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This report is prepared by Md. Ismail Morshed from Mechanical Engineering

Department of IUBAT-International University of Business Agriculture and
I wish to express my gratitude to number of people without whose constant
guidance and encouragement this project would not have been possible. I express
my sincere thanks to my project guider my beloved teacher Engr. Dr. KMN Sarwar
Iqbal for his continuous guidance and for providing me help as and when required.
This project report purpose is to provide a dynamics concept about implementation
of coordinate system during airplane landing.
Finally, I wish to thank my friends and all those who gave me valuable inputs
directly or indirectly in making this project report.

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1. Problem Statement

2. Theoretical Evaluation

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3. Problem Analysis

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4. Result & Discussion


5. Conclusion


6. Reference


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Implemantation of coordinate system in

landing system of Aeroplane
Problem Statement:

Airplane A flying horizontally with a

constant speed of 200km/h and is towing the glider B, which is
gaining altitude. If the tow cable has a length r=60m and is
increasing at the constant rate of 5 degrees per second,
determine the magnitudes of the velocity V and acceleration a of
the glider for the instant when =15

Theoretical Evaluation:
Newtons 2nd Law of motion: The acceleration of a particle is proportional to
the resultant force acting on it and is in the direction of this force.
Newtons second law forms the basis for most of the analysis in dynamics. For a particle
of mass m subjected to a resultant force F, the law may be stated as
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F = ma

Coordinate systems: A coordinate system may be defined

defines position variables
defines positivity
Inertial F = ma

A cartesian coordinate system has right angles and is right-handed.

Coordinate Rotations:

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There are 3 basic rotations an aircraft can make:

Roll = Rotation about x-axis
Pitch = Rotation about y-axis
Yaw = Rotation about z-axis
Each rotation is a one-dimensional transformation.
Any two coordinate systems can be related by a sequence of 3 rotations of the
Coordinate Rotations

Suppose we are modeling the landing of a plane. We would like to

do this in such a way that, eventually, the model could be
implemented in
1. Equation of motion
2. Assumptions and Coordinate system
3. Dynamic Equation


Equation of Motion

An airplane operates near the surface of the earth which moves about the sun.
Suppose that the equations of motion (F = ma and M = I) are derived for an
accurate inertial reference frame and that approximations characteristic of airplane
flight (altitude and speed) are introduced into these equations. What results is a set
of equations which can be obtained by assuming that the earth is flat, nonrotating,
and an approximate inertial reference frame, that is, the flat earth model. The
equations of motion are composed of translational (force) equations (F = ma) and
rotational (moment) equations (M = I) and are called the six degree of freedom
(6DOF) equations of motion. For trajectory analysis (performance), the
translational equations are uncoupled from the rotational equations by assuming
that the airplane rotational rates are small and that control surface deflections do
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not affect forces. The translational equations are referred to as the three degree of
freedom (3DOF) equations of motion.

Assumptions and Coordinate System

In deriving the equations of motion for the non-steady flight of an airplane in a

vertical plane over a flat earth, the following physical model is assumed:
a. The earth is flat, no rotating, and an approximate inertial reference frame. The
acceleration of gravity is constant and perpendicular to the surface of the earth.
This is known as the flat earth model.
b. The atmosphere is at rest relative to the earth, and atmospheric properties are
functions of altitude only.
c. The airplane is a conventional jet airplane with fixed engines, an aft tail, and a
right-left plane of symmetry. It is modeled as avariablemass particle.
d. The forces acting on an airplane in symmetric flight (no sideslip) are the thrust,
the aerodynamic force, and the weight. They act at the center of gravity of the
airplane, and the thrust and the aerodynamic force lie in the plane of symmetry.
The derivation of the equations of motion is clarified by defining a number of
coordinate systems. For each coordinate system that moves with the airplane, the x
and z axes are in the plane of symmetry of the airplane, and the y axis is such that
the system is right handed. The x axis is in the direction of motion, while the z axis
points earthward if the aircraft is in an upright orientation. Then, the y axis points
out the right wing (relative to the pilot). The four coordinate systems used here are
the following

The ground axes system Exyz is fixed to the surface of the earth at mean sea level,
and the xz plane is the vertical plane. It is an approximate inertial reference
frame.The local horizon axes system Oxhyhzh moves with the airplane (O is the
airplane center of gravity), but its axes remain parallel to the ground axes.The wind
axes system Oxwywzw moves with the airplane, and the xw axis is coincident with
the velocity vector.The body axes system Oxbybzb is fixed to the airplane.The
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coordinate systems for flight in a vertical plane are shown in Fig. 2.1, where the
airplane is located at an altitude h above mean sea level. In the figure, V denotes
the velocity of the airplane relative to the air


Dynamic Equations

Dynamics is used to derive the differential equations for V and which define the
velocity vector of the airplane center of gravity relative to the ground. Newtons
second law states that
F = ma
Where F is the resultant external force acting on the airplane, m is the mass of the
airplane, and a is the inertial acceleration of the airplane. For the normal operating
conditions of airplanes (altitude and speed), a reference frame fixed to the earth is
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an approximate inertial frame. Hence, a is approximated by the acceleration of the

airplane relative to the ground.

The resultant external force acting on the airplane is given by

F = T + A +W
Where T is the thrust, A is the aerodynamic force, and W is the weight. These
concentrated forces are the result of having integrated the distributed forces over
the airplane and having moved them to the centerof gravity with appropriate
moments. Recall that the moments are not needed because the force and moment
equations have been uncoupled. By definition, the components of the aerodynamic
force parallel and perpendicular to the velocity vector are called the drag and the
lift so that
A= D + L
These forces are shown in Fig. 2.2 where the thrust vector is orientated relative to
the velocity vector by the angle which is referred to as the thrust angle of attack.

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In order to derive the scalar equations, it is necessary to select a coordinate system.

While the local horizon system is used for obtaining the kinematic equations, a
more direct derivation of the dynamic equations is possible by using the wind axes

Problem Analysis:

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Result & Discussion:

We treat each plane as a particle.

We assume bo side slip due to cross wind.
We should have a clear concept about relative motion
We should also have a clear concept about n-t coordinates and polar

A theoretical and mathematical analysis has been presented for the landing
dynamics of a air plane with landing system. The equations were reduced by
simplifying assumptions which resulted in a modified analysis consistent with the
landing dynamics.

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