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This is to certify that PARAS SUKHIJA and SAURAV DAWAR ,

completed the project titled LOGIC GATES , during the
academic year 2015-2016 for the physics practical evaluation
and submitted the report compiled in the following pages under
my guidance

Mrs. Sharanjeet kaur

Department of Physics
Apeejay School, Faridabad


We feel privileged in expressing my deep sense of gratitude to

our teachers MRS. SHARANJEET KAUR for her immense
contribution towards the completion of this project . she not only
reviewed all the developments in this project meticulously, but
also taught us much tact to carry out this project. This rich
experience in the field , accumulated over the years of working
in the same has been over the years of working in the same
has been an invaluable asset throughout
We are indebted to her guidance and encouragement. She has
been and will remain a constant source of guidance and


Logic gates are related with Boolean algebra, which differ from
both ordinary and binary algebra. In this the variable permitted
to have only values true or false usually written as 1 or 0. The
operation of logic gates is normally done by logic digital
integrated circuits (ICs). In another word digital ICs are logic
circuits. The building block of digital computers and calculators.
The basic digital circuits are rather simple and will serve as an
introduction to digital IC


We know the unidirectional characteristics of a solid state

semiconductor diode. When forward biased this diode acts like
a closed switch, i.e. it permits current to flow in a complete
circuit, when reverse biased it acts like an open switch
When reversed , it acted like an open switch and permitted little
. if any ,current to flow. This unique characteristic of a diode is
employed in the design of basic logic circuits
In digital electronics a gate is a logic circuits with one
output and one or more inputs. An output signal occurs for
certain combinations of input signals.
Modern computers do may jobs from scientific computation to
business accounting. Computers are also used in the automatic
control of manufacturing processors. These devices perform

highly complex jobs. They consist of arrangement of simple

logic circuits.
To solve problems, a computer has to make decisions as it
programme through the steps in the problem solving. Computer
circuits that make decisions and comparisons are called logic


To detect the presence of

adulterants in sugar

Test-tubes, dil. HCl.

Sugar is usually contaminated with
washing soda and other insoluble