21

Tables

Table 2.1

Table 2.2

Table 2.3

Table 2.4

Table 3.1

Shoulders and Hard Strips

7

Parking Bay Dimensions (m)

11

Standard Headroom at Structures

16

Sag Radius Compensation

16

Level of Service Flow Rates for Different Operational Speeds

23

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Figures

Figure 2.1

Cross-Section Design Flow Chart

5

Figure 2.2

Angled Parking Bay Elements

11

Figure 2.3

Typical Parking Lane Treatment at Tee-Junctions

12

Figure 2.4

Typical Turning Head Details

20

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1

1.1

Introduction

General

This Standard gives details of the cross-sections and headroom requirements to be used for all rural and urban roads, both at and away from structures.

The information covers freeways, expressways, arterials, collectors and local access roads, both single and dual carriageway, together with associated connector roads.

dual carriageway, together with associated connector roads. This standard does not give mandatory requirements for

This standard does not give mandatory requirements for headroom near airports or at power lines, the Designer should contact the relevant authorities to agree requirements as part of the design process.

In general the different road reservations are intended to provide drivers with adequate sight distances and allow the public utilities sufficient space for existing and proposed plant. Where space for utilities is limited, “way leaves” outside the road reservation may be obtained by contacting the relevant planning authority.

Figures at the end of this Part [replace with figure numbers 2.xx to 2.yy] show cross sections depicting the essential elements in typical sections for two way single

carriageways and dual carriageways for urban and rural roads.

The cross sections

shown are typical and the final layout of the reservation should be agreed with the Overseeing Organisation.

The recommended reservation details for rural roads are similar to those for urban roads but reflect the reduced access and drainage requirements of the rural situation. Generally for rural roads the near side of the carriageway would not be kerbed although flush kerbing may be considered at certain locations. Raised kerbing to the median of rural dual carriageways should only be provided at specific location, in the vicinity of bridges and at grade junctions. In all cases an edge strip shall be provided between the kerb and lane edge. Verges shall be designed to fall away from the carriageway in the rural situation and thus water will drain to surrounding ground.

Shoulders are not normally required on rural single carriageway roads and where these are omitted, hard strips must be included in the design. Replacing full hard shoulder construction with hard strips on rural and urban dual carriageways shall be permitted on economic grounds pending agreement with the Overseeing Department before inclusion in the final design.

A standard lane width of 3.65m has been used on all typical cross sections illustrated and should be provided for all rural and urban single and dual carriageway roads with

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posted speeds of 80kph or greater. Exceptions are permitted where it is necessary to maintain continuity with the remainder of an existing route, and for roads providing

access to residential and some commercial and industrial areas. are described in Section 2.2.1 below.

Permitted variations

In order to provide adequate drainage, a standard crossfall of 2% has been applied for carriageways and medians.

Where existing or proposed land use requirements necessitate amendments to the standard carriageway cross sections
Where existing or proposed land use requirements necessitate amendments to the
standard carriageway cross sections then approval from the Overseeing Department
must be sought. In such instances amendments to the utilities layout may be required
to suit the specific road cross section proposed. In such circumstances any proposed
revisions to the standardised utility locations must have the approval of the
appropriate Utility Authorities.
Certain special routes, such as abnormal or exceptional load routes or scenic routes,
may require specific requirements and in these situations consultation should be
sought with the Overseeing Department to agree appropriate solutions.
1.2
Departures
In difficult circumstances Departures may be considered by the Designer, having
regard to all relevant local factors. Careful consideration must be given to layout
options incorporating Departures, having weighed the benefits and any potential
disbenefits. Particular attention must be given to the safety aspects (including
operation, maintenance, construction and demolition) and the environmental and
monetary benefits/disbenefits that would result from the use of Departures. The
consideration process must be recorded. The preferred option must be compared
against options that would meet full Standards.
In these situations, the Overseeing Organisation may be prepared to agree to a
Departure from Standard where the standard is not realistically achievable. Designers
faced by such situations and wishing to consider pursuing this course must discuss any
such option at an early stage in design with the Overseeing Organisation. Proposals to
adopt Departures from Standard must be submitted by the Designer to the Overseeing
Department and formal approval received BEFORE incorporation into a design layout.
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2 Design Principles

2.1

There are many components in a highway provided for specific purposes and each involves a number of interrelated design decisions. Integrating all these components to satisfy the numerous competing demands for highway space and functionality requires carefully balanced decisions. Features included in the cross-section can affect the overall width and their relationship and interaction is often complex. The preferred locations for features in verges and the central reserve may often coincide or overlap and the Designer should be aware of the potential for such conflicts. Generally, there is far more equipment below the surface of verges and central reserves than is apparent on the surface and some underground features must be readily accessible for routine maintenance.

features must be readily accessible for routine maintenance. Network Objectives Towards the end of the design

Network Objectives

Towards the end of the design process, Designers are occasionally faced with fitting additional detailed design features into the available highway. Problems can be avoided by ensuring that the approximate sizes and locations of detailed design features are identified during the very early stages of the design so that the required space can be determined. Designers may need to consider the possibility of future widening, particularly at structures.

The Designer should ensure that the blend of the various components within the available space balances considerations of safety, environmental impact, cost, buildability, operation and maintenance. Where there are options for dimensions, the decision making process should include due consideration of the often complex interaction between these factors and any other design constraints. Proper consideration of the basic design will help ensure that both new roads and improvements to existing highways fit harmoniously into their surroundings.

The aim is to deliver an economic, accessible, integrated, safe, reliable, efficient and environmentally acceptable network for all users. This includes the need for safe, efficient and effective maintenance as well as the necessity to adapt and improve some highways for the benefit of non-motorised users. The Designer must ensure that the proposed cross-section and lane widths are adequate to enable maintenance to be undertaken safely. These factors must be taken into account throughout the design process. A flow chart has been provided in Figure 2.1. to assist with this process.

In urban areas there are likely to be numerous items of street furniture and underground equipment within the highway cross-section offering less scope for co- ordinating features than in rural areas. The Designer will need to ensure a careful

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balance between the many competing demands wherever economically and environmentally practicable to do so.

While there may be fewer items of underground equipment in rural areas, those that do exist are likely to be high capacity services, which could have a bearing on the economical and effective delivery of subsequent maintenance and operation of the network.

a bearing on the economical and effective delivery of subsequent maintenance and operation of the network.
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Establish long term functional needs of corridor, including public transport and other transport considerations (e.g. NMU provision, abnormal load requirements).

Highway Corridor Classification for predicted design traffic volume and NMU usage.

CROSS SECTION AND HEADROOM Determine side slopes according to geotechnical data, stabilisation treatment,
CROSS SECTION AND
HEADROOM
Determine side slopes
according to
geotechnical data,
stabilisation treatment,
maintenance,
environmental and
aesthetic values.
Consider requirements for
Structures, NMU's, Laybys,
Accommodate
communication
equipment, bus
environmental and
stops, utility apparatus, drainage,
heritage factors
vehicle restraint systems etc.
Determine future maintenance
requirements
and Health &
Safety responsibilities
Determine appropriate median
and verge widths
Assess conditions against
standards and identify
deficiencies
Determine appropriate treatment
for hazards within the cross
section
Adjust cross section components
to accommodate stabilisation,
landscaping,
drainage and
environmental requirements
No
Confirm that construction width
can be accommodated within the
available highway boundary
Yes
DESIGN
ALIGNMENT Design Speed Horizontal/Vertical Alignment (adjusting for avoidance of adjacent hazards as required e.g.
ALIGNMENT
Design
Speed
Horizontal/Vertical
Alignment (adjusting for
avoidance of adjacent
hazards as required e.g.
headlight glare
Visibility Requirements
hazards as required e.g. headlight glare Visibility Requirements Figure 2.1 Cross-Section Design Flow Chart Page 5
hazards as required e.g. headlight glare Visibility Requirements Figure 2.1 Cross-Section Design Flow Chart Page 5

Figure 2.1

Cross-Section Design Flow Chart

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2.2 Cross-Section Elements

This chapter identifies the components of the cross-section and presents guidance on details of their design. It applies to all cross-sections other than those through or across structures for which specific requirements are given in Chapter 5. Figure B1 to Figure B14 shows sections with detailed dimensions to indicate how the various components should be brought together to form the cross-section of different types of road. Numerous changes in the cross-section are not desirable and a consistent width is to be preferred whenever practicable along a route.

2.2.1 Paved Width The dimensions of the components of the Paved Width must be as given in Figure B1 to Figure B14, based on a standard lane width of 3.65m. Any reduction or increase in these dimensions is a Departure from Standard, with the exception that:

is a Departure from Standard, with the exception that: • Lane widths of 3.65m are provided

Lane widths of 3.65m are provided in industrial areas where large vehicles form a significant proportion of the traffic.

Lane widths of 3.30m are provided in urban commercial/retail areas where speeds are 50kph and below.

Lane widths of 3.00m are provided in urban residential areas where traffic volumes are low and speeds are 30kph and below.

Curve Widening on curves of low radius to allow for the swept path of long vehicles as provided for in Part 3, Section 3.5.

Lane widths outside the above guidance may be provided under a departure process with full justification provided by the Designer to the Overseeing Department.

It should be noted that lines marking the edge of carriageways are outside of the travelled way and are provided within the hard shoulder or hard strip whereas lane lines provided within the travelled way are ignored when determining lane widths.

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes provide priority to road based public transport provision. Public transport strategy for Qatar identifies routes as part of the road network but provision of HOV lanes is not considered as part of standard cross- sections and will be dealt with as scheme specific documentation.

2.2.2 Shoulders The presence of a shoulder to the nearside edge of a road has many advantages. Shoulders provide structural support for the pavement edges, emergency parking space for stopped vehicles and also provide side clearance between moving vehicles and stationary objects. They also provide an additional running lane for emergency service vehicles and can be utilised during road maintenance operations. The shoulder must be constructed to the same standard as the adjacent carriageway and any reduction in provision will be considered a Departure and must be agreed with the Overseeing Department.

Where shoulders are provided as shown in the standard carriageway cross-sections, they should be constructed with a standard crossfall of 2% or as an extension of the

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crossfall of the superelevated carriageway. Shoulders shall be provided with cross- section dimensions as follows:

3.0m for all dual carriageway roads in rural areas

3.0m for all urban freeways, expressways and arterial roads where the design speed is 100kph or greater. For design speeds less than 100kph the shoulder width may be reduced to 2.5m.

2.2.3

Hard Strips Hard strips provide a safer carriageway, facilitating the removal of surface water and providing additional carriageway width to manoeuvre around stopped vehicles in case of an emergency. Hard strips keep roadside debris away from the running width of an outside lane and maintain pavement integrity and stability.

Shoulders and Hard Strips
Shoulders and Hard Strips

Hard strips are to be provided as shown on Figure B1 to Figure B14.

A width of 1.0m is deemed sufficient for a hard strip for a median edge on a dual carriageway where design speeds are greater than 80kph and reduced to 0.5m where

the design speeds are less than or equal to 80kph.

The hard strip width shall be

allowed for within the standard median width and shall not reduce the lane width. Hard strips are to be provided adjacent to the outer travelled lanes on all unkerbed roads unless replaced by a shoulder. For rural dual carriageways a width of 0.5m shall be provided reducing to 0.35m for rural single carriageways. Refer Table 2.1.

Where a kerb is provided there is a tendency for drivers to steer a distance away from

the kerb, this is termed "shy distance".

At slower speeds the requirement for shy

distance is reduced and conversely, at higher speeds, an increased shy distance is

required.

An additional function of the Hard Strip is to provide the shy distance.

A Hard Strip of 0.5m must be added to the road width, for each kerbed road edge on roads with a design speed greater than 80kph. On kerbed dual carriageway roads of design speed less than or equal to 80kph, a Hard Strip of 0.35m shall be added to the outside edge as a gutter. Refer Figures 5.1 -5.7. The Hard Strip is an additional pavement width and the lane width shall not be reduced. The provision of Shoulders and Hard Strips at junctions is discussed further in Part 4: Intersections and Interchanges.

Table 2.1

Road Type

Shoulder/ and Hard Strips (m)

Outside Edge

Median Edge

Rural

Dual Carriageway (Shoulder)

3.00

-

Dual Carriageway (Hard Strip)

0.50

1.00

Single Carriageway (Hard Strip)

0.35

-

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2.2.4

Shoulder/ and Hard Strips (m) Road Type Outside Edge Median Edge Urban Dual Carriageway (Shoulder)
Shoulder/ and Hard Strips (m)
Road Type
Outside Edge
Median Edge
Urban
Dual Carriageway (Shoulder)
3.00
-
> 80kph
Dual Carriageway (Shoulder)
2.50
-
< 80kph
Dual Carriageway (Hard Strip)
0.50
1.00
> 80kph
Dual Carriageway (Hard Strip)
0.50
0.50
< 80kph
Single Carriageway (Hard Strip)
0.35
-
Hard Strips for Kerbed Roads *
Dual Carriageway > 80kph
0.50
0.50
Dual Carriageway (Shoulder) <
0.35
0.35
80kph
Single Carriageway (Hard Strip)
0.35
-
Note: * - Whilst awaiting installation of services and kerbs a temporary
additional hard strip of 0.35m shall be provided.

Medians Medians are used to separate opposing traffic lanes on dual highways. They provide protection from interference by opposing traffic, minimise headlight glare, provide space for utilities and future lane width, provide additional space for crossing and turning vehicles at at-grade junctions, and allow pedestrian refuge in urban areas.

A median may vary in composition from say a 1.2m width with a pedestrian barrier to a 20m wide median with street lighting, drainage and landscaped areas. Medians are dependent on the width of reservation available and the functional requirements of the median. Often, consultation with the relevant planning authority is required prior to agreement of the width and function of the median.

Narrow medians are those in the range 1.2m to less than 4.0m and are used in restricted conditions. Medians 1.2m wide do not provide a refuge area for pedestrians but do provide the minimum space permitted for clearance of opposing traffic provided the lane edge is kerbed. Narrow medians are used where there is a need to

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provide a divided road, but where the available reservation does not permit a greater median width. Narrow medians are not wide enough to provide effective left turn lanes. The minimum allowable median width to provide a safe pedestrian refuge is 3.5m. Pedestrians’ ability to cross at narrower medians shall be controlled or actively discouraged by the provision of barriers/high kerbs, continuous planting and other features.

A narrow median should not be considered if it is possible to provide an intermediate

or wide median at that particular location. Acceptable standards for the remaining

cross section elements should be maintained.

considered these should discussed with the Overseeing Department prior to being included in the final design.

Where narrow medians are being

included in the final design. Where narrow medians are being this improves drainage of the road.

this improves drainage of the road.

Intermediate width medians are those in the range 4.0m to less than 8.0m and are generally wide enough to provide for a left turn lane. A width of 8.0m is the desirable minimum to provide a left turn lane and a residual median, and a width of 8.0m is the desirable minimum to shelter a crossing vehicle undertaking a U-turn manoeuvre. Where intermediate medians are being considered these should discussed with the Overseeing Department prior to being included in the final design.

Wide Medians 8.0m or greater in width provide space for effective landscaping and may be used for signing, services and drainage. Wide medians may also be used to absorb level differences across the road reserve. Rural medians should be a minimum of 8.0m wide with a central safety barrier.

disadvantage of wide medians occurs at signalised junctions, where the increased

A

time for vehicles to cross the median may lead to ineffective signal operation.

Wide medians should not be implemented at the expense of reduced verge widths. Verge widths are required for pedestrian walkways, installation of services, traffic signs, drainage channels, parking etc. Any significant reduction in verge width may result in hazards in the verge which negate the advantages of a wider median.

It

should be provided with a hard strip and not kerbed. A kerbed median is desirable where there is a need to control left turn movements and is also used when the median is to be landscaped. In the rural situation, a depressed median is preferred as

is recommended that urban medians should be kerbed and that rural medians

Special attention should be given to drainage of medians. If the median is kerbed, the median surface should be designed to have slopes of 2%, and should fall towards the centre of the median if unpaved, or towards the carriageway if paved. Depending on whether the median is paved or open, planted or not, median drainage should not interfere with the operation of the highway. Paved medians may require positive storm water drainage systems incorporating manholes, pipes etc. Non-paved medians may be self-draining, but again, consideration should be given to the provision of additional storage capacity or outlets to allow for storm conditions. All drainage inlets

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in the median should be designed with the top flush with the ground, and culvert ends provided with safety grates to minimise the risk to errant vehicles.

It is common practice to landscape medians. This is seen to provide a better

environment and reduce driver stress. Careful consideration should be given to the choice of planting to ensure that visibility and stopping sight distances are not impaired. Furthermore, the upkeep of the landscape and growth of the plants should be designed for minimal maintenance and hence less disturbance to the road user.

Watering shall not require tankers to obstruct the trafficked lanes at any time.

Where two abutting sections of highway have different carriageway widths it is desirable that a smooth transition should accommodate this difference. The transition should be as long as possible for aesthetic reasons and preferably occur within a horizontal curve.

reasons and preferably occur within a horizontal curve. 2.2.5 Verges The verge is a width of

2.2.5 Verges The verge is a width of the reservation which facilitates additional functions essential for the operation of the road. Verges must be able to accommodate highway signs, structures, utility services, drainage, traffic signals, street lighting and associated ducting. Where a verge is adjacent to a development a set back may be required. Verge widths may vary from a desirable minimum of 3.0m up to the limits of the reservation, which could be in excess of 15.0m. Paved verges should be designed with

2% fall towards the carriageway for drainage purposes. However, in larger paved

a

areas, falls shall be designed to specific drainage collection points in the verge.

It

landscaping) do not affect the sight distances required for the particular design speed of the road. Additional care should also be taken at traffic signals and junctions where additional signage is provided.

is important to ensure that objects in the verge (such as structures, signs or

Verges may be paved, landscaped or graded depending on the intended use of the verge. Due consideration must be given to the proposed width of verges if soakaways are to be provided in the verge as part of the drainage design solution.

Detailed investigations for the provision of services and utilities in verges must be undertaken during the design stage for both new roads and where existing roads are being improved such that all can be accommodated within the verge provision.

2.2.6 Parking Bays and Lanes The need for parking is determined by the existing and future development of the immediate surrounding area. Consultation will be required with the Traffic Section and the Planning Department to determine the future development plans and the amount of on-street and off-street parking required.

In urban locations, parking shall be provided away from the carriageway and in specific lots or contiguous with Minor Urban Collector and Local Access roads. Parking should

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not be provided near junctions or opposite access points as this is likely to increase the probability of accidents and also hinder sight distance.

Parking lanes provide parallel parking adjacent to the outside lane edge of the carriageway, i.e. Lane 1. The standard width required for a parking lane is 2.5m, each bay being nominally 6.5m in length. Care should be taken when providing a parking lane to ensure there is sufficient forward visibility to accommodate the desirable minimum stopping sight distance for the design speed of the road. It is recommended that parking lanes should only be provided on single carriageway roads, with posted speeds of 50 kph or less. The design speed, stopping sight distance and traffic volumes should also be appropriate to allow minimal interruptions to traffic flow when vehicles are entering or leaving the parking lane.

Angled parking bays may be provided contiguous with the trafficked lane where on street parking
Angled parking bays may be provided contiguous with the trafficked lane where on
street parking demand is high. This should only be considered if there is sufficient
width within the available Right of Way. The perpendicular parking bay should be
made up of stalls 3.0m wide and 6.0m in length. The dimension requirements for
angled parking are shown in Table 2.1 and Figure 2.2.
Table 2.2
Parking Bay Dimensions (m)
Angle
Dimension
Element
45
60
75
90
Stall width
parallel to
A 4.25
3.50
3.25
3.00
lane
Stall Length
B 9.00
7.75
6.80
6.00
Stall Depth
C 6.40
6.70
6.60
6.00
x
Edge of Contiguous Trafficked Lane

Figure 2.2

Angled Parking Bay Elements

A reduction in the minimum parking lane width of 2.5m to 2.2m for Local Access roads will be considered. Any proposed reduction in width below either 2.5m or 2.2m will be a Departure and approval from the Overseeing Department will be required before inclusion in the final design.

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Provision for parking in parking lanes or angled parking shall be excluded from the following locations:

Junctions; to provide space for pedestrians to cross and to maintain adequate visibility. See Figure 2.3.

Bends; to maintain adequate forward visibility for drivers.

Pedestrian crossing points; to minimise crossing width and enable crossing pedestrians to be seen clearly by drivers.

Any other location where parking would cause unsafe conditions.

In all cases parking must not encroach on visibility splays.

2.2.7

D D Typical Parking Lane Treatment at Tee-Junctions
D
D
Typical Parking Lane Treatment at Tee-Junctions
2.2.7 D D Typical Parking Lane Treatment at Tee-Junctions Figure 2.3 The dimension “D” indicated in

Figure 2.3

The dimension “D” indicated in Figure 2.3 is the distance between the end of the circular arc forming the side road junction bell mouth and the end of the parking lane taper on the principal road. As an absolute minimum this should be 5.0m but must be increased to ensure that parked vehicles in the parking lane do not encroach within the junction visibility envelop required by the design speed of the principal road.

Side Slopes Side slopes should be designed to ensure roadway stability and to provide a reasonable opportunity for recovery for an out-of-control vehicle. Earth cut and fill slopes should be flattened and liberally rounded as fitting with the topography and consistent with the overall type of highway. Effective erosion control, low-cost maintenance, and adequate drainage of the subgrade are largely dependent upon proper shaping of the side slopes. The rounding and flattening of slopes minimises drifting and wash out of loose material such as sand and hence reduces maintenance costs. Slope and soil data are used in combination to approximate the stability of the slopes and the erosion potential. Overall economy depends not only on the initial construction cost but also on the cost of maintenance, which is dependent on slope stability. Furthermore, flat or rounded natural slopes with good overall appearance are appropriate for any roadside located near developed and populated areas.

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Where possible the embankment side slopes should fall away from the verge at a

slope of 1 in 5, or flatter if conditions permit.

slopes, providing there is adequate fall for drainage. It is usual to consider the provision of a safety barrier when slopes are between 1 in 5 and 1 in 3, and the height

of the embankment is greater than 6m.

1 in 3 inclusive a safety barrier will be required when the embankment height is greater than 2m. Where embankment slopes are steeper than 1 in 2 safety barriers will be required at all locations when the embankment is a minimum of 0.5m. However where slope rounding is employed it is unlikely that slopes steeper than 1 in 2 will occur until the embankment height is greater than 0.85m.

Generally, it is better to use flatter

For embankment slopes between 1 in 2 and

Slopes in cutting should not be steeper than 1 in 2 and preferably should be 1 in 3 to allow mechanical maintenance equipment to be used on the slope. If there is insufficient width which would require slopes steeper than 1 in 2, then partial or full retaining walls should be used or some method of slope stabilisation. Retaining walls should be set back from the carriageway to avoid a constricting feeling and reduce stress for the driver. Steep sided cuttings or earth bunds greater than 1 in 2 within the clear zone must be protected by a safety barrier.

within the clear zone must be protected by a safety barrier. Vehicle restraint systems are discussed

Vehicle restraint systems are discussed in Part 12 Road Safety.

An adequate geotechnical investigation along the route of the proposed new roads works must be carried out prior to specifying slopes. The investigation will determine the slopes for long term stability for both cut and fill and the criteria for benching or erosion protection if required.

Where benching is required, benches should ideally be 4.0m in width and laid to falls of approximately 1 in 20 to avoid ponding of water and consequential slip failure.

In rock cuttings it is recommended to include ditches and a debris verge to provide a safe landing and catchment area for possible rock fall and removal of surface water run off. This additional width also provides a useful area for rock face maintenance. It is becoming common international practice for rock outcroppings to be left in place for reasons of economy or aesthetics. This may be considered for application in Qatar. However in such situations, the conditions described above with respect to steep sided cuttings would apply and a safety barrier must be provided if the rock face outcrop occurs within the clear zone.

For details of sand slopes, wind blown sand and dune control refer to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Communications, Highway Design Manual, Book 2, Section 1.16, Sand Dune Control.

2.3 Auxiliary Lanes

Auxiliary lanes serve as speed change lanes, storage lanes, additional access lanes or a combination of all three. They may also be either right turn or left turn facilities at junctions or provide a continuous contiguous trafficked lane between interchanges and grade separated junctions (refer Part 4: Intersections and Interchanges). A speed

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change lane is primarily for the acceleration or deceleration of vehicles entering or leaving the through traffic lanes. A speed change lane should be sufficient in length and width to enable a driver to make the necessary change between the speed of operation on the through highway and the lower speed necessary to turn with minimal disruption to the speed of following vehicles. Speed-change lanes can have different layouts depending on the alignment of the highway, frequency of intersections and the distance required to effect the necessary change of speed. Generally all auxiliary lanes should have a cross-section width of 3.65m.

2.4 Service Roads

i

2.5

Service roads are roads which run roughly parallel with, and are connected to the main through highway. They are generally of low design speed and preferably restricted to one-way traffic. Figure YY shows a typical reservation with a service road.

Figure YY shows a typical reservation with a service road. Service roads provide a number of

Service roads provide a number of functions depending on the development of the surrounding area. The provision of service roads reduces the number of access points onto the main highway and segregates the higher speed through traffic from the lower speed local traffic. This reduces interruption of traffic flow, makes the best use of road capacity and results in a safer environment.

Service roads may also provide an alternative route if maintenance is required on the through road or in case of an emergency.

The width of the service road is dependent on the classification of traffic expected to use the service road such as light vehicles, delivery lorries or heavy goods vehicles, and must comply with the lane widths described in sub-Section 2.2.1 of this Section. Further consideration should be given to the turning requirements of such vehicles, the type and number of access points and type of street parking, if required.

Pedestrian Facilities

Pedestrian facilities are generally found within the verge and at road crossing points. The provision of paved pedestrian areas is related to the function of the roadside development. To obtain reliable estimates of pedestrian volumes and movements, studies should be carried out at the concept and preliminary design stage. All urban roads and junctions shall allow space for footpaths unless the area strictly forbids walking. A width of 2.0m should be provided depending on pedestrian needs. The width of paved pedestrian areas should be increased to a minimum of 3.0m near schools, large sports venues, commercial areas or other areas with high pedestrian volumes. Footpaths may be constructed with paving blocks or concrete and laid to crossfalls of 2% towards the roadway to facilitate drainage. In the event that footpaths are remote from the carriageway a separate drainage system must be provided.

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Where possible a separation area should be included within the verge which acts as a buffer between vehicular and pedestrian traffic. A minimum separation width of 1.2m is desirable. A separation width is not required in commercial areas with on street parking where wider footpaths are usually provided.

Pedestrians should be actively discouraged from crossing roads along the length of dual carriageways. Special pedestrian refuge sections should be provided at selected points, or ideally at junction locations. It is recommended that these refuge areas be a minimum of 3.5m wide and should be staggered so that pedestrians are not able to approach and cross both carriageways in one line.

On roads with a posted speed of 60kph or less, it is recommended to provide
On roads with a posted speed of 60kph or less, it is recommended to provide a pelican
crossing (signalized pedestrian crossing) or a zebra crossing (pedestrian crossing
defined by road markings) as a crossing point for pedestrians. These crossings should
be located, signed and marked in accordance with this manual and with the Qatar
Traffic Manual.
In areas with high volumes of pedestrian traffic, footpaths should be provided on both
sides of the road. Some urban areas and most frontage roads can be served with a
footpath on one side only. In these areas, footpaths must be continuous for the full
pedestrian route.
On rural roads, footpaths are not usually required, except along sections of road
where there is substantial residential or commercial development. In such situations,
footpaths are usually located between the bottom of the embankment and the
property line.
2.6
Clearances
Generally, no structures apart from roadside furniture, such as signs and lighting
columns, are allowed to fall within the road reservations. The positioning of signs and
other street furniture should be in accordance with the Qatar Traffic
Control Manual. If it is not possible to position structures outside the reservation,
consideration should be given to providing a road restraint system or safety cushions,
refer Section 12: Road Safety.
Structures should not be placed within 1.2m of the edge of the hard shoulder, or 0.6m
of a kerbed road. Setback of road restraint systems is dealt with in Section 12: Road
Safety.

The minimum vertical clearances are specified to prevent vehicles or their loads from coming into contact with any structure or roadside furniture.

The minimum clearances for structures are given in Table 2.3. These clearances are to be provided across all trafficked lanes including verges and shoulder or hard strips. The clearances allow for 200mm of pavement construction which may be applied during the maintenance of the road.

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Table 2.3

Standard Headroom at Structures

Category of Road/Structure Type Clearance Required High Load Routes 6.5m Gantries/Lightweight Structures 6.5m
Category of Road/Structure Type
Clearance Required
High Load Routes
6.5m
Gantries/Lightweight Structures
6.5m
Pedestrian Over Bridge
6.5m
Freeway and Expressway Bridges
6.0m
Camel Underpasses
6.0m
All Other Road Structures
5.7m
Pedestrian Underpasses
3.5m
OHPS
Equal to the vertical clearance of the
protected structure
Minimum clearance shall be provided to all structures or roadside furniture that
overhangs the carriageway. These include any bridge or building structure, sign gantry,
overhead cables or suspended lighting.
Where a public utility specifies a minimum vertical clearance to its plant then the
greater of the clearances must be provided for. Protective measures may be required
at overhead cable crossings such as guard wires. Guidance may be sought from the
Ministry of Electricity and Water when planning works in the vicinity of their
installations.
Where a road passing underneath a bridge is on a sag curve, the headroom given
above shall be increased in accordance with Table 2.4. The sag radius is measured
along the carriageway over a 25m chord.
Table 2.4
Sag Radius Compensation
Additional
Sag Radius
Clearance
(m)
(mm)
100
80
1200
70
1500
55
2000
45
3000
25
6000
15
>6000
nil

Nominated existing structures over highways with non-conforming clearances shall be protected against accidental damage from over height vehicles by adopting the following protective measures:

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2.6.1

2.7

Rerouting of over height vehicles to service roads or ramps to prevent their passage beneath bridges with clearances less than shown in Table 2.3. Warning systems shall be implemented highlighting height restrictions and indicating alternative routes. This can be done via an integrated traffic system (ITS) (e.g. OVDS, CCTV cameras VMS, etc.).

Over height protection system (OHPS) shall be used on structures with headroom less than 5.7m.

OHPS shall be made integral with the existing structures.

OHPS shall be designed to resist highway collision load in accordance with the UK Highways Agency DMRB BD 65 (Design Criteria for Collision Protection Beams).

OHPS will be positioned at strategic locations taking into consideration the safety of the public in the event that the top boom is damaged or becomes detached.

All OHPS shall have headroom equal to the vertical clearance of the structure being protected.

The design of the OHPS shall take into consideration ease of construction, future maintenance, the safety of the public and aesthetics.

safety of the public and aesthetics. • • • • • • Road Restraint System Utilities

Road Restraint System

Utilities Road corridors are given in Figures XX-YY. These are intended to provide adequate space for road cross section requirements and at the same time allow the public utilities sufficient space for existing and proposed plant. Where space for utilities is limited, “wayleaves” outside the road reservation may be obtained by contacting the planning department. Full details for the provision of Utilities is given in Part 9 Utilities.

A road restraint system is the general name for a vehicle restraint system or a pedestrian restraint system used on the road comprising longitudinal barriers to protect motorists and pedestrians from natural or man-made hazards located in the road reserve, and to protect non motorised users from out of control vehicular traffic. Safety fences may be located in the verge or median depending on the particular requirements and location.

The safety barrier is designed to prevent an errant vehicle from leaving the carriageway and striking a fixed object or feature located in the Clear Zone by containing and redirecting the errant vehicle.

The Clear Zone is the total width of traversable land on the nearside or offside, within the road boundary, which is to be kept clear of unprotected hazards. The zone is measured from the nearest edge of the trafficked lane and includes the hard shoulder or hard strip where these occur. The zone does not normally include the boundary fence or areas of land beyond the road boundary. However, in some circumstances, it may be necessary to consider hazards on or beyond the road boundary.

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Please refer to Section 12 Road Safety for full details of road restraint systems, types and provision.

2.8 Fencing

There are many different types of fences used within the road reservation, each type having particular applications. The main types of fencing are listed below:

Right of Way Fencing to delineate and separate private property from the road reservation.

Road Restraint Systems erected where considered necessary.

Animal Fencing prevents animals from entering the highway reservation. The size and type of fencing is dependent on the type of animal the fencing is intended to control, e.g. camel or goat.

the fencing is intended to control, e.g. camel or goat. • Acoustic Fencing may be required

Acoustic Fencing may be required in sensitive locations such as residential areas to lower the traffic noise level. The fence forms a barrier and the sound is reflected away from the sensitive area.

Headlight Barriers may be implemented at locations where it is desirable to minimise the glare of the headlights of oncoming vehicles, such as at unlit bends on rural roads.

Pedestrian Access Fencing may be required where there are significant numbers of pedestrians such as on commercial streets, outside schools or large sports complexes where crowds may gather. The fencing controls the movement of pedestrian traffic and lowers the risk of a pedestrian accidentally moving onto a live carriageway.

2.9 Road Closure and Partial Closure

The transition between the previous road hierarchy and the new hierarchy will involve the upgrading and downgrading of existing roads to ensure compatibility with the new criteria.

It is acknowledged that the adoption of the new hierarchy will require upgrading/downgrading of some roads to meet the new classification. The extent of the difference between the previous road hierarchy classification and the new classification will influence the physical engineering extent of the upgrade/downgrade required. It may be necessary to upgrade/downgrade a specific road in order to allow other roads to meet their new roles within the road hierarchy or to ensure that adverse rerouting of traffic does not takes place. This will depend to a great extent on the type and extent of land use development adjacent to the road and the status of any potential new development and will influence the integration of on-road parking and the access strategy to serve adjacent land uses. This will be pertinent with respect to current access and parking provisions associated with existing service roads.

The main aims of full or partial road closures are to:

Deter non-access traffic from using residential roads as through routes;

Limit the number of minor accesses onto major routes;

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Remove the crossroad type junction which is generally considered unsafe. Refer Part 4 Intersections and Interchanges.

Amendments to existing roads to conform to the new road hierarchy will require the provision of clear and concise warning and/or diversion signs that must be provided during the first two to three months of operation. This will help assist the travelling public in understanding the new road layout. Refer to Qatar Traffic Signs Manual for advice and layouts.

Typical turning heads are shown in Figure 2.4. The choice of layout is dependent on the width of carriageway available and the positions of existing property accesses that have to be accommodated by the closure.

accesses that have to be accommodated by the closure. Any barriers or turning heads shall be

Any barriers or turning heads shall be designed in such a way as to ensure that emergency vehicles are able to gain access. This may be achieved by the use of lockable barrier gates or demountable bollards. Whichever is chosen, it must be capable of preventing private vehicles from passing through the restriction. For this reason, solutions such as a route through a landscaped area are not recommended as they are open to abuse, particularly by drivers of four wheel drive vehicles.

Partial closures allow restricted access into the areas by the use of width restrictions or raised humps to make alternative routing unattractive for the general road user.

Partial closure is often incorporated at undesirable locations along the major road to discourage use such as at accesses near to major junctions. Where the minor road has to remain open for emergency vehicle access or to provide limited access into the development then partial closure is a preferred method for controlling general use.

For further reference on traffic calming and partial closures please refer to the “Manual for Streets” and the “Manual for Streets 2” published by the Chartered Institution for Highways and Transportation and “A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (2011) published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.

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Cross Sections Typical Turning Head Details Minimum Dimensions for Turning Heads Note: A central island radius
Typical Turning Head Details
Typical Turning Head Details

Minimum Dimensions for Turning Heads

Note:

A central island radius of 10 metres will just allow the vehicle to turn about. In view of the restricted area available, the island may be reduced or omitted altogether.

In situations where larger vehicles have to be accommodated, these dimensions should be increased to take account of the larger turning radius and swept path.

Figure 2.4

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3 Level of Service

3.1 Introduction

In addition to strategic importance and safety, the desired characteristics of traffic flow will generally determine the class of a road. For example, high volumes of traffic are generally associated with urban freeways and expressways, whereas low volumes are associated with rural routes.

Horizontal, vertical and cross section geometry; Traffic composition; Lane distribution; Variations in traffic flow;
Horizontal, vertical and cross section geometry;
Traffic composition;
Lane distribution;
Variations in traffic flow;
Traffic interruptions;
Bus operations, cyclists and pedestrians

In most urban situations, the capacity of intersections on a particular network will govern the capacity of the network as a whole. Uninterrupted flow only takes place when the influence of at-grade intersections can be neglected. This is rarely the case on most urban road systems.

The capacity of a highway is affected by the composition and the habits and desires of the traffic using the road system and the controls that the designer imparts onto the traffic. These include:

The highway infrastructure provides a service to road users and as such it is important that this infrastructure is of a high quality providing a good level of service.

3.2 Level of Service

Level of Service (LOS) is defined as a qualitative measure describing the operational conditions on the highway network and road users’ perception of how effective the combination of the various elements of a road contribute to the user experience in providing an efficient network and journey reliability.

Under ideal conditions, analysis of all of the above factors will have an influence on the capacity of a highway’s ability to carry the maximum number of vehicles in safety at an appropriate level of service. In this situation level of service is a technical concept which attempts to describe the travel experience in terms of operating speed, the ability to overtake vehicles in safety, traffic congestion, overall safety and driver and passenger comfort. In general there are six levels of service, designated from A to F, with level of service A (LOS A) representing the best operating condition (i.e. free

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flow) and level of service F (LOS F) the worst (i.e. forced or breakdown flow). For cost, environmental impact and other reasons highways are not typically designed to provide LOS A conditions during peak periods, but rather some lower level of service that reflects a balance between traveller demands and economic and environmental concerns.

The different levels of service can generally be described as follows:

LOS A – free flow with high speeds in which individual drivers are virtually unaffected by the presence of others. Manoeuvrability, comfort and convenience are extremely high.

LOS B – stable flow with drivers still having reasonable freedom to drive at their selected speed. Manoeuvrability, comfort and convenience are less than for LOS A.

comfort and convenience are less than for LOS A. • LOS C – stable flow with

LOS C – stable flow with drivers becoming restricted in their choice of desired speed. Manoeuvrability, comfort and convenience begin to decline noticeably at this level.

LOS D – is close to the limit of stable flow and drivers are severely restricted in their choice of desired speed. Manoeuvrability, comfort and convenience are poor. Small increases in traffic flow will generally cause operational problems.

LOS E – occurs when traffic volumes are at or close to capacity. Speed and the ability to manoeuvre are dictated by the traffic stream. Flow is unstable and minor disturbances to the traffic flow will cause breakdown.

LOS F – the amount of traffic demand reaches capacity, flow breakdown occurs and queuing and delay result.

The level of service concept should be used as the basis for the capacity and operational analysis for all new roads. Table 3.1 shows the relationship between operational speed and vehicle flow rate for each level of service. In this context the Designer should aim to provide as a minimum LOS C for rural roads and LOS D for urban roads. Traffic analysis should provide sufficient data to determine an appropriate operational speed.

When two or more lanes are available for traffic in a single direction, the distribution in lane-use will vary widely. The lane distribution will depend on traffic regulations, traffic composition, speed and volume, number and location of access points, origin- destination patterns of drivers, development, environment, and local driver habits.

Due to the above factors, there are no typical lane distributions. The recommendation for each LOS flow rate recognises that flow in some individual lanes will be higher and in others lower, and as such the figures in Table 3.1 should be considered an average for determining the number of lanes required.

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Table 3.1

Level of Service Flow Rates for Different Operational Speeds

Level of Service

 

Operational Speed (kph)

 

120

100

80

70

60

50

A

820

710

610

520

450

400

B

1280

1120

960

810

710

630

C

1840

1600

1370

1160

1020

900

D

2340

2040

1640

1470

1300

1140

E

2660

2320

1980

1670

1480

1300

Notes:

1. 2. 3.
1.
2.
3.

The flow rates in the above table reflect changes in traffic flow densities (vehicles/lane/hour) with respect to Operating Speeds. The flows in each row are the maximum for each LOS.

Flows in excess of those shown for LOS E for each operational speed are considered providing LOS F.

The flows above are Design Year flows, 15 years after opening.

At the planning stage, major routes should be planned and designed as multi-lane divided, controlled access facilities even though they may be developed by staged construction. In the plans for each stage of development, provision should be made for further improvements to existing sections forming part of the level of service assessment.