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Methods of artificial lift

presented to:

Prof Dr : El ayouty . Elsaid

PETE 410 L11-1 1


Prepared by :

● Sabry kasem galal .


● Amir wagdy .
● Mena ebrahim.
● Beshoi ghaly.
● Hany saeed .

PETE 410 L11-1 2


Artificial Lift- Overview
● Sucker Rod or Beam Pump

● Hydraulic Pumping, Submersible Electric


Pump, Progressive Cavity Pump

● Continuous Flow Gas Lift

● Plunger Lift

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Major Forms of Artificial Lift
Electronic
Controller
Lubricator Drive
Head

Control Catcher
Armored Equipment w/ Arrival
Cable Sucker
Sensor
Rod
Gas-Lift
Pump Valve
Rod Pump
Plunger
Floater/
Packer Bumper
Tubing Pump Electric Stator
Anchor Standing Spring
Motor
Valve Tubing
(Optional) Stop

Rod Pump Submersible


Progressive-
Hydraulic Electric Gas Lift Plunger Lift Cavity Pump
Pump Pump

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Artificial Lift Methods,
US (from PWC, 1998)

% No of wells
Beam or rod pump 85 %

Continuous gas lift 10 %

Electric submersile pump 4%

Hydraulic (piston & jet) 2%

Progressive cavity pump 1 %

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Relative Advantages of Artificial-Lift Systems (1 of 2)

Rod Pumping Hydraulic Electric Gas Lift Hydraulic Plunger Progressive-


Piston Submersible Jet Pump Lift Cavity Pumps
Pumping Pumping

Relatively simple Not so depth limited- Can lift extremely Can withstand Retrievable Retrievable Some types are
system design. can lift large volumes high volumes. large volume of without pulling without pulling retrievable with
from great depths. 20,000 bbl/d solids with minor tubing. tubing. rods.
Units easily 500 bbl/d (79.49 m3/d)
Currently lifting + Handles large No moving parts. Very
changed to other from 15,000 ft (4572 m) Moderate cost.
120,000 bbl/d volume in high-PI inexpensive
wells with minimal have been installed
(19,068m3/d) from wells (continous No problems in installation.
cost. to 18,000 ft (5,486.4 m). Low profile.
water supply wells lift). 50,000 bbl/d deviated or
in Middle East with (7949.37 m3/d) crooked holes. Automatically
Efficient, simple Crooked holes present Can use
and easy for field 600-hp (448-kW) keeps tubing downhole
minimal problems
units; 720-hp Fairly flexible- Unobtrusive in clean of
people to operate. electric motors
(537-kW). Available; convertible from urban locations. paraffin,
Unobtrusive in urban that can withstand
1000-hp (746-kW) continuous to scale.
Applicable to locations. sand and viscous
under development. intermittent to Applicable
slim holes fluid.
chamber or plunger offshore. Applicable for
and multiple Power source can be
Unobtrusive in lift as well declines. high gas-oil
completions. remotely located. High electrical
urban locations. Can use water as ratio wells. efficiency.
Unobtrusive in a power source.
Can pump a well Analyzable.
Simple to operate. urban locations. Can be used
down to very low
pressure (depth and Power fluid does in conjunction
Flexible-can usually
Easy to install Power source can not have to be as with intermittent
rate dependent). match displacement
downhole pressure be remotely located. clean as for gas lift.
to well's capability as
System usually is sensor for hydraulic piston
well declines.
telemetering Easy to obtain pumping. Can be used
naturally vented for
pressure to surface downhole pressures to unload liquid
gas separation and Can use gas or
by cable. and gradients. Corrosion scale from gas wells.
fluid level soundings. electricity as power
emulsion
source.
Crooked holes Lifting gassy wells treatment easy to
Flexible-can match
present no problem. is no problem. perform.
displacement rate Downhole pumps can
to well capability as be circulated out in
Applicable offshore. Sometimes
well declines. free systems.
serviceable with
Analyzable. wireline unit. PETE 410 L11-1 6
Relative Advantages of Artificial-Lift Systems (2 of 2)

Rod Pumping Hydraulic Electric Gas Lift Hydraulic Plunger Progressive-


Piston Submersible Jet Pump Lift Cavity Pumps
Pumping Pumping
Can lift high- Can pump a well Corrosion and Crooked holes Power source
temperature down to fairly low scale treatment present no can be remotely
and viscous oils pressure. easy to problem. located and can
perform. pump high
Can use gas or Applicable to multiple Corrosion is not volumes to
electricity as power completions. Availability in usually as 30,000 bbl/d
source. different size. adverse. (4769.623 m3/d).
Applicable offshore.
Corrosion and scale Lifting cost for Applicable
treatments easy to Closed system will high volumes offshore.
perform. combat corrosion. generally
very low.
Applicable to Easy to pump in
pump-off control cycles by time clock.
if electrified.
Adjustable gear box
Availability of for triplex offers more
different sizes. flexibility.

Hollow sucker rods Mixing power fluid


are available for with waxy or viscous
slimhole crudes can reduce
completions and viscosity.
ease of inhibitor
treatment.

Have pumps with


double valving that
pump on both
upstroke and
downstroke.

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Relative Disadvantages of Artificial-Lift Systems 1 of 2

Rod Pumping Hydraulic Electric Gas Lift Hydraulic Plunger Progressive


Piston Submersible Jet Pump Lift Cavity Pumps
Pumping Pumping
Crooked holes Power oil systems Not applicable to Lift gas is Relatively May not take Elastomers in
present a friction are a fire hazard. multiple completions. not always inefficient lift well to depletion; stator swell in
problem. available. method. hence, eventually some well fluids.
Only applicable with requiring another
High solids Large oil inventory electric power. Not efficient in Requires at lift method. POC is difficult.
production is required in power lifting small least 20%
troublesome. oil system, which High voltages fields or one-well submergence to Good for low-rate Lose efficiency
detracts from (1000 V) are leases. approach best wells only with depth.
Gassy wells profitability. necessary. lift efficiency. normally less
usually lower Difficult to lift than 299 bbl/d Rotating rods wear
volumetric High solids Impractical in shallow, emulsions and Design of (31.8 m/d). tubing; windup and
efficiency. production is low-volume wells. viscous crudes. system is afterspin of rods
troublesome. more complex. Requires more increase with
Depth is limited, Expensive to change Not efficient for engineering depth.
primarily based Operating costs are equipment to match small fields or Pump may supervision to
on rod capability. sometimes higher. declining well one-well leases cavitate adjust properly.
capability. if compression under certain
Obtrusive in Usually susceptible equipment is conditions. Plunger may
urban locations. to gas interference- Cable causes problems required. reach too high
usually not vented. with tubular handling. Very sensitive a velocity and
Heavy and bulky Gas freezing to any change in cause surface
in offshore Vented installations Cables deteriorate in and hydration backpressure. damage.
operations. are more expensive high temperatures. problems.
because of extra The producing Communication
Susceptible to tubing required. System is depth limited Problems with of free gas between tubing
paraffin to 10,000 ft (3048.0 m) dirty surface through the and casing surface
problems. Treating for scale because of cable cost lines. pump causes required for good
below packer is and inability to install reduction in operation unless
Tubing cannot difficult. enough power Some difficulty ability to pump used in
be internally downhole (depends in analyzing liquids. conjunction with
coated for Not easy for field on casing size). properly without gas lift.
corrosion. personnel to engineering Power oil
troubleshoot. supervision. systems are a
fire hazard. PETE 410 L11-1 8
Relative Disadvantages of Artificial-Lift Systems 2 of 2

Rod Pumping Hydraulic Electric Gas Lift Hydraulic Plunger Progressive


Piston Submersible Jet Pump Lift Cavity Pumps
Pumping Pumping
H2S limits depth Difficult to obtain Gas and solids Cannot High surface
at which a large- valid well tests in production are effectively power fluid
volume pump low-volume wells troublesome. produce deep pressures are
can be set. wells to required.
Requires two strings Not easily analyzable abandonment.
Limitation of of tubing for some unless good
downhole pump installations. engineering Requires makeup
design in small- experience is available. gas in rotative
diameter casing. Problems in systems.
treating power Lack of production
water where used. rate flexibility. Casing must
withstand lift
Safety problem for Casing size limitation. pressure.
high surface
pressure power oil. Cannot be set below Safety is a
fluid entry without a problem with
Loss of power oil in shroud to route fluid high-pressure
surface equipment by the motor. Shroud gas.
failure. also allows corrosion
inhibitor to protect
outside of motor.

More down-time
when problems are
encountered because
entire unit is downhole.

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Questions to Ask

● Is a source of gas available?


● Is power available?
● How deep?
● Is the well deviated?
● What are the target production rates?
● Is water a problem?
● Is scale present?

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Relative

ft
Ranges of AL

ga s li

t
Methods

lif
ent

as
mitt

sg
Static bottomhole pressure

(After Nind TEW)

ou
r

inu
Inte

nt
Co

Flowing

Pumping: Sucker Rod, Subm EP, Hydraulic, Prog CP

Gross Productivity Index

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