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Department of IUBAT-International University of Business Agriculture and

Technology.

I wish to express my gratitude to number of people without whose constant

guidance and encouragement this project would not have been possible. I express

my sincere thanks to my project guider my beloved teacher Engr. Dr. KMN Sarwar

Iqbal for his continuous guidance and for providing me help as and when required.

This project report purpose is to provide a dynamics concept about implementation

of coordinate system during airplane landing.

Finally, I wish to thank my friends and all those who gave me valuable inputs

directly or indirectly in making this project report.

1 | Page

Contents

1. Problem Statement

2. Theoretical Evaluation

. 3-8

3. Problem Analysis

. 9

..10

5. Conclusion

...10

6. Reference

10

2 | Page

landing system of Aeroplane

Problem Statement:

constant speed of 200km/h and is towing the glider B, which is

gaining altitude. If the tow cable has a length r=60m and is

increasing at the constant rate of 5 degrees per second,

determine the magnitudes of the velocity V and acceleration a of

the glider for the instant when =15

Theoretical Evaluation:

Newtons 2nd Law of motion: The acceleration of a particle is proportional to

the resultant force acting on it and is in the direction of this force.

Newtons second law forms the basis for most of the analysis in dynamics. For a particle

of mass m subjected to a resultant force F, the law may be stated as

3 | Page

F = ma

defines position variables

defines positivity

Inertial F = ma

translating

rotating

Coordinate Rotations:

4 | Page

Roll = Rotation about x-axis

Pitch = Rotation about y-axis

Yaw = Rotation about z-axis

Each rotation is a one-dimensional transformation.

Any two coordinate systems can be related by a sequence of 3 rotations of the

Coordinate Rotations

do this in such a way that, eventually, the model could be

implemented in

1. Equation of motion

2. Assumptions and Coordinate system

3. Dynamic Equation

1.

Equation of Motion

An airplane operates near the surface of the earth which moves about the sun.

Suppose that the equations of motion (F = ma and M = I) are derived for an

accurate inertial reference frame and that approximations characteristic of airplane

flight (altitude and speed) are introduced into these equations. What results is a set

of equations which can be obtained by assuming that the earth is flat, nonrotating,

and an approximate inertial reference frame, that is, the flat earth model. The

equations of motion are composed of translational (force) equations (F = ma) and

rotational (moment) equations (M = I) and are called the six degree of freedom

(6DOF) equations of motion. For trajectory analysis (performance), the

translational equations are uncoupled from the rotational equations by assuming

that the airplane rotational rates are small and that control surface deflections do

5 | Page

not affect forces. The translational equations are referred to as the three degree of

freedom (3DOF) equations of motion.

2.

vertical plane over a flat earth, the following physical model is assumed:

a. The earth is flat, no rotating, and an approximate inertial reference frame. The

acceleration of gravity is constant and perpendicular to the surface of the earth.

This is known as the flat earth model.

b. The atmosphere is at rest relative to the earth, and atmospheric properties are

functions of altitude only.

c. The airplane is a conventional jet airplane with fixed engines, an aft tail, and a

right-left plane of symmetry. It is modeled as avariablemass particle.

d. The forces acting on an airplane in symmetric flight (no sideslip) are the thrust,

the aerodynamic force, and the weight. They act at the center of gravity of the

airplane, and the thrust and the aerodynamic force lie in the plane of symmetry.

The derivation of the equations of motion is clarified by defining a number of

coordinate systems. For each coordinate system that moves with the airplane, the x

and z axes are in the plane of symmetry of the airplane, and the y axis is such that

the system is right handed. The x axis is in the direction of motion, while the z axis

points earthward if the aircraft is in an upright orientation. Then, the y axis points

out the right wing (relative to the pilot). The four coordinate systems used here are

the following

The ground axes system Exyz is fixed to the surface of the earth at mean sea level,

and the xz plane is the vertical plane. It is an approximate inertial reference

frame.The local horizon axes system Oxhyhzh moves with the airplane (O is the

airplane center of gravity), but its axes remain parallel to the ground axes.The wind

axes system Oxwywzw moves with the airplane, and the xw axis is coincident with

the velocity vector.The body axes system Oxbybzb is fixed to the airplane.The

6 | Page

coordinate systems for flight in a vertical plane are shown in Fig. 2.1, where the

airplane is located at an altitude h above mean sea level. In the figure, V denotes

the velocity of the airplane relative to the air

3.

Dynamic Equations

Dynamics is used to derive the differential equations for V and which define the

velocity vector of the airplane center of gravity relative to the ground. Newtons

second law states that

F = ma

Where F is the resultant external force acting on the airplane, m is the mass of the

airplane, and a is the inertial acceleration of the airplane. For the normal operating

conditions of airplanes (altitude and speed), a reference frame fixed to the earth is

7 | Page

airplane relative to the ground.

F = T + A +W

Where T is the thrust, A is the aerodynamic force, and W is the weight. These

concentrated forces are the result of having integrated the distributed forces over

the airplane and having moved them to the centerof gravity with appropriate

moments. Recall that the moments are not needed because the force and moment

equations have been uncoupled. By definition, the components of the aerodynamic

force parallel and perpendicular to the velocity vector are called the drag and the

lift so that

A= D + L

These forces are shown in Fig. 2.2 where the thrust vector is orientated relative to

the velocity vector by the angle which is referred to as the thrust angle of attack.

8 | Page

While the local horizon system is used for obtaining the kinematic equations, a

more direct derivation of the dynamic equations is possible by using the wind axes

system.

Problem Analysis:

9 | Page

We assume bo side slip due to cross wind.

We should have a clear concept about relative motion

We should also have a clear concept about n-t coordinates and polar

coordinates.

Conclusion:

A theoretical and mathematical analysis has been presented for the landing

dynamics of a air plane with landing system. The equations were reduced by

simplifying assumptions which resulted in a modified analysis consistent with the

landing dynamics.

Reference:

https://books.google.com.bd/books?isbn=032316286X

https://books.google.com.bd/books?

hl=en&lr=&id=t0eGFpSwN0wC&oi=fnd&pg=PR31&d

q=application+of+dynamics+landing+system+on+a

irplane&ots=uIbLJfUtH&sig=pJGWLFshnmubUw7Z73rqsZtrW0Y&redir_

esc=y#v=onepage&q=application%20of

%20dynamics%20landing%20system%20on

%20airplane&f=false

http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/2.2744?

journalCode=ja

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?

tp=&arnumber=705894&url=http%3A%2F

10 | P a g e

%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp

%3Farnumber%3D705894

11 | P a g e

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