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Civil Services (Main) Exam, 2015 Actual Paper of GS Paper I, held on December 19,

1. The ancient civilization in Indian sub continent differed from those of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece in that its
culture and traditions have been preserved without breakdown to the present day. Comment.
Ans. With the course of time the culture and traditions of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greek civilizations became disappear but those of the
ancient Indian civilization are continued still today. We can observe various components of that culture and traditions in different aspects of
the present Indian society. Current urban and rural settlements are very similar to those of the ancient civilization. Agriculture and cropping
of Foodgrains and pulses, use of cloths, shapes of pots, platters and ornaments, sculpture, use of uniform weights and measures, use of
metals, wheel-carts and boats are other physical elements of the civilization that continue today.
Labour specialization and division, social stratification, hegemony of a particular class over the society, worship of natural forces, trees and
animals that were prevalent in the ancient civilization, exist currently. Non agricultural productive activities based cities and trade and
commerce, both internal and external, are the parts of legacy of the civilization. Fashion, different type of entertainment, such as dance and
sports are also parts of the legacy.

2. Mesolithic rock cut architecture of India not only reflects the cultural life of the times but also a fine aesthetic
sense comparable to modern painting. Critically evaluate this comment.
Ans. The most prominent example of the Mesolithic rock cut architecture of India is the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka. At the site there are
found many caves and grottos. These caves and grottos contain primitive tools and decorative rock paintings that reflect the ancient
tradition of human interaction with their landscape, an interaction that still continues. The most paintings are found at the Auditorium Rock
Shelter, Zoo Rock and Boar Rock. There is a painting depicting a hunter, deer, tiger cattle and stylized peacock. The paintings at the Zoo Rock
Shelter include those of A Mesolithic boar painted in dark red, animals like - elephant, rhinoceros, boar, barasingha, spotted deer and cattle
and snake, etc.
Later, paintings here include battle scenes painted in red and an elephant painted in white. The Boar Rock has a depiction of a mythical boar
with horns that is many more times larger than the human being chased by it. Thus, these paintings depict various aspects of cultural life and
they are very rich in the aesthetic sense, but it will be an exaggeration to say that they are comparable to modern painting because their
content is not as prosperous and diverse as those of the modern painting.

3. How difficult would have been the achievement of Indian independence without Mahatma Gandhi? Discuss.
Ans. In 1919, Mahatma Gandhi made his first attempt to launch a nation-wide movement in India against the Rowlett Act. He introduced
Satyagraha with two instruments- Satya (truth) and Ahimsa (non-violence), in the Indian National Movement. His Satyagraha always kept
the British Indian Rule in dilemma, whether should it suppress the non-violent movements or not. His strategy of Satyagraha connected
more and more people to the national movement. He presented a creative program of social reforms during the days when there was no
political movement in the country thus he maintained the energy of the movement during interval between two movements. He made the
National Movement a de facto national movement in which almost all sections and classes of India participated. His strategies of the
movement exposed that British Rule over India was both illegal and immoral.
India certainly would get freedom without Mahatma Gandhi, as many countries under colonial rule secured their freedom though they did
not have any Gandhi to lead their movements. But then the national movement would not be so disciplined, creative and peaceful. It might
be violent and it might lead towards balkanization of the country. Then it might not be committed to human values so much. In his absence it
might not be so much supportive of weaker sections of the society. He provided a perfect inclusive dimension to the movement that
addressed issues concerning all sections of Indian society.

4. Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B R Ambedkar, despite having divergent approaches and strategies, had a common goal
of amelioration of the downtrodden. Elucidate.
Ans. Both Mahatma Gandhi and B R Ambedkar had a common goal of amelioration of the downtrodden. For Mahatma Gandhi the parameter
of justification of a work was its utility for amelioration of the downtrodden. In this reference, his view is expressed very well in his talisman,
which reveals his concerns for the poorest and weakest people of the society. He named depressed people as Harijans means the people of
god. He renamed the Kaliparaj people of Gujarat as Raniparaj. He stated that independence of India is incomplete until these people get
parity with other people. In 1932 he founded Harijan Sevak Sangh for upliftment of depressed people and published a newspaper Harijan.
B R Ambedkar was a jurist, economist, politician and social reformer. He campaigned against social discrimination against untouchables. He
founded Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha to promote education and socio-economic improvement, as well as the welfare of depressed classes. He
led a Satyagraha in Mahad to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water from the main water tank of the town. He
wrote many books to prove equal writes of depressed classes in the society. He played a prominent role in the formation of Indian
Constitution that eradicated discrimination based on caste, sex, religion, origin etc. among its citizens. But Gandhiji wanted to empower
downtrodden through Satyagraha, while Ambedkar wanted their empowerment through their participation in the politics.

5. It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution

5. It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution
for Independent India in just three years, but its experience gained with the Government of India Act, 1935. Discuss.
Ans. The Constituent Assembly of India borrowed many provisions of Indian Constitution from the Government of India Act, 1935.
Provisions of federal scheme, office of governor, judicial system, public service commissions, emergency provisions and administrative
details are borrowed from the Act. Thus, the Assembly borrowed such provisions, which were essential for smooth working of the
Constitution but it did not adopt provisions, which were against the sentiments of the constitution of an independent state and welfare of
citizens. Indian ministries (constituted by the Indian National Congress and other political parties) had worked under the Act during 193739 and they were working under it after provincial elections held in 1946. Hence, they had become familiar about such provisions of the Act
that were beneficial for the constitution of Independent India.
The Constituent Assembly of India did not have sufficient time to draft an overall new constitution. The members of the assembly did not
have the experience to draft a practical constitution. Hence it was an act of wisdom to adopt such provisions from the Act that had been
proved beneficial for the proper operation of the government. Thus, to save the time and to get benefit of experienced legislators the
Constituent Assembly included many provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935, in the Indian Constitution.

6. Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the
industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present times?
Ans. The industrial revolution first occurred in England because there were the most favourable circumstances for the development of
industrial activities. It had a large amount of capital that could be used for investing in new industry. It had rich sources of coal and other
materials needed for early industry and strong trade empire, which allowed for the spread of ideas and new industry. It had a population that
was freer to move around and try new things.
During the industrialization the life of the people changed on a large scale. It created greater efficiency, to deskilling, to the greater
exploitation of the already exploited laboring classes, the use of children in the mines, mass pollution of the environment. Industrial
labourers were forced to reside in slums. It provided plenty of benefits to a few people but in the absence of interference of government in
industrial activities and social security programmes other people suffered a lot. It improved the quality of life of the people in a few sectors
but it also created opportunities for their exploitation and problems in other sectors, such as environment.
The quality of Indian people at present times has no comparison with that of the Britishers during the industrialization. At present many
social security programmes and environment protection programmes are being implemented to improve and to secure the quality of life of
the Indian people. Central government and state governments often interfere in industrial and economic activities to serve the welfare of
common people.

7. To what extent can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically.
Ans. The responsibility of Germany for causing the World War I is not more than that of other participants of the War, but it was also
responsible for the War. After its unification Germany arose as a big power in Europe and in 1891 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany adopted an
aggressive policy of "Weltpolitik" ("world policy") to join the race for colonies outside Europe. It introduced the policy of secret pacts with
other powers that created an environment of mistrust among European countries. Unfair impact of Germany's military leaders on the royal
court led the Germany towards the War. Its blind support to Austria against Serbia caused the War I.
Germany was equally responsible with other powers to cause the War I but it was mostly responsible to cause the World War II. Emergence
of Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler led Germany towards the War II. Germany was defeated in the War I and it had to accept the humiliating
Treaty of Versailles. After getting rid of the Treaty, Germany adopted an aggressive policy to usurp its neighbouring countries. Hitler wanted
to conquer entire Europe and to fulfill his objective he started to attack on various countries one after the other. With the German attack on
Poland the War II was initiated.

8. Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national
Ans. Culture has been defined as the shared values, traditions, norms, customs, arts, history, folklore, and institutions of a group of people.
There are many cultural elements of diversity in India.

Language: India has 22 official languages and many unofficial languages, dialects and sub-dialects. Major languages
belong to Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan languages. A few other minor language families are also
found. Multiplicity of languages is one of the most important national identities of India.
Religion: India is origin land of four major religions- Hindu, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. There are also a large number
of religious sects and sub-sects found in the country. In spite of a few conflicts some times among different religious
communities there is found a proper communal harmony in the country. The multiplicity of religious communities and
their harmonious co-existence is another national identity of India.
Festivals: A large number of national, religious and harvest festivals are celebrated in India, which are national identity of
the country. Republic day, Independence day and Gandhi Jayanti are the three national festivals of India. Holi, Raksha
Bandhan, Diwali, Krishna Janamastami, Durga-Puja, Eid, Christmas, Easter, Buddha Purnima, Mahavir Jayanti, etc. are
religious festivals. Basant Panchami, Pongal, Makar Sankranti, Lohri, Onam, Baisakhi, Bhogali bihu, etc. are seasonal and
harvesting festivals.
Folk arts: A large number of diverse folk arts are found in India, which present its richness in this field. Patachitra, Bengal
Pat, Madhubani Painting, Gond Art, Tanjore Art and Kalamkari are a few examples of Indian folk arts.

9- Critically examine whether growing population is the cause of poverty or poverty is the main cause of population

9- Critically examine whether growing population is the cause of poverty or poverty is the main cause of population
increase in India.
Ans-Growing population tends towards poverty, if there is limited resource. The resources available to one family divide between many
members. Each member can not get appropriate health care and basic amenities and it leads towards stagnation of mental growth too.
Health of mother and son both deteriorates. In India, growing population is major cause of poverty. The rise in population appears due the
societal norms and apprehensions such as a person think that more sons or members are useful to employ them into agriculture and shops.
And they are the backbone for old age.
In other aspect, we also find that poverty also leads towards population growth. A person thinks that more children will earn more and
poverty can be overcome, but generally result is adverse. Due to the proper nourishment a child can not developed in a complete way. And
due to the poverty an efficient and effective education can not be availed, which in turn results into unemployment or low grade
A cycle starts of population growth due to poverty in the hope of future help but every unplanned population growth leads towards poverty.
Sustainable development practices within areas of poverty and levels of high population growth have historically been poor. And it is seen
that poor rural areas often engage in overgrazing, water pollution and soil erosion. An increase in population levels are expected to
exacerbate these areas forcing the movement into less productive, lesser quality marginal lands. The impact of overpopulation in urban
areas is also evident, but the impact is indirect on the resources in terms of sustainable development. Efforts to combat the 'vicious circle' of
poverty, rising population growth and environmental degradation are said to require multidisciplinary policies in all sectors. These policies
need to be carefully established taking account of the need to achieving sustainable development, if the resources that are available for
future generations are to be preserved.

10. How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than
the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes?
Ans- The 2011 census figure shows that the gap between number of males and females stood at highest ever in the census history of India,
6.98 million. It is also clearly reflected that on the one side literacy, growth rate, and overall Sex Ratio have shown a positive increment in
comparison to past census but on the other side the decline in child sex ratio has upheld a distressing picture.
The sex ratio in scheduled tribes is better than scheduled castes it clearly shows that schedule caste has a paternal character, while schedule
tribe has a maternal character. The position of girl child is more respectful and has a dignity in scheduled tribe, while in scheduled caste the
position of girl child is not so respectful and has a dignity comparison to scheduled tribes.
This dislike of girl child in scheduled castes is manifested through various means:

Female foeticide
Sex selective abortion
Neglect of girl child leads to high rate of female mortality
Discriminatory treatment in terms of nutrition and access to healthcare and
Under-enumeration of girl child
There are various reasons for giving preference to a male child in scheduled caste over a female child. The major of them are as follows:

Patriarchal nature of society

High cost of expenditures by parents of girl at the time of marriage in terms of dowry and arrangements cost
Kinship structure of society where only male are considered as the heir of the clan
Old age security lies with sons

11-Discuss the changes in the trends of labour migration within and outside India in the last four decades.
Ans- Migration within and outside India has a dynamic nature. We can categories migration in India in two parts as migration inside India and
migration outside India.
Migration inside India is changing its character during last four decades as prior to 1970 when the migration was generally rural to rural and
currently migration is from rural to urban and the next thing is that migration is from less developed states as Uttar Pradesh and violence hit
areas as Manipur, Nagaland,Jharkhand, West Bengal , Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh to Delhi , Maharashtra and Punjab.
Prior to 21st century, migration was concentrated on unskilled labor for livelihood search. Currently, mostly migration is happening for
education purpose, for health purpose and for better infrastructure facilities such as electricity, road connectivity etc.
Interstate migration is also rising and such a migration is very impactful. After MGNREGA at some extent unskilled labour migration growth
has lower down due to availability of job in its village.
Migration outside India is also increasing for better quality of life and is of the diversified nature. Migration in developed countries such as
America, European Union countries and Russia is mainly of engineers, doctors, scientists, technicians.
Migration in Middle East and in Arab countries is mainly belongs to labors, doctors and engineers.
In recent times, as the relation between India and ASEAN country is strengthening, the migration in ASEAN countries is also rising.
Migration towards East Asia is also increasing and Australia and New Zealand is now favorable destination. Similarly, it has been observed
that in last four decades there is significant rise in number of Indians in China.

12- Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India.

Ans- Globalization has had various impacts on the lives of the people ranging from rich to poor, black to white, man to woman, rural to urban,
etc. Though, in the global village, theres no difference between man and woman, but due to womens deprivation from resources and other
opportunities, they are more affected by globalization and deeply experiencing its effects.
The impacts of globalization on women are more prevalent and more complicated. Highlighting the positive aspects of globalization, a
number of economists believe that women have mainly acquired noticeable benefits from economic reforms. One of the opportunities that
globalization has provided for women is the increase in employment. By expanding mass communication Medias, globalization has also
boosted womens awareness level so that they have better chance to prove themselves and have more chances for selection as well.
Moreover, womens participation plays a vital part in service especially those services needing high level skill and specialized knowledge like
programming, working at banks, airlines, insurance companies and productions. Since their trade is very much highlighted.
Globalization has had negative implications for Indian women. Women work two-thirds of the worlds working hours, produce half of the
worlds food, but earn only ten percent of the worlds income, and own less than one percent of the worlds property.
While globalization has brought jobs to rural, developing areas such as India where there was previously no employment, the work available
to women is almost always poorly paid, mentally and physically unhealthy, demeaning, or insecure.

13. Debate the issue whether and how contemporary movements for assertion of Dalit identity works towards
annihilation of caste.
Ans. Dalit is not a caste that one is born into and does not feature in the Hindu caste system, but is a constructed identity.The term Dalit
expands to all those considered to be either similarly placed or as being natural allies as victims of exploitation and discrimination, be it
political, social or religious. Contemporary movements empowered Dalits politically and Bahujan Samaj Party formed its government in
Uttar Pradesh but this political party also did not eradicate caste system. It emphasizes on remaining caste system for its political mileage.
Social reform movements and religious conversion movements also could not counter successfully against caste system, but they created
groups of elites among Dalit communities, which use their communities to serve their own interests.
Currently, Dalit movements in India are not unified but each of them articulates a particular identity, be they Christian Dalits, NeoBuddhists or Muslim Dalits. Social reform movements for betterment of Dalits have failed to create an alternative socio- cultural identity
that could voice the aspirations of all the oppressed castes. The modern Dalit parties with reservation and political representation do
nothing to deconstruct caste system. Rather than attempting to bring about the annihilation of caste there is an increasing reliance on
caste-identity-politics that only reinforces divisions.

14. Explain the factors responsible for the origin of ocean currents. How do they influence regional climates, fishing
and navigation?
Ans. Ocean currents result from two processes - the action of wind on the surface of the water, and from variation in water temperature that
causes movement- a process known as convection. Convection occurs because the oceanic waters heat up becoming less dense. Winds
blowing over a cold current help to bring down the temperatures in places, which would have been much hotter. Such winds are bereft of any
moisture and bring little or no rainfall over the coastal regions where they blow. As most cold currents flow along the western coast of
continents, some of the major deserts are found in such regions.
Winds blowing over a warm current become warm and at the same time, pick up moisture, as warm winds are able to retain more moisture.
Thus, the wind that reaches the land brings down the temperature and causes heavy rainfall. Places where cold and warm currents meet are
ideal for the growth of Plankton. These regions support a great number of fish. They have developed into major fishing grounds of the world.
Ships moving against a current lose speed. Ships sailing with a current gain the speed, which helps to save fuel and time. Warm currents
keep the Arctic regions free from icebergs, which can be dangerous for ships.

15-Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three Mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious
problem in Delhi as compared to the other two. Why is this so?
Ans- Though Mumbai and Kolkata are the mega cities like Delhi; the pollution level is higher in Delhi. The main reason behind the rising air
pollution is due to heavy pressure on the system due to rising population. The population increase is due to two reasons: one, due to the
migration in the city and secondly, the birth rate. Being a capital city of the country the population of Delhi is greater than other mega cities.
Other bigger cities also situated adjacent to Delhi as Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Greater Noida, which form Delhi-NCR. The DelhiNCR also significantly contributes to the quality of air.
Delhi, also the main administrative and political center of India, is one of the major industrial hubs of the country. Increased commercial and
industrial activity in this city is responsible in a big way for the economic and industrial growth of India.
The population density is highest in Delhi in the country. And recently, it was estimated that per capita income is also high in Delhi. Apart
from the industries, the vehicles coming from other states to Delhi is in huge numbers is also resulting in more air pollution.
The city suffers from air pollution caused by road dust and industry, with comparatively smaller contributions from unclean engines in
transportation, especially diesel-powered city buses and trucks, and 2-wheelers and 3-wheelers with two-stroke engines.
As many as 10,000 people a year may die prematurely in Delhi as a result of air pollution. Given the continued growth of the city and its
population, problems are tackled only with difficulty.
Implementation of air pollution is not so effective to control air pollution in a effective manner. Afforestation in Delhi very low compare to
other cities of India. Total forest cover in Delhi is also lowest among other mega cities.
Since, vehicular traffic is increasing in a high number, there are strict regulations on diesel based cars, but growth in number of cars is
increasing. Now government is in process to implement odd- even formula to regulate cars in Delhi so that air pollution can be overcome.
Due to heavy burden on roads the road dust is much hence air pollution is taking shape dangerously.

16. India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity.

16. India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity.
Ans. India is affluent of many rivers as Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra etc., but currently we are seeing that water scarcity is arising as a main
problem. The main cause of water scarcity is the rising population.
An other aspect is that population growth in India is not uniform, it is uneven. Water scarcity is much in urban areas compare to rural areas
and also in those areas where migration rate is much.
In industrialized areas, pollution is the main cause for scarcity of fresh water. Leakage is also at times contributes to the scarcity of fresh
water in urban areas such as Delhi and Mumbai.
Few habits, if checked, lot of water can be conserved such as after switching on the motor to fill water tanks must be switched off on
time and also the safety valves must be placed to keep in check the overflowing.
Although, the Government is making lot of efforts through campaigning so as to make people aware of their responsibilities. Rain water if
stored efficiently can actually enrich the depleting ground water level. Citizens must be made aware and every house must be constructed
in such a manner that rain water be conserved and utilized for gardening and non-kitchen purposes.

17. The States of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are reaching the limits of ecological
carrying capacity due to tourism. Critically evaluate.
Ans. Increase in the number of tourists year after year in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand is leading to physical
deterioration of environ
ment in these states. There is an imbalance between tourist demand and physical carrying capacity of the area
offering tourist activity. Under such circumstances the expected symbiotic relationship between tourism and conservation breaks down
resulting into ecological crisis. Tourism-generated pollution has become now a threat in these states. Wrappers, plastic bags, tins, cans, rage,
bles peeling, empty cigarette cases; garbage and numerous weeds are being deposited in these states due to tourism. The heavy
deforestation is being occurred in these states for the development of tourist sites that is increasing climatic imbalance.
Tourist sites are being more and more populated and urbanized and it is polluting water bodies in these states. They are being victims of
eutrophication, siltation and encroachment. The scenic spots, the margs (alpine pastures), the natural springs, glaciers, out- wash plains and
trekking routes have been degraded largely because of the undisciplined and careless behaviour of the tourists. The heavy vehicular traffic
promoted by tourism is one of the main causes of landslides in these states. They experience a large number of landslides every year. Thus,
these states are reaching the limits of ecological carrying capacity due to tourism.

18. How far do you agree that the behaviour of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscape?
Ans. The land-use decisions play an important role in climate change and man-made changes to the landscape have affected Indian monsoon
rains. Monsoon rainfall has decreased over the last 50 years in rural areas where irrigation has been used to increase agriculture in northern
India. At the same time, heavily urban areas are seeing an increase in heavy rainfall. In the rural areas, pre-monsoon greening occurring two
weeks earlier than what it did 20 years back as the demand for agricultural intensification to feed India's people increases. The landscape
has also moved in some places from what was once a traditionally rural setting to large urban sprawls. Both of these phenomena have
affected monsoon rains.
Before monsoon rains come, the northwest region becomes much wetter in recent years relative to the past 30 years, which has been
attributed to irrigation from groundwater to sustain intensified agricultural production. This wetter surface causes cooling that weakens the
strength of low pressure necessary for monsoons to progress into northern India. Northern India is greening sooner than it had in the past.
That greening is creating a barrier for monsoons, which provide much-needed rain to replenish groundwater reserves being used for
irrigation. In this case there is the need of dry surface to advance the monsoon.

19. Smart cities in India cannot sustain without smart villages. Discuss this statement in the backdrop of rural urban
Ans- PURA (Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas) is a concept of rural urban integration because if a village is developed on the
concept of urban development then automatically rural and urban areas integrate. Smart village is sustainable for environment and for
progressive development too.
Census 2011 clearly indicates that unplanned concentration of population is increasing in urban cities. Consequently, the air pollution, lack
of basic amenities, low and inhuman quality of life, crime rates are rising. Rate of living cost is increasing and overall it can be said that an
unwanted migration of population towards cities must be checked.
Government has proposed development of smart cities, smart cities needs smart villages. Smart village will increase traditional agriculture
production and will generate economic activities in villages too. Small industries and BPO will reduce unemployment. Inflation will be lower
down. E- governance will integrate villages under smart village.
Smart cities need stagnant growth of population, ecofriendly environment and Less carbon emission. And the problems of cities will be
mitigated through the development of smart villages.

20-What are the economic significances of discovery of oil in Arctic Sea and its possible environmental
Ans- Energy is the key for economic development. Research shows that there are a large amount of oil and natural gas in Arctic sea.
Extraction of oil is easy currently in the arctic sea, but exploration of natural gas is difficult task because of the terrain of arctic sea of gas
transportation. Transportation of natural gas through pipelines is not feasible due to terrain and climatic condition.
Discovery of Oil Sea is a mile stone for energy security. Easy availability of fuel oil is useful for the production and new projects. If this is

achieved then the monopoly on oil of particular country will end and the pricing of oil will be more competitive. The resources of arctic sea
will be useful for economic development.
Although, oil exploration is useful for the economic perspective it is also a concern for environment. Therefore, some of the environmental
concerns are as

Fossil fuel is not good for climate and extra addition of fossil fuel will increase global warming effects.
Arctic is a main source to absorb sun light and it reflects the sun light to maintain heat budget global warming effects
will increase albedo shifting . But if fossil fuel usage is increased then the Arctic Albedo will be shifting leading to have
harmful impact on the ecology and the local environment leading to global warming.
The consequences for the Arctic's environment would be dire, as wiping out populations of walrus, seal and polar bear
and destroying the isolated indigenous communities that depend on hunting to survive.
On the other hand, the complete ban on oil exploration in arctic sea is not good for economic perspective. So the exploration should be
continued matching the environmental standards and sustainable development.

All the best!

Team CL


Civil Services (Main) Exam, 2015 Actual Paper of GS Paper II, held on December 19,
1. Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizen a uniform civil code as provided for in the
Directive Principles of State Policy.
Ans. The Article 44 of the Indian Constitution mentions about a common civil code for all Indian citizens still the Indian Parliament could not
have passed it. The effort to pass the common civil code is being opposed by various minority religious groups. They are opposing the code
due to their delusions about it. There are a few myths about it, such as it means the imposition of Hindu Law, whereas the truth is that it
means uniformity in personal laws and it is neutral in nature. Another myth is that it will reduce the religious freedom of minority
communities, whereas the truth is that it will not impact the fundamental right to religious freedom granted by the Constitution.
It is also said that there is no need of such a code as many of its many provisions already have been mentioned in various acts. And a single
integrated code will be easier to implement so as to facilitate quick justice to the citizens. Above of all, certain political parties are constantly
propagating above myths among people to get vote and support of minority communities. These political parties do not want to resolve this
issue, infact they wish to keep it up for an indefinite period, so as to serve the needs of their vested interest

2. The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasized in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks
in the existing structure and extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings.
Ans. Cooperative federalism is a concept of federalism in which national, state and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively
to solve common problems, rather than making policies separately.
The essence of co-operative federalism is that the Centre and the State Governments should be guided by the broader national concerns of
using the available resources for the benefit of the people.
A disconcerting trend regarding cooperative federalism has been observed since 1950. While the Union and Concurrent Lists have
expanded, the State List seems to have shrunk. Increasing globalization, however, made the already existing inequalities and imbalances
between states more intense. This gave rise to concerns about states freedom to formulate their own growth policies. Efforts at cooperative
federalism have commenced but need to be strengthened.
The acceptance of the 14th Finance Commissions recommendations, apart from significantly enhanced devolution, enables states to design
and implement programmes better suited to their needs.
This ends the persistent critique of one size fits all. More importantly, the disbandment of the Planning Commission (PC) and its
replacement by the NITI Aayog is specifically designed to promote cooperative federalism. NITI Aayog will concentrate on the broader
policy framework instead of micro resource-allocated functions.

3. In the absence of well - educated and organized local level government system, Panchayats and Samitis have
remained mainly political institutions and not effective instrument of governance. Critically Discuss.
Ans. 72nd amendment of the Indian Constitution provided for the constitution of three tier Panchayatiraj system for local governance in the
country. But even after 23 years of the commencement of the amendment, the Panchayats and Simitis are not able to deliver effective
governance at the local level and they are working mainly as political institutions. The reason of their ineffectiveness is not only their lacking
about required information and flaws in their organization system. Panchayats can be informed and their organization can be improved
according to the need of hour. But there are many other barriers in the way of their proper working.
There is unscientific distribution of works of institutions. Composition of institutions is also undemocratic. Local bodies do not have enough
financial resource to meet their requirements but they are dependent on grants provided by the Central and State governments on a large
scale. They do not have required administrative rights on government personnel, who assist them in their functions. State governments are
neither willing to grant appropriate powers to local bodies nor to avoid unnecessary interference in their matters. In a few states elections of
Panchayats are not held regularly and it damages the significance of Panchayats and intention and objectives of the Panchayatiraj Act.

4. Khap panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra - constitutional authorities, often delivering
pronouncements amounting to human right violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative,
executive and judiciary to set the things right in this regard.
Ans. Khap panchayats are unconstitutional and illegal as they are undemocratic in origin. They often encourage honour killings or other
institutionalized atrocities against boys and girls of different castes and religions who wish to get married or have married. The following
steps have been taken by executive, legislative and judiciary to defunction and to lead khap panchayats in the boundary of law.

Steps taken by Judiciary: In Smt. Laxmi Kachhwaha vs. State of Rajasthan (1999), the court ordered the state authorities
to take steps for preventing the abuse of social influence by restraining such Panchayats from functioning and ensuring
arrest and punishment to its members.
In different cases court has also accepted that any violence either it is on the name of honour killing, are punishable
offence. Any forcible dispute settlement mechanism is against law and human values. No dress code can be imposed on
the women and girls and inter-caste marriage is allowed etc.
Steps taken by Legislative : Law Commission has drafted a Bill to prevent interference of any person in the matrimonial
alliance in the name of honour and tradition. The draft bill also intends to declare such Panchayats unlawful.

The Law Commission of India has also proposed legislation namely The Endangerment of Life and Liberty (Protection,
Prosecution and other measures) Act, 2011, to prosecute persons or a group involved in such endangering conduct and
Steps taken by Executive: All the police stations have been instructed to be sensitive on the issues of Khap Panchayats
and continue monitor the activities of Khaps. Any violence and illegal activity should be strictly tackled.

5-Resorting to ordinances has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of power doctrine. While
noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate, analyze whether the decision of the Supreme Court on the
issue have further facilitated to resorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate the ordinances be repealed?
Ans- Article 123 of the Constitution grants the President certain law making powers to promulgate Ordinances when either of the two
Houses of Parliament is not in session and hence it is not possible to enact laws in the Parliament.
An Ordinance may relate to any subject that the Parliament has the power to legislate on. Conversely, it has the same limitations as the
Parliament to legislate, given the distribution of powers between the Union, State and Concurrent Lists.
The main guidelines of Supreme Court on ordinance is as-

The government would be courting legal trouble if it attempts to re-promulgate the ordinances.
In 1986, in the verdict of D.C. Wadhwa versus State of Bihar, the Supreme Court held that the power to promulgate an ordinance is
essentially a power to be used to meet an extraordinary situation and cannot be allowed to be perverted to serve political ends.
It is a power that is implemented in circumstances that require immediate action. As per the apex court, Ordinances cannot be repromulgated on a massive scale. The judgment held that the apex court can adjudicate if the re-promulgation subverted the democratic
process which lies at the core of our constitutional scheme and subjected people to be governed not by the laws made by the legislature as
provided in the Constitution but by laws made by the Executive.

6. What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 through the recent ordinance
promulgated by the President? How far will it improve Indias dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss.
Ans-The Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Ordinance, 2015 has introduced significant changes to the Act and it seeks to address
some of the issues, such as delays and high costs, which have been affecting arbitrations in India.
Major amendments are as follows:

Empowering arbitral Tribunal with the same powers of a court for the purpose of granting interim measures/relief.
Fixing time limits for passing of arbitral award and disposal of applications by courts.
Mandating detailed disclosures/ guidelines for disqualification for ensuring impartiality, independence of arbitrators.
Suggesting indicative Modal fee structure for Arbitral Tribunal.
From the amendments it is clear that the Ordinance is an attempt to make arbitration a preferred mode for settlement of commercial
disputes and to make India a hub of international commercial arbitration. The amendments are effective in nature to solve delays, quick
disposal of cases and are progressive for economy.
With the amendments, arbitrations in India are sought to be made more user-friendly, cost effective and will lead to expeditious disposal of
cases. It is hopeful that this system would help improve Indias dispute resolution mechanism by ensuring neutrality of arbitrators in the
There is no doubt that the power given to Tribunal to grant interim relief, modal fees, checks on independence or impartiality of
arbitrators and time limit for arbitration, time lines for disposal of applications is beneficial. However, on the other side of it i.e. time frame
fixed for passing of award appears to be too short especially for arbitrations involving issues or questions of law.

7. Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulation on burning crackers during Diwali? Discuss in the light
of Article 21 of Indian Constitution and judgments of the apex in this regard.
Ans. Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees life and personal liberty to all persons. Therein are included, all the aspects of life which go to
make a person's life meaningful, complete and worth living.
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 defines "environmental pollution" to mean the presence in the environment of any environmental
pollutant. The Act defines "environmental pollutant" to mean any solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in such concentration as may be,
or tends to be injurious to environment.
Anyone who wishes to live in peace, comfort and quiet within his house has a right to prevent the nuisance as pollutant reaching him.
Fireworks are used all over the world to celebrate special occasions. In India, fireworks are burst on festivals like Dussehra, Diwali and on
special occasions like social gatherings, marriages, Independence Day, Republic day, New Year day, etc. However, bursting of firecrackers is
a health hazard since it is responsible for both air pollution and noise pollution.
The use of Fireworks has led to air pollution in the form of noise and smoke. Their excessive use has started to be a public hazard and
violation of their fundamental rights as enshrined in the Constitution of India.
However, in a recent judgment by the apex court on a plea by three infants, it refused to order a blanket ban offireworks during Diwali.
Considering the 800 fireworks factories, which also supportsover five lakh families; it reiterated itsearlier ruling that firecrackers will be
prohibited between 10 pm and 6 am.

8. Critically examine the recent changes in the rule governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign
Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976.
Ans. The government introduced changes in rules of the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) to strengthen its scrutiny of financial
transactions involving NGOs. In the most important change, the government changed the rule to equate economic security for NGOs
under the FCRA with the definition provided in the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA). According to the UAPA Economic security
includes financial, monetary and fiscal stability, security of means of production and distribution, food security, livelihood security, energy
security, ecological and environmental security. Now, NGOs and organizations that receive foreign donations will now have to share
personal details, bank account details and bio-data of their trustees with the government.
Also, banks will have to provide online access to the Home Ministry and Intelligence Bureau (IB) for monitoring the utilization of accounts of
all FCRA-registered associations. According to the new rules, any foreigner associated with an NGO, who is visiting India, will have to furnish
his/her details with the Foreigners Regional Registration Office (FRRO), spelling out the purpose as well as the dates of the visits. These
changes are criticized as the part of a clampdown on NGOs. But the government denied that these changes part of a clampdown on NGOs.
These changes can curtail the freedom of NGOs but they will ensure transparency also in their procedure.

9-The Self Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Program (SBLP), which is Indias own innovation, has proved to be one of
the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programme. Elucidate.
Ans: The Self Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Program (SBLP) aims to deliver financial products & services to the section of Indian
population that lacks access to formal banking. In this programme, the informal SHGs are credit linked with the formal financial institutionsIt
is flexible, independence creating, and imparts freedom of savings and borrowing according to the heterogeneous needs and requirements
of the group members. Through this programme, the Reserve Bank of India and NABARD have tried to promote relationship banking, i.e.
improving the existing relationship between the poor and the bankers with the social intermediation of the NGOs. SHGs comprise mostly
women approx. 90 percent. Rural women are getting profit from this linkage programme.
At the grass root level the programme is being implemented by the commercial banks, cooperatives, and regional rural banks, with
government agencies. The Self - help groups (SHGs) play a major role in poverty alleviation in rural India. These have changed the life of
many individuals or groups for the better. This programme has also provided a more favorable environment for enhancing Indias potential
for greater equitable growth with empowerment while considering the positive signs in their performance.

10. How can be the role of NGOs is strengthened in India for development works relating to protection of the
Environment? Discuss throwing light on the major constraints.
Ans. At the beginning of the 21st century environmental issues have emerged as a major concern for the welfare of people. The
Consequences of the Environmental pollution are not hard to comprehend, whereas the solution to ending environmental pollution is not
easy too. Some of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have tried to work in this field. The work of non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) protecting the environment, helping the sick and needy, is by nature unprofitable.
The NGOs from past five decades have witnessed the difficult problems encountered in providing health care services to our poor people;
spread the awareness to public protection of wildlife, forest, etc.
It is these rights, coupled with the directive principles of state policy that are relied upon by NGOs in their pivotal role in supporting
individuals for the enforcement of their rights in India.
The major constraints faced by the NGOs in India are- Lack of Funds, Poor Governance , Absence of Strategic Planning, Poor Networking ,
Limited technical and organizational Capacity, Development Approaches, Relationships with INGOs, Political Interference, etc.
There must be a set up of well organized institution, which provides education about the formation and operation of NGOs and their
interaction with other NGOs and government agencies working in the same field. As we know that, a NGO is an organization that is neither a
part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business and hence, their role gets unnoticed. Therefore, to strengthen NGOs we must
spread awareness about the role played by them, specifically in the environmental related issues.

11. The quality of higher education in India requires major improvement to make it internationally competitive. Do
you think that the entry of foreign educational institutions would help improve the quality of technical and higher
education in the country? Discuss.
Ans. Although India's higher education system, with more than 13 million students, is the world's third largest, it only educates around 12
per cent of the age group. It also faces a serious quality problem because only a tiny proportion of the higher education sector can meet
international standards. The foreign educational institutions can provide the much needed capacity and new ideas on higher education
management, curriculum, teaching methods and research. They can bring investment. Top-class foreign universities can add prestige to
India's postsecondary system.
But global experience shows that the large majority of higher education institutions entering a foreign market are not prestigious
universities, rather low-end institutions seeking market access and income. The new profit seeking sector is especially interested in global
expansion. Top universities may well establish collaborative arrangement with Indian peer institutions or study/research centers in India,
but are unlikely to build full-fledged branch campuses on their own. Hence it should not be expected that in short or mid-term future foreign
institutions can introduce any major change in Indian educational scenario. Yes, in a long term they can deliver much more than the required
by Indian higher education sector. Unlike other sectors in India, actually in many sectors over the past two decades, there has virtually been
no reform in the education sector. Therefore, to secure a space in the worlds top 200 universities, India has to deliver a lot and the
possibility of that lies in the long run and the short.

12. Public health system has limitation in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that private sector can

12. Public health system has limitation in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that private sector can
help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives do you suggest?
Ans. Indias current healthcare system is one of the most privatized globally, with the private sector providing 80% of outpatient and 60% of
inpatient care. It shows governments failure and inefficiency to provide qualitative and sufficient health care services to the people. Private
sector is always a profit making sector and in India it is not under the proper regulation. In spite of enjoying tax rebates and government
subsidies private healthcare sector does not miss any chance to exploit patients. Return on investment and generation of profit are the
limitations that inhibits the private healthcare sector to be substitute of public sector or in bridging the gap in the universal health coverage.
Seeking the profit, private healthcare sector do not provide its services in remote rural areas. Hence, proper development of infrastructure,
in rural areas, is the primary condition to implement universal health coverage.
There should be a competent, autonomous and independent regulating authority to ensure availability of healthcare services on adequate
and affordable costs if they are provided by public sector or private sector. All information about the cost of medical tests, drugs and other
related services should be available online to bring in transparency and costs of all medical products must be regulated by the regulating
authority with the effective governance. National policy norms must be flexible and in the reach of poor people to provide them the health
cover. And finally as part of reforms, more share of the GDP should be allocated to the healthcare sector and additional finance resources
should be generated to meet the needs of this sector.

13. Though there have been several different estimates of poverty in India, all indicate reduction in poverty over
time. Do you agree? Critically examine with reference to urban and rural poverty indicators.
Ans. In a conceptual context if a person is not able to get basic necessities of life then he will be called as poor, but in India poverty is
measured on the theory of consumption based expenditure. The standard of poverty measurement has changed according to the time, e.g.
Suresh Tendulkar committee took different standards to measure poverty in comparison to C. Rangrajan committee.
Yes the National Poverty estimate shows that there has been constant reduction in the poverty in both urban and rural. As per the data, the
number of poors has reduced by the different committees. Over a period of time, according to Tendulkar Committee, rural poor have been
reduced from 278.2 million to 216.7 million and urban poor reduced from 76.5 million to 53.1 million. And according to Rangarajan
committee, rural poor reduced from 325.9 million to 260.5 million and rural population reduced from 128.7 million to 102.5 million.
When the parameters of one committee (Tendulkar Committee: Rs 27 in rural areas and Rs 33 in urban areas) are used to estimate poverty
it shows a constant decline in poverty, but when the parameter used by another committee (Rangarajan Committee - Rs 32 a day in rural
areas and Rs 47 in urban areas) were used, there were upliftment the poverty line it shows an increase in the poverty for the same period of
time e.g Various committees have been constituted previously as Lakdawala Committee, Tendulkar Committee and Rangarajan Committee.

14-In the light of Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in the corporate governance to ensure
transparency and accountability.
Ans- After the scandal national Association of Software and Services Companies established a corporate governance and ethics committee
headed by Narayana Murthy. The report of the latter addressed reforms relating to audit committees, shareholder rights, and whistleblower
policy. SEBIs committee on disclosure and accounting standards issued a discussion paper in 2009 to deliberate on (i) the voluntary
adoption of international financial reporting standards; (ii) the appointment of chief financial officers by audit committees based on
qualifications, experience, and background; and (iii) the rotation of auditors every five years so that familiarity does not lead to corporate
malpractice and mismanagement. In 2010, SEBI amended the Listing Agreement to include the provision dealing with the appointment of a
chief financial officer but it did not insist on the compulsory rotation of auditors.
In 2009, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs also released a set of voluntary guidelines for corporate governance, dealing with the
independence of directors, the roles and responsibilities of audit committees and the boards of companies, whistleblower policies, the
separation of the offices of the chairman and the CEO to ensure independence and a system of checks and balances, and various other
provisions relating to directors such as their tenures, remuneration, evaluation, the issuance of a formal letter of appointment, and placing
limits on the number of companies in which an individual can be a director.
Reforms for better corporate governance has laid company predictable , transparent and accountable. It is much beneficial for shareholders,
directors, owners and employees too.

15. If amendment bill to the Whistleblowers Protection Act 2011, tabled in the Parliament is passed, there maybe no
one left to protect. Critically Evaluate.
Ans. The amendments in Whistleblowers Protection Act 2011.
To begin with, whistleblowers - public servants, non-profit organizations or individuals - will not be allowed to reveal any documents
classified under the Official Secrets Act of 1923, even if the purpose is to disclose acts of corruption, misuse of power or criminal activities.
This is in addition to any information that could prejudicially affect the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the
State, friendly relations with foreign State - information that is already off-limits in the existing Whistleblowers Protection Act. The
proposed amendments allow whistleblowers to disclose some kinds of information only if it has been obtained through a Right to
Information query. This includes intellectual property, trade secrets and even information that can be considered the unwanted invasion of
privacy of an individual.
Whistleblowers would be entitled to official protection only if all of these conditions are met, could face action if they are not, and the
central and state governments would be the final authorities with the power to judge each case.
Overall amendments are diluting whistleblowers protection act as protection of whistleblower should be must , matters related to national
security should be clear not fussing . RTI activists and anti-corruption crusaders are outraged in the proposed amendment.

16. For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institution remain independent

16. For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institution remain independent
and autonomous. Discuss in the light of experiences in recent past.
Ans: Regulatory institutions are the backbone of economy because they keep a check on the monopoly. In India these institutes work on the
direction of executives as they interferes in their day to day workings, appointment of functionaries and their finances utilized. Though they
seem independent, but in reality they are not independent or autonomous either it is RBI or SEBI or their institutes as CPCB (Central
pollution control Board), IRDA etc. by the Indian government.
Few suggestive measures maintain independence and autonomy of regulatory bodies:

A standing committee of eminent people should be constituted to select regulators for various regulatory agencies at the
central level and a similar model should be followed in the states
Proper manpower planning should be carried out to ensure that a regulator is selected in advance of a position falling
Applications should be invited against pre-determined selection criteria
Regulators should be given a fixed tenure of five years with a maximum age limit of 60 years for appointment, with the
reasons for any exceptions recorded in writing.
Regulators and their staff should be provided with short-term training prior to induction.
The governments Department of Personnel should be designated as the administrative ministry for regulatory bodies,
responsible for release of appointment letter and other administrative matters. This will ensure that there is an arms
length relationship between the line ministry and the regulatory agency, which is otherwise under their control

17. Increasing interest of India in Africa has its pro and cons. Critically Examine.
Ans. The third India Africa Forum Summit was held in October, 2015 in New Delhi and it was participated by a number of members of the
African Union. It shows that Indian interests are increasing in Africa very rapidly. India needs good relations with African nations for both
economic and strategic purposes. It will provide a big and competent market for Indian products and it will facilitate supply of raw inputs,
available in Africa, for Indian industries. Furthermore, it will provide support of African nations to India on the issue of permanent seat in the
United Nations Security Council. With the support of these nations India will be stronger to present its stand on various global issues at
multilateral platforms such as World Trade Organization and climatic conference because African countries are facing similar problems as
India is facing on these issues. India will get a strategic momentum also in in Africa against China.
But in this reference there are negative aspects also. India will face rivalry of China and United States, which already have a strong presence
in Africa. It will have to develop a very vulnerable balance among such African countries, which are conflicting against each other. India will
have to provide financial aid to these nations for their economic development and social empowerment though this aid will be beneficial for
India in long run.

18. Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in UNSC.
Ans. The present structure of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has become outdated and irrelevant in the context of post cold
war era. At a meeting held in September 2015, nearly 200 member countries of the United Nations have agreed that over the next year, they
will negotiate the wording of a document that will call for reforming the Security Council. India is trying to be permanent member of the
UNSC for a long time but there are many hurdles in this way. United States, along with Russia and China, has opposed negotiations to reform
the Council, refusing to contribute to the text that will form the basis for the long-drawn reform process.
India has formulated G-4 with Brazil, Germany and Japan, other candidates for the permanent seat in UNSC, to strengthen its claim. But
Germany and Japan are being opposed by China and Russia. In this regard the UN Charter requires atwo-third majority (with support of all
permanent members) for amendments, but Russia wants the expansion and reform issue to be decided by a larger majority, a near
consensus. The stance of China to support India for the membership of UNSC is still not clear and consistent. Even it is not clear that new
members will enjoy which kind of the status and power in the Council. If anyhow the proposal is passed with the required majority then it will
need to be ratified by member countries that will take a long time.

19. Project Mausam is considered a unique foreign policy initiative of Indian government to improve relationship
wit its neighbours. Does the project have a strategic dimension? Discuss
Ans: Project Mausam is launched by Ministry of Cultures project with Archaeological Society of India (ASI) as the nodal agency and Indira
Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) as its Research Unit, in the 30th Session of World Heritage Committee meeting which was held
at Doha, Quatar in June, 2014.
Under this the Government has proposed to establish cross cultural linkages and to revive historic maritime cultural and economic ties with
39 Indian Ocean countries including Bahrain, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Iraq, Mauritius, Singapore, Thailand, Yemen, South
Africa, Philippines, Pakistan among others.
The strategic importance of the project:
India is uniquely placed to play a major role in Indian Ocean security and trade. Indias location and power can serve to organize the states of
the Indian Ocean littoral. The project is considered as the most significant foreign policy initiative of India, designed to counter China.
The aim of Project Mausam is to position itself at two levels:

Macro level: to re-connect and re-establish communications between countries of the Indian Ocean world, which would
lead to an enhanced understanding of cultural values and concerns

Micro level: the focus is on understanding national cultures in their regional maritime milieu.
This project would stretch from east Africa, along the Arabian Peninsula, past southern Iran to the major countries of South Asia and thence
to Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. It is very much clear that Indian government intends to expand its maritime presence, culturally,

20. Terrorist activities and mutual distrust have clouded India - Pakistan relations. To what extent the use of soft
power like sports and cultural exchange could help generate goodwill between the two countries. Discuss with
suitable examples.
Ans. Whenever it seems that both the countries are leading towards sweet mutual relationship, the vested interests at both sides of the
border derail the development of goodwill among the people and dialogue between the governments of India and Pakistan. Considering the
issue of terrorism and structure as well as policies of Pakistani Army, it is very difficult to develop good relation between both countries
using only soft power like sports and cultural exchanges. Following the cricket diplomacy General Zia-ul-Haq visited India in 1987 and
declared here that "Cricket for peace is my mission," but it could not last for a long and Pakistan started to promote and export terrorism in
Jammu and Kashmir. General Parvez Musharraf also visited India, in 2005, in the similar line, but after Mumbai attack the relation between
both the countries became the worse.
Various art performers of Pakistan, especially singers and musicians, are much more liked and appreciated in India and Indian films, film
actors and TV programmes are liked in Pakistan. But in recent times it has been observed that a few extremists of India threatened Pakistani
artists against their performance at certain places in India, such as the incidence of Ghulam Ali. Hence it can be concluded that soft power
can support and boost good relations but it can not generate good relations until the issues of terrorism and other disputes are solved. Soft
power is often overshadowed by exploits of Pakistani Army and terrorist activities.

All the best!

Team CL


Civil Services (Main) Exam, 2015 Actual Paper of GS Paper III, held on December 21,
1. The nature of economic growth in India in recent times is often described as a jobless growth. Do you agree with
this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer.
Ans. The Indian economy went through a period of jobless growth when fivemillion jobs were lost between 2004-05 and 2009-10 while
the economy was growing at an impressiverate of more than eight per cent annually. According to the Census India data, the number of
people seeking jobs grew annually at 2.23 per cent between 2001 and 2011, but the growth in actual employment during the same period
was only 1.4 per cent, leaving a huge gap in the form of unemployment. Paradoxical it may seem, Indias demographic dividend is also a
demographic cross as the new generation youth is more demanding and aspirational.
In Indian economy the share of manufacturing sector is still less than the standard scale. Experts argue that the growth of manufacturing is
now the key for growth in income and employment. For every job created in the manufacturing sector, three additional jobs are created in
related activities. Furthermore, it has higher labour absorption in comparison to services in India. The service sector is not as much
employment oriented as it contributes in the economy. Service sector contributed 67.3 per cent (at constant price) to the GDP but employed
only 27 per cent of total working population in 2013-14.About 13 million youth are entering the labour force every year but the gap for the
employment and growth got only widened during recent times. The negligence of the manufacturing sector was mainly responsible for the
jobless growth phenomenon.

2. Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non- farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss
suggesting suitable measures to promote this sector in India.
Ans. Human beings depend upon animals for food and related by-products, work and a variety of other uses. To meet these demands, they
have domesticated or held in captivity species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and arthropods. These animals have become known as
livestock, and rearing them has implications for occupational safety and health. Livestock rearing has been an important occupation in India
in the pre-historical era. A large number of farmers in India depend on animal husbandry for their livelihood. Operation Flood, the world's
largest integrated dairy development program, was based on livestock rearing.
Certain measures can promote this sector in India such as:

Availability of formal institutional education of a better livestock rearing, especially in rural areas is a competent
Medical facility for livestock and improvement in their breeds is another measure.
Availability of enough quantity of improved fodder for livestock is important to promote their rearing.
Availability of financial assistance by public finance institutions for livestock rearing and insurance cover of the
occupation is important to boost it.
Above of all, the expansion of awareness among the people in rural areas, that how the livestock rearing can help to ensure their livelihood
and is also a measure to promote this occupation.

3. In the view of the declining average size of land holdings in India which has made agriculture non

viable for a
majority of farmers should contract farming and land leasing be promoted in agriculture? Critically evaluate the pros
and cons.
Ans. Since independence the size of cultivated and other land holdings has steadily been shrinking, due to the fragmentation of land under
inheritance laws. It has contracted from 2.28 hectares in 1970-71 to just 1.15 hectares in 2010-11, according to the agricultural census. For
small and marginal farmers, over 85 per cent of the total, their holdings are generally too small to generate enough returns to live on. Such
tiny holdings must be either leased out to other farmers, or expanded by leasing in adjoining lands in order to become economically viable.
But the existing legal framework does not allow this.This framework tend to discourage the leasing and sub-leasing of land; but this process
has become essential, since it would lead to uncultivated land owned by absentee landowners becoming productive, and also allow small and
marginal farmers to expand their holdings to a viable size by leasing in additional land.
Due to legal contract farming large chunks of land that belong to the non-farming households, most of whom have migrated to urban areas,
will become available for productive use. Importantly, the current practice of leasing out land through oral, non-binding, agreements will also
give way to legally enforceable lease contracts. But in the absence of required alertness it may lead to increase in the number of absent
landowners. It will create opportunities for the exploitation of marginal farmers as they can not afford to be lessee and they can be ignored
by big corporate investors in contract farming.

4. How can the Digital India program help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What step has the
government taken in this regard?
Ans: GovernmentsDigital India project launched on 1st July 2015 envisions empowering citizens with e-access to government services
and livelihood related services, among others. The project has three core components, viz. digital infrastructure, digital services and digital
literacy. Mobile phone is the preferred delivery medium with focus on mGovernance and mServices. The mAgriculture and mGramBazar,

out of the seven components covered under mServices, directly impact agricultural extension and marketing services.
The project will benefit small farmers in following ways:

Extend timely services to farmers through information technology and its tools e.g Weather based Information
regarding natural calamities disseminated to farmers
Enhance efficiency in agricultural governance through digital literacy and electronic delivery of services.
Steps taken by the Indian Government has taken a number of initiatives to boost agriculture production, develop high quality seeds, increase
storage capacity and steps to reach the benefits of various research works from lab to land such as

Launch of Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) to promote use of organic farming and reduce dependence on chemical
Introduction of Soil Health Card Scheme and mobile soil testing laboratories, which will enable them to a tool to help the
farmer to monitor and improve soil health based on their own field experience and working knowledge of their soils.
Customized fertilizers have been approved so that nutrients requirements can be met for the fields.

5. In what way could replacement of price subsidy with direct benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies
in India? Discuss.
Ans. The 'Direct Benefits Transfer' means direct transfer of the cash to the beneficiary's bank account. Under this procedure there is no
scope for corrupt people to pocket the money meant for beneficiaries by fraudulent means. Under the DBT since the money is directly
deposited to beneficiarys bank account, the corrupt government officials cannot demand 'commission' to give the beneficiaries their
This programme also includes post offices and schemes running through Post office Accounts. The beneficiary can get his/her money from
any Post office throughout the country. The government is also engaging 'banking correspondents' to deliver services. The DBT is effective
in eliminating corruption committed by mediators and ensures delivery of benefits to actual beneficiaries. At present 25 centrally sponsored
schemes are covered by DBT.
It has drastically changed the scenario of subsidies in India. On one hand, it is eliminating corruption and on the other hand, it is saving public
money. According to an official estimate of the government the DBT for only Liquefied Petroleum Gas scheme will save about Rs 10,000
crore in 2015.

6. What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in developing the food processing industry
in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming this bottleneck?
Ans. Food processing is one of the largest global sectors at $7 trillion annual production and Indias food processing sector ranks fifth in the
world in exports, production and consumption. Food processing not merely adds value to the agro products, but also increases their utility.
Indian Food Processing Industry is estimated at $135 billion industry which is growing at about 8% annually. But value addition of Indian
product remains quite low. Indian Manufacturers havent moved much ahead in value chain. Indian agriculture is infested with post-harvest
wastage problem. Wastage is attributable to several factors including non-availability of facilities for sorting, grading, packaging, storage,
transportation, cold chain and low level of processing of agricultural produce.
Any product is mobilized from producer to consumer to be consumed. This route is called supply chain. This movement involves both time
and costs. Lengthier supply chains will push prices upward and result in more wastage. Adequate storage facilities, direct farming, contract
farming and negotiable warehouse receipt system are mechanisms to streamline, strengthen and shorten the supply chain. Other major
interventions and investments are needed in infrastructure sector, which is backbone of food processing industry. India is biggest producer
of numerous fruits and vegetable. Most of these are perishable and have very low shelf life that can be increased by adequate investment in
infra such as cold storage, reefer vans, radiation plants etc. E-commerce can not promote the growth of the food processing industry until
above issues are addressed.

7. Craze for gold in Indian has led to surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments
and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization scheme.
Ans. As per reports India spent $280 billion in gold imports in the last 10 years - more than the inflow from foreign institutional investors in
both equity and debt in the same period. Annual investment demand for gold is estimated at 300 tonnes a year and holdings of gold are
estimated at 20,000 tonnes, most of which are privately held lying idle in bank lockers and vaults. The gold bond scheme may work, as it
creates a financial asset equivalent to gold for investment purposes - with the added attraction of interest on the value invested. Allowing
gold bonds as collateral for loans along with tax sops such as making the interest on gold bonds tax-free, exempting them from capital gains
tax and providing indexation benefits to long-term capital gains on transfer of the bond, make gold bonds a relatively attractive proposition.
But this scheme may not be as attractive because under this the customer will get his gold ornaments melted, that will then be passed to
banks against which a certificate will be issued. On maturity, the customer can redeem the gold value along with earnings from a modest
interest rate. Although depositors will have the option of taking back gold after the maturity period, the purpose will not be served, as it will
entail a loss in terms of making charges of 5-15 per cent. So if the interest on the new gold deposit scheme is low, it will fail an individual's
cost-benefit test.

8. Success of make in India program depends on the success of Skill India programme and radical labour reforms.
Discuss with logical arguments.

Ans. Make in India is an initiative of the Government of India to encourage multinational, as well as domestic, companies to manufacture
their products in India. In order to ensure adequate availability of skilled man-power to achieve the objectives of Make in India initiatives,
the government has launched a National Skills Mission. India is one of the youngest nations in the world with more than 54% of the total
population below 25 years of age. Yet at present less than 5% of Indian potential workforce gets formal skill training to be employable and
stay employable. In the absence of sufficient skilled workforce industries can not operate their business with required efficiency to meet the
need of the Make in India programme.
Major reforms are required in labour market governance to promote the growth of industries in India. Globalization and evolving patterns of
present-day manufacturing processes require a whole new set of responses to cater to the demands of fast-changing global markets. Indian
labour courts and tribunals should have the right balance and related acts and regulations must be amended to boost a business friendly
environment. Advanced and flexible mechanism should be set up to settle issues between employers and workers. Until required skilled
workforce is supplied and labor market governance is reformed there is no opportunity for the success of the Make in India.

9. To what factors can be the recent dramatic fall in equipment cost and tariff of solar energy attributed? What
implications does the trend have for thermal power producers and related industry?
Ans. Many factors can be attributed for the recent dramatic fall in equipment cost and tariff of solar energy. The slowdown in the US and
European markets has worked to the advantage of companies, which are operating in India in solar energy sector. Overcapacity with module
makers has led to a phenomenal crash in the prices of solar modules. Currently thin film PV cells are emerging as a cost-effective alternative
to silicon-based panels. The panel efficiency has been rising gradually, promising more bang for the buck. The growing confidence of the
developer community is also helping this sector. Promoting investors interest, NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam, which oversees the solar
mission, has adopted the 'reverse auction method' to award projects, signing on developers quoting the lowest tariffs. The government is
also trying to address the concerns of this sector such as availability of finance.
The present trend of the sector is very optimistic to meet the need of energy in India. By covering most of houses with solar panels, India will
generate more energy than many other countries. Growing competition among producers and increase in the supply of solar energy will
ensure more access of the people to energy. After a few years, parts of India may well be using solar power for most of the day.

10. There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development,
manufacturing and exports. Recognizing this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs requires augmentation.
Discuss the issue plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration.
Ans. A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a countrys typical economic
laws. It is a duty free area which is meant for the purposes of trade operations, duties and tariffs for investors. Currently this sector is facing
many problems regarding taxation, governing laws and administration. In the absence of adequate laws, SEZs have problems in respect of
land acquisition and rehabilitation of the displaced persons. They also suffer due to the environmental clearances. Reforms in labour laws
are also necessary. The import-export business is highly dependent on uncertain international market conditions, rejection of consignments
etc. Hence a flexible labor policy is the need of hour in the SEZs.
SEZs face the problem of lack of clarity on taxation, especially on the dividend distribution tax. Tax incentives granted to SEZs are seen as
breaching World Trade Organization rules that bar financial contributions by a government or public body. The companies in SEZ are being
levied a full import duty on sale in domestic market. In this case SEZs will only promote export driven industries which are highly dependent
on import of raw materials. SEZs are governed by a three tier administrative set up and in the absence of coordination it leads towards poor
administration. There is a need of unification of governing system. There is a quick need to address the above issues

11. What do you understand by Standard Positioning System and Precision positioning system in the GPS era?
Discuss the advantage India perceives from its ambitious IRNSS programme employing just seven satellites.
Ans: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather
conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. GPS broadcasts two
types of signals:

Standard Positioning System (SPS), available for civilian use, broadcasts at a single frequency.
Private Positioning System is more accurate and used for military purpose and it broadcasts using two frequencies.
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System or IRNSS is an indigenously developed Navigation Satellite System that is used to provide
accurate real-time positioning and timing services over India and region extending to 1500 km around India.
Apart from general purpose consumer usage, GPS cannot be utilized by a country as large as India. India has no control over GPS and if it is
not accessible, all processes or people relying on the same would find themselves helpless. The advantage India perceives from its ambitious
IRNSS is that it is a Signal-in-Space Interface Control Document (ICD) for Standard Positioning Service (SPS) and released to the public to
provide the essential information to facilitate research & development and aid the commercial use of the IRNSS signals for navigation-based

12. What are the areas of prohibitive labour that can be sustainably managed by robots? Discuss the initiatives that
can propel the research in premier research institutes for substantive and gainful innovation.
Ans: A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or
electronic circuitry. Robots are increasingly used in manufacturing since the 1960s worldwide.
Many areas of prohibitive labour can be sustainably managed by robots which include some of the high risk jobs such as in Sulphur mining,

Coal mining, firefighting, tobacco collecting, e-waste recycling and garbage collecting e.g. Autonomous devices like driverless trucks and
precision drilling techniques are being deployed by mining giants like Rio Tinto, which has funded one of the worlds largest non-military
robot programs. In the auto industry they can amount for more than half of the "labor". There are even "lights off" factories such as an IBM
keyboard manufacturing factory in Texas that is 100% automated.
The new fields of robotics received support from simultaneously developing fields of artificial intelligence, artificial vision and developing in
digital microcomputers. There are some of the largest worldwide growth of the university laboratories, research centers and publications in
robotics. Research activities started almost 40 yrs ago. The growth in robotics has been closely associated with developments in
microcomputers, micro-controllers, sensor technology, vision technology and artificial intelligence.
Robotics today is dealing with research and development in a number of interdisciplinary areas, including kinematics, dynamics, control,
motion planning, sensing, programming and machine intelligence.

13. Discuss the advantage and security implication of cloud hosting of servers vis-a-vis in house machine based
hosting for government business.
Ans: The term "cloud hosting is the business of providing server space, web services and file maintenance for websites controlled by
companies or individuals that do not have their own web servers. It has diverse applications and advantages in terms of convenience i.e. data
can be accessed anywhere through internet. Security will be high as the data can be secured and makes it harder for hawkers to access it.
Backup will always be there in case a local computer crashes. Work can be collaborated as others can view and modify the documents
stored. It is also environment friendly in a way that it takes fewer resources to cloud compute and thus saves energy. Overall, there will be
storage and scalability, backup and disaster recovery, mobility, and cost efficiency.
Despite the security benefits that are typically associated with cloud hosting, there are also legitimate concerns with how safely the data is
stored and it can not be breached. Therefore, considering the above mentioned facts, the usage of cloud hosting in government businesses is
not that safe because security makes it harder to breach but not impossible for hackers to reach to the data. A bigger concern is that if the
servers where the data is stored, the government information can be exposed to the world.

14. Indias Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) which has a database containing formatted information on
more than 2 million medicinal formulations is proving a powerful weapon in countrys fight against erroneous
patents. Discuss the pro and cons of making the database available publicly under open source licensing.
Ans: Therapeutic substances used under the folk medicine practices of what is known as traditional knowledge is protected by special
provisions under Indian patent law. A modern classification system i.e. Traditional Knowledge Resource Classification (TKRC), based on the
structure of International Patent Classification has been evolved for Indian Systems of Medicine viz., Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Yoga.
TKDL is an Indian digital knowledge repository of the traditional knowledge, especially about medicinal plants and formulations used in
Indian systems of medicine. In TKDL, all the data from traditional knowledge is documented electronically and classified on the basis of
International Patent Classification (IPC) system. TKDL also helps in preparing a non literature prior art.
If the database is made available publicly under open source licensing there will be significant pros and coons attached to it.

Pros: There will not be any misuse of intellectual property of the traditional knowledge as the database will be available
to the wide spectrum of people and it will be already registered on the online platform. And hence, there will be a record
of Intellectual Property and also the immunity will be served towards it. With the TKDLs database the traditional
knowledge can be immense use to the country from exploitation through bio piracy and unethical patents. The genetic
resources can be protected from misappropriation used by patent examiners.
Cons:But the concern is that whether the knowledge will remain safe in those databases if it will be made public.
Challenges regarding the recorded system include issues around the ownership of the national database, its governance
and management as it serves a number of government departments. Another challenge is the standardization of
indigenous knowledge information storage and capture onto a common IT infrastructure platform, as well as the levels
of access to the national database.

15. Discuss the Namami Gange and National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed
results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental
Ans- Namami Gange is an integrated programme that involves different ministries, local bodies and panchayati raj institutions, for the first
time it is involving people living on the banks of the river under the clean river drive. It includes establishing a Ganga Eco-Task Force, a
Territorial Army unit and roll out of legislation to check pollution and protect the river. It talks about strengthening monitoring system
through committees at national, state and district levels. Central government will fund 100 per cent expenses for various activities and
The main reasons of mixed results from the previous schemes are undue investment on technical aspects like creating sewage treatment
plants exclusion of the people living on the banks of the river from schemes. Ignorance of social aspects of pollution in the rivers is another
To preserve the river Ganga it is necessary to ensure that no industrial waste or treated water is drained in the river. The most polluted
areas and the reasons for the pollution at those sites should be identified and should be addressed. Non government organisations and
private corporate sector should be engaged in this work. The use of non degradable materials at the banks should be prohibited. It should be
treated as an endangered river. More fishes and turtles should be set in the river to degrade corpse left in it. A swift and competent system
should be to monitor the entire programme. All these efforts should be part of a continuous effort to maintain the river clean.

16. The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, Indias

16. The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, Indias
preparedness for mitigating their impact has significant gaps. Discuss various aspects.
Ans- Indian subcontinent is sensitive to earthquake. According to Geographical statistics, nearly 54% of Indias total land is earthquake
prone, but the Himalayan region is very sensitive and yet there is no breakthrough on any earthquake prediction mechanism. In such a
condition, the best bet for any country, to deal with such a horrendous event is to be prepared for the worst, while hoping for the best.
India has set up the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) along with National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) to face such
disasters. In 2007, the NDMA had made it mandatory for all new constructions in Mumbai and New Delhi to abide by the earthquake
resistant designs. Likewise, the Reserve Bank of India also has issued orders to all the banks, asking them to deny infrastructure loans to any
building which is not abiding by the earthquake resistant structures guidelines, but often this order is ignored. NDMA has also launched the
National Retrofit Program to modify existing buildings, using certain strategies, to conform the present day standards for earthquake
But in spite of a number of surveys, to earmark dangerous buildings, have been conducted by the civic authorities over the past few years, it
is hard to see any concrete outcome. Building audits do not find a place in the priority list of the governments. Most of the buildings in India
are not earthquake resistant because the structural engineer passed their structure plan without giving it a second thought. Hence, it can be
said that India still not prepared enough and there are a lot to be done to face such a disaster.

17. Human rights activists constantly highlight the fact that the Armed forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) is
a draconian act leading to cases of human right abuses by security forces. What sections of AFSPA are opposed by
the activists? Critically evaluate the requirement with reference to the view held by Apex Court.
Ans- Human rights activists opposes the AFPSA Act because it empowers the Central Government and the governor of the concerned state
to declare any area within their jurisdiction as disturbed based on their own judgment of disturbed or dangerous situation and warranting
use of armed forces. After such a declaration, the armed forces have the power to shoot anyone at sight, even to kill a person that is believed
to violate existing laws and to prohibit assembly of more than five persons. Furthermore, to arrest any person without warrant, even on the
basis of reasonable suspicion of having committed a cognizable offence, use such force as necessary to effect arrest, and enter and search
any premise without warrant. The worse is that these powers are provided without adequate safeguards and complete immunity is given to
armed forces for the exercise of the powers.
In the wake of the Article 21 and 22 the Supreme Court has directed about dos and donts regarding the Act. In its directions the Court has
established equilibrium between the provisions of the Act and humanity. Armed forces are bound for the compliance of the directions of the
Court in their actions before launching operations, during operations and after operations under the Act. But the directions of the Court are
not followed regularly and it a big cause of concern.

18- Religious indoctrination via social media has resulted in Indian youth joining the ISIS. What is ISIS and its mission?
How can ISIS be dangerous to the internal security of our country?
Ans- The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, also called ISIS, ISIL or Daesh, is a terrorist group that follows an Islamic ultra-fundamentalist
ideology and that controls a vast region across Iraq and Syria. It is a de facto state that declares it to be the rightful heir of the Prophet of
Islam and its early leaders. It considers itself at war with all nations and with all people who do not meet its standards as "true" Muslims. It
believes its mission is to bring on the apocalypse as foretold in scripture. To this end, it seeks to conquer territory where it will build a real
state and govern as it sees fit.
The main mission of Islamic State is to restore the early Islamic empire called the caliphate and eventually take over the whole world.
The main threats of internal security of India is as-

India is multiple religion country. Muslims are living with other communities with harmony and peace. If ISIS succeeds in
its objective to attract Muslim youths then it will be an enmity between Muslims and other religious communities.
It can increase terrorism that would be a threat for economic growth and communal harmony.
If youths are attracted towards ISIS then it will create suspicion against Muslims and it will decline the existing
population dividend of the country.
Situation of law and order will also deteriorate.
Overall youths should be careful and focused for inculcating values of society. Youths influenced by ISIS should be properly counseled and
stopped to join ISIS.

19-The persisting drives of the government for development of large industries in backward areas have resulted in
isolating the tribal population and the farmers who face multiple displacements. With Malkangiri and Naxalbari foci,
discuss the corrective strategies needed to win the Left Wing Extremism (LWE) doctrine affected citizens back into
mainstream of social and economic growth.
Ans- The Left Wing Extremism (LWE) got strong support among tribal communities because the issue of social and economic empowerment
of these communities was criminally neglected for a long time and their unrest was narrated as a matter of law and order by local authorities
so that the corrupt nexus of local politicians, administrators and local economic dominant people could serve its own interests. Development
of large industries in backward areas only displaced tribal people without their proper rehabilitation and did not provide them employment
because tribal people were incompetent in the education and skill required to get jobs in these industries. The LWE arose in Malkangiri and
Naxalbari due to failure of administration to address the issues of local tribal communities.
Along with security steps, providing quality education and skill development of tribal people for adequate jobs is the most successful mean

to eradicate extremism among them. Development of local infrastructure and effective participation of tribal people in local bodies is
another mean to meet the challenge. Citizens of other than these parts of the country must be aware about the local circumstances of these
areas so that they can create pressure on both central and state governments to handle the manner in social and economic perspective with
the human approach. States, which are facing this leftist extremism, must be forced by the Central Government to keep their primary focus
to solve it in a humanitarian and constructive manner.

20. Considering the threats cyberspace poses for the country, India needs a Digital Armed Forces to prevent
crimes. Critically evaluate the National Cyber Security Policy, 2013 outlining the challenges perceived in its effective
Ans. According to the National Cyber Security Policy 2013 there will be set up different bodies along with a national nodal agency to tackle
various levels of all matters of cyber threats and a National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) will be created,
which will act as a 24x7 center to battle cyber security threats in strategic areas such as air control, nuclear and space. The current agency,
Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT), will deal with all public and private infrastructures. A workforce of around 500,000 trained
personnels in cyber security will be constituted. Testing labs will be established for regular check of the safety of equipment being used in
the country. There will be creation of cyber ecosystem in the country.
The main challenges in the way of National Cyber security policy 2013 are:

The declared cyber security policy has been proved to be a paper work more than a practical policy.
It is not competent enough to protect civil liberties of citizens as they have been blatantly ignored by Indian government
and e-surveillance projects that are being kept intact by the government.
The offensive and defensive cyber security capabilities of India are still missing.
India is considered to be a sitting duck in cyberspace and cyber security field and the proposed cyber security policy has
failed to change this position.
Hence, despite the contrary claims and declared achievements India is not adequately ready to counter cyber threats
and this policy is just another policy document, however a positive step in the right direction.

All the best!

Team CL


Civil Services (Main) Exam, 2015 Actual Paper of GS Paper IV, held on December
21, 2015
Section A
1 (a) What is meant by environmental ethics? Why is it important to study? Discuss any one environmental issue
from the viewpoint of environmental ethics. (150 words) (10)
Ans. Environmental ethics is a branch of ethics that studies the relation of human beings and the environment and how ethics play a role in
this. Environmental ethics believe that humans are a part of society as well as other living creatures, which includes plants and animals. It
exerts influence on a large range of disciplines including environmental law, environmental sociology, Eco theology, ecological economics,
ecology and environmental geography.
Global warming, global climate change, deforestation, pollution, resource degradation, threat of extinction are few of the issues from which
our planet is suffering. Environmental ethics are a key feature of environmental studies that establishes relationship between humans and
the earth. With environmental ethics, we can ensure that we are doing our part to keep the environment safe and protected.
Every time a tree is cut down to make a home or for other purposes the natural resources are becoming more and sparser to find. It is
essential that we do our part to keep the environment protected and free from danger. It is not as difficult as we may think to do so. As long
as we are willing to make a few easy and simple changes, we can keep protecting our environment.

1 (b) Differentiate between the following (10 marks) (200 Words)

(i) Law and ethics
(ii) Ethical management and management of ethics
(iii) Discrimination and preferential treatment
(iv) Personal Ethics and Professional Ethics
1. Difference Between law & Ethics:
1. Ethics are rules of conduct. Laws are rules developed by governments in order to provide balance in society and protection to its citizens.
Ethics comes from peoples awareness but laws are enforced by governments to its people.
2. Ethics does not carry any punishment to anyone who violates it but the law will punish anyone who happens to violate it.
2. Ethical management refers to corporate management that not only fulfills economic goals and legal responsibilities, but also meets the ethical
expectations imposed by social norms in conducting business.
Management ethics is the ethical treatment of employees, stockholders, owners and the public by a company. A company, while needing to
make a profit, should have good ethics. Employees should be treated well, whether they are employed here or overseas.
3. To discriminate against someone means to single out or make a distinction about that person. It becomes unlawful in the workplace when an
employer treats an applicant or employee unfavorably because of characteristics covered by equal-employment opportunity laws.
Preferential treatment unfairly expands the opportunities for some groups at the expense of others. The primary difference between
discrimination and preference is that discrimination is illegal.
4. Personal ethics are the basic principles and values that govern interactions among individuals. Thus, personal ethics are typically those that
positively impact the experience of others when used to govern an individual's social or business related behavior.
Professional ethics are professionally accepted standards of personal and business behavior, values and guiding principles. Codes of
professional ethics are often established by professional organizations to help guide members in performing their job functions according to
sound and consistent ethical principles.

2) Given are two quotations of moral thinkers/philosophers. For each of these bring out what it means to you in the
present context.
(a) The weak can never forgive; forgiveness is the attribute of strong. (10) (150 words)
Ans- The statement indicates that if the world is separated into two types of people

the weak and the strong. Forgiveness is a quality that

only the strong are capable of. Strength should not necessarily be measured by the physical aspects but the characteristic aspects. It is the
nature of a civilized and intellectual person. It is the act of accepting someones repentance for an action they committed that may have
caused one harm or hurt. The action that the person may have committed does not necessarily have to have been violent in nature. Actions
that can cause harm to a person can be separated into the physical and the emotional.
A man has more strength if he is able to forgive. Strength in its physical sense is usually attributed to those who have the most muscle. But
the meaning of strength in the 'characteristic/emotional' sense is to control and sublimate ones emotions by oneself. These are the
emotional barriers that one faces while leading to forgive. Now days, we notice several times that people become violent on petty issues and
they do not accept that forgiveness can remove many problems from their life.

(b) We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light
(10 marks) (150 words)

Ans: Children are afraid of the dark because they don't know what is in the dark. They can't place a reality to deal with. So they run from it or
cry until rescued. We forgive them because our society has a common acceptance of fear of the unknown.
On the other side, it is unjustified to forgive an adult, who fears the light (reality) and does not want to counter it due to his own interests.
The people, who live in denial mode against realities, indirectly promote the existing evils that damage not only the present but also the
future of the society in which they live.
Currently most of us have become insensitive towards the basic and major issues of poverty, economic and social disparity, literacy, route
causes of reemergence of communalism, environmental challenges etc, existing in our society and our parliament is interrupted on
unimportant and trivial issues.

3) (a) A mere compliance with law is not enough, the public servant also have to have a well developed sensibility to
ethical issues for effective discharge of duties Do you agree? Explain with the help of two examples where (i) an act
is ethically right, but not legally and (ii) an act is legally right, but not ethically. (10 Marks) (150 words)
Ans: 21st century is demanding sensible, accountable, responsible, transparent and ethical governance. Law is to maintain peace and
harmony and to protect the interests of all. Ethical issues govern our conscience to work for those who can not protect themselves and it is
also guidance for working manner. Sensibility towards ethical issues is a mandatory condition for an administrator, while compliance of law
is essential tool of administration. An administrator should maintain equilibrium between the both.
We can understand these two concepts with an example that if judiciary has ordered to remove encroachment along the roads but the
people who are working in these places are poor and have no other livelihood then an administrator has to work on the basis of ethical sense.
To remove these people is legally right but not ethically. In same case if we removes them without proper arrangement of livelihood then it is
legally right but not ethically. In another example if a person violates the traffic rules for unavoidable reasons then it is ethically correct but
not legally.

(b) How do the virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude get manifested in public service? Explain with examples (10)
(150 words)
Ans: Trustworthiness and fortitude are among major principles of public services. Reforms take much time, while fortitude plays a major role
for effective public service. For example digitalization took much time for the delivery of public service but when complete digitalization
adopted then public services became more efficient and transparent.
Currently, right to information is getting huge success due to trustworthiness of people for RTI. Direct benefit transfer scheme is also
getting success in its implementation, it is also due to trustworthiness. Public services, in developed nations, became much efficient due to
their trustworthiness though they took a long time for their effective and successful implementation.
Public distribution system in India is not so successful in many states due to lack of trustworthiness. In Chhattisgarh this scheme became
more successful due to trustworthiness because Chhattisgarh Government introduced a transparent and accountable reform in the system.
Hence we can say that trustworthiness and fortitude is a key principle of public services.

4) (a) Social values are more important than economic values. Discuss the above statement with examples in the
context of inclusive growth of a nation.(150 words)(10 Marks)
Ans. Both social and economic values are used in different contexts. Economic values, such as efficiency, reliability, ease of use, cost etc. are
used in economic activities. But social values, such as fundamental rights, patriotism, sacrifice, individuality, equality, democracy etc., are an
important part of the culture of the society. They account for the stability of social order. They provide the general guidelines for social
conduct. Economic values are useless if they are not translated into social values.
Inclusive growth is a concept that advances equitable opportunities for economic participants during economic growth with benefits
incurred by every section of society and in a developing country like India; inclusive growth means more and more governmental schemes
and support to attain the desired rate of economic and human development. When economic values are used to deliver social values they
ensure inclusive growth, which is ultimately resulted in the welfare of the society.

(b) Some recent developments such as introduction of RTI Act, media and judicial activism, etc. are proving helpful in
bringing about greater transparency and accountability in the functioning of the government. However, it is also
being observed that at times the mechanisms are misused. Another negative effect is that the officers are now afraid
to take prompt decisions. Analyze the situation in detail and suggest how the dichotomy can be resolved. Suggest
how these negative impacts can be minimized. (150 words) (10 Marks)
Ans: The RTI Act, media and judicial activism, etc. are proving helpful in bringing about greater transparency and accountability in the
functioning of the government but they are being used by vested interests also to threaten government officials and many times honest
officials avoid to take required decisions for the public interest. Especially when media and judicial activism is misused against honest
officials it declines their moral and keeps them away from decision making. Acquittal of a former telecom secretary by the court in a case of
corruption is the illustration of such incidents.
To mitigate such negative impacts it is necessary to ensure the personal liability of people, who are involved in media and judicial activism.
Vested interests must not be permitted to do their own business in the name of the Fundamental Right to Liberty or the Public Interest
Litigation. If any propaganda is made by media or any accusation is charged before the court of law against public officials on fake and illegal

grounds, the people liable for such activities must be punished strictly. Honest officials must be protected from corrupt media and judicial
activist syndicates

5) Two different kinds of attitudes exhibited by public servants towards their work have been identified as
bureaucratic attitude and the democratic attitude. (10 Marks) (150 words)
(a) Distinguish between these two terms and write their merits and demerits.
Ans: Bureaucratic attitude is a form of attitude by officials that allows important decisions to be made by state officials. This means that the
people in charge are not elected representatives that are chosen by the people, but rather very qualified and experienced people in
whatever field is being dealt with. Merits of Bureaucratic attitude are control, mechanistic way and economies of Scale. Demerits of
Bureaucratic Attitude are low Morale and Absence of Maneuverability.
Under democratic attitude the leader decentralizes and delegates high authority to his subordinates. He makes a final decision only after
consultation with the subordinates. Merits of this attitude are exchange of ideas among subordinates and leader that improves job
satisfaction and morale of the subordinates as well as recognition of human values. Demerits are its time consuming nature, less
effectiveness if participation from the subordinates is for name sake and adverse effect on the decision making capacity of the leader.

5(b) Is it possible to balance the two to create a better administration for the faster development of our country?
Ans. Yes it is possible that by creating a balance between two better prospects for the development of a country. Implementations and
regulations of several policies can be better delivered by the bureaucratic attitude whereas employee satisfaction, participation in
development, policy making and other things beneficial for the organization can be done by the democratic bureaucracy.

6) Today we find that in-spite of various measures of prescribing codes of conduct, setting up vigilance
cells/commissions, RTI, active media and strengthening of legal mechanism, corrupt practices are not coming under
control. (10 Marks) (150 words)
(a) Evaluate the effectiveness of these measures with justifications.
(b) Suggest more effective strategies to tackle this menace.
Ans. Corrupt practices are the part of human behaviour and they are originated by corruption in thoughts. They can not be controlled only
by formal means until human behaviour is disciplined through imbibing of thoughts.
(a) Prescribed codes of conduct, setting up vigilance cells/commissions, Right to Information, active media and strengthening of legal
mechanism are formal means to counter the corruption. They are effective against only external behaviour of human beings. If they are used
by honest people, they help in the reduction of corruption but many times they are misused by corrupt people also and in such a condition
they become measures to promote and protect corruption.
(b) Corruption is an ideology and it has become a part of our life. To counter this evil, it is necessary to educate people about how it is
damaging all economic, social, intellectual and cultural dimensions of our society, along with the use of formal measures, people must be
educated also. They must be made aware by factual and rational analysis that if the existing corrupt practices prevail they will lead the
society to a dark future.

7. At the international level, bilateral relations between most nations are governed on the policy of promoting ones
own national interest without any regard for the interest of other nations. This leads to conflicts and tension
between the nations. How can ethical consideration help resolve such tensions? Discuss with specific examples. (10
Marks) (150 words)
Ans.Human rights and ethics in international affairs are at the heart of the governing norms of a global community. Every culture and nation
has its own values, history, customs and traditions, thus it has developed own ethical values and understanding of ethical principles.
There is no international ethical code of conduct, accepted and followed by all the countries. It is hard to outline those ethical values which
would be understandable, acceptable and important for representatives of all the continents simultaneously within different types of
international cooperation projects.
And in the view of the above consideration it has been observed that many times developed countries while making any deal or negotiations
at the international platforms overlook the genuine interests of the developing countries. E.g. The WTO has failed to live up to its promises
over the past decade, which reveals a wider systemic problem in the global community. True and lasting solutions to global economic
problems can only come when the model of global competitiveness between countries becomes one of genuine cooperation.

8) Public servants are likely to confront with the issues of Conflict of Interest. What do you understand by the term
Conflict of Interest and how does it manifest in the decision making by public servants? If faced with the conflict of
interest situation how would you resolve it? Explain with the help of examples. (10 Marks) (150 words)
Ans: The conflict of interest is a situation in which a person or an organization is involved in multiple interests. Due to their multiple roles
individuals play in their daily lives, they inherently possess many different interests. At any given time these interests may compete.
Furthermore conflicts of interest interfere with the basic ethical principle of fairness-treating everyone the same. The conflict of interest is
manifested when a public servant has to choose between public interest and his own interest. Public servant must always put the common
good ahead of any personal, financial, or political benefit they might receive from a decision making.
The conflict of interest can be resolved if the public servant is motivated by professional ethics that keep him away from any partiality in his

own favour. For example a public servant while decision making should prefer about such matters as where to situate a park, school or to
whom any contract must be given.

Section B
9. A private company is known for its efficiency, transparency and employee welfare. The company though owned by
a private individual has a cooperative character where employees feel a sense of ownership. The company employs
nearly 700 personnel and they have voluntarily decided not to form union.
One day suddenly in the morning, about 40 men belonging to political party gate crashed into the factory demanding
jobs in the factory. They threatened the management and employees, and also used foul language. The employees
feel demoralized. It was clear that those people who gate crashed wanted to be on the payroll of the company as well
as continue as the volunteers/members of the party.
The company maintains high standards in integrity and does not extend favors to civil administration that also
includes law enforcement agency. Such incident occurs in public sector also. (20 Marks) (250 Words)
1. Assume you are the CEO of the company. What would you do to diffuse the volatile situation on the date of gate crashing with the violent mob
sitting inside the company premises?

Ans.The entire act was not only an unethical act, but was also a violent act, wherein goons misbehaved with the employees. The gate
crashing was a punishable offence under the Indian Penal Code, so this not just a matter of ethics but also a matter of law and order.
Therefore, being a CEO of the company I highly condemn the act and remain firm for maintaining the integrity and high standards of
the company. I cannot allow them to set a wrong example else, the anti-social elements will paralyze the system of the society. And
hence, I will take help of the local police to handle the situation.
2. What can be the long term solution to the issue discussed in the case?

Ans. The given case is an issue of violation of law and order and it has no relation with ethical values. Therefore, to deal with such antisocial elements I will seek help of local police administration and subsequently local authorities concerned with law and order. Legal
action will be initiated to tackle the enormity of the acts and through this I will ensure that such acts do not repeat in future.
3. Every solution/action that you suggest will have a negative and a positive impact on you as (CEO), the employees and the performance of the
employees. Analyze the consequences of each of your suggested actions.

Ans. Yes, it is true that there will be an impact on me as well as on the employees, but by taking such steps I have ensured that the
employees must not feel insecure of their jobs and about the safety concerns. With legal procedures in procedure I have also gave a
strong message to the anti-social element, if any present in the company. And they will be treated strictly if found guilty. As CEO I will
be facing the difficulty in the short run but in the long run I would be able to secure the interest of the companys welfare.

10) You are the Sarpanch of a Panchayat. There is a primary school run by the government in your area. Midday
meals are provided to children attending the school. The headmaster has now appointed a new cook in the school to
prepare the meals. However, when it is found that cook is from Dalit community, almost half of the children
belonging to higher castes are not allowed to take meals by their parents. Consequently the attendance in the
schools falls sharply. This could result in the possibility of discontinuation of midday meal scheme, thereafter of
teaching staff and subsequent closing down the school. (20 Marks) (250 Words)
(a) Discuss some feasible strategies to overcome the conflict and to create right ambiance.
Ans. The Article 14 of the Indian constitution prohibits discrimination among its citizens on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of
birth. But caste based social discrimination is still prevalent in Indian society and Panchayats still do not play their expected role in its
In this case being a sarpanch and leader of the village its my duty to protect the right of every person in each and every possible manner. I
will take following steps to resolve the problem:
1. I will launch a campaign in village against this social discrimination.
2. I will call a public meeting with each student parents of the school and try to convince them by informing and educating them about caste
discrimination, its evil practice.
3. In order to break this ideology I will have a mid day meal cooked by the Dalit cook and will eat and try to persuade others to have so too.
4. I will provide the details of legal activity and conviction if such activity is not being stopped in near future.
5. I will persuade the teachers to make the children be educated regarding this sort of social evil and to make them feel free to discuss regarding
such inhuman changes and to not indulge themselves in such acts.

(b) What should be the responsibilities of different social segments and agencies to create positive social ambience for accepting such
Ans: I will try to inform several social activist groups regarding it and ensure their encouragement and steps to be taken against such evil
practices. Intellectual peoples from the upper caste should come forward in eradicating out such inhuman practices occurring in our civilized
society since centuries. They can break such jeopardy and set an example before other people so that they can realize about such practices
and avoid it.

11) One of the scientists working in the R&D laboratory of a major pharmaceutical company discovers that one of

11) One of the scientists working in the R&D laboratory of a major pharmaceutical company discovers that one of
the companys bestselling veterinary drugs has the potential to cure a currently incurable liver disease which is
prevalent in tribal areas. However, developing a variant of the drug suitable for human being entailed a lot of
research and development having a huge expenditure to the extent of Rs. 50 crores. It was unlikely that company
would recover the cost as the disease was rampant only in poverty stricken areas having very little market otherwise.
If you were the CEO, then (20 Marks) (250 Words)
(a) Identify the various actions that you could take
(b) Evaluate the pros and cons of each of your actions
Ans. The CEO of the organisation can choose anyone of various options that can be available to meet the need.
1. He can disperse the burden of the cost of development of the specific drug on various other products. Thus, without increasing the cost of a
particular product, he can raise the required fund. But in such a condition consumers of other products will have to pay the cost of the drug that
they will not use and it will be unethical on both professional and social parameters.
2. He can ask the government to provide financial aid for the project because it requires a huge amount and the people, who will be benefited by
the drug, can not afford its cost. Hence, it is responsibility of the government to pay for the welfare of such people. It may avail the required
amount as per need. But due to the formal work culture of the government system the approval and issuance of the amount can take a long time
that will cause unnecessary delay in the starting and running the project. Furthermore it can invite unwanted interference of government
personnel in the project.
3. He can arrange the required amount from the corporate social responsibility fund (CSRF) of the organisation. If amount is less than requirement
he can seek assistance from similar funds of other corporate organisations. It will avail the required amount without delay and without following
unnecessary formal activities. But the amount collected by CSRF may also be insufficient.

12. There is a disaster prone state having frequent landslides, forest fires, cloudbursts, flash floods and earthquakes,
etc. Some of these are seasonal and often unpredictable. The magnitude of the disaster is always unanticipated.
During one of the seasons a cloudburst caused a devastating floods and landslides leading to high casualties. There
was major damage to infrastructure like roads, bridges and power generating units. This led to more than 100000
pilgrims, tourist and other locals trapped across different routes and locations. The people trapped in your area of
responsibility includes senior citizens, patients in hospitals, women and children, hiker, tourist, ruling parties,
regional presidents along with his family, additional chief secretary of the neighboring state and prisoners in jail.
As a civil services officer of the state, what would be the order in which you would rescue these people and why? Give
Justifications (20 Marks) (200 Words)
Ans. Natural disasters cannot be prevented, but their impact on peoples lives can be reduced to a considerable extent. Disaster
management covers all aspects of preventive and protective measures, preparedness, and rescue, relief and rehabilitation operations. The
orders in which people must be rescued are as women and children, senior citizens and physically disabled, patients in hospital, hikers,
tourists, president of ruling party and their families and additional chief secretary of the neighboring state and the persons in the jail.
Children are the future of the society and women become their primary caretakers so they should be rescued first, the injured and sick, and
the elderly

substantially increasing their emotional and material work load. Children are a special population when considering emergency
preparedness and many resources are directly focused on supporting them, as disasters can leave children feeling frightened, confused, and
Senior citizens, people with disability and patients in hospitals must be addressed thereafter because people with disability are vulnerable in
the event of an emergency and the chances of their survival are often minimized. Hikers and tourists who are struck have people of all ages
so they must also be addressed on a priority basis.
Additional Chief Secretary of neighbouring state and regional President of ruling party and his families must be given assistance. Prisoners
must be addressed at the last so as to prevent further chaos in the society, as during disasters already such activities are on peak.

13-You are heading a district administration in a particular department. Your senior officer calls you from the State
Headquarters and tells you that a plot in Rampur village is to have a building constructed on it for a school. A visit is
scheduled during which he will visit the site along with the chief engineer and the senior architect. He wants you to
check out all the papers relating to it and ensure that the visit is properly arranged. You examine the file which
relates to the period before you joined the department. The land was acquired for the local panchayat at a nominal
cost and the papers showed that clearance certificates are available for the two of the three authorities who have to
certify the sites suitability. There is no certification by the architect available on file. You decide to visit Rampur to
ensure that all is in the order as stated on file. When you visit Rampur, you find that the plot under reference is a part
of Thakurgarh fort and that the walls, ramparts, etc., are running across it. The fort is well away from the main village;
therefore a school here will be a serious inconvenience for the children. However, the area near the village has
potential to expand into a larger residential area. The development charges on the existing plot, at the fort, will be
very high and question of heritage site has not been addressed. Moreover, the Sarpanch, at the time of acquisition of
the land, was a relative of your predecessor. The whole transaction appears to have been done with some vested
interest. (25 Marks) (250 Words)
(a)List the likely vested interest of the concerned parties.
(b)Some of the options for action available to you are listed below. Discuss the merits and demerits of each of the
(i) You can await the visit of the superior officer and let him take a decision.
(ii) You can seek his advice in writing or on phone.
(iii) You can consult your predecessor/ colleagues, etc, and then decide what to do.

(iv) You can find out if any alternate plot can be got in exchange and then send a comprehensive written report.

(iv) You can find out if any alternate plot can be got in exchange and then send a comprehensive written report.
Can you suggest any other option with proper justifications?
Ans.(a)List the likely vested interest of the concerned parties.
The list is as follows:

Officers who have called from state department
Some of the options for action available to you are listed below.

(i) You can await the visit of the superior officer and let him take a decision.
Merits- It will be a good step as superior can understand the issue in a better way. He will be responsible for the construction of school.
Demerits-If I have visited the site before the visit of the superior officer and I have found many irregularities in the land acquisition I will take
decision not to construct the school on that place.
(ii)You can seek his advice in writing or on phone.
Merits- If I take advice from the superior, it will be a best tool to understand the issue and to take appropriate decision avoiding unnecessary
Demerits- The superior may not be convinced properly about the exact situation of the matter and in this condition his advice may not be

You can consult your predecessor/ colleagues, etc., and then decide what to do.
Merits- Discussion with colleagues/ predecessors etc. can give me a better decisive role. Experience of colleagues/ predecessor can be
Demerits- I am responsible for my work and not my colleagues. Furthermore my predecessor, due to his vested interests can misguide me.
(iv) You can find out if any alternate plot can get in exchange and then send a comprehensive written report.
Merits- As School is a basic necessity for the children, hence an appropriate and suitable location can be determined. The cost irregularity
can be reported in written, but it should be primary focus to allot a new plot for school.
Demerits- If another plot is given in exchange of allotted plot then the culprits of irregularities of prior allotment of plot will not be punished
and they will be encouraged to repeat such actions.
Some of the additional suggestions apart from the given options:
In this case if the officer is assured that venue is not suitable then he should reject the place for school because according to the right to
education schools should be properly reachable and connected with villages. It will secure the future of children. Another suitable and safe
place should be allotted for school, because to provide education is moral duty and also a fundamental right of children.

14) You are recently posted as district development officer of a district. Shortly thereafter you found that there is
considerable tension in the rural areas of your district on the issue of sending girls to schools.
The elders of the village feel that many problems have come up because girls are being educated and they are
stepping out of the safe environment of the household. They are the view that the girls should be quickly married off
with minimum education. The girls are also competing for jobs after education, which have traditionally remained in
boys exclusive domain, adding to unemployment amongst male population. The younger generation feels that in the
present era, girls should have equal opportunities for education and employment, and other means of livelihood. The
entire locality is divided between sexes in both generations. You come to know that in Panchayat or in other local
bodies or even in busy crosswords, the issue is being acrimoniously debated. One day you are informed that an
unpleasant incident has taken place. Some girls were molested, when they were en route to schools. The incident led
to clashes between several groups and a law and order problem has arisen. The elder after heated discussion have
taken a joint decision not to allow girls to go to school and to socially boycott all such families, which do not follow
their dictate. (250 words) (25 Marks)

What steps would you take to ensure girls safety without disrupting their education?


How would you manage and mould patriarchic attitude of the village elders to ensure harmony in the intergenerational relations?

Ans. (a) There are many problems related with education of girls in India and to ensure that girls may feel safe while going to school several
steps should be taken. The steps which I would take includes
(i) Exemplary punishment that would be the best method of sending the correct message throughout the society.
(ii) Potential criminals harassing girls should be deterred once they see that justice is done and it is done within a time framework.
(iii) Ensure that there must be awareness about the individual security, and women and girls are attentive to pursue the means of safety.
Therefore, the entire feminist strata must understand that safety of an individual is primarily the responsibility of the individual herself.
1. In order to encourage proper way to manage and mould patriarchic attitude of the village elders to ensure harmony in inter- generational
relations, I would encourage more and more conversation and exchange of views between people belonging to different age groups. To ensure
the long term change in the attitude of the social fabric of the local area I will ensure that
2. (i) The elders must be made more aware about the changing social environment and the role of educated women in the society.
(ii) They must be made aware that if their attitude is not changed or their orthodoxy is maintained, they themselves will become an obstacle for
the growth and progress of the society. And they will remain behind the developing fabric of the nation.

All the best!

Team CL