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Project Report on

MANUFACTURE OF
2-PHENYLACETOPHENONE
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
of the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering (Chemical Engineering)


By

Harshali Parab (60011120040)


Heta Gandhi (60011120013)
Sonam Purohit (60011138009)
Guided by
Mr. Pradeep Talwelkar

Department of Chemical Engineering

Dwarkadas J. Sanghvi College of Engineering


2015

2-Phenylacetophenone
Synonyms
-

Acetophenone, 2-phenyl
1, 2-Diphenylethan-1-one
1, 2-Diphenylethanone
Benzoin, deoxyBenzyl phenyl ketone
Deoxybenzoin
Desoxybenzoin
Phenyl benzyl ketone
Phenylmethyl phenyl ketone
Phenylacetophenone
NSC 131456; NSC 249236; NSC 6097;

Molecular Structure:

Molecular Formula:

C14H12O (Hill formula)


CHCOCHCH (Chemical Formula)

History
2-phenylacetophenone is a ketone also known as benzyl phenyl ketone.Deoxybenzoin is
intermediates in the syntheses of isoflavones and are found in several plants, such as
Glycyrrhiza sp., Trifolium subterraneum and Ononis spinosa, and marine sources Many
deoxybenzoin compounds have shown significant estrogen receptor modulatory, urease
inhibitory, antimicrobial and antiviral properties .As part of our work involving the synthesis
of a series of deoxybenzoin derivatives for urease inhibitory activity screening we report
herein the crystal structure of the title deoxybenzoin .
Since 1925, variations of at least three synthetic approaches have been developed. The early
synthesis of isoflavones were based on the formylation of a substituted deooxybenzoin
(Baker and Robinson, 1928).
Deoxybenzoins undergo a-keto formylation, intramolecular acetal formation, followed by a
facile dehydration to give the pyrone ring C and hence, the isoflavones. Deoxybenzoins have
been synthesized utilizing the following strategies (Chapman and Stephen 1923):
(1) reacting phenyl acetic acid (X=CO2H) with the appropriately substituted phenol in the
presence of ZnCl2,
(2) reacting the acid chloride (X=COCI) with the appropriately substituted phenol in the
presence of AICI3, and
(3) Hoeschs method (Hoesch, 1915) of condensing the nitrile (X=CN) with the phenol to
give an intermediate ketamine hydrochloride, which can be hydrolyzed to the deoxybenzoin
with the case and in high overall yield (92 percent) (Shriner and Hull, 1945).
Selective protection of all phenolic oxygens but the 2-hydroxy group is a prerequisite in order
to prevent ring formylation and subsequent polymerization following the latter strategy using
ethyl formate (as formyl equivalent) in the presence of sodium and benzyl.

Synthesis
1. It is also already known that benzyl phenyl ketone is producible by palladium-catalyzed
coupling of benzoyl chloride with
powder. (Aktiengesellschaft, 1991)

benzyl

chloride

in

the

presence

of

zinc

(Organic Chemistry (Sie))


2. When a mixture of benzyl bromide (1 equiv) and benzoyl chloride (1 equiv) was added into a
suspension of tetrakis (triphenylphosphine) palladium (0) (5%mol) and zinc powder (2 equiv)
in 1, 2-dimethoxyethane (DME) at room temperature and stirred for 20min, the reductive
coupling product, benzyl phenyl ketone was obtained in 88% yield. The presence of the
palladium catalyst was essential for the reaction; without the palladium catalyst, benzyl
phenyl ketone was obtained in less than 4% yield along with many by-products. (Toshio
SATO,
1981)

3. The oxidation of 1-aryl-2, 3-diphenylpropan-1-ols yields benzyl phenyl ketone and


substituted benzyl phenyl ketones. This reaction can also be effected by chromic acid, in
which case Cr (IV) is the oxidant.
4. Can be produced from benzoin by the action of nascent hydrogen evolved by zinc and
hydrochloric acid. It can be more easily obtained by similar treatment of chlorobenzile
dissolved in alcohol.
C14H10Cl2O + 2HCl + 2Zn
2ZnCl2 + C14H12O

Applications
2-Phenyl acetophenone finds application mainly in the pharmaceutical and polymerization
industries. It is used as a solvent and an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and
pesticides. In the polymerization processes it is used as a photo-initiator in vinyl
polymerization processes.
1. Manufacture of 1,2-diphenyl ethane
2-Phenylacetophenone is used to produce 1,2-diphenyl ethane which is important drug in
pharmaceutical industry. The reaction occurs with reagent LiAlH 4/P2I4 and solvent benzene with other
condition of heating for 6 hours. The yield is about 62%.
2. Synthesis of Coumestans, Isoflavonoids
2-Phenylacetophenone is used as a key intermediate in total syntheses of Coumestans and
Isoflavonoids such as Coumestrol, Genistein and Daidzein which are phytoestrogens contained in
soybean and black soybean. These compounds are widely used in dietary supplements

Isoflavonoids play an important role in human nutrition as health promoting natural chemicals. They
belong to plant secondary metabolites that mediate diverse biological functions through numerous
pathways. They are structurally similar to estrogens, exerting both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic
properties in various tissues. (Miadokova, Dec, 2009, 2(4))
Coumestans are natural compounds known for large number of biological activities. Many of their
biological effects can be attributed to their action as phytoestrogens and polyphenols. In the last
decade, anticancer effects of these compounds have been described in vitro but there is only limited
number of studies based on models in vivo.
3. Intermediate in Manufacture of Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen citrate has for years been used in clinical treatment of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, in
recent years some hospitals have tried to induce ovulation. Ethylation of deoxybenzoin with either
ethyl bromide or diethyl sulphate, cataylzed by Et 3BuNBr (a phase transfer catalyst or PTC) gives
ethyldeoxybenzoin, an intermediate in the preparation of Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal antiestrogen drug
used widely in the treatment of breast cancer. (Y. Sasson, 2012)

4. Polymer Industry

Synthetic polymers are used extensively as plastics, rubbers, foams, textiles, and construction
materials; however, the flammability of many polymers is recognized as a safety hazard and an
important challenge in polymer research. Although halogenated small molecule additives have been
proven effective in reducing the flammability of polymer materials, environmental and health
concerns are leading to restricted use of such additives.
Deoxybenzoin-Based Polyarylates and Polyphosphonate can be used as Halogen-Free Fire-Resistant
Polymers. It has properties like flame-resistant, halogen-free, and possess high thermal stability, low
heat release capacities and high char yields. Example is 4,4-bishydroxydeoxybenzoin
polyphosphonate (BHDB-PPN) (Wang, 2010)

Other antiflammable polymers are as shown.

Deoxybe
nzoin decomposes in presence of light. Hence, it deoxybenzoin and its derivatives are used as a
photo-initiator in radical polymerization process and also in vinyl polymerization.
5. Initialising Bacteria Culture
A natural bacterial strain, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens DB-5, was isolated in enrichment
cultures containing 1,2-diphenylethanone as the only source of carbon and energy. On the basis of
characteristic features observed in the mass spectra of degradation intermediates, it is proposed that
metabolism of 1,2-diphenylethanone is initiated by two hydroxylations on the benzyl ring. Phenol,
presumably arising from the benzoyl ring, was transiently detected as a catabolic intermediate.

Properties (Physical and chemical) and Safety data


1. Deoxybenzoin
Properties
Appearance (Color)
Appearance (Form)
Formula weight
Specific gravity
Melting point
Boiling point
Flash point
Solubility in water
Stability
Incompatible Materials
Hazardous decomposition
products

White to yellow
Crystalline powder or crystals and/or chunks
196.25
1.2
52C to 57C
319C 321C
110C
poor (soluble in hot water)
Stable under ordinary conditions
Oxidizing agents
Thermal decomposition can lead to release of irritating gases
and vapors, Carbon monoxide (CO), Carbon dioxide (CO2)

First Aid Measures


Eye Contact
Rinse immediately with plenty of water, also under the eyelids, for at least 15 minutes. Obtain
medical attention.
Skin Contact
Wash off immediately with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention immediately
if symptoms occur.
Inhalation
Move to fresh air. Get medical attention immediately if symptoms occur.
Ingestion
Clean mouth with water and drink afterwards plenty of water. Get medical attention if symptoms
occur.

Fire fighting measures, Accidental Release measures


Suitable Extinguishing Media
Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Hazards Arising from the Chemical
Keep product and empty container away from heat and sources of ignition.
Hazardous Combustion Products
Thermal decomposition can lead to release of irritating gases and vapors Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Protective Equipment and Precautions for Firefighters
As in any fire, wear self-contained breathing apparatus pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved
or equivalent) and full protective gear.

Handling and Storage


Handling
Wear personal protective equipment. Ensure adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with skin, eyes and
clothing. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Avoid dust formation.
Storage
Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place. Keep refrigerated.

Exposure Controls, Personal Protection

Engineering Measures
Ensure adequate ventilation, especially in confined areas. Ventilation systems.
Eye/face Protection
Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and
face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166.
Skin and body protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves and clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respiratory Protection
Wear a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved full-face piece airline respirator in the
positive pressure mode with emergency escape provisions.

2. Phenyl Acetic Acid


Properties
Appearance (Color)
Appearance (Form)
Odour

White
Crystalline
Floral, Has a sweet honey-like odour when diluted; the
odour of the concentrated solution is suffocating and
unpleasant.
Formula weight
136.15
Specific gravity
1.0809
Melting point
76.5C
Boiling point
265.5C
Flash point
100C
Solubility
Slightly soluble in cold water, freely in hot water; soluble in
alcohol and ether
Vapor Pressure
0.0038 mmHg at 25C
Stability
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under
normal storage and handling conditions
Incompatible Materials
Strong oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents, strong
bases
Hazardous
decomposition Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide
products

Potential Health Effects


Eyes
Causes eye irritation
Skin
Causes skin irritation
Ingestion
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea
Inhalation
Causes respiratory tract irritation

First aid measures


Eyes contact
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and
lower eyelids. Get medical aid. Do NOT allow victim to rub eyes or keep eyes closed.
Skin contact
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated
clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid. Do NOT induce vomiting.
If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.
Inhalation
Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration.
If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid. Do NOT use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Notes to Physician
Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Fire fighting measures, Accidental Release measures


General Information
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH
(approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Dusts at sufficient concentrations can form
explosive mixtures with air. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by
thermal decomposition or combustion.
Extinguishing Media
Use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam.
Spills/Leaks
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Clean up spills
immediately, observing precautions in the Protective Equipment section. Avoid generating dusty
conditions. Provide ventilation.

Handling and Storage


Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Minimize
dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Keep container tightly
closed. Use with adequate ventilation. Avoid breathing dust.
Storage
Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible
substances. Keep away from strong bases.

Exposure Controls, Personal Protection


Engineering Controls
Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety
shower. Use adequate ventilation to keep airborne concentrations low.
Eyes Protection
Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles
Skin Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respiratory Protection
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29 CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149.
Use a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator if exposure limits are
exceeded or if irritation or other symptoms are experienced.

3. Thionyl Chloride
Properties
Appearance (Color)
Appearance (Form)
Odour
Formula weight
Specific gravity

clear colorless to slightly yellow


Liquid
Suffocating
118.97

Liquid
Vapor

1.6310
4.1
Melting point
-105C
Boiling point
76C
Viscosity
0.6 cP
Vapor Pressure
119 mmHg at 25C
Solubility
Reacts with water forming sulphur dioxide. Miscible
with benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride
Stability
Reacts violently with water to form the toxic gases hydrogen
chloride and sulphur dioxide.
Incompatible Materials
Water, metals, acids, bases, alcohols, amines, ammonia,
dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl formamide, lithium, sodium,
alkalies.
Hazardous
Decomposition Hydrogen chloride, chlorine, oxides of sulphur.
Products

Potential health effects


Eyes
Causes eye burns. Causes redness and pain. Lachrymator (substance which increases the flow of
tears). May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.
Skin
Causes skin burns. May be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts. Causes redness and pain.
Ingestion
Harmful if swallowed. May cause severe and permanent damage to the digestive tract. Causes
gastrointestinal tract burns.
Inhalation
Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Inhalation may be fatal as a result of spasm,
inflammation, edema of the larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema.
Exposure through inhalation may result in delayed pulmonary edema which may be fatal. Death may
result hours after initial exposure. Toxic exposure to fumes of Thionyl Chloride reacting with water
may result in a delayed pulmonary response (longer than two weeks) of bronchiolitis obliteransinflammation of the bronchioles.

First aid measures


Eyes contact
Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub eyes or keep eyes closed. Extensive
irrigation with water is required (at least 30 minutes).
Skin contact
Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes
while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated
shoes.

Ingestion
Do not induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
Inhalation
Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If breathing
is difficult, give oxygen. Do NOT use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. If breathing has ceased apply
artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
Notes to Physician
Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Fire fighting measures, Accidental Release measures


General Information
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH
(approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Water reactive. Material will react with water and
may release a flammable and/or toxic gas. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. Vapors may
be heavier than air. They can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined areas. Contact
with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas.
Extinguishing Media
Do NOT use water directly on fire. If water is the only media available, use in flooding amounts. Do
NOT get water inside containers. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire
is out. For small fires, use dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Spills/Leaks
Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately,
observing precautions in the Protective Equipment section. Use a spark-proof tool. Do not get water
inside containers. Cover with dry earth, dry sand, or other non-combustible material followed with
plastic sheet to minimize spreading and contact with water.

Handling and Storage


Handling
Keep container tightly closed. Do not get on skin or in eyes. Do not ingest or inhale. Use with
adequate ventilation. Store protected from light. Do not allow contact with water. Discard
contaminated shoes.
Storage
Keep container closed when not in use. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from
incompatible substances. Keep away from water. Corrosives area. Keep away from acids. Do not store
in metal containers. Store protected from light.

Exposure Controls, Personal Protection


Engineering Controls
Use process enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, or other engineering controls to control airborne
levels below recommended exposure limits. Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be
equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower. Use only under a chemical fume hood.
Eyes Protection
Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles
Skin Protection
Wear nitrile-latex gloves, apron, and/or clothing.
Clothing
Wear nitrile-latex gloves, apron, and/or clothing.
Respiratory Protection

A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements
or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant respirator
use.

4. Benzene
Properties
Appearance (Color)
Appearance (Form)
Formula weight
Specific gravity
Liquid
Vapor

Melting point
Boiling point
Viscosity
Flash point
Vapor Pressure
Solubility in water
Flammable limits in air
Lower
Upper

Clear colorless
Liquid
78
0.8765
2.8

5.5C
80.1C
0.647 mPa.s at 20C
-11C
77 mmHg at 20C
Negligible
1.3% (v/v)
7.9%(v/v)

Auto-ignition Temperature
Stability

498C
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures. Avoid
ignition sources, excess heat and confined spaces.
Incompatible Materials
Strong oxidizing agents
Hazardous
Decomposition Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide
Products

Potential health effects


Eyes
Causes eye irritation.
Skin
Causes skin irritation. Harmful if absorbed through the skin. Prolonged and/or repeated contact may
cause defatting of the skin and dermatitis.
Ingestion
May cause central nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed by headache,
dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse, unconsciousness, coma and
possible death due to respiratory failure. May cause effects similar to those for inhalation exposure.
Aspiration of material into the lungs may cause chemical pneumonitis, which may be fatal.
Inhalation
Causes respiratory tract irritation. May cause drowsiness, unconsciousness, and central nervous
system depression. Exposure may lead to irreversible bone marrow injury. Exposure may lead to
aplastic anemia. Potential symptoms of overexposure by inhalation are dizziness, headache, vomiting,
visual disturbances, staggering gait, hilarity, fatigue, and other symptoms of CNS depression.
Chronic
May cause bone marrow abnormalities with damage to blood forming tissues. May cause anemia and
other blood cell abnormalities. Chronic exposure to benzene has been associated with an increased
incidence of leukemia and multiple myeloma (tumor composed of cells of the type normally found in
the bone marrow). Immunodepressive effects have been reported. This substance has caused adverse
reproductive and fetal effects in laboratory animals.

First aid measures


Eyes contact
In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for a t least 15 minutes. Get medical
aid.
Skin contact
In case of contact, flush skin with plenty of water. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Get
medical aid if irritation develops and persists. Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion
Potential for aspiration if swallowed. Get medical aid immediately. Do not induce vomiting unless
directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. If
vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward.
Inhalation
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give
oxygen. Get medical aid.
Notes to Physician
Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Fire fighting measures, Accidental Release measures


General Information
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH
(approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers
cool. Extremely flammable liquid and vapor. Vapor may cause flash fire. Approach fire from upwind
to avoid hazardous vapors and toxic decomposition products. Vapors are heavier than air and may
travel to a source of ignition and flash back. Vapors can spread along the ground and collect in low or
confined areas. This liquid floats on water and may travel to a source of ignition and spread fire. May
accumulate static electricity.
Extinguishing Media
Use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam.
Spills/Leaks
Absorb spill with inert material (e.g. vermiculite, sand or earth), then place in suitable container.
Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Remove all sources of ignition.
Provide ventilation. Approach spill from upwind. Use water spray to cool and disperse vapors, protect
personnel, and dilute spills to form nonflammable mixtures.

Handling and Storage


Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Ground and
bond containers when transferring material. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty
containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or vapor), and can be dangerous. Take precautionary
measures against static discharges. Keep container tightly closed. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze,
solder, drill, grind, or expose empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames. Use only with adequate
ventilation. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. Avoid breathing vapor.
Storage
Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with
oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.

Exposure Controls, Personal Protection


Engineering Controls
Use process enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, or other engineering controls to control airborne
levels below recommended exposure limits. Use explosion-proof ventilation equipment. Facilities
storing or utilizing this material should be equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower. See
29CFR 1910.1028 for the regulatory requirements for the control of employee exposure to benzene.
Eyes Protection
Wear chemical splash goggles.
Skin Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respiratory Protection
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements
or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant respirator
use.

5. Dimethylformamide
Properties
Appearance (Color)
Appearance (Form)
Formula weight
Specific gravity
Liquid
Vapor

Melting point
Boiling point
Viscosity
Flash point
Vapor Pressure
Solubility in water
Flammable limits in air
Lower
Upper

Auto-ignition Temperature
Stability

Incompatible Materials

Hazardous Decomposition
Products

Clear colorless
Liquid
73.09
0.94
2.5

-61C
153C
0.8 mPa.s at 20C
57C
3.6753 mmHg at 20C
Miscible
2.2%(v/v)
15.2%(v/v)

445C
Stable at room temperature in closed containers under
normal storage and handling conditions. Avoid Ignition
sources, excess heat.
Strong oxidizing agents, ammonia, anhydrides, iron,
phenols, isocyanates, acids (mineral, non-oxidizing, e.g.
hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, muriatic acid,
phosphoric acid), acids (mineral, oxidizing, e.g. chromic
acid, hypochlorous acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid), metals
(alkali and alkaline, e.g. cesium, potassium, sodium), metals
and metal compounds (toxic, e.g. beryllium, lead acetate,
nickel carbonyl, tetraethyl lead), reducing agents (strong,
e.g. aluminum carbide, chlorosilane, hydrogen phosphide,
lithium
hydride),
carbontetrachloride,
chlorinated
hydrocarbons, organic materials.
Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, irritating toxic fumes
and gases, carbon dioxide

Potential health effects


Eyes
Causes eye irritation.
Skin
Causes skin irritation.
Ingestion
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause liver damage.
Inhalation
Causes respiratory tract irritation.
Chronic
Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. Chronic exposure may cause liver damage.
May cause fetal effects based on animal studies.

First aid measures


Eyes contact
Get medical aid. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at l east 15 minutes.
Skin contact
Get medical aid. Flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated
clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse
Ingestion
Call a poison control center. If swallowed, do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical
personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid.
Inhalation
Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get
medical aid. Do NOT use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. If breathing has ceased apply artificial
respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
Notes to Physician
Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Fire fighting measures, Accidental Release measures


General Information
As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH
(approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Vapors may form an explosive mixture with air.
During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or
combustion. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Containers may explode in the heat
of a fire. Flammable liquid and vapor. Vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a source of
ignition and flash back. Vapors can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined areas.
Extinguishing Media
For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. For large
fires, use water spray, fog, or alcohol-resistant foam. Water may be ineffective. Do NOT use straight
streams of water.
Spills/Leaks
Absorb spill with inert material (e.g. vermiculite, sand or earth), then place in suitable container. Do
not flush into a sewer. Clean up spills immediately, observing precautions in the Protective Equipment
section. Remove all sources of ignition. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation. A vapor
suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.

Handling and Storage


Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Ground and
bond containers when transferring material. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment.
Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Empty containers retain product residue, (liquid and/or
vapor), and can be dangerous. Keep container tightly closed. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame.
Use with adequate ventilation. Do not pressurize, cut, weld, braze, solder, drill, grind, or expose
empty containers to heat, sparks or open flames. Avoid breathing vapor or mist.
Storage
Keep away from sources of ignition. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, wellventilated area away from incompatible substances. Flammables-area.

Exposure Controls, Personal Protection


Engineering Controls
Use process enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, or other engineering controls to control airborne
levels below recommended exposure limits. Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be
equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower.
Eyes Protection
Wear chemical splash goggles.
Skin Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respiratory Protection
A respiratory protection program that meets OSHA's 29 CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2 requirements
or European Standard EN 149 must be followed whenever workplace conditions warrant respirator
use.

6. Aluminium Chloride
Properties
Appearance (Color)
Appearance (Form)
Odour
Formula weight
Specific gravity
Melting point
Boiling point
Flash point
Vapor Pressure
Solubility

White
Solid, anhydrous
Strong acid odour
133.34
2.44
192.6C
Sublimes at 181C
Not combustible
1 mmHg at 100C
Reacts violently with water. Soluble in benzene, canbon
tetrachloride, chloroform
Stability
Stable. Avoid dust generation, exposure to moist air or water
Incompatible Materials
Organic materials, Aluminium chloride reacts violently with
water producing hydrochloric acid and heat.
Hazardous
Decomposition Hydrogen chloride, aluminium oxide.
Products

Potential health effects


Eyes
Causes severe eye burns.
Skin
Contact with skin causes irritation and possible burns, especially if the skin is wet or moist.
Ingestion
Causes gastrointestinal tract burns. May cause corrosion and permanent tissue destruction of the
oesophagus and digestive tract.
Inhalation
Causes delayed lung injury. Causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns,
breathing difficulty, and possible coma.
Chronic
Aluminium may be implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Inhalation of aluminium containing dusts may
cause pulmonary disease.

First aid measures


Eyes contact
In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for a t least 15 minutes. Get medical
aid immediately.
Skin contact
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing
contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid immediately. Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion
If swallowed, do NOT induce vomiting. Get medical aid immediately. If victim is fully conscious,
give a cupful of water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.
Inhalation
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give
oxygen. Get medical aid.
Notes to Physician

Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Fire fighting measures, Accidental Release measures


General Information
Water reactive. Material will react with water and may release a flammable and/or toxic gas. Wear
appropriate protective clothing to prevent contact with skin and eyes. Wear a self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) to prevent contact with thermal decomposition products. Use water with caution
and in flooding amounts. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water.
Aluminum chloride reacts violently with water producing hydrochloric acid and heat. Hydrochloric
acid solutions react with most metals, forming flammable hydrogen gas.
Extinguishing Media
Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. DO NOT USE WATER! Do NOT get water inside
containers.
Spills/Leaks
Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Clean up spills
immediately, observing precautions in the Protective Equipment section. Avoid generating dusty
conditions. Do not expose spill to water.

Handling and Storage


Handling
Wash thoroughly after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use with
adequate ventilation. Loosen closure cautiously before opening. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on
clothing. Do not ingest or inhale. Do not allow contact with water.
Storage
Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated
area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from water. Corrosives area. Loosen closure
cautiously before opening. Storage under a nitrogen blanket has been recommended. Store protected
from moisture. Bottles should be vented periodically in order to overcome pressure buildup. Separate
from organic materials.

Exposure Controls, Personal Protection


Engineering Controls
Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety
shower. Use adequate general or local exhaust ventilation to keep airborne concentrations below the
permissible exposure limits.
Eyes Protection
Wear chemical goggles and a face shield.
Skin Protection
Wear impervious gloves.
Clothing
Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Respiratory Protection
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29 CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149.
Use a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator if exposure limits are
exceeded or if irritation or other symptoms are experienced.

7. Hydrochloric Acid
Properties
Appearance (Color)
Appearance (Form)
Odour
Formula weight
Specific gravity
Liquid
Vapor

Colorless
Liquid
Pungent
36.46
1.18
1.27

Melting point
Boiling point
Viscosity
Flash point
Vapor Pressure
Solubility in water
Flammable limits in air
Stability
Incompatible Materials
Hazardous
Products

-35C
57C
1.8 mPa.s at 15C
Not flammable
93.7577 mmHg at 20C
Soluble in water.
Not applicable
Stable under normal conditions. Avoid excess heat.
Metals, Strong oxidizing agents, sodium hypochlorite,
Amines, Bases, Fluorine, Cyanides, alkaline
Decomposition Hydrogen chloride gas

Potential health effects


Eyes
Causes severe eye damage.
Skin
Causes severe skin burns.
Ingestion
Causes burns by all exposure routes. . Product is a corrosive material. Use of gastric lavage or emesis
is contraindicated. Possible perforation of stomach or esophagus should be investigated: Ingestion
causes severe swelling, severe damage to the delicate tissue and danger of perforation.
Inhalation
May cause respiratory irritation.

First aid measures


Eyes contact
Rinse immediately with plenty of water, also under the eyelids, for at least 15 minutes. Immediate
medical attention is required.
Skin contact
Wash off immediately with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Immediate medical attention is
required.
Ingestion
Do not induce vomiting. Call a physician or Poison Control Center immediately.
Inhalation
Move to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Do not use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if
victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with a respiratory medical
device. Immediate medical attention is required.
Notes to Physician
Treat symptomatically

Fire fighting measures, Accidental Release measures


Extinguishing Media
Substance is nonflammable; use agent most appropriate to extinguish surrounding fire.
Spills/Leaks
Use personal protective equipment. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas.
Keep people away from and upwind of spill/leak. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Should
not be released into the environment.

Handling and Storage


Handling
Wear personal protective equipment. Do not breathe vapors or spray mist. Do not get in eyes, on skin,
or on clothing. Do not ingest.
Storage
Keep containers tightly closed in a dry, cool and well-ventilated place. Corrosives area.

Exposure Controls, Personal Protection


Engineering Controls
Ensure that eyewash stations and safety showers are close to the workstation location.
Eyes Protection
Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles.
Skin Protection
Wear appropriate protective gloves and clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing
Wear appropriate protective gloves and clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respiratory Protection
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29 CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149.
Use a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator if exposure limits are
exceeded or if irritation or other symptoms are experienced. Hygiene Measures Handle in accordance
with good industrial hygiene and safety practice.

8. Methanol
Properties
Appearance (Color)
Appearance (Form)
Formula weight
Specific gravity
Liquid
Vapor

Melting point
Boiling point
Viscosity
Flash point
Closed vessel
Open vessel

Vapor Pressure
Solubility in water
Flammable limits in air

Clear liquid
Colorless
32.04
0.7915 at 20C
1.11
-98C
64.7oC at 760mmHg
0.55 cP at 20C
12C
15.6C
128 mm Hg at 20C
Miscible

Lower
Upper

6% (v/v)
31% (v/v)
Auto-ignition Temperature
455 C
Stability
Stable under normal temperatures and pressures.
Incompatible Materials
Oxidizing agents, reducing agents, acids, alkali metals,
potassium, sodium, metals as powders (e.g. hafnium, raney
nickel), acid anhydrides, acid chlorides, powdered
aluminum, and powdered magnesium.
Hazardous
Decomposition Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde.
Products

Potential health effects


Eyes
May cause painful sensitization to light. Methanol is a mild to moderate eye irritant. Inhalation,
ingestion or skin absorption of methanol can cause significant disturbances in vision, including
blindness.
Skin
Causes moderate skin irritation. May be absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts. Prolonged
and/or repeated contact may cause defatting of the skin and dermatitis. Methanol can be absorbed
through the skin, producing systemic effects that include visual disturbances.
Ingestion
May be fatal or cause blindness if swallowed. Aspiration hazard. Cannot be made non-poisonous.
May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. May cause systemic toxicity
with acidosis. May cause central nervous system depression, characterized by excitement, followed
by headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea. Advanced stages may cause collapse,
unconsciousness, coma and possible death due to respiratory failure. May cause cardiopulmonary
system
effects.

Inhalation
Methanol is toxic and can very readily form extremely high vapor concentrations at room
temperature. Inhalation is the most common route of occupational exposure. At first, methanol causes
CNS depression with nausea, headache, vomiting, dizziness and incoordination. A time period with no
obvious symptoms follows (typically 8-24 hrs). This latent period is followed by metabolic acidosis
and severe visual effects which may include reduced reactivity and/or increased sensitivity to light,
blurred, doubl and/or snowy vision, and blindness. Depending on the severity of exposure and the
promptness of treatment, survivors may recover completely or may have permanent blindness, vision
disturbances
and/or
nervous
system
effects.
Chronic
Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. Chronic exposure may cause effects similar
to those of acute exposure. Methanol is only very slowly eliminated from the body. Because of this
slow elimination, methanol should be regarded as a cumulative poison. Though a single exposure may
cause no effect, daily exposures may result in the accumulation of a harmful amount. Methanol has
produced fetotoxicity in rats and teratogenicity in mice exposed by inhalation to high concentrations
that did not produce significant maternal toxicity.

First aid measures


Eyes contact
In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for a t least 15 minutes. Get medical
aid.
Skin contact
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing
contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid immediately. Wash clothing before reuse.
Ingestion
Potential for aspiration if swallowed. Get medical aid immediately. Do not induce vomiting unless
directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. If
vomiting
occurs
naturally,
have
victim
lean
forward.
Inhalation
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give
oxygen. Get medical aid.
Notes to Physician
Effects may be delayed.
Antidote
Ethanol may inhibit methanol metabolism.

Fire fighting measures, Accidental Release measures


General Information
Ethanol may inhibit methanol metabolism. As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in
pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire,
irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use
water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Water may be ineffective. Material is lighter than
water and a fire may be spread by the use of water. Vapors are heavier than air and may travel to a
source of ignition and flash back. Vapors can spread along the ground and collect in low or confined
areas.
Extinguishing Media
For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray or alcohol-resistant foam. Water may be
ineffective. For large fires, use water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam. Do NOT use straight
streams of water.

Spills/Leaks
Use water spray to disperse the gas/vapor. Remove all sources of ignition. Absorb spill using an
absorbent, non-combustible material such as earth, sand, or vermiculite. Do not use combustible
materials such as sawdust. Use a spark-proof tool. Provide ventilation. A vapor suppressing foam may
be used to reduce vapors. Water spray may reduce vapor but may not prevent ignition in closed
spaces.

Exposure Controls, Personal Protection


Engineering Controls
Use explosion-proof ventilation equipment. Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be
equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower. Use adequate general or local exhaust
ventilation to keep airborne concentrations below the permissible exposure limits.
Eyes Protection
Wear chemical splash goggles.
Skin Protection
Wear butyl rubber gloves, apron, and/or clothing.
Clothing
Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respiratory Protection
Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29 CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149.
Use a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator if exposure limits are
exceeded or if irritation or other symptoms are experienced.

Deoxybenzoin Manufacturers in India


Company name

Location

Punjab Chemical and Crop Protection


Limited

Chandigarh

Sodium Metal Pvt Ltd

Mumbai, Maharashtra

Glenfin Chemicals Pvt Ltd

Thane, Maharashtra

Unisource Chemicals Pvt Ltd

Thane, Maharashtra

Rxn Chemicals Pvt Ltd

Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra

TCI Chemicals Pvt Ltd

Tamil Nadu

Acros Organic

Nasik, Navi Mumbai, Gujarat

Manufacturers worldwide
Country

Company

Japan

IS Chemical Technology Ltd

Japan

Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd

Japan

Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd

China

Advanced Technology & Industrial


Company

China

Jinan Haohua Industry Co., Ltd

China

Xiang Ding Chemical International Co.,


Ltd

China

AN Pharmatech Co., Ltd

Ukraine

Ukrorgsynthesis Ltd

Germany

Alfa Aesar Gmbh & Co. Kg

Germany

Merck Schuchardt Ohg

France
Netherlands

Interim S.A.
Khatwijk Chemie B. V.

Belgium

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Slokovia

MDP Chemcontrol Ltd

United Kingdom

Appollo Scientific Ltd

Canada

Toronto Research Chemicals

USA

Vwr International Llc

USA

Fisher Scientific International Inc.

USA

Alfa Aesar Chemistry

USA

Sigma Aldrich Corp.

USA

Chempacific Corporation

USA

Thermo Fisher Scientific

IMPORT DATA

Export Data

Process Description
Phenyl Acetic acid, benzene, dimethylformamide, thionyl chloride and aluminium chloride
are fed to the reactor in that order. Before feeding it is ensured that the reactor is clean and
dry. The reactor is heated to a temperature of 50-55C. At this temperature chlorination of
phenyl acetic acid takes place as follows with Dimethylformamide (DMF) as a catalyst.
Benzene acts as a solvent for this reaction.

The reactor temperature is further increased to 80-85C. Phenylacetyl Chloride undergoes


electrophilic aromatic substitution. Phenylacetyl ChlorideReacts with Benzene in presence of
Aluminium Chloride to form Ketone i.e 2-Phenylacetophenone and HCl. Reaction takes
place at reflux conditions (80-85 C) for 5 hours. Then Reaction mass is cooled to 35-40 C.
Byproducts SO2 And HCl are sent to the dual alkali scubber.
Aluminium Chloride is added in the reactor.After complete addition of Aluminium Chloride
temperature again raised to reflux conditions. And reaction mass is stirred for one hour.
Phenylacetyl Chloride undergoes electrophilic aromatic substitution. Phenylacetyl
ChlorideReacts with Benzene in presence of Aluminium Chloride to form Ketone i.e 2Phenylacetophenone and HCl.Then Reaction mass is cooled to 35-40 C.
Reaction mass is trasferred to Tank containg Ice and 33% w/w HCl.Reaction mass is
quenched in the tank. Then Reactions mass transferred to steel reactor where it is stirred for 1
hour. Lower aquaous layer and upper aquaous layer is seperatated. Then Organic Layer is
Washed with water.Then organic layer is washed with 2% Sodium Bicarbonate solution.In
the end it is washed with water again. Then for recovery of benzene vacuume is applied at
135-140 C. Then Reaction mass is transferred to distillation column. In distillation column
,In temperature maintained between 150-200 C and vacuum between 3mm to 5mm to obtain
crude 2-Phenylacetophenone. 2-Phenylacetophenone is crystallised using methanol as
solvent. Crystals with solvent are sent to centrifuge to separate solvent. Solvent is recycled
back to crystalliser . And crystals are sent to the miller to get uniform sized crystals.

References
http://www.guidechem.com/cas-451/451-40-1_area-India.html
http://www.guidechem.com/help/risk_safety.html#safety
http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN.aspx?CBNumber=CB9425419
http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Deoxybenzoin#section=Top
Fisher scientific Safety data sheet
Chemical weekly Dated: 18/08/2015
www.zauba.com/exportanalysis-deoxybenzoin-report.html
www.zauba.com/importanalysis-DEOXYBENZOIN/hs-code-29143990-report.html