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1 Greetings

DIALOGUE
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:

Good morning. How are you?


Im fine, thank you. And you?
Not too bad. Im Jon. Whats your name?
My name is Bob. Nice to meet you. How old are you Jon?
Im eight years old. And you?
Im nine years old. Jon, see you later.
OK Bob, see you later.

VOCABULARY
good morninggood eveninghi or helloHow is it going?How are you?Its going good, thanks.Im fine, thanks.very fineWhere
When

Buon giorno
Buona sera
Ciao o salve
Come va?
Come stai?
Va bene, grazie
Sto bene, grazie
Molto bene
Dove
Quando

great!badlyso, sonot too badsee you latergood-byegood nightwhat


which
how

benissimo
male
cos, cos
non c male
ci vediamo
arrivederci
buona notte
che cosa
quale
come

NUMBERS-1-12
onetwothreefour-

1
2
3
4

fivesixSevenEight-

5
6
7
8

nineteneleventwelve-

9
10
11
12

PRONUNCIATION- Alphabet
ABCDEF-

ei
bi
si
di
i
ef

GHIJK-

Gi
Eich
Ai
Gei
Chei

LMNOP-

el
em
en
ou
pi

-1

QRSTU-

chiu
a*
es
ti
iu

VWXYZ-

vi
dabl-iu
ecs
uai
zi/zed

2 Introducing People
DIALOGUE
Jon:
Bon
Jon:
Bob:
Elena:
Jon:
Bob:

Whos the girl over there?


The tall one with the dark hair, thats Elena. Shes American.
No, I think shes English.
Elena, are you from America?
No, Im not. Im from Italy. Where are you from Bob?
Hes from Germany and Im from France.
Yes, Im German and hes French.

VOCABULARY- Nationalities
America, AmericanAmerica, Americano
Italy, ItalianItalia, Italiano
France, FrenchFrancia, Francese
Germany, GermanGermania, Tedesco
Portugal, Portuguese - Portogallo,Portoghese
GRAMMAR- To be
to be (essere)
I am(io sono)
you are- (tu sei)
he is(lui )
she is(lei )
VOCABULARY
whochi
tallalto(a)
shortfatskinnydarkblonde-

basso(a)
grasso(a)
magro(a)
scuro(a)
biondo(a)

Im
youre
hes
Shes

Brazil, BrazilianHolland, DutchSwitzerland, SwissSpain, SpanishCanada, Canadian-

Brasile, Brasiliano
Olanda, Olandese
Svizzera, Svizzero
Spagna, Spagnolo
Canada, Canadese

ex.
Im tall.
Youre my sister.
Hes short and fat.
Shes my aunt.

WifeBrother-

moglie
fratello

SisterManWomanBoyGirl-

sorella
uomo
donna
ragazzo
ragazza

husband
mom
(mother)dad (father)uncleauntgrandmagrandpa-

marito
madre

parentsrelative-

genitori
parente

padre
zio
zia
nonna
nonno

babycousinfriendfamily-

bambino(a)
cugino(a)
amico(a)
famiglia

DIALOGUE
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:

This is my family. Hes Mark, my brother. Hes tall and fat.


Whos she?
Shes my sister Jennifer. Shes short and blonde. My moms name is
Holly. My aunt Stephanie is my moms sister.
Where is she from?
Shes from Spain.

-2

3 Personal ID
DIALOGUE
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:

Hi, Bob. Im coming to Utah next summer.


Come and see me.
Where do you live?
In Salt Lake City.
Whats your address?
501 East Temple Street.
Whats your phone number?
(801) 556.2549. And your phone number?
(02) 295-942. Thanks, Bob. See you later.
Bye!

NUMBERS-12-30
TwelveThirteenFourteenFifteenSixteen-

12
13
14
15
16

SeventeenEighteenNineteenTwentyTwenty-one-

17
18
19
20
21

Twenty-twoTwenty-threeTwenty-fourTwenty-fiveTwenty-six-

22
23
24
25
26

Twenty-sevenTwenty-eightTwenty-nineThirty-

27
28
29
30

PHRASES-Classroom commands
Stand up!Sit down!Turn on the light!Turn off the light!Open the door/windowClose the door/window-

Alzati, alzatevi
Siediti, sedetevi
Accendi la luce
Spegni la luce
Apri la porta/finestra
Chiudi la porta/finestra

How do you say __________? (Come si dice...?)


What does __________mean? (Cosa vuol dire...?)

againslowerfasterpleasetogetherrepeat-

di nuovo, ancora
pi piano
pi veloce
per favore
Insieme
ripetere

You say __________. (Si dice...)


It means __________. (Vuol dire...)

PHRASES-Common phrases
How old are you?
What is your last name?
What is your phone number?
What is your address?
How do you spell it?

(Quanti anni hai?)


(Qual il tuo cognome?)
(Qual il tuo numero di telefono?)
(Qual il tuo indirizzo?)
(Come si scrive?)

-3

4 Describing Objects
DIALOGUE
Jon:
Steve, have you got an eraser?
Steve:
Yes, I have. It is white and green.
Jon:
What color is it?
Steve:
Its white and green.
Jon:
What is that?
Steve:
Its a pencil.
Jon:
A pencil that writes five colors?
Steve:
Yes.
VOCABULARY- Colors
whiteblackredyellow-

Bianco
Nero
Rosso
Giallo

graybrownlight blueorange-

grigio
marrone
celeste
arancio

pinkpurplebluegreen-

rosa
viola
blu
verde

VOCABULARY-Objects
telephonewindowblackboarddoorclassnotebooklight-

Telefono
Finestra
Lavagna
Porta
Classe
Quaderno
Luce

walletchairpencilpenchalkeraserstamp-

portafoglio
sedia
matita
penna
gesso
cancellino
francobollo

bagbooknewspapermagazinewatchcarenvelope-

bagaglio
libro
giornale
rivista
orologio
macchina
busta

GRAMMAR- Have you got...? Yes, I have....No, I havent


Help: Have got = Avere
ex.

Have you got a ball?


Yes, I have a ball.

Have you got a car?


No, I havent got a car.

Help: In English, the adjective always comes before the noun, but after the pronoun.
ex.

The yellow ball


Its yellow.

The red car


Its red.

-4

The blue sky


Its blue.

keyballdogcathousescissorspaper-

chiave
palla
cane
gatto
casa
forbici
carta

5 Describing People
DIALOGUE
Carol:
Jane:
Carol:
Jane:
Carol:
Jane:
Carol:
Jane:

Hello Jane. Where are you going?


Im going to Hollys house.
Hollys new house is beautiful.
Who is he?
Hes Hollys brother.
Whats he like?
Hes tall, skinny and has red hair.
He has red hair? Not bad!

VOCABULARY
haireyessmilehandsomebeautiful-

capelli
occhi
soriso
bello
bella

ShirtPantsShoesJacketHat-

camicia
pantaloni
scarpe
giacca
cappello

glovesshortssuittiedress-

guanti
pantaloncini
abito
cravatta
vestito

coatblousecurlystraightsocks-

GRAMMAR-Showing Possession
Help: Possessive relation = -s
he isshe isit is-

to be (essere)
(lui )
hes
(lei )
Shes
(esso )
Its

Hollys house = la casa di Holly


Jons car = la macchina di Jon
Zacks book = il libro di Zack

GRAMMAR- Possessive Adjectives


Help: His/Her (di lui/di lei)
ex.

Jon has blue eyes. His eyes are blue.


Laura is with her friends.
to be (essere)

hes
shes
its

(I suoi occhi sono blu)


(Laura con le sue amiche)

to have (avere)
he has
or... hes got
She has or... shes got
it has
or... its got

there is = c
Theres a chair.
There isnt a car.

Is there a chair?
Is there a car?

Yes, there is.


No, there isnt.

-5

cappotto
camicetta
riccio
liscio
calzini

6 Describing Oneself
DIALOGUE
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Group:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:

Hi Steve. How tall are you?


Im one point ninety-two meters. How tall are you?
Im five foot nine inches. Steve are you a teacher?
No, Im not. Im a doctor. What are you?
Im a mailman. Steve, where are they from?
I think theyre from Japan.
Excuse me, where are you from?
Were from Holland.
OK. Thank you. Steve, theyre from Holland.
Theyve got sixty-five people in the group.
No, theyve got fifty-six people in the group.
Theyre very tall people.

VOCABULARY- Occupations and numbers


teacherdoctorlawyernursefarmer-

insegnante
dottore
avvocato
infermiera
contadino

mailmansecretaryshopworkerbus driverbarber-

postino
segretario
negoziante
autista
barbiere

twentythirtyfortyfiftysixty-

20
30
40
50
60

GRAMMAR-to be-to have we/they


to be (essere)
we are (noi siamo)...were
you are (voi siete)....youre
they are (loro sono)..theyre

to have (avere)
we have (noi abbiamo)...weve got
you have (voi avete)......youve got
they have (loro hanno)...theyve got

ci sono-there are
There are two tables.
Are there two tables?
There arent five chairs. Are there five chairs?

-6

Yes, there are.


No, there arent.

seventyeightyninetyone/a
hundred-

70
80
90
100

7 Ask and Talk About Actions


DIALOGUE
Rob:
Bob:
Rob:
Bob:
Rob:
Bob:
Rob:
Bob:

Bob, what can we do?


I have no idea, Rob.
Lets make a paper plane.
Can you make one?
Yes, Ive got the instructions here in this book.
Have we got the scissors?
Yes, we need to find them. Where are they?
Oh, there they are, on the chair under the book.

VOCABULARY- Verbs
studymakereadsleepdrive-

studiare
fare
leggere
dormire
guidare

feelwalkeatdrinkbuy-

sentire
camminare
mangiare
bere
comprare

comeplaywatchtalkhear-

venire
giocare
guardare
parlare
sentire

findgocookneedask-

trovare
andare
cucinare
aver bisogno di
chiedere

GRAMMAR- Present Progressive ( Gerundio-Actions happening while we are talking)


Help: Present tense to be+ verb + -ing. Verbs ending in e. drop the e
Im playing
Youre running.
Hes walking.
Shes sleeping.
Its reading.
What is he doing?
Hes walking.

Were watching.
Youre finding.
Theyre talking.
They're making.
What am I doing?
Im playing.

-er add -er to the verb to make it a person.


ex. bake-baker
drive-driver
walk-walker
run-runner

-7

What are they doing?


Theyre talking.
fight-fighter
play-player

8 Prepositions
PREPOSITIONS-In/on/under

Where is he?
Hes in the house.
Hes under the bar.
Hes on the box.
in

under

on

DIALOGUE
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob.
Jon:

Is that your car in the garage?


Yes Bob, thats my car. Why?
Are those new wheels?
Yes, those are new wheels. Why Bob?
I have got those new wheels on my car too.
Really?

ARTICLES-The + a/an
Help: The-no masculine, feminine, or plural difference
ex. the ball
the car

the balls
the cars

the pen
the brother

the pens
the brothers

Help: Use a for words beginning with a consonant. an for words beginning with vowels.
ex. a ball
a car

a pen
a brother

an apple
an uncle

GRAMMAR
This (singular) and these (plural) refer to things that are close (vicino).
This is my car.
These are my pens.
This is his apple.
These are his cookies.
Is this her ball?
Are these her pictures?
That (singular) and those (plural) refer to things far away (lontano).
That is my mom.
Those dogs are crazy.
Who is that man?
Those books are his.
What is that?
Who are those men?

-8

an aunt
an elephant

PLURAL (These are the basic rules for plurals)


1) Words ending with a consonant or vowel add an s
Help: Words ending in a vowel and then consonant, the s makes a z sound.
Words ending with a double consonant makes an s sound.
doors
dishes
churches

Z
boys
rooms

S
parks
tourists

pencils
books

2) Words that end in s, sh, ch, x, z, and o, add es.


Help: Pronounced iz
buses
dishes
churches

foxes
potatoes
classes

glasses
addresses

3) If it ends with a consonant then y, drop the "y" and add ies.
lady- ladies

baby- babies

country- countries

VOCABULARY
bedshowersinktoothbrushtoothpastesoaptowel-

letto
doccia
lavandino
spazzolino
dentifricio
sapone
asciugamano

razorshampoobathroomsheetblanketpillowtable-

-9

rasoio
shampoo
bagno
lenzuolo
coperta
cuscino
tavola

glassplateknifeforkspoonfoodkitchen-

bicchiere
piatto
coltello
forchetta
cucchiaio
cibo
cucina

9 Prepositions II
DIALOGUE
Steve:
Rob:
Mom:
Rob:
Mom:
Rob:
Steve:

Ive got an idea. Lets go out and fly our plane.


Were going out mom.
Where are you going?
Were going to the park.
What about going to school?
Sorry, We cant. Its too small.
Thanks for the help.

VOCABULARY
supermarketgymlibrarystorebankparking lot-

supermercato
palestra
biblioteca
negozio
banca
parcheggio

castleswimming poolcaffetteriaschoolbookstoremall-

castello
piscina
mensa
scuola
libreria

bedroomparkchurchcemetery-

centro
commerciale

PREPOSITIONS-at/in/to

at
Wheres Jon?
Wheres Jane?
Wheres Bob?
or Wheres Bob going?

in

to

Jon is at school/at work/at home/at the airport.


Jane is in the house/in bed/in prison/in America.
Bob is going to the supermarket.
To the market.

Help: To is usually used with motion verbs.


SUGGESTING SOMETHING-And how to respond
What about going/doing...?
Sorry, I cant.
What about Friday?
Sorry, I cant.

What about this book?


Thanks, that book is great.
What about doing that in the morning?
Good idea.

- 10

camera
parco
chiesa
cimitero

10 Giving Instructions
DIALOGUE
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:
Jon:
Bob:

Lets make a paper airplane Jon.


OK Bob, can you make one?
Yes, I can. Take a piece of paper and fold it in half.
Ok, then what?
Fold the paper here and there, then cut this here.
Thats easy!
Now, throw it and watch it fly.

VOCABULARY
takefoldcutthrowwatch-

prendere
piegare
tagliare
gettare
guardare

flytreefenceflower-

on the right
Wheres the man?
Wheres the man?
Wheres the man?

volare
albero
steccato
fiore

windowrightleftmiddle-

finestra
destra
sinistra
mezzo

on the left

in the middle

Hes on the right of the church.


Hes on the left of the tower.
Hes in the middle of the buildings.

GRAMMAR- Imperative
Help: Infinitive of the verb minus to for you form.
ex. Read!
Eat!
Go!
Smile!
Help: For we form, add Lets
ex. Lets read! Lets eat! Lets go! Lets smile!
COMMON PHRASES
How can I get to...?
Can you tell me where...is?

backwardforwardherethere-

(Come si arriva a...?)


(Puoi dirmi dove c...?)

- 11

indietro
avanti
qui
l

11 Negatives / Can
DIALOGUE
Pete:
Jim:
Pete:
Jim:
Pete:
Jim:

Hello?
Hi Pete. Its Jim.
Hi Jim. What are you doing today?
I dont know. Why?
Im going to the mall. Do you want to come?
I cant. Im going to the movies.

VOCABULARY
morning
night
today

mattina
notte
oggi

afternoon
this evening
this morning

pomeriggio
stasera
stamattina

evening
day
tomorrow

sera
giorno
domani

breakfast
lunch
dinner

colazione
pranzo
cena

GRAMMAR- Capability or Possibility


Can you cook lasagna?
Can you speak English?
Can you play soccer?
Can you drive a car?
Can you run?

Yes, I can.
No, I cant.
We havent got the ball. We cant play.
Im not tall. I cant drive a car,
Hes got shoes. He can run.

Capability-means capacit. Are you capable of doing something?


Possibility-means it is possible. You want to do something, its also possible or just not possible.
NEGATIVES
is not/isnt
are not/arent
have not/havent
has not/havent
can not/cant

ex. He isnt tall.


We arent going.
We havent got five dollars.
He hasnt got a family.
It cant jump.

- 12

She isnt fat.


They arent skinny.
They havent got two cars.
She hasnt got blonde hair.
I cant cook.

12 Inviting People
DIALOGUE- Asking and telling time
Mom:
Pete:
Mom:
Pete:
Sarah:
Pete:
Sarah:
Pete:
Sarah:
Pete:
Sarah:

Hello?
Hello, this is Pete. Can I speak to Sarah?
Yes, just a moment.
Hi Sarah.
Hi Pete.
Listen, Im going to the top of the museum on Saturday. Would you like to come?
Oh great! What time?
Is two-thirty OK?
Yes. Where will we meet? Outside the museum?
No, lets meet at the bus stop in front of the supermarket.
OK. See you there.

TIME

7:30
seven thirty

4:00
four oclock

3:30
three thirty

12:00
noon or
midnight

9:00
nine oclock

VOCABULARY- Days of the week


MondayTuesdayWednesday-

luned
marted
mercoled

ThursdayFridaySaturday-

gioved
venerd
sabato

Sundaynoonmidnight-

domenica
mezzogiorno
mezzanotte

PREPOSITIONS

in front of

behind

near

at

on the corner

outside

- 13

in between

DIALOGUE 1- Inviting people


Jon:
Graham:
Jon:

Hello?
Hello Jon. I just got your invitation. Im sorry I cant come to your party. Im going to
the country.
Oh, Im sorry. Maybe next time you can come.

DIALOGUE 2- Inviting people


Jenny:
Steph:
Jenny:
Steph:
Jenny:
Steph:

Hello?
Hello Jenny, its Steph. This Saturday night Im going to have a party at my home.
Would you like to come?
Cool! Yes, I would like to come. What time?
8:30. Have you got my address?
Yes. See you Saturday night at your house at eight-thirty.
Bye.

- 14

13 Giving Instructions
DIALOGUE-Make an invitation for a party
Teacher:

Class:

OK class, first, take a piece of paper and fold it in half.


Then, with crayons, design a picture on the cover of the invitation.
Then, on the inside, write the message. Dont forget to include the
date, time, address, and what type of party it is.
OK

VOCABULARY
too muchtroppo
withcon
becauseperch
ifse
everyogni
thenpoi

everneveraftermorelesslittle-

mai
mai
dopo
pi
meno
poco

laterlatethatthingallwithout-

pi tardi
in ritardo
che
cosa
tutto
senza

DIALOGUE
Jon:
Hello?
Steve:
Hello, Jon. Its Steve. This Friday night, were going to dinner at Luigis Pizza
downtown. Would you like to come with us?
Jon:
Yes, thats great!
Steve:
Do you know how to get to my house?
Jon:
Yes, I know where you live.
Steve:
Can you be here at seven-fifteen?
Jon:
Its impossible. I can be there at seven-thirty.
Steve:
Great. Lets meet at my house Friday night at seven-thirty.
Jon:
OK. Bye.
Steve:
Bye.

- 15

14 Time expressions
DIALOGUE
Dave:
Chris:
Jon:
Steve:
Dave:
Steve:
Mary:

What do you do in your free time?


I play with my computer and my Lego set
I collect stamps. Ive got a lot of them.
I draw and read.
What kind of things do you read?
Adventure books and comics.
I play the flute and I spend all my free time practicing.

VOCABULARY-Time expressions
oncetwicethree timeswhilealwayshow many-

una volta
due volte
tre volte
mentre
sempre
quanti

everydayogni giorno nevermai


oftenspesso
sometimes- ogni tanto
usuallydi solito
timetempo, volta
duringdurante
beforeprima
every other dayun giorno s, un giorno no

GRAMMAR
In/at/on with time expressions.
We use at with times. Ex. at noon, at five thirty, at six fifteen, etc.
We use on with dates and days. Ex. on Monday, on Christmas, on Sunday night, etc.
We use in for long periods of time. Ex. in April, in 1978, in the winter, etc.
GRAMMAR- Simple Present
Help: Only third person singular changes
he/she/it add s to the infinite verb.

Ex.

He reads. She looks. It eats.

Exceptions-Words that end in -ch, -sh, -o, -ss, -x. Add -es
ex.

watch-he watches
brush-she brushes
go-it goes

vowel + y = add s

kiss-he kisses
fix-she fixes
do-it does

ex. play=plays say=says pay=pays buy=buys

consonant + y=add -ies ex. cry=cries study=studies carry=carries


to speakto eatto buyto doto make-

parlare
mangiare
comprare
fare
fare

to sleepto goto giveto liveto read-

dormire
andare
dare
vivere
leggere

- 16

to askto spendto sayto cleanto open-

chiedere
spendere
dire
pulire
aprire

to cometo washto thinkto help-

venire
lavare
pensare
aiutare

ex.

I eat pizza.
You buy cars.
He makes bread.
She sleeps everyday.
It watches TV.

We ask questions.
You think once a month.
They make cakes.

DIALOGUE
Kate:
Jane:
Kate:
Jane:
Kate:
Jane:
Kate:
Jane:
Kate:
Jane:
Kate:
Jane:

Youre a good runner, arent you?


Im not bad. I can run backwards.
Do you ever fall?
Oh, yes. I often fall when I want to stop.
Do you go running often?
Almost everyday. I like it very much.
Where do you usually run, in the park or in the street?
I prefer the park, but in the winter its better in the street.
How much does it cost for the shoes?
About fifty dollars for a good pair.
And for Nikes?
Those cost from eighty to ninety dollars.

- 17

15 Positive / Negative form


GRAMMAR-Do and Does (This doesnt exist in the Italian, positive form.)
I do
You do
He does
She does
It does

to do (fare)
We do
You do
They do

ex.
I do run.
We do play.
You do have a book. You do study.
He does walk.
They do drive.
She does eat.
It does talk.

Help: Subject + Do + Verb


To ask a question: do or does + pronoun + verb + compliment.
ex.

Do you have feet?


Do they run?
Does he read everyday?

Yes, I do have feet.


Yes, they do run.
Yes, he does read everyday.

VOCABULARY- Clothes and Body Parts


shoessockspantsshortsbootsskirtdressblouseraincoatumbrellanylons-

scarpe
calzini
pantaloni
pantaloncini
stivali
gonna
vestito
camicetta
impermeabile
ombrello
calze

shirtbelttiesuitglovessweatercoatstomachmouthteethknee-

camicia
cintura
cravatta
abito
guanti
maglia
cappotto
stomaco
bocca
denti
ginocchio

handarmfootlegheadeyenosethroatearmoustachebeard-

DIALOGUE
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:

Hello Steve. Do you have a book about Michael Jordan?


Yes Steve, I do have a book about Michael Jordan.
How much does it cost?
It costs twenty-five dollars.
Do you want to read the book?
No, I dont want to read the book.
Do you like the pictures of Jordan?
Yes, I do like the pictures of Jordan.
Does he play well?
No, he doesnt play well. Hes old.

- 18

mano
braccio
piede
gamba
testa
occhio
naso
gola
orecchio
baffi
barba

GRAMMAR- Negative form. Dont and Doesnt

ex.

I do not = I dont
you do not = you dont
we do not = we dont

he does not = he doesnt


she does not = she doesnt
it does not = it doesnt

Do you play football?


Does he eat bread?
Do we read comics?

No, I dont play football.


No, he doesnt eat bread.
No, we dont read comics.

Adjective Pronouns-Help: Always come before the noun.


I
you
he
she
it

Adjective Pronouns
my
we
our
your you
your
his
they
their
her
its

My dad works for the FBI.


Your dog is very ugly.
His sister is my wife.
Her car is big and red.
Its house is outside.

ex.
That is my book.
This is your pen.
Those are his papers.
These are her cars.
This is its home.

This is our tree.


This is your son.
That is their grandpa.

Our brother is five.


Your apartment is small.
Neal and Bob washed their car.

VOCABULARY -All used with to be, except * which are used with "to have"
happysadmadangrysicktired-

felice
triste
pazzo
arrabbiato
ammalato
stanco

hotcoldthirstyhungryslowfast-

caldo
freddo
sete
fame
lento
veloce

- 19

pleasedcertainfullsweet*fever*cough-

lieto
certo
pieno
dolce
febbre
tosse

16 Modal Verbs
DIALOGUE
Jan:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:

Steve, I want to go to Los Angeles. Do you know how to go there?


Yes, I know how to go there. Are you able to drive?
Yes.
OK, you have to take Interstate 5 for three hours.
Then what do I have to do?
Then you want to take Beverly Hills Exit.
OK, thanks.

VOCABULARY-Modal verbs
to be able to
I am able to
we are able to
you are able to you are able to
he is able to
they are able to
she is able to
it is able to

I want to
you want to
he wants to
she wants to
it wants to

to want to
we want to
you want to
they want to

to know (how to)


I know how to
we know how to
you know how to
you know how to
he knows how to
they know how to
she knows how to
it knows how to

I have to
you have to
he has to
she has to
it has to

to have to
we have to
you have to
they have to

GRAMMAR-Modal verbs are used with other infinitives


ex.

He wants to go to the store.


We want to eat lunch.
I know how to drive.
They know how to clean.
You have to study.
It has to sleep.
I am able to cook.
He is able to play.

Vuole andare al negozio.


Vogliamo mangiare pranzo.
So guidare.
Sanno pulire.
Devi studiare.
Deve dormire.
Riesco a cucinare.
Riesce a giocare.

To ask a question, all use do except to be able to.


Wh- word + to do +pronoun +modal verb + verb
ex.

What do you want to eat?


Where do you have to go?
When does he want to study?

What are they able to do?


What is he able to eat?

- 20

17 Weather
DIALOGUE
Jane:
Steve:
Jane:
Steve:
Jane:

Hello Steve. What is the weather like today?


I think its sunny and cold. Why?
I want to wear shorts.
You want to wear shorts on the eleventh of November. Are you crazy?
No! Its November eleventh? I like to wear shorts when its cold.
Today, its raining also, so I cant wear my shorts.
It always rains after October fifteenth and after December second it
snows.

Steve:

VOCABULARY-Weather
springsummerautumn/fallwinterrainsnow-

primavera
estate
autunno
inverno
pioggia
neve

coolwindstormsuncloudhumid-

fresco
vento
temporale
sole
nuvola
umido

hailfrostfogweatheroutsidesky-

grandine
gelo
nebbia
tempo
fuori
cielo

VOCABULARY- Ordinal Numbers


firstsecondthirdfourthfifth-

1
2
3
4
5

sixthseventheighthninthtenth-

6
7
8
9
10

eleventhtwelfththirteenthfourteenthtwenty-first-

11
12
13
14
21

thirty-secondone hundredthone thousandthone millionth-

32
100
1.000
1.000.000

VOCABULARY- Months
JanuaryFebruaryMarchAprilEaster-

gennaio
febbraio
marzo
aprile
Pasqua

MayJuneJulyAugustbirthday-

maggio
giugno
luglio
agosto
compleanno

SeptemberOctoberNovemberDecemberChristmas-

settembre
ottobre
novembre
dicembre
Natale

COMMON PHRASES-Weather
What a beautiful day!
Lets hope it doesnt rain.
Do you think its going to rain?
Its sure hot/cold/windy.
My hands are freezing.

Whats the weather like outside?


Its ___________outside.
(Cold, hot, sunny, windy, beautiful,
cloudy, raining, snowing...)

- 21

18 Expressing opinion
DIALOGUE
Susan:
Betty:
Helen:
Betty:
Susan:
Helen:
Betty:
Susan:
Betty:
Susan:
Betty:
Helen:
Betty:

Hello Betty. Why isnt Helen here yet?


You know her. She takes hours to get ready.
Hi girls. Sorry, Im late.
Nonsense, youre always late.
Wow! What a nice dress youre wearing.
Do you like it?
Its super!
I think its too strange. I dont like it.
Of course you dont. It isnt the type of dress you wear.
What do you mean?
Nothing. Forget it.
Come on Betty. Dont be rude.
I dont like the way she dresses, thats all.

VOCABULARY-Expressing opinion
nonsenseforget itcome onimmediatelydifficult-

assurdit
non preoccuparti
ma dai!
subito
difficile

stop itfantasticboringquicklydang it-

Examples
Do you like running?
I like to run.
Do you like his car?
I dont like his car.

smettila
fantastico
noioso
presto
mannaggia

deliciouslovelyvery goodeasyimpossible-

delizioso
bello
molto bene
facile
impossibile

Response
Yes, I do. (or...No I dont)
So do I. (or...I dont)
Yes, I do. (or...I think it is)
Neither do I. (or...I do.)

DIALOGUE
Jeff:
Dave:
Neil:
Jeff:
Dave:
Jeff:
Dave:
Jeff:
Neil:
Jeff:
Dave:
Jeff:
Neil:

Im hungry. Lets go out and eat.


Ah, heres Neil. OK, lets go.
Jeff, do you want some rice?
Yuck! No thanks. Id like some pasta. Would you like some pasta, Dave?
Sure. Thanks.
Help yourself.
Have you got some ketchup Jeff?
Yes, its in the fridge.
Can I have some pasta?
Sure Neil, help yourself.
Jeff and Neil, what would you like to drink?
Can I have some orange juice?
Id like some milk.

- 22

GRAMMAR- Some/any
Help: Some is used in questions and positive phrases.
Any is used with negative phrases.
Ex.

Do you have some ketchup?


Would you like some salad?
Would you like some chocolates?

Can I have some milk?


Do you want some ice?
I dont have any chocolates.

GRAMMAR-Me/us
Help: Always follows a preposition or a verb.
Tell me what you want.
Do you want to come with us?
Joy did it for us.

Would you like to tell me?


Send us the package?
Tom went with me.

VOCABULARY
allalmostsomethingof, toto, atfor-

tutto
quasi
qualcosa
di
a
per

inwithonbesidearoundabove-

in
con
su
accanto
attorno
sopra

- 23

belowunderbutnowmaybethrough-

sotto
sotto
ma
adesso
forse
tramite

19 Past tense
DIALOGUE-Past tense
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:

Where were you Steve?


I was at the store. Jane invited me to a party.
Can we go?
Yes you can, but I think Jack played football this morning.
OK, I can call him later. How was your day?
It went bad today. I wanted to go to see a movie, but it rained.
I had a bad day today, also. We were in traffic all morning.

VOCABULARY
last weeksettimana scorsa
last month- mese scorso
last yearanno scorso
day before yesterday- altro ieri

yesterdayagominutelast Friday-

ieri
an hourfa
alreadyminuto
venerd scorso

unora
gi

GRAMMAR-To be and to have in past tense


I wasyou werehe wasshe wasit was-

to be (essere)
ero we wereeri
you wereera they wereera
era

eravamo
eravate
erano

ex. Where were you yesterday?


How were they this morning?

I hadyou hadhe hadshe hadit had-

to have (avere)
avevo we hadavevamo
avevi you had- avevate
aveva they had- avevano
aveva
aveva

I was at home.
They were good.

PRONUNCIATION-Past tense verbs


-if it ends in -s, -sh, -ch, -p, -k, the -ed is pronounced [ t ]
ex.
watched
stopped
worked
-if it ends in -t or d, it is pronounced [ id ]
ex.
waited
started
wanted
-if it ends with any vowel or other consonant, it is pronounced [ d ]
ex.
studied
opened
loved
rained
ASKING PERMISSION- Can/may
Can I use your car?
Can I borrow your girlfriend?
May I have a new plate?
May I go to the bathroom?

Yes, you may.


No, you cant.
Yes, you may.
Yes, you may.

- 24

answered

DIALOGUE- Past tense irregulars


Jon:
Hey Steve, yesterday I went to Disneyland. Dane told you, right?
Steve:
You went to Disneyland! How cool! Nobody told me.
Jon:
Dane said that she told you that we saw Mickey Mouse.
Steve:
I never knew.
Jon:
It was so cool. We fed the animals, we bought gifts, we ate good food,
we went to the shows, we came home at midnight, and we fell asleep at
two in the morning.
Steve:
How awesome! It sounds like I missed a fun trip.
VOCABULARY-Irregular past verbs
Verb
Past
Verb
Past
gowent
comecame
telltold
feedfed
saysaid
buybought
seesaw
eatate
know- knew
fall asleep- fell asleep

Verb
breakgetdodrinkread-

Past
broke
got
did
drank
read

Verb
runmakewearwriteput-

Past
ran
made
wore
wrote
put

DIALOGUE- Making questions in the past tense with do.


Jon:
Where did you go yesterday, Steve?
Steve:
I went to the soccer game.
Jon:
What did you see?
Steve:
I saw a game between New York and Los Angeles.
Jon:
Where did the game start?
Steve:
It started at eight-thirty.
GRAMMAR- do past tense interrogative.
Wh word Auxiliary Subject
Verb
Compliment
Expressions of time
When
did
I, you
go
to work
today
What
did
he, she, it
see
in school
yesterday
What
did
we, you, they eat
at home
last week
Help: Open sentences use wh words, closed sentences (yes or no answer) dont.
NEGATIVE-Did not = didnt
Subject
Auxiliary Verb
I, you
didnt
go
he, she, it
didnt
eat
we, you, they
didnt
see

Compliment
to work
in school
at home

VOCABULARYdollbambola
giftfilmpellicola
toymoneydenaro
pincheckassegno
matchesMoney Order- vaglia
keytelegramtelegramma magazinecameramacchina fotografica

- 25

regalo, dono newspaper- giornale


giocattolo
pillspillole
spillo
elevatorascensore
fiammiferi
gatecancello
chiave
balconybalcone
rivista
telephone bookelenco telefonico

?
?
?
?

20 Giving instructions
DIALOGUEJonny:
Mom:
Jonny:
Mom:
Jonny:
Mom:
Jonny:
Mom:

Im ready mom.
OK. Have you got everything?
Let me check...milk, eggs, flour, sugar, oil, bananas, and soda. Yes,
Im ready to start.
OK, first put in three eggs, one and a half cups sugar, 1 cup oil, and
mix it all together.
OK.
Then add two cups of flour, a pinch of salt, some cinnamon, and two
teaspoons of baking soda, then mix.
How much time in the oven?
30 minutes on 175 C.

VOCABULARY- Cooking
cookaddmixbreakjuice-

cucinare
aggiungere
mescolare
rompere
succo

puteggflourcinnamonchocolate-

mettere
uovo
farina
cannella
cioccolato

sugaroilbananamilksweets-

zucchero
olio
banana
latte
dolci

saucebittergarlicbuttersandwich-

GRAMMAR- Much/many/a lot of


Help: much-uncountable objects and for negative phrases and questions
many-countable objects and for negative phrases and questions.
a lot of-used with singular and plural positive phrases
ex. We dont have much time. They didnt have many cars. I have a lot of time/cars.
He doesnt have much flour. You dont have many girlfriends.
I have a lot of flour/girlfriends.
IT/THEM- lo/la + le/li
Help: It/them always follow a verb or a preposition.
Do you have some cookies?
Can you give me those cards?
Do you know where the dog is?
Can you pass me the flour?

Yes, I have them in the fridge.


Yes, I can give them to you.
Yes, it is there.
Yes, I can pass it to you.

- 26

salsa
amaro
aglio
burro
panino

21 Asking directions
DIALOGUEJane:
Jen:
Jane:
Jen:

Excuse me. Can you please tell me where Main Street is?
Yes, Main street is by Central Station. Do you know where that is?
No.
OK, turn right at the first stoplight, then take the second left. You will see a gas station
there. Go straight until it arrives to the highway. Turn right and take the highway until
you see Central Station Exit.
Thank you very much.

Jane:

VOCABULARY
stoplighthighwayfreewaystop sign-

semaforo
exitautostrada
tollsuperstrada
cornersegnale di fermata

uscita
pedaggio
angolo

walksidewalk boardwalk-

passeggiata
marciapiede
lungomare

TRAIN MAP
Is there a train that goes from New York to Washington D.C.?
Yes, theres a train at 3:30.
COMMON PHRASES
How do you get to...?
I have a flat tire.
I need a tow truck.

Come si arriva a...?


Ho una gomma a terra.
Ho bisogno di un carro attrezzi.

DIALOGUE- Asking for information


Steph:
Info:
Steph:
Info:
Steph:
Info:
Steph:

Is there a department store here?


Yes there is.
Where is it?
Its opposite the bakery, next to the parking garage.
Where is the womens clothing?
Its on the second floor.
Thank you very much.

- 27

VOCABULARY- Places
toy storechurchdowntownbakeryshoe storehoteldepartment storefloristhardware store-

giocattoleria
chiesa
centro
panetteria
calzature
albergo
grande magazzino
fioraio
negozio di ferramenta

COMMON PHRASES
There is....Theres = C

Is there?

There are....Theyre = Ci sono Are there?


*

- 28

gympharmacymuseumhospitaltown hallparking garagecard shoptourist centeramusement park-

palestra
farmacia
museo
ospedale
comune
parcheggio
cartoleria
centro turistico
parco dei divertimenti

22 Describing Places and Things


DIALOGUE-Describing Places
Jon:
Hey, Steve, tell me about where you come from.
Steve: OK Jon, I come from California. California is hot, a desert, and very much an agricultural
zone. There is also the coast and beaches of southern California, like Baywatch. The
north is cooler and is mostly forest and mountains. The north has many rivers and lakes
where you can fish, go boating, or just swim. Also, in the north, there is a big river
valley, like the Po River Valley, that is surrounded by mountains. In that valley, there
are many farmers. Also in California, there are about 40 million people, with Los
Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego being the 3 biggest cities.
Jon:
Thanks for the information. Maybe one day I can go there for vacation.
VOCABULARY-Describing places
mountainvalleylakeriver-

montagna
valle
lago
fiume

farmhillcoastbeach-

fattoria
collina
costa
spiaggia

desertvolcanoforest-

deserto
vulcano
foresta

DIALOGUE-Describing things
Jane:
Steph:
Jane:
Steph:
Jane:
Steph:
Jane:
Steph:
Jane:
Steph:

Whats wrong Steph?


I lost my umbrella.
Whats it like?
Its blue and yellow.
Whats it made of?
Its nylon.
How tall is it?
Its about two feet tall. Im so upset.
I understand. Yesterday, I lost my new sweater that is made of wool. Its brown and
black. Did you see it?
No, I didnt. Sorry.

VOCABULARY
plasticsilkcottonwoolnylon-

plastica
seta
cottone
lana
nailon

leather- cuoio
glassvetro
widelargo
longlungo
foam-rubber -

largesmallbigtall-

- 29

grande shortpiccolo highgrosso


metalalto
woodgommapiuma

basso
alto
metallico
legno

GRAMMAR-Little/Few
Help: a little is used with uncountable objects.
ex. salt, sugar, milk, flour, time, water.
I have a little time today.
I need a little sugar.
Help: a few is used with countable objects.
ex. eggs, cars, days, papers, books.
I have a few hours tonight.
I need a few eggs.
VOCABULARY- Quantities
halfdozenpacket-

mezzo
dozzina
pacchetto

canpairbottle-

lattina
paio
bottiglia

couplecontainerhalf-dozen-

paio
contenitore
mezzo-dozzina

ex. Half a kilo, a pair of shoes, a dozen eggs, a packet of sugar, a can of soda, a bottle
of ketchup, a container of cream, a half-dozen rolls.

- 30

23 Making comparisons
DIALOGUEJane:
Steve:
Jane:
Steve:
Jane:
Steve:

Hi Steve. Hey, I didnt know that Jon is taller than you.


Yes, hes taller than me, but Im as tall as Jack.
Yeah, but youre not as fat as he is.
True, he is fatter than me. Its because Im more active than him.
He always has more free time than you.
He can also be more helpful than me. I never have free time.

VOCABULARY- Characteristics
hard workingimaginativeloyalself-confident-

industrioso
immaginativo
leale
fiducioso

honestonesto
friendlyactiveattivo
funnyhelpfulservizievole
sense of humor- senso dell umorismo

amichevole
buffo

GRAMMAR-Comparative phrases
1. With adjectives there are three ways
-Jon is taller than Steve. -er than (words that end in -y change to i when adding -er)
-Jon is as tall as Steve. as adjective as
-Jon is more beautiful than Steve. more adjective than
2. With nouns there are also three ways.
-Jon has more time than Steve. more noun than
-Jon has less time than Steve. less noun than
-Jon has fewer friends than Steve. fewer noun than
Help: Less is used with singular and fewer with plurals.
A few exceptions where you cant -er
good-better
bad-worse
DIALOGUE- Making comparisons
Steve:
Jon:
Dave:
Steve:
Jon:
Dave:

Hey Jon, that new car is big.


Yeah, it is, but the Fiat 500 is bigger.
Yeah, the Fiat 500 is bigger, but my Ferrari is the biggest.
I know that its the biggest, and also the most expensive.
Hey, my Fiat 500 is expensive too.
Yeah, but the Ferrari is more expensive.

- 31

GRAMMAR- Superlative sentences


There are two rules to show the difference between size.
1. When the root word is one syllable or ends in -y add -er and -est
ex. big, bigger, the biggest
easy, easier, the easiest
fat, fatter, the fastest
happy, happier, the happiest
short, shorter, the shortest
large, larger, the largest
2. If there are two or more syllables, add more and most
ex. expensive, more expensive, the most expensive
exciting, more exciting, the most exciting
Exceptions: good, better, best and bad, worse, and worst
VOCABULARY- numbers
a hundred100
one thousand- 1.000
one hundred- 100
two thousand- 2.000
two hundred- 200
ten thousand- 10.000
a thousand1.000 one hundred thousandone million five hundred thousand1.500.000

- 32

five hundred thousandone millionfive million100.000

500.000
1.000.000
5.000.000

24 Future plans
DIALOGUE-Future plans
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:

Hey Steve, Im going to go on a trip this Saturday.


Oh yeah, where are you going to go?
Im going to go to Disneyland.
Cool. Were going to Disneyland next summer.
Are you going to go with the whole family?
Yes. Hey, tomorrow Im going to make a cake again. Do you want to help?
I cant. Tomorrow and the day after tomorrow I have to work.

VOCABULARY-Future time expressions


todayoggi
next week- settimana prossima this summertomorrow- domani
this week- questa settimana
next year- lanno prossimo the day after tomorrow- dopodomani

questestate

GRAMMAR- Present Progressive: Used for actions that will happen for sure.
Present Tense Negative
to be
+
(not)
+
going to +
verb +
time expression
Im
not
going to
eat
tomorrow
Youre
not
going to
go
today
Hes/Shes/Its not
going to
read
next week
Were
not
going to
drive
this summer
Youre
not
going to
speak
this week
Theyre
not
going to
sleep
next year
Help: To make a question with the Present Progressive...
Wh- words +
What
When
Why
Who
Where
Where

to be +
am
are
is
are
are
are

pronoun +
I
you
he/she/it
we
you
they

going to +
going to
going to
going to
going to
going to
going to

verb +
eat
go
read
drive
speak
sleep

time expression
tomorrow
today
next week
this summer
this week
next year

?
?
?
?
?
?
?

DIALOGUE- Making decisions


Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:

Hey Steve, what are you going to do this Saturday night?


I dont know, I think Ill go to the movies with Samantha.
Youre not sure?
No, because I think it will rain and my car doesnt work very well when it rains.
If you want, my dad will repair it for you.
No, Ill take it to the mechanic this Friday.

- 33

GRAMMAR- Future will


Help:
1) Used with future actions when there is some doubt.
or 2) Used with an action that will be done right now.
I will
you will
he will
she will
it will

Contractions of will
Ill
we will
youll
you will
hell
they will
shell
itll

well
youll
theyll

ex. of rule 1: I think itll rain.


Ill go if theres time.

He doesnt know if hell go.


She thinks well meet Friday.

ex. of rule 2: Ill get it for you.


Hell fix it for you.

Ill take the umbrella.


Well go right now.

- 34

Ill eat it.

25 Giving advice
DIALOGUE
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:

Jon, that lady stole my seat. What should I do?


You should hit her, but it would be better to ask her for the seat.
Why dont you ask her for me?
Id do it, but its your seat. Youd better hurry.
I think you should ask her. Id knock her out.
You should ask Steve. Its your chair.

PHRASES-Giving advice.
It would be better...
You should...
You could...
Why dont you...
Youd better...
Id...
I think you should...
I wouldnt...

Sarebbe meglio...
Tu dovresti...
Tu potresti...
Perch non fai...
Tu dovresti...
Io farei...
Io penso che dovresti...
Io non farei...

PHRASES- Asking for advice.


What do you think that I should do?
What would you do?
What could I do?
What should I do?

Cosa pensi che dovrei fare?


Cosa faresti?
Cosa potrei fare?
Cosa dovrei fare?

GRAMMAR- Conditional tense


Help: Would is used the same as the Italian conditional with verbs.
I would go.
I would
you would
he would
she would
it would

He would eat.

We would read.

Contractions of would
Id
we would wed
youd
you would youd
hed
they would theyd
shed
itd

could = potere
he could = lui potrebbe

should = dovere
she should = lei dovrebbe

- 35

DIALOGUE- Present Perfect


Jon:
Have you ever seen the Statue of Liberty in New York?
Steve:
Yes, I have. Have you eaten the food in New York?
Jon:
No, I havent.
Steve:
Its good. Ive just cooked some for us to eat.
Jon:
Ive never seen New York food.
Steve:
How many times have you been to New York?
Jon:
Ive been to New York about ten times.
Steve:
How long have you been here in California?
Jon:
Ive been here for three weeks.
VOCABULARY- Time expressions
nevermai
justevermai
already-

appena
gi

yet-

ancora

GRAMMAR- Present Perfect


Help: Used with something that happened or was done in the past and has a connection to the
present. Usually used with a time expression.
ex.

Ive been here for two years.


Ive played basketball for five weeks.
Hes never seen New York.
Weve just finished.

Pronoun
I
you
he/she/it
we
you
they

+ to have
+
have (Ive)
have (youve)
have (hes, shes its)
have (weve)
have (youve)
have (theyve)

participle
been
seen
eaten
done
read
written

- 36

Sono qua da due anni.


Gioco a basket da cinque settimane.
Lui non ha mai visto New York.
Abbiamo appena finito.
+

compliment +
to New York
the store
bread
work
a book
a story

time expression
for two weeks.
yesterday.
already.
yet.
today.
this month.

26 Negative forms of Conditional and Present


DIALOGUEJon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:

Have you ever gone to New York, Steve?


No, I havent. I should have gone three years ago, but I was busy.
I would never have gone three years ago.
Why?
Because three years ago, I could have bought a house with the money.
I wouldnt have been able to buy a house three years ago. My work was too slow.
Has your brother ever traveled the world?
Yes, hes been to Japan two times.
I couldnt eat the food there. I dont like fish.
You shouldnt go to Alaska then. They eat a lot of fish.

GRAMMAR-Negative Forms-Usually used with a time expression.


have not = havent
has not = hasnt

would not = wouldnt


could not = couldnt

ex. I havent ever eaten fish.


He hasnt always been tall.

should not = shouldnt

We wouldnt buy fruit.


They shouldnt run fast.
They couldnt see New York.

TO MAKE A QUESTION- Present Perfect


Help: wh- word + to have + pronoun + past participle + time expression ?
What have you eaten today?
Where has your brother gone?
What have they done this week.
TO MAKE A QUESTION- Conditional
Help: Conditional + pronoun + verb + compliment ?
Should I go to the store?
Would you buy a new car?
Could they build a new house?
GRAMMAR-Conditional Past
Help: Pronoun + conditional + have + past parteciple + compliment
He should have eaten the apple.
We would have bought the car.
They could have run forever.
It couldnt have been his bike.
They shouldnt have read that book.
I wouldnt have gone to Rome.

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27 Pronouns - Possessive, Reflexive, and Relative


DIALOGUEJon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:

Whose is this letter?


Its mine. Wheres yours?
Im writing it now. The girl to whom Im writing is beautiful.
Where does she live?
She lives in England. The house in which she lives is old.
Whose house is it?
Its hers. She bought it two years ago.
Are these also yours?
No, they arent mine. They are theirs.

VOCABULARY- Irregular plurals


foot-feettooth-teethgoose-geesehalf-halves-

piede (i)
dente (i)
oca (che)
met ()

mouse-micesheep-sheepfish-fishknife-knives-

topolino (i)
pecora (e)
pesce (i)
coltello (i)

GRAMMAR- Possesive and reflexive pronouns


Possesive Pronouns
mio- mine
nostro- ours
mituo- yours
vostro- yours
tisuo- his
lorotheirs
sihers
siits
siThe book is mine.
The car is yours.
The shoes are his.
The pen is hers.
The house is its.

The trip is ours.


The paper is yours.
The baby is theirs.

woman-womenman-menchild-childrencalf-calves-

donna (e)
uomo (ini)
bambino (i)
vitello (i)

Reflexive Pronouns
myself
ci- ourselves
yourself
vi- yourselves
himself
si- themselves
herself
itself

I washed myself.
You talk to yourself.
He thanks himself.
She likes herself.
It licks itself.

We wake ourselves up.


Youll see yourselves later
They dont like themselves.

GRAMMAR- Relative pronouns


Help: cui = whom or which.
Whom is used with people. Which is used with places and things.
Ex. The girl to whom Im writing is pretty.
The country in which I live.
The family to whom I mailed the package.
The horse on which I ride.
Thats the friend with whom Im going.
Thats the pen with which I write.

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28 Past progressive
DIALOGUEJon:
Hey Steve. What were you doing?
Steve:
I was watching TV Why?
Jon:
I was driving by your house when I decided to stop.
Steve:
Why did you decide to stop?
Jon:
I decided to stop because as I was looking out the window I saw the
DANGER sign.
Steve:
When my mom was riding her bike she said she saw that also.
Jon:
Your mom was riding a bike! Thats why there was a DANGER sign.
VOCABULARY- Warning signs
dangerbe carefulbeware-

pericolo
attenzione
guardarsi

cautionattenzione
poisonveleno
explosive- esplosivo

watch outno smoking-

guardarsi
vietato fumare

GRAMMAR-Past Progressive-Continuous action that happened in the past.


Pronoun +
I
You
He/She/It
We
You
They

past of
to be +
was
were
was
were
were
were

gerund +
eating
watching
looking
reading
doing
riding

compliment
food.
TV
at me.
books.
work.
bikes.

GRAMMAR-Past Progressive-Question form


past of
Wh- word
to be +
Pronoun +
Why
was
I
Who
were
you
When
was
he/she/it
Where
were
we
Why
were
you
When
were
they

gerund +
eating
watching
looking
reading
doing
riding

compliment
food?
TV with?
at me?
books?
work?
bikes?

GRAMMAR-Past Progressive-Negative Form


Help: Was + not = Wasnt
Were + not = Werent
Question
Positive Response Negative Response
Were you watching TV?
No, I wasnt.
Yes, I was.
Was he eating dinner?
No, he wasnt.
Yes, he was
Were they riding the bikes? No, they werent
Yes, they were

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29 Past perfect
DIALOGUEJon: What did you do yesterday, Steve?
Steve: I was looking for my keys all day because I had lost them.
Jon: Did you find them?
Steve: Yes, when I was cleaning the house. The house was so dirty, because I hadnt cleaned for
three weeks.
Jon: I understand. One time my parents had lost their camera because their bedroom was so dirty.
They hadnt cleaned it for two months.
Steve: Are you kidding? Hey, why didnt Jane come over to your house last night to watch the
movie?
Jon: Jane told me that she had already seen it.
Steve: I heard her say that the other day too.
Jon: Did you hear what Dave said?
Steve: No, what did he say?
Jon: He told Jenny that their relationship was over.
VOCABULARY- Tell versus say
Help: There are two general rules that can be followed. Uses the preposition to.
1) Use say when talking in general, not to someone directly.
ex. He said, OK.
Lui ha detto, OK.
She says Good morning to everyone.
Lei dice Buon giorno a tutti.
What did she say then?
Che cosa ha detto allora?
2) Use tell when talking directly to someone without the preposition to.
ex. What did he tell her?
Che cosa le ha detto lui?
He told her a story.
Lui le ha detto una storia.
I have to tell you something.
Devo dirti una cosa.
GRAMMARWe use the past perfect to say that something had happened before another past action.
ex.
Before I arrived, he had gone home.
Prima che io arrivassi, lui era andato a casa.
She didnt go, because she had lost her keys.
Non andata, perch aveva perso le chiavi.
I was late, because I had washed the car.
Ero in ritardo, perch io avevo lavato la macchina.
DIALOGUE
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:

What have you been doing these days?


I have been running and writing.
To whom have you been writing?
Ive been writing letters to myself.
Why?
Because yesterday when I went to the store, I had forgotten
everything that I wanted to buy.
That happened to my mom also. She told me that she had written
letters to herself for about three years.
She doesnt write letters to herself anymore?
No, she hasnt been writing letters to herself for about three years.
Tell your mom that I said Congratulations.

- 40

30 Hypothetical sentences
DIALOGUEJon:
If I came over to your city, what would I see?
Steve:
If you came to my city, you would see Old Sacramento and the
Bradford families house.
Jon:
What would you show me?
Steve:
I would take you to see San Francisco and then Alcatraz. If I went to
Italy, what would I see?
Jon:
If you came to Italy, you would be famous.
Steve:
Why?
Jon:
Because if you lived in Milan, everyone would think you were a model.
Steve:
They would think I was a model? Wow!
GRAMMAR-Hypothetical sentences
Help: For actions that have not happened, but there is the possibility that it could happen in the
future. The tenses used are past conditional and conditional.
Ex.

If I lived in Milan, I would be famous.


If I were rich, wed go to China.

Help: For actions that will never happen, or that could have happened in the past, the past perfect
and past conditional tenses are used.
Ex.

If I had been on time, I would have seen Michael Jordan.


If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a new house.

PHRASES-Hypothetical phrases
I would take you to...
I would show you...
We could go...
It would be fun to...

Ti porterei a...
Ti mostrerei...
Potremmo andare...
Sarebbe divertente...

- 41

We could spend...
You would see...
I wouldnt...

Potremmo spendere...
Vedresti...
Non farei...

31 Indefinite pronouns
DIALOGUEJon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:

Do you know anyone that can help me with science? I must study tonight.
Yes, I know someone that could help you.
Do you know anything about science Steve?
No, my friend will have to help you.
Do you know if there is anywhere to go to study?
In this area, there is nowhere to go.
Everywhere else has a library. There is nothing in this area?
Nope, everyone here studies at home.

GRAMMAR-Indefinite Pronouns
somebodysomeoneanywhere-

taluno
qualcuno
dovunque

somethingsomewhereanything-

qualcosa
in qualche posto
qualunque cosa

anybodyanyone-

chiunque
chiunque

Help: Some- is used in questions when we think the answer will be yes, and in responses.
Any- is used in questions, after if, and in negative sentences.
ex.

They dont have anything to do.


He never goes anywhere.
Do you know someone in college?
If you need anything, just ask.

Do you have anyone available?


Do you know somewhere to buy food?
Do you have something in your eye?

No- is not used with other negatives. Used with they/them/their.


Nobody
no one
nothing
nowhere
ex:

I know nothing.
There is nowhere to play.

Every-
ex.

everybody

I dont know anything.


No one in the class did their homework.

everyone

everything

Everybody enjoyed the party.


Everything fell out of the boat.

everywhere

There is stuff everywhere.


He knows everyone on his street.

DIALOGUE
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:
Steve:
Jon:

Steve, do you know anyone that was watching TV last night at eleven oclock?
Yes, I know someone that was watching that soccer game at that hour. Why?
I need a copy of something that was on.
My friend doesnt have anything though.
Do you know anywhere that I could find it?
If you went to Jennys house, I am sure you could find a copy.
If I went to Jennys house, Id be in love with her sister.

- 42

Corso D'Inglese
Basilare

- 43