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Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard Reference Handbook October 2015 The information contained in this

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard Reference Handbook October 2015 The information contained in this

Reference Handbook

October 2015

The information contained in this document is confidential and proprietary to the Government of Ontario. Unauthorized distribution or use of this document or the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Copyright and Disclaimer

Government of Ontario reserves the right to make changes in the information contained in this publication without prior notice. The reader should in all cases consult the Ministry of Transportation to determine whether any such changes have been made.

© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2015

Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. This document contains proprietary and confidential information about Government of Ontario. Disclosure or reproduction is prohibited without prior express written permission.

Introduction

As partners in road safety, licensed Motor Vehicle Inspection Station owners and technicians must carefully review and apply the requirements contained in this technical Passenger / Light Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard (herein after referred to as the “Standard”). This Standard is intended to apply to light-duty trucks and passenger vehicles requiring the issuance of a Safety Standards Certificate (SSC) for the purposes of vehicle registration and/or transfer of ownership. The purpose of the inspection is to ensure that the vehicle meets a minimum safety standard at the time of inspection. A determination must be made as to whether the condition of the vehicle at the time of the inspection conforms to the requirements outlined in this Reference Handbook.

This Standard replaces Schedules 1 and 2 of Ontario Regulation 611. Those Schedules previously contained the standards applicable to SSC inspections.

All items listed in this Standard must be inspected in accordance with the specific procedures outlined. An SSC is a legal declaration that the vehicle was inspected in accordance with the legislation, Regulation 611, and this Standard and met all of the requirements at the time of the inspection.

Should you have any questions related to the requirements contained in this Standard, please refer to the Ministry of Transportation website:

Table of Contents

UPDATED PASSENGER / LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLE INSPECTION STANDARD 1

Reference Handbook

 

1

1. INSTRUCTIONS FOR TECHNICIAN / INSPECTOR CONDUCTING

INSPECTIONS

 

5

1.1.

Inspection Methods

5

1.2.

Inspection Outcome Based on Current Vehicle Condition

5

1.3.

Inspection Report

5

1.4.

Workplace Safety

6

1.5.

Informational Notes

6

2. TERMINOLOGY

 

6

2.1.

Application

6

2.2.

Definitions

6

2.3.

Categorization of Fluid (Liquid) Leaks

8

2.4.

Illustrations and Diagrams Used in the Standard

9

2.5.

Measurements

and Tolerances

9

2.6.

Identification of Defective Conditions of the Types of Hose, Tubing and Lines

Used on Vehicles

11

SECTION 1 – POWERTRAIN

12

SECTION 2 – SUSPENSION

23

SECTION 3 – BRAKE SYSTEMS

28

– SECTION 5 – INSTRUMENTS AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT

SECTION

4

STEERING

43

49

SECTION 6 – LAMPS

52

SECTION 7 – ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

65

SECTION 8 – BODY

67

SECTION 9 – TIRE AND WHEEL

82

SECTION 10 – COUPLING DEVICES

88

SECTION 11 – ROAD TEST

92

1. Instructions for Technician / Inspector Conducting Inspections

for Technician / Inspector Conducting Inspections 1.1. Inspection Methods The inspection of vehicle components

1.1. Inspection Methods

The inspection of vehicle components and systems conducted to determine compliance with this Standard consists mainly of visual inspection activities in Sections 1-10 and through the completion of an on-road evaluation, details of which are found in Section 11.

An inspection will also involve testing, removal and/or disassembly of components, measurements and other actions in certain cases. Whenever an item requires more than a visual inspection, additional procedures are specifically provided. These are displayed with the heading “Additional Inspection Procedure(s):” appearing before the text describing the necessary steps.

1.2. Inspection Outcome Based on Current Vehicle Condition

A pass or fail outcome of a vehicle inspection is based on the condition of the vehicle at the time of the inspection. The determination does not involve a prediction about a vehicle’s condition in the future.

1.3. Inspection Report

For each SSC inspection, the inspecting technician must complete an inspection report. This report must be provided to the customer and retained in accordance with Ontario Regulation 601.

The following items are noted in the Standard as recordable items and must be included on the inspection report.

Tell-Tales indicating a fault

Fuel Tank Level

Tire Tread Depth

Tire Inflation Pressure (Initial and final) if corrected by more than 5psi

Disc Brakes

- Rotor Thickness

- Pad (Friction) Material Thickness of Inner and Outer Brake Pad

Brake Drum System

- Brake Shoe Lining Thickness

- Brake Drum Diameter

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Additional details on the type of information that must be recorded can be found in the respective sections contained in the Standard and in the Regulation.

1.4. Workplace Safety

Some of the inspection procedures described in this Standard require the use of tools and equipment, and may involve safety hazards. It is assumed that the individual performing inspections according to this Standard is fully familiar with all relevant workplace safety requirements and protocols.

No specific safety warnings are provided within this document. All relevant and appropriate safety precautions are the responsibility of the inspector / mechanic / technician and the workplace where the inspection is conducted.

1.5. Informational Notes

In many cases, additional information is provided to clarify the inspection procedure or assist in consistent interpretation of the Standard. These are displayed with the heading “Note:” appearing before the text.

2. Terminology

“Note:” appearing before the text. 2. Terminology 2.1. Application Various terms and acronyms are used

2.1. Application

Various terms and acronyms are used throughout this Standard. These terms have specific and consistent meanings as they relate to conducting safety inspections and identifying defective conditions. The purpose of defining these terms is to support consistent interpretation and application of the language used here. The terms that are defined below are highlighted whenever they appear in each section to remind the reader that the condition is one of those that is specifically defined. This reminder also appears in the footer of each page of this document.

2.2. Definitions

The meaning of each of the terms, for the purposes of conducting inspections according to this Standard, is as follows:

abnormally worn– means unusual, excessive or exceptional wear of a vehicle component indicative of the presence of some deterioration or defect in that component, or in a related part of a vehicle. It is acknowledged that for many

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

components and systems some level of wear is normal and does not have any effect on vehicle safety. It is expected that the technician knows the amount and type of wear that is (normal based on the age and operation of a vehicle.

ANSI– means standards developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

broken– means burst, cracked, crushed or damaged.

CCMTA– means Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators (CCMTA)

CMVSS– means Canada Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (CMVSS) and their supporting Technical Standards Documents. These are Canadian safety standards for vehicles that were developed and are updated by Transport Canada.

crazed– a network of fine cracks in the surface

damaged– means any unintended condition, or condition caused by means other than normal use, that is likely to impair normal function.

FMVSS– means Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. These are United States safety standards for vehicles that were developed and are updated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the Department of Transport.

industry standard– means installation, modification or repair methods described in industry-accepted standards or recommended practices published by Mitchell Repair Information Company, ALLDATA, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), I-CAR, Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and other similar documents from similar organizations.

inoperative– means a vehicle component or system that does not operate the way it normally operates or the vehicle manufacturer intended it to operate.

insecure– means (a) a component is becoming detached due to deterioration of the means of attachment, or (b) the means of attachment is unable to withstand normal vehicle operation or is not at least equivalent to the OEM standard means of attachment.

loose– means that an item is detached, or no longer fully attached, due to improper installation, failure or deterioration of one or more means of attachment.

missing– means that an item is absent (such as “removed” or ”detached”) that is ordinarily present on the vehicle, was present on the vehicle when the vehicle was manufactured, or is required for normal and safe vehicle operation.

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

manufacturer– means the manufacturer of the vehicle, the manufacturer of a major vehicle component or system, or manufacturer of aftermarket parts that are direct replacements for OEM parts.

OEM– means” original equipment manufacturer” and refers to the “brand name” manufacturer of the vehicle.

OEM standard– means the manufacturing methods, component and assembly quality levels, and performance levels set by the manufacturer of a vehicle or vehicle component to ensure a vehicle is able to perform safely as intended. It includes component quality, performance levels, repair methods, durability, safety and the service methods outlined in the warranty and service literature provided for the use and maintenance of a vehicle. Parts supplied by OEM, and established aftermarket manufacturers of parts intended for direct replacement of OEM parts, are generally considered to meet OEM standard

operate as intended– means the manner in which a vehicle component or system ordinarily operates, operated when the vehicle was manufactured, or is required to operate for normal and safe vehicle operation

reject if– means a condition if present at the time of inspection or after repairs that results in a failed inspection.

tell-tale– means an optical signal that, when alight, indicates the activation or deactivation of a device, its correct or defective functioning or condition, or its failure to function.

2.3. Categorization of Fluid (Liquid) Leaks

Every reference to a fluid (or liquid) leak listed as a reject condition is categorized with respect to the level of severity of the leak: either level 1, level 2 or level 3. Each category is defined below. A vehicle with a leak that meets the defined level, or leaking more severely than this level, will cause the vehicle to fail inspection.

“level 1 leak” – means seepage of fluid that is not great enough to form drops.

“level 2 leak” – means seepage of fluid that is great enough to form drops, but not great enough to cause the drops to fall during inspection.

“level 3 leak” – means seepage of fluid that forms drops that fall during inspection

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

2.4.

Illustrations and Diagrams Used in the Standard

In an effort to improve the consistency and uniformity of the inspection process, a series of diagrams and illustrations is used in this version of the Standard. When

a diagram or illustration is in conflict with a legislated or regulatory requirement, the latter prevails.

2.5. Measurements and Tolerances

Many of the inspection items and reject conditions involve measurements of mass or weight, pressure and distance. To achieve consistent application of each criterion that involves such a measurement, it is necessary to address the degree of precision associated with such measurements. In determining the appropriate level of precision or tolerance, it is also necessary to consider the measuring tools that will be commonly used to make each of these measurements.

The level of precision associated with any measurement is defined by the tolerance stipulated for it. Tolerance is expressed as a plus or minus (+/-) value. The actual window of precision is double the value of the tolerance. For example, 50 mm (+/- 1 mm), means a value of 49 to 51 mm. The measurement tolerance of 1 mm renders a measurement precision of within 2 mm.

Given the similarities in the measurements that appear most frequently in this handbook, standard tolerances are given for most of these measurements. The standard tolerances that are listed below apply in all cases where no additional tolerance is provided. In cases where the standard tolerance does not apply, the tolerance for that criterion is provided adjacent to the measurement. Whenever a tolerance is provided adjacent to a measurement, the tolerance stipulated with the measurement is to be used in place of the standard tolerance listed below.

Measurements of distance are the most common in this Standard, and also have

a significant variance in terms of the range of distance that is used. Four different standard tolerance values are used for distance.

Pressure Metric (SI) pressure value = kilopascals (kPa), Imperial (American) pressure value = pounds per square inch or pounds/inch 2 (psi) Conversion Factors: 1 kPa = 0.145 psi, 6.9 kPa = 1 psi Standard tolerance for all pressure values: +/- 5 kPa (0.5 psi) Distance Metric (SI) distance value: millimetre (mm) Imperial (American) distance value: inch (in.) Conversion Factors: 1 mm = 0.039 in., 1 in. = 25.4 mm Standard tolerance for distance value ranges

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Tolerances for distance measurements vary based on the type and precision of the criterion as follows:

1. Large distance measurements of greater than 25 mm: tolerance is +/- 5 mm (accuracy is to the nearest 10 mm)

2. Short distance measurements of 1 to 25 mm, where the distance value is expressed as a whole mm: tolerance is +/- 0.5 mm (accuracy is to the nearest 1 mm)

3. Precise short distance measurements of 1.0 to 25.0 mm, where the distance value is expressed as one-tenth of a mm: tolerance is +/- 0.05 mm (accuracy is to the nearest 0.1 mm)

4. Micro distance measurements of less than 1 mm: tolerance is +/- 0.005 mm (accuracy is to the nearest 0.01 mm)

For the purpose of these tolerances, the following equivalent values are used:

Comparable Measurement Tolerances

Tolerance in metric measurements

± 5 mm

Tolerance in imperial measurements

± 0.125 (1/8) in.

± 0.5 mm

± 0.02 in.

± 0.05 mm

± 0.002 in.

± 0.005 mm

± 0.0005 in.

Metric / Imperial Conversions

25.4

mm = 1.0 in.

10.0

mm = 0.394 in.

0.0254 mm = 0.001 in.

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

2.6.

Identification of Defective Conditions of the Types of Hose, Tubing and Lines Used on Vehicles

Diagram

Characteristics

Defective Condition

Type 1 – Copper, steel or plastic tubing used for liquid or vapour. Made of

Type 1 – Copper, steel or plastic tubing used for liquid or vapour. Made of a single layer of material.

Wear or damage is visible on the outside.

Type 2 – Plastic (usually nylon) tubing commonly used in air- brake systems. Uses no

Type 2 – Plastic (usually nylon) tubing commonly used in air- brake systems. Uses no reinforcement ply. Inner core and outer cover are usually different colour.

Inner core becomes visible from the outside, as shown by colour change.

Type 3 - Plastic (usually nylon) tubing commonly used in air- brake systems. Uses reinforcement

Type 3 - Plastic (usually nylon) tubing commonly used in air- brake systems. Uses reinforcement ply. Inner and outer core are different colour. (Note: Type 2 and 3 may appear identical externally.)

Reinforcement ply or inner core is visible from the outside, as shown by colour change.

Type 4 – Stainless steel braided (or otherwise) outer cover with inner layer of tubing.

Type 4 – Stainless steel braided (or otherwise) outer cover with inner layer of tubing.

Wear or damage visible on the outer cover.

Type 5 – Synthetic rubber hose with inner reinforcement ply. Wear or damage exposing the

Type 5 – Synthetic rubber hose with inner reinforcement ply.

Wear or damage exposing the reinforcement ply.

Type 6 – Synthetic rubber hose with multiple reinforcement plies. Wear or damage exposing the

Type 6 – Synthetic rubber hose with multiple reinforcement plies.

Wear or damage exposing the outer reinforcement ply.

Type 7 – Flexible hose with one or more reinforcement plies that may be fabric

Type 7 – Flexible hose with one or more reinforcement plies that may be fabric or steel, and an outer protective layer.

Wear or damage through the outer protective layer and outer cover, exposing a reinforcement ply.

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain Section 1 – Powertrain 1. Accelerator Pedal / Throttle Actuator Item and
Section 1 – Powertrain Section 1 – Powertrain 1. Accelerator Pedal / Throttle Actuator Item and
Section 1 – Powertrain Section 1 – Powertrain 1. Accelerator Pedal / Throttle Actuator Item and

1. Accelerator Pedal / Throttle Actuator

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

With engine running, press and release the accelerator pedal. Check engine response.

a) pedal / actuator

a)

 

- binding, inoperative, missing, or engine fails to respond normally

b) anti-slip feature

b)

 

- ineffective, loose or missing

c) mount

c)

 

- deteriorated or weakened by corrosion, or insecure

d) linkage / cable

d)

 

- binding, broken or insecure

- deficient part is used that is not OEM standard

- throttle cable is binding, frayed or seized

e) springs

e)

 

- broken, corroded, deteriorated, missing, stretched or improper type

2. Exhaust System

Item and Method of Inspection:

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

Inspect with engine running.

Note:

Minor leaking and resulting soot tracks are normal at joints in exhaust systems.

Updated Passenger / Light Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if: a) manifold a) -

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a) manifold

a)

-

broken, cracked, leaking, loose or missing

b) muffler

b)

-

cracked, perforated or leaking

bypassed, disabled, missing or removed

Note:

The OEM muffler or one that meets the OEM standard is required on every vehicle.

-

-

deficient part is used that does not meet OEM standard

 

-

patched in any manner that is not consistent with industry standard

c) resonator, catalytic converter and particulate trap

c)

-

cracked, perforated or leaking

 

-

patched in any manner that is not consistent with industry standard

d) exhaust pipe

d)

-

cracked, collapsed or pinched, missing, perforated or leaking

-

patched in any manner that is not consistent with industry standard

e) mounting hardware

e)

-

broken, insecure, loose or missing

-

deficient part is used that does not meet OEM standard

f) location / heat damage

f)

-

exhaust-system component is located so as to cause charring or other heat damage to any wiring, fuel line, brake line or combustible material of the vehicle

Note:

Heat damage can sometimes be due to the absence of a heat shield originally provided by the manufacturer.

-

any exhaust component passes through an occupant compartment

g) turbocharger

g)

-

leaking exhaust gases

-

level 3 leak of oil or coolant

h) exhaust-pipe termination

h)

-

exhaust gases are expelled into

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if: Note:   occupant
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Note:

 

occupant compartment

-

exhaust gases are expelled within the perimeter of the cab and / or sleeper

exhaust system shortened or modified from original equipment so as to fail to direct the exhaust beyond the underbody of the occupant compartment or luggage compartment

Also applies to the exhaust system of any auxiliary equipment (for example, generators, auxiliary heaters).

Occupant compartment includes any part of the vehicle which has openings connecting it to any part of the vehicle which may be occupied.

-

-

the distance between the outlet and periphery of the underbody, past which it directs the exhaust, exceeds 15 cm

i) diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) system

i)

-

storage tank is damaged or insecure

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Visually inspect system using OEM service information as a guide.

-

level 2 leak at any location in the DEF system

-

storage tank filler cap is missing

3. Drive Shaft, Differential

 
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

Inspect using hand pressure and suitable tools

a)

U-joint / CV joint

a)

 

-

rotational free play is present

joint is noisy (for example, clicking) during road test and (i) rotation of wheel binding or (ii) steering movement adversely affected

Note:

Weather checking / cracking is permissible on boot as long as there is no crack that exposes internal joint components or lubricant to external contamination.

-

-

protective boot is loose, missing, open crack or torn

-

lubricant is leaking from CV joint

b) attaching hardware

b)

-

loose, missing or stripped

c) centre bearing and mount

c)

-

damaged, loose, missing or abnormally worn

-

insecure mounting or mount is

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if:     abnormally
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

   

abnormally deteriorated

d)

slip joint

d)

 

-

radial wear at joint exceeds manufacturer specification

e)

hanger bracket and hardware, and metal guard or catch

e)

-

missing, loose, cracked

 

-

mounted in a manner that fails to prevent drive shaft from falling to ground

f) differential

f)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

there is evidence that differential is not functioning as intended (affects driveability)

Test the functioning of the differential only when there is evidence of a problem. Refer to manufacturer service instructions, and confirm that the differential is functioning properly.

4. Clutch and Clutch Pedal

 
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

Inspect clutch operation and adjustment according to manufacturer service instructions.

a) operation

a)

-

fails to operate in the manner prescribed by the manufacturer

b) adjustment

b)

-

is not adjusted according to manufacturer instructions

c) pedal

c)

-

broken, cracked, loose, or missing

-

welded or repaired in a way that does not meet industry standard

-

deteriorated or weakened by corrosion, or insecure

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if:   - anti-slip
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

 

-

anti-slip feature is ineffective, loose or missing

d)

clutch pedal hydraulic system

d)

 

-

fluid reservoir is below manufacturer’s minimum level or level 2 leak of fluid at any point

5.

Engine / Transmission Mount

 
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a)

condition / attachment

a)

 

-

bent, loose or missing

-

a bolt or insulator is missing

-

an insulator is broken, deteriorated , level 2 leak, or swollen abnormally

-

a mount or part of a mount is replaced with a product or material that is not equivalent to OEM standard

6.

Engine Shutdown

 
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

Test operation according to manufacturer service instructions.

a) ignition switch

a)

-

engine fails to shut down when ignition switch is turned off

b) mechanical shutdown

b)

-

engine fails to shut down when device is actuated

c) remote or emergency shutdown device

c)

-

fails to operate as intended

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain 7. Engine Start Safety Feature   Item and Method of Inspection:  

7. Engine Start Safety Feature

 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

Test operation to confirm engine start is prevented according to manufacturer service instructions.

a)

ignition interlock operation

a)

Note:

-

fails to prevent engine start-up as intended

This includes the neutral safety switch on vehicles, except buses, with an automatic transmission with a GVWR of 4536 kg or less and includes the clutch pedal safety switch for vehicles, except buses, with a GVWR of 4536 kg or less and manufactured during or after June

 
 

2005.

8. Gear Shifter / Selector and Position Indicator

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a) location

a)

-

cannot be viewed by a person seated in driver position

b) operation

b)

-

gear shifter / selector movement is stiff or does not enable all gear positions to be freely engaged or selected

-

indicator fails to indicate selected gear on a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission

c) automatic transmission - shift pattern illustration (label, embossment, etc.) - or selector

c)

-

illegible, not clearly visible to driver or missing

 

-

inaccurate display of shift position

-

engine starts other than in “P” or “N”

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain 9. Engine or Accessory Drive Belt   Item and Method of Inspection:

9. Engine or Accessory Drive Belt

 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Note:

 

This section applies only to a drive belt directly connected to the engine.

A drive belt that is not required for safe operation of the vehicle (for example, A/C) may be missing if it doesn’t affect the operation of required vehicle functions.

a) condition

a)

-

broken, frayed, oil-contaminated or missing

-

crack exceeds OEM standard or industry standard

b) adjustment / tension

b)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

belt is slipping

Check the tension of drive belt(s).

 

Note:

Normal belt tension should be consistent with OEM standard or industry standard.

c)

drive belt pulley

c)

 

-

bent, broken, cracked or out of alignment

10. Electric or Hybrid-Electric Powertrain System

 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

 

Note:

 

All electric drivetrain components that can be accessed without removing other components, covers or panels must be visually inspected.

a)

electrical system connections

a)

 

-

connector is damaged or corroded in a way that exposes any conductor

-

connector is damaged or insecure,

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if:   - connector
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

 

-

connector is unable to properly connect or lock into place

b) wiring

b)

-

corroded or damaged in a way that exposes any conductor

-

insulation is chafing due to abrasive contact with any vehicle part

-

conduits are incomplete and not in good condition

c) drive motor / generator

c)

-

damaged, insecure or loose

-

indication of burning or overheating

-

drive component excessively worn

d) self-diagnostic indicator

d)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

there is any condition indicated by the system that is defined by the OEM as being unsafe

Visually inspect the system indicator(s) using OEM service information as a guide.

11. Gasoline or Diesel Fuel System

 
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a) fuel system

a)

-

level 1 leak or spillage of fuel present from any part of the fuel system

b) filler cap

b)

-

improper type or missing

c) tank, filler neck / tube and vent tube

c)

 

Note:

-

cracked, perforated, insecure mounting or weld is broken

Fuel tank level must be recorded on Inspection Report

-

improper tank (not intended for the storage of automotive fuel)

-

improper vent

 

-

improper repair

d)

tank mount and strap

d)

 

-

broken, cracked, loose or missing

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

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Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if:   - deficient
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

 

-

deficient part is used that does not meet OEM standard

-

fastener is loose or missing

e)

line, hose, fitting and connection

e)

 

-

chafed, cracked or insecure

Note:

-

deficient product is used that does not meet OEM standard not approved for use in a fuel system

any section of a line, hose or tube is worn or damaged

Refer to correct type of hose or tube and the related defective condition(s) as defined in the chart in the definition section of this standard.

-

f) fuel pump

f)

-

damaged or insecure

12. Pressurized or Liquefied Fuel System (LPG, CNG and LNG)

 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

 

Note:

 

In Ontario, pressurized fuel systems are inspected according to the requirements of the Technical Standards and Safety Act, and are administered by the TSSA (Technical Standards and Safety Authority). The inspection items below are intended as a general safety inspection of the fuel system and do not replace the inspection requirements of TSSA.

If you smell propane or natural gas or see anything of concern in the LPG or CNG installation, please contact an authorized repair facility.

a)

TSSA Compliance Decals- 2 decals required for CNG- converted vehicles and 3 decals required for LPG- converted vehicles.

a)

-

decal is not displayed

-

an incorrect decal is affixed to vehicle

-

information on decal is not readable

Note:

-

window label is expired

LPG-converted vehicles require decal that indicates the vehicle is in compliance with the B149.5 that expires

 

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 20 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if: every 5 years.  

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

every 5 years.

 

Window label (LPG only):

 
every 5 years.   Window label (LPG only):   Permanent label near door latch or the

Permanent label near door latch or the inside of the glove compartment for propane and CNG:

-

label missing or expired

 
 

Propane and NG diamond required: A propane-fuelled highway vehicle shall be identified by a weather-resistant, diamond-shaped label affixed to its exterior vertical, or near vertical, lower- right rear surface, but not to its bumper.

 
lower- right rear surface, but not to its bumper.   b) filler cap b) - improper

b) filler cap

b)

-

improper type or missing

c) tank and cylinder

c)

-

crack or other damage to tank or cylinder

-

improper repair

d) tank mount and retainer strap

d)

-

broken, cracked, loose or missing

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 21 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 1 – Powertrain

Section 1 – Powertrain   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if:   - fastener
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

 

-

fastener is loose or missing

e)

line, hose, fitting and connection

e)

 

-

chafing, cracked or insecure

-

any section of a line, hose or tube is worn or damaged

-

fastener is loose or missing

f) fuel pump, or other fuel system component

f)

-

damaged or insecure

g)

leakage

g)

 

-

evidence of any fuel leak

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 22 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 2 – Suspension

Section 2 – Suspension

Section 2 – Suspension Section 2 – Suspension 1. Suspension and Frame Attachments Item and Method
Section 2 – Suspension Section 2 – Suspension 1. Suspension and Frame Attachments Item and Method
Section 2 – Suspension Section 2 – Suspension 1. Suspension and Frame Attachments Item and Method

1. Suspension and Frame Attachments

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Note:

 

This section applies to all types of suspension.

Manufacturer welding of components is a normal part of many manufacturing processes, and is distinct from welding to modify or repair a part.

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Raise the vehicle as necessary to access the suspension components.

a) vehicle ride height

a)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

one side of the vehicle is more than 25 mm, higher or lower than the other when measured at the tire centerline

Check ride height while vehicle is unloaded, parked on a flat level surface and with tires inflated to specified pressure. The allowable variation in ride height from left to right is based on a ground-to-vehicle measurement.

b) frame bracket, mounting bracket and hanger

b)

-

broken, cracked, damaged, loose, or missing

 

-

perforated due to corrosion or deterioration

-

welded or repaired in a way that does not meet OEM standard

c) mounting fasteners

c)

-

broken, cracked, loose or missing

d) tire interference

d)

-

the condition of the suspension system allows a tire to contact any part of the vehicle frame or body

Updated Passenger / Light Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 23 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 2 – Suspension

Section 2 – Suspension Item and Method of Inspection: Reject if: e) suspension travel e) -

Item and Method of Inspection:

Reject if:

e) suspension travel

e)

-

there is no or very limited suspension travel due to a binding or seized suspension component, or due to improper stiffness or specification of suspension (which is either topped or bottomed out)

2. Axle Attaching and Tracking Components

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Note:

 

This section applies to all types of suspension.

a) axle attachment, axle saddle

a)

-

bent, broken, cracked, loose or missing

-

axle has shifted from its normal position

b) bushing (rubber or composite material)

b)

-

missing, loose or shifted out of place

-

wear or damage permits suspension component to shift out of position

c) arm, rod, strut / shock suspension, control arm

c)

-

bent, broken, cracked, loose, missing, or worn out

 

-

perforated due to corrosion or deterioration

-

welded or repaired in a way that does not meet OEM standard

-

wear or damage permits axle or wheel to shift out of position or required orientation

-

binding strut bearings/mounts prevent free rotation of steering wheel

d) stabilizer / anti-sway bar, ball and socket or link

d)

-

bent, broken, missing

 

-

welded or repaired in a way that does not meet OEM standard

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 24 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 2 – Suspension

Section 2 – Suspension 3. Spring and Spring Attachment Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject

3. Spring and Spring Attachment

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a) leaf spring

a)

-

any spring leaf is broken, missing , worn more than 3 mm, cracked or shifted out of place

-

any spring leaf is worn more than 3 mm in the hanger contact area or where leaves are in contact with each other

-

leaf is shifted and contacting another vehicle part

b) composite spring

b)

-

worn more than 3 mm in load bearing area

Note:

Some change in the appearance of a composite spring, described as “fuzzing” / frayed is normal as the spring ages.

-

broken, crack of any length visible on both sides of a spring, splintered, delaminating or not the same type on each side of vehicle

c) shackle, pin, bushing

c)

-

broken, missing, loose or pin seized

-

shifted out of normal position

-

fastener loose or missing

-

vertical movement of a spring or shackle against a spring pin exceeds OEM standard or if not available; wear exceeds limit below

-

for pin size up to 25 mm, wear limit is 2.0 mm

-

for pin size greater than 25 mm, wear limit is 3.0 mm

d) U-bolt and hardware (centre bolt, fasteners, saddles or shackles)

d)

-

missing, loose or shifted out of normal position

 

-

welded or repaired in a way that does not meet OEM standard

e) spring contact area of hanger (slipper)

e)

Note:

-

repaired by welding (except installation of wear plates)

Wear plates are permitted by some manufacturers in the spring contact

-

spring-load bearing area is worn more than 3 mm

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 25 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 2 – Suspension

Section 2 – Suspension Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if: (slipper) area of fabricated

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

(slipper) area of fabricated hangers.

 

f) coil spring

f)

-

broken or shifted out of normal position

-

spacer is fitted between coils

g) torsion bar

g)

-

broken, cracked or missing

-

repaired by welding

h) rubber load cushion

h)

-

rubber block or vertical pin is broken, loose, missing or split

4. Air Suspension

Item and Method of Inspection:

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

Check with air system at normal operating pressure

a) ride height

a)

-

height is above or below OEM specification

-

vehicle leans to one side

b) air spring (air bag)

b)

-

improperly seated, cracked, cut, patched or reinforcing ply is exposed

-

audible air leak

c) air spring base, mounting plate

c)

-

broken, missing, or cracked

-

perforated by corrosion or deterioration

-

welded or repaired in a way that does not meet OEM standard

d) air system

d)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Inspect the function and operation of the air- suspension system and controls in accordance with manufacturer service instructions.

-

compressor does not function as intended

-

pressure control, pressure regulator or gauge is missing or inoperative

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 26 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 2 – Suspension

Section 2 – Suspension   Item and Method of Inspection: Reject if: e) air line, connection
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

Reject if:

e)

air line, connection and fitting

e)

 

-

fitting, repair method, installation or modification does not meet OEM standard

Note:

Refer to correct type of hose or tube and the related defective condition(s) as defined in the chart in the definition section of this standard.

-

an inner layer is exposed due to abrasion or rubbing

-

fitting or connection is broken, cracked, flattened or leaking

 

-

air flow through a line is restricted due to melting, flattening, deformation or kinking

f) height control valve

f)

-

inoperative

-

a system originally equipped with 2 valves has a valve missing or has been converted to a single valve

-

a system with only one valve has the valve positioned in a location other than near the center of an axle

5. Strut / Shock Absorber

 
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

Check shock absorbers by rapidly lowering and raising the vehicle.

a) operation

a)

-

vehicle oscillates more than two cycles after release

b) condition

b)

-

damaged, disconnected or missing

c) mount and hardware

c)

-

broken, loose, binding or missing

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 27 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems Section 3 – Brake Systems Additional Inspection Procedure(s): Inspecting Internal Brake
Section 3 – Brake Systems Section 3 – Brake Systems Additional Inspection Procedure(s): Inspecting Internal Brake
Section 3 – Brake Systems Section 3 – Brake Systems Additional Inspection Procedure(s): Inspecting Internal Brake

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Inspecting Internal Brake Components

1. Disassembly of Wheels and Drums for Inspection

Internal brake components must be inspected at every inspection. Disassembly or removal of wheels, and/or brake parts, is required to facilitate full inspection of all components.

2. Required Measurement of Brake Components

Brake inspections require certain components to be measured. These measurements are required to be recorded on the inspection report. The items that must be measured for each type of brake are as follows:

2.1 Drum Brake Systems

For drum brakes, the brake-shoe lining thickness and brake-drum diameter must be measured at every inspection.

2.2 Disc Brake Systems

For disc brakes, the rotor thickness and pad friction material thickness of the inner and outer brake pad must be measured and recorded at every inspection.

Friction-material thickness can be determined by measuring the friction material itself, or by measuring the combined thickness of the friction material and pad backing plate, then deducting the thickness of the backing plate. Always record the thickness of the friction material only.

Updated Passenger / Light Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 28 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems Note : The performance of the service brake system is tested

Note: The performance of the service brake system is tested as part of the Road Test (Section 11).

1. General

 

Item and Method of Inspection:

Reject if:

a)

brake system

a) A component of the brake system is missing or has been disabled

2. Hydraulic System Components

 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a)

metal line and fittings

a)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Inspect lines and fittings for leaks while brakes are applied with a heavy force on the brake pedal similar to what would be used in an emergency stop. Operate engine if necessary to maintain power- assist.

-

heavy rust, corrosion or scaling is present on any metal line or fitting that reduces or increases the thickness or compromises the structural integrity of the material

-

level 1 leak

-

chafing, cracked, flattened or restricting section

Note:

Surface rust and corrosion is normal on metal lines and fittings, and is not cause for rejection.

-

insecure mounting causing line to shift out of its normal position

-

repaired by welding or soldering

-

repaired using material or method that does not meet OEM standard

 

-

Connections between brake system components are not a flared type fitting, or does not meet OEM standard

-

Component does not meet OEM standard

b) flexible line / hose

b)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Inspect flexible hoses while brakes are applied with a heavy force on the brake pedal similar to what would be used in an emergency stop. Operate engine if necessary to maintain power-assist.

-

bulged or swells under pressure, flattened, twisted, restricting section or insecure mounting

-

outer composite material is cracked or chafed exposing an inner layer as shown in hose and tube condition chart in introduction or located so as to rub against any component.

 

-

Component does not meet OEM standard

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 29 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if: c) master
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

c)

master cylinder

c)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

damaged or insecure mounting

-

fluid is contaminated

Apply moderate foot force on the brake pedal for 10 seconds to check for pedal movement.

-

level 1 leak

-

fluid level is below indicated minimum

level or, if not indicated, more than 13

Apply heavy foot force to the service brake pedal to check for total pedal travel ( in the case of power boosted brakes, with the engine running)

mm

from top

-

filler

cap is damaged, loose or missing,

vent holes are plugged or gasket is missing or swollen

 

-

pushrod incorrectly adjusted

-

with

moderate foot force maintained on

the service brake for 10 seconds the pedal moves towards the fully applied position (engine must be running for power boosted brake systems).

-

with

heavy foot force applied to the

service brake pedal and, in the case of power boosted brakes, with the engine running:

the total pedal travel exceeds 80 per cent of the total available travel, and

on the vehicle equipped with dual- circuit hydraulic brakes, the brake- failure warning lamp illuminates

-

brakes do not release, preventing the vehicle from rolling, upon removal of force from the brake pedal

d) differential pressure switch

d)

-

switch or electrical connection is damaged, insecure or loose

-

level 1 leak

-

inoperative

e) variable or proportioning system

e)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Check links for mechanical defects. Test the functioning of the proportioning valve only when there is evidence of a problem. Refer to manufacturer service instructions and confirm that the valve is

-

link

is damaged, missing, or seized

-

level 1 leak

-

proportioning valve missing, inoperative

or bypassed

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 30 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems Item and Method of Inspection: Reject if: functioning properly. f) auxiliary

Item and Method of Inspection:

Reject if:

functioning properly.

f) auxiliary or work brake (line-lock device)

Note:

Line-lock devices block brake fluid from returning to the master cylinder as a means of holding a vehicle stationary. Improperly installed they can interfere with normal service brake operation.

f)

- any device is installed that interferes with normal service brake operation

3. Brake Pedal / Actuator

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a) pedal

a)

-

broken, cracked, loose, or missing

-

welded or repaired in a way that does not meet OEM standard

b) mount

b)

-

deteriorated or weakened by corrosion or insecure

c) anti-slip, high-friction feature on pedal application surface (for example, rubber cover)

c)

-

ineffective, deteriorated, loose or missing

4. Vacuum Assist (Boost) System

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a) line, hose and clamp

a)

-

broken, chafed, collapsed, cracked, leaking, loose or missing

-

insecure mounting, incorrect type or positioned within 40 mm of any exhaust system component

b) check valve

b)

-

incorrectly installed or inoperative, leaking or missing

c) tank

c)

-

damaged, structurally deteriorated from

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 31 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if:    
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

   

corrosion, insecure or loose, leaking or missing

d)

operation

d)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

during stage 1 - vacuum reserve is insufficient to assist two full brake applications

Test system operation as described below.

-

Stage 1 – Start engine, build to full vacuum, shut engine off, make 2 full brake applications.

during stage 2 - downward movement of brake pedal is not felt when engine is started

Stage 2 – With engine off, press brake pedal several more times to eliminate remaining vacuum. Apply a light force to the brake pedal and start the engine.

 

e)

vacuum pump

e)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

vacuum pump does not operate within manufacturer specifications, or when no specification is available, is unable to achieve and maintain a vacuum between 4 kPa and 5 kPa

Confirm proper operation of the vacuum pump to manufacturer specifications. When no specification is available, check with engine running at 1200 rpm using vehicle gauge, or connect external gauge.

5. Hydraulic Assist (Boost) System

 
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a)

engine-driven pump, reservoir and belt

a)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

level 2 leak

 

-

fluid level is below indicated minimum

Check with engine stopped and with engine running.

level or, if not indicated, more than 25

mm

from top

Inspect drive belt according to Section 1. Power Train, Item 9. Engine or Accessory Drive Belt.

-

filler

cap is damaged, loose or missing

b)

line and hose

b)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Check with engine stopped and with engine running.

-

level 2 leak

 

-

broken, chafed, collapsed, cracked, loose or missing

 

-

insecure mounting or incorrect type

c)

operation

c)

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

 

Page 32 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if: Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Confirm proper operation of the hydraulic assist (boost) system according to manufacturer service instructions.

-

hydraulic assist (boost) is not available or system malfunctions

-

system does not operate as described in manufacturer service instructions

When no manufacturer service instructions are available, check as described below.

Test Method 1 - For a system with electrically driven back-up pump. Operate brakes with engine running and engine stopped with ignition off. Observe system operation and status of indicator lamps.

-

tell-tale lamp is activated, showing a system malfunction

-

during Test Method 1 - system does not operate as described in manufacturer service instructions

-

during Test Method 2 - on a system with gas-accumulator back-up - pedal fails to sink down and then push back up again

Test Method 2 – For a system with gas- accumulator back-up. Stop engine and deplete pressure reserve. Then apply a light force on brake pedal and start engine.

 

6. Air Assist (Boost) System

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a) operation

a)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

Confirm proper operation of the air assist (boost) system according to manufacturer service instructions.

-

system does not operate as described in manufacturer service instructions

-

downward movement of brake pedal is not felt when engine is started

When no manufacturer service instructions are available, check as follows: Stop engine and deplete pressure reserve. Then apply a light force on brake pedal and start engine.

 

7. Brake System Indicator Lamps

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

a) operation

a)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

missing, not red or amber in colour

-

does not operate according to manufacturer service instructions

Confirm the location and labeling of brake indicator lamps according to

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 33 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if: manufacturer service instructions.

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

manufacturer service instructions.

-

indicates a brake system malfunction or defect

Check operation of brake tell-tale according to manufacturer service instructions.

When no manufacturer service instructions are available, begin with engine stopped, and then turn ignition on. Lamps must turn on when ignition is first turned on. Lamps may go out after 2 – 3 seconds or may stay on until the engine is started.

 

Note:

Some tell-tales may stay on, after a repair or system malfunction, until vehicle speed reaches 8 - 16 km/h.

8. Drum Brake System Components

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

Inspection requires removal of the drum and also other components as necessary to inspect all components as detailed below.

a) brake-shoe lining condition

a)

-

lining material is broken, contaminated or cracked

-

signs of “rust-jacking” (friction material lifting due to rust build-up, shoe-table deformation, friction material separating from backing material)

-

lining protrudes outside of drum

-

lining loose or separating from shoe

-

shim is used between lining and shoe

-

shoe or lining is installed incorrectly (such as primary and secondary shoes reversed)

b) brake-shoe lining thickness

b)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

bonded brake-shoe lining thickness is less than 1.6 mm, where the lining is

Lining thickness must be measured at

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 34 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if: each inspection,
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

each inspection, and the measurement must be recorded on the inspection report.

 

thinnest

-

riveted brake-shoe lining thickness is less than 1.6 mm above rivet

 

Note:

 

Lining thickness measurements are taken above a rivet or shoe at the most worn location.

 

1.6 mm = 2/32 in.

c)

brake drum condition

c)

Note:

-

crack, groove or worn area is deeper than the drum wear limit

Heat checks and some surface cracks on the friction surface are normal.

-

surface cracks or heat checks extend completely across the brake surface.

-

any external crack is present

Heat checking is identified by a number of short, fine, hairline cracks on the braking surface.

-

friction surface is abnormally worn

d)

brake drum diameter (wear)

d)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

measured drum diameter exceeds limit indicated on the brake drum or, if not available, OEM standard or industry standard

Brake drum diameter must be measured and recorded on the inspection report. See Introduction to Section 3 for details.

 

Note:

 

Drum diameter measurements must be taken using a suitable tool and with the level of accuracy defined by the measurement tolerance but never with a level of accuracy less than ± 0.05 mm

e)

self-adjuster mechanism

e)

 

-

broken, incorrect thread direction, inoperative, missing or seized

f) anchor pin / bracket and return spring

f)

-

abnormally worn, bent, broken, loose or missing

-

spring stretched

g)

backing plate

g)

 

-

bent, damaged or loose

-

shoe contact area is grooved or worn in a manner that restricts free movement

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 35 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if:     of

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

   

of shoes

h) axle and spindle

h)

-

cracked or damaged

i) wheel cylinder

i)

-

inoperative or seized, damaged, loose or insecure mounting

-

level 1 leak

-

dust seal is cracked or split, missing, damaged or deteriorated

j) wheel seal

j)

-

level 2 leak

9. Disc Brake System Components

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

 

When an inspection reveals evidence of a defect or abnormal condition, brake components must be disassembled to the point necessary to verify defect.

Refer to the instructions in the Introduction to Section 3 to determine what measurements are required to be taken and recorded.

a) disc (rotor) condition

a)

-

broken, pitted, damaged or cracks on surface extending to the outer edge; broken / cracked cooling fins; or mechanical damage that may be attributable to abnormal wear on friction surfaces

Note:

Lateral run-out and parallelism needs to be checked only where there is evidence of a problem (for example, severe brake pedal pulsation upon brake application).

Heat checks and some surface cracks on the friction surface are normal.

-

any surface crack, groove or worn area is deeper than the wear limit

Heat checks are identified by a number of short, fine hairline cracks on the braking surface.

-

crack extends from the friction surface through to the cooling vent

-

contact pattern of the pad on solid rotor material (not rusted) is less than 75% of the radial width around the entire rotor, on one side

Passenger / Light-Duty Vehicle Inspection Standard

Page 36 of 96

Note: All inspection procedures are visual unless additional inspection procedures are indicated. Conditions shown in this manner are defined conditions. The definitions can be found in the introduction section.

Section 3 – Brake Systems

Section 3 – Brake Systems   Item and Method of Inspection:   Reject if:   -
 

Item and Method of Inspection:

 

Reject if:

 

-

lateral run-out or parallelism measurement exceeds OEM or industry standard.

b)

disc (rotor) thickness

b)

Additional Inspection Procedure(s):

-

thickness between friction surfaces at any point on the pad-contact surfaces is less than the minimum indicated on the brake rotor, OEM standard or industry standard

Rotor (disc) thickness must be measured and recorded on the inspection report.

 

Note:

Measurements must be taken using a suitable tool with the level of accuracy defined by the measurement tolerance, but never with a level of accuracy less than ± 0.05 mm.

 

c)

caliper

c)

 

-

assembly seized or binding, mounted incorrectly or inferior attaching bolt is used

Note:

If the dust cover is missing or deteriorated, it is acceptable, as long as the condition does not present a potential safety hazard.

-

slide pin / slider or pad slider is seized or binding, damaged or abnormally worn

 

-

caliper guide is welded or repaired in a way that does not meet OEM standard

-

level 1 leak

-

pad retainer is bent, damaged, insecure or missing

-

boot or bellows is cracked or deteriorated, damaged or missing

-

piston seized or binding

d) anchor plate

d)

-

loose