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# MTH 102A - Linear Algebra - 2015-16-II Semester

P. Maximality

i) S has (P)

and

## ii) no proper superset of S in T has (P).

Let T = {2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15}. Then a maximal subset of T of consecutive

integers is S = {2, 3, 4}. Other maximal subsets are {7, 8}, {10}, {12, 13, 14, 15}. The
subset {12, 13} is not maximal. Why?
S V is called maximal lin.ind if

i) S is lin.ind

and

## Let S Rn be lin.ind and |S| = n. Then S is maximal lin.ind. !!

Let S = {v1 , . . . , vk } Rn . Form the matrix A by taking vi s as columns. Apply

GJE: let A = ER, where R = rref(A). Let R(:, i1 ), . . . , R(:, ip ) be the pivotal columns.
Then {vi1 , . . . , vip } is a maximal lin.ind subset of S. !!
P. Dimension

if and only if

ls(S) = V. !!

## Rn is finite dimensional as Rn = ls(e1 , . . . , en ).

Let V = ls(S), |S| = k, T V be lin.ind. We already know that |T | k. Thus a

## maximal lin.ind subset of V has at most k vectors in it.

Th Let S, T be two finite maximal lin.ind subsets of V. Then |S| = |T |.
Po.

## As ls(S) = V and T is lin.ind, we get |T | |S|. Similarly, |S| |T |.

Let V 6= {0} be a VS and S be a maximal lin.ind subset. We call |S| the (algebraic)

## Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Let V 6= {0} be a VS. Then a maximal lin.ind subset of V is called the (Hamel) basis

## of V. Note: basis of {0} is not defined.

P. Minimal spanning set, Basis

## Let V 6= {0}. A set S V is called minimal spanning if ls(S) = V and no proper

subset of S spans V.
Th Let V 6= {0} be a vector space. TFAE:

## 1) B is a basis (maximal lin.ind set) of V.

2) B is lin.ind and it spans V.
3) B is a minimal spanning set of V.
Po.

## 1) 2): Basis Lin. ind and Maximal spans.

2)3): Let S be a lin.ind set that spans V. Then, for any x S, x
/ ls (S {x}).

Hence ls (S {x}) 6= V.
3)1): Since B spans V, for any x V \ B we have B {x} is lin.dep. Assume
P
that B is lin.dep. Then there exists v, v1 , . . . , vk B s.t. v =
i vi . In that case
ls(B \ {v}) = ls(B) = V, means B is not minimal spanning.
Th Let V have dimension n and S V be lin.ind. Then there exists a basis T S.
Po.

## By earlier result, S1 = S {x1 } is lin.ind. Repeat the process. Process

must stop as dimension is n. When it stops ls(Sk ) = V.
Th Let F be invertible and Amn = F B. Then row(A) = row(B).
Po.

As A(i, :) =

Pm

j=1

## fij B(j, :), row(A) row(B). As A = F 1 R, row(B)

row(A).
Th rank(A) = dim row(A).
Po.

GJE: R = F A. Nonzero rows of R are lin.ind due to the positions of pivots. Thus

## rank(R) = dim row(R) = dim row(A).

Th Let R = rref(A) with the pivotal columns i1 , . . . , ik . Then columns i1 , . . . , , ik of A

## form a basis for col(A). Thus rank A = dim col(A).

Po.

Note: R(:, i1 ), . . . , R(:, ik ) are lin.ind and other columns in R are lin.comb of them.

So A(:, i1 ) . . . , A(:, ik ) are lin.ind (as F is invertible) and other columns in A are lin.comb
of them. So the columns A(:, i1 ) . . . , A(:, ik ) form a basis for col(A).
Th rank(A) = dim row(A) = dim col(A) = rank(At ).
Po.

First two equality follow from earlier result. As col(At ) = row(A), rank(A) =

## dim row(A) = dim col(At ) = rank(At ).

T/F Rows of A contain a basis of row(A). T.

In GJE we called the pivotal columns basic columns. Notice that they give us a

## basis for the column space.

Let S Rn be lin.ind. Can you use GJE to extend S to a basis?

Yes. Form the matrix Anm (m n) using the vectors in S as columns. Apply

## GJE: A = ER, where E is n n and first m rows of R are nonzero. Extend R to

R = [R em+1 en ]. Put A = ER . Columns of A form the necessary extension.
Th Let rank Amn = k. Then the maximum order of a nonsingular submatrix of A is

k.
Po.

## Delete nonbasic columns of A. Call it A1 . Look at Bkm = At1 . It has rank k. So it

has k basic columns. Delete the nonbasic ones. Call it B1 . Look at Ckk = B1t . It is a
submatrix of A of rank k. So det C 6= 0.
Take a submatrix Dk+1k+1 of A. Assume det D 6= 0. Then columns of D are lin.ind.
Extend each column of D (replace it with resp column of A). They still remain lin.ind.
But this means rank A > k.
Cor rank(A) = rank(A ). !!
Consider the VS Fn over F. The basis {e1 , , en } is called the standard basis. Notice

that dim Fn = n.
Let V = R[x]. Then {1, x, x2 , } is a basis. !!
{1, x, x2 , , xn } is a basis for R[x; n]. So dim R[x; n] = n + 1.
Give a basis to show that dim Mm,n (R) is mn. !!
P. Rank-Nullity

## Th[rank-nullity] dim null Amn = n rank A.

Po.

Imagine solving Ax = 0 by GJE. Let xi1 , . . . , xik be the free variables. Put xi1 = 1,

## xi2 = = xik = 0 to get a solution X1 . Put xik = 1, xi1 = = xik1 = 0 to get a

solution Xk . We get k lin.ind solutions.
X1

1
0

X2

0
1

..
.

Xk

0
0

## Let y be any solution of Ax = 0. Put z = y yi1 X1 yik Xk . So Az = Ay

yi1 AX1 yik AXk = 0. So, z is a solution of Ax = 0 where each free variable is 0.
Hence z = 0. So y is a lin.comb of X1 , . . . , Xk . So dim null A = k = n rank A.
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