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# MCG 2131 - Problem Set 1

## All from 8 edition of Borgnakke & Sonntag, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics.

Equivalent problem numbers for the 7th edition are given where these exist.
th

## 1. Textbook Problem 11.19 (7th edition 13.19).

Properties for the refrigerants used are in Table A.5. Convert mass fraction to mol:
xi = M Yi / Mi , and M = ( (Yi / Mi ) ) -1 = 86.2 kg/kmol, so that
xR32 = 0.381; xR125 = 0.180; and xR134a = 0.439.
R=

## CP = Yi CPi = 0.8299 kJ/kg K; CV = CP - R = 0.7334 kJ/kg K

(alternatively, CV = Yi CVi )
2. Textbook Problem 11.21 (7th edition 13.20).
Write gas law for each component individually, using partial pressure, total volume, and
component specific gas constant. Answer mC2H2 = 16.0 kg, mC3H8 = 118 kg.
3. Textbook Problem 11.27 (7th edition 13.25).
Mol fractions: for each component calculate Yi / Mi , then divide by Yi / Mi.
Answers: xH2 = 0.242, xCO = 0.388, xCO2 = 0.154, xN2 = 0.216.
For total mass write gas law for mixture as a whole. Mixture gas constant R = R / M, and
mixture molecular mass M = 1 / Yi / Mi.
Answer: m = 0.992 g.
Heat transfer from first law, closed system, no work. Assume const. sp. heat, mixture specific
heat is CV = 0.9056 kJ/kg K, heat transfer is
Q12 = 71.9 J.
4. Textbook Problem 11.49 (7th edition 13.48).
Same mixture as 13.25. Isentropic compression, assuming perfect gas with constant specific
heats gives T2 from isentropic relations:
T2 = T1 (v1 / v2 )(k-1) , with k = CP / CV.
Mixture CP = 1.249 kJ/kg K, CV from 13.25, then k = 1.38 and T2 = 539 K.
Work from first law, closed system, no heat transfer, constant specific heat, W12 = 221 J.
5. Textbook Problem 11.39 (7th edition 13.30).
First law for system: Q = W = 0, therefore U2 = U1
m u2 = mO2 uO22 + mCO2 uCO22 = mO2 uO21 + mCO2 uCO21

## Assume constant specific heat:

mO2 CVO2 (T2 - TO21) + mCO2 CVCO2 (T2 - TCO21) = 0.
for O2, CP = 0.922, CV = 0.662, R = 0.2598 kJ/kg K
for CO2, CP = 0.842, CV = 0.653, R = 0.1889 kJ/kg K
Solve

T2 = 334.5 K

Final pressure P2 = m R T2 / V2
- mixture gas constant R = Yi Ri, Yi 's from given masses, R= 0.211 kJ/kg K
- total volume = sum of initial volumes, each volume from gas law from each component in
initial state (Vi = mi Ri Ti / Pi), which gives V = 8.785 m3
then

P2 = 306 kPa

## (b) Total entropy change

S = mO2 sO2 + mCO2 sCO2
= mO2 [ CPO2 ln ( T2 / TO21 ) - RO2 ln ( pO22 / PO21 )] +
+ mCO2 [ CPCO2 ln ( T2 / TCO21 ) - RCO2 ln ( pCO22 / PCO21 )]
- final partial pressures from gas laws for components at final state pi = mi Ri T2 / V2
- then

S = 5.720 kJ/K

## 6. Textbook Problem 11.56 (7th edition 13.54).

Write first law (adiabatic) in mass units, with 1, 2 = entering CO2 and N2 streams
respectively. Substitute mass flows, apply mass conservation and divide by exit mass flow.
Substitute for each h using h = CP (T - TREF ); reference temperature cancels to give
2/3 CP CO2 T1 + 1/3 CP N2 T2 = CP 3 T3, where CP 3 = Yi CP i = 0.9087 kJ/kg K
which gives T3 = 304.7 K
Rate of entropy generation = difference between inlet and outlet entropies (i.e. entropy
generation added to inlet side of second law makes it an equality). Write equation so that
entropy contributions from each component are separate terms:

where sCO2 3 - s 1 = C P CO2 ln (T 3 / T 1 ) - R CO2 ln (p CO2 3 / pCO2 1 ). Since the inlet partial pressure

is equal to the total pressure, the partial pressure ratio of inlet state to outlet state is the same
as the mol fraction at 3. Converting mass to mol fraction gives xCO2 3 = 0.56, which gives sCO2
3 - s1 = 0.0683 kJ/kg K. Likewise, sN2 3 - s2 = 0.3318, and