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Psalm 49

a. Deus deorum Dominus locutus est


et vocavit terram. A solis ortu usque
ad occasum. Ex Sion species decoris
eius

The God of gods, the Lord hath spoken: and


he hath called the earth. From the rising of
the sun, to the going down thereof: out of
Sion the loveliness of his beauty.

b. Deus manifeste veniet Deus noster


et non silebit. Ignis in conspectu eius
exardescet et in circuitu eius
tempestas valida

God shall come manifestly: our God shall


come, and shall not keep silence. A fire shall
burn before him: and a mighty tempest shall
be round about him.

c. Advocavit caelum desursum et


terram discernere populum suum.
Congregate illi sanctos eius qui
ordinant testamentum eius super
sacrificia. Et adnuntiabunt caeli
iustitiam eius quoniam Deus iudex est.

He shall call heaven from above, and the


earth, to judge his people. Gather ye together
his saints to him: who set his covenant
before sacrifices. And the heavens shall
declare his justice: for God is judge.

d. Audi populus meus et loquar tibi


Israhel et testificabor tibi Deus Deus
tuus ego sum.

Hear, O my people, and I will speak: O Israel,


and I will testify to thee: I am God, thy God.

e. Non in sacrificiis tuis arguam te


holocausta autem tua in consepctu
meo sunt semper. Non accipiam de
domo tua vitulos neque de gregibus
tuis hircos. Quoniam meae sunt
omnes ferae silvarum iumenta in
montibus et boves. Cognovi omnia
volatilia caeli et pulchritudo agri
mecum est. Si esuriero non dicam tibi
meus est enim orbis terrae et plenitudo
eius.

I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices: and


thy burnt offerings are always in my sight. I
will not take calves out of thy house: nor he
goats out of thy flocks. For all the beasts of
the woods are mine: the cattle on the hills,
and the oxen. I know all the fowls of the air:
and with me is the beauty of the field. If I
should be hungry, I would not tell thee: for
the world is mine, and the fullness thereof.

f. Numquid
manducabo
carnes
taurorum aut sanguinem hircorum
potabo.

Shall I eat the flesh of bullocks? or shall I


drink the blood of goats?

g. Immola Deo sacrificium laudis et


redde Altissimo vota tua.

Offer to God the sacrifice of praise: and pay


your vows to the most High.

h. Et invoca me in die tribulationis


eruam te et honorificabis me.

And call upon me in the day of trouble: I will


deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.

i. Peccatori autem dixit Deus quare tu

But to the sinner God hath said: Why dost

enarras iustitias meas et adsumis


testamentum meum per os tuum tu.
Vero odisti disciplinam et proiecisti
sermones meos retrorsum. Si vidabas
furem currebas cum eo et cum
adulteris portionem tuam ponebas.

thou declare my justices, and take my


covenant in thy mouth? Seeing thou hast
hated discipline: and hast cast my words
behind thee. If thou didst see a thief thou
didst run with him: and with adulterers thou
hast been a partaker.

i. Os tuum abundavit malitia et lingua


tua concinnabat dolos. Sedens
adversus fratrem tuum loquebaris et
adversus filium matris tuae ponebas
scandalum haec fecisti et tacui.
Existimasti inique quod ero tui similis
arguam te et statuam contra faciem
tuam.

Thy mouth hath abounded with evil, and thy


tongue framed deceits. Sitting thou didst
speak against thy brother, and didst lay a
scandal against thy mother's son: these
things hast thou done, and I was silent. Thou
thoughtest unjustly that I should be like to
thee: but I will reprove thee, and set before
thy face.

k.
Intellegite
nunc
haec
qui
obliviscimini Deum nequando rapiat et
non sit qui eripiat. Sacrificium laudis
honorificabit me et illic iter quod
ostendam illi salutare Dei.

Understand these things, you that forget


God; lest he snatch you away, and there be
none to deliver you. The sacrifice of praise
shall glorify me: and there is the way by
which I will shew him the salvation of God.

a. Supra psalmista invitavit gentes ad


confidendum de Deo; hic instruit eas ad
cultum Deo. Titulus, Psalmus Asaph. Iste
Asaph unus fuit de praefectis super
cantores populorum, et super illos qui
cantabant et laudabant in cymbalis, sicut
1 Par. 13 et 16 et 25, dicitur. Et dicitur
Psalmus Asaph quia cantatur ministerio
Asaph. Et congruit mysterio, quia Asaph
interpretatur synagoga, et sic legitur
synagogae persona.

Previously, the psalmist invited the nations to


trust in God. Here, he instructs them in the cultus
of God. The psalm's title is "A psalm for Asaph."
Asaph was one of the directors of the peoples'
cantors, and of those who sang and praised
(God) with cymbals, as is stated at I
Paralipomenon 13, 16 and 25. This psalm is
called "A psalm for Asaph" because it is sung by
Asaph's ministry. (Asaph) is suited to the secret
rites because (he) explains (such things) to the
synagogue, and is thus the person selected for
the synagogue.

Ubi instructus de sacrificiis, duo proponit


de cultu Deo, quae antecedunt divinum
iudicium: et est primum. Secundum est
disceptatio Deo cum populo de cultu suo,
ibi, Audi populus meus.

When instructed concerning (matters relating to)


sacrifices, one sets forth two things concerning
the cultus of God, which precede divine justice:
and this is first (namely, that which precedes
divine judgment). Second is the discussion of
God with the people concerning His cultus, at
"Hear, O my people."

Ante iudicium erunt tria. Citatio iudicis,


adventus iudicis et apparatus. Primo ergo
ponit citationem; secundo adventum, ibi,

Three things precede judgment, namely the


judge's summons, his arrival, and the
preparation. And so, he first sets down the

Deus noster manifeste veniet; tertio


apparatum, ibi, Ignis in conspectu. Circa
primum tria facit. Primo ostendit quis sit
citator; secundo qui sunt citati, ibi, Et
vocavit; tertio quo ordine citentur, ibi, Ex
Sion.

summons, second, (his) arrival, at, Our God shall


come manifestly, and third, the preparation, at, A
fire shall burn before him. Concerning the first he
does three things. First, he shows who is the
one issuing the summons, second, to whom the
summons is issued, at, And he hath called, and
third, in what order they are summoned, at, Out
of Sion.

Qui citat magnus est, quia Deus omnium,


etiam deorum; unde dicit, Deus deorum
Dominus locutus est. Primo ergo
commendatur ab excellentia naturae,
q u i a Deus deorum, non angelus.
Hieronymus habet, Fortis Deus.

He who summons is great, because He is God


of all things, even of gods. Hence, the psalmist
says, The God of gods, the Lord hath spoken.
He thus is first commended on account of the
excellence of his nature. For He is The God of
gods, and is not an angel. Jerome has, Powerful
God.

Sed numquid sunt multi dii? 1 Cor. 8:


Siquidem sunt dii multi et domini multi.

But are there many gods? 1 Corinthians 8 states


"For there be gods many, and lords many."

Deus enim dicitur tripliciter: scilicet


naturaliter: et iste est tantum unus Deus.
Deut. 6: Audi Israel, Dominus Deus tuus
unus est. Item per participationem; et isti
sunt multi. 1 Cor. 8: Item per
nuncupationem et opinionem; sicut idola
et astra, Venus et Saturnus. Psal. 95:
Omnes dii gentium daemonia.

"God" is said in a three-fold way. First, naturally.


And that (God) is one God alone: Deuteronomy
6: "Hear, O Israel, the Lord your God is one."
Second, by way of participation. And those
(gods) are many, (as) 1 Corinthians 8 (makes
clear). Finally, by way of appellation and
conjecture, as with idols and stars, like Venus
and Saturn respectively: Psalm 95: "All the gods
of the Gentiles are devils."

Sed dici dii aliqui possunt quatuor modis.


Uno modo per unionem: et sic solus
Christus dicitur Deus. Ioan. 20: Dominus
meus et Deus meus. Alii per gratiam
adoptionis. Ps. 81: Ego dixi dii estis etc.
Aliqui per participationem divinae
potestatis in miraculis faciendis. Exod. 7:
Constitui te Deum pharaonis. Alii per
ministerium, sicut iudices Exod. 22: Diis
non detrahes.

However, some gods can be spoken of (as


"God") in four ways. First, by way of union. And
thus, Christ alone is called God: John 20: "My
Lord and my God." Some (are called "God") by
way of the grace of adoption: Psalm 81: "I have
said: You are gods..." Others (are called "God")
by way of a participation of the divine power in
the performing of miracles: Exodus 7: "I have
appointed thee the God of Pharaoh." Finally,
there are those (who are called "God") by way of
(their) ministry, as the judges were so called at
Exodus 22: "Thou shalt not speak ill of the
gods."

Item commendatur a gubernatione, cum


dicit, Dominus locutus est. Hic locutus est
interius per inspirationem. Psal. 84:
Audiam quid loquatur in me Dominus

Again, He is commended on account of his


governance, when (the Psalmist) says The Lord
hath spoken. He has spoken here internally by
means of inspiration (Psalm 84: "I will hear what

Deus.
Item exteriori locutione. Hebr.
Novissime locutus est nobis etc.

the Lord God will speak in me"),


1:

and also by means of external expression


(Hebrews 1: "In these days (God) hath spoken to
us" etc.).

Et vocavit terram, scilicet universam, idest


universae habitatores terrae; unde citati
sunt, non aliqui tantum in medio mundi,
sed a solis ortu usque ad occasum. Marc.
ult.: Euntes in mundum universum etc. Ier.
16: Ad te venient gentes ab extremis
terrae, et dicent, vere mendacium etc.

And he hath called the earth, namely, the


universe, that is, all of those who dwell upon
earth. Hence, they have been summoned, not
just some from the midst of the world, but From
the rising of the sun, to the going down thereof;
Mark 16: "Go ye into the whole world" etc.;
Jeremiah 16: "To thee the Gentiles shall come
from the ends of the earth, and shall say: Surely
(our fathers have possessed) lies" etc.

Ordo vocationis ponitur cum dicit, Ex Sion


species decoris eius; quasi dicat: Haec
vocatio inchoata est in Sion. Isa. 2: De
Sion exibit lex etc.: nam apostoli quando
acceperunt Spiritum Sanctum, erant in
Sion, et tunc fortes facti sunt ad eundum
per mundum. Ex Sion ergo ubi apostoli
erant, coepit divulgari Species decoris
eius.

The order of summons is set down when (the


Psalmist) says, Out of Sion the loveliness of his
beauty; (it is) as if he were saying, "This
summons finds its beginnings in Sion" (see
Isaiah 2: "The law shall come forth from Sion").
For when the Apostles received the Holy Spirit,
they were in Sion. They were then made strong
to go out into the world. Therefore, Out of Sion,
where the Apostles were, The loveliness of his
beauty began to be spread (among the people).

Sed Christus bene incepit aliqualiter


divulgari; sed non videbatur species eius,
quia circumdatus erat infirmitate; quia,
vidimus eum novissimum virorum, virum
dolorum, ut habetur Isa. 53. Sed post
passionem apparuit virtus et potestas
eius.

But in a certain manner Chirst began to be well


divulged (to the Apostles). But his aspect was
not seen, because it was enclosed by his
infirmity; we see him (here) as the most
unfamiliar of men, a man of sorrows, as is
related in Isaiah 53. But after his passion his
excellence and power were apparent.

b. Deus manifeste. Hic agit de adventu; et


dicit duo de secundo adventu, contra duo
quae fuerunt in primo. In primo adventu
venit Deus occultus in infirmitate
humanitatis. Ezech. 32: Solem nube
tegam. Et illud Isa. 45: Vere tu es Deus
absconditus: sed tunc erit manifestus.
Apoc. 1: Ecce veniet, et videbit eum
omnis oculus. Thessal. 2: Quem Dominus
Iesus interficiet spiritu oris sui, et destruet
illustratione adventus sui.

God shall come manifestly. Here, (the Psalmist)


treats of (the judge's) arrival. And he says two
things concerning the second coming in
opposition to two things which were present at
(His) first (coming). At (His) first coming, God
came hidden in the infirmity of (our) humanity;
Ezechial 32: "I will cover the sun with a cloud",
and Isaiah 45: "Verily thou art a hidden God."
But (at (His) second coming), he will be made
manifest; Apocalypse 1: "Behold, he cometh
(with the clouds), and every eye shall see him";
2 Thessalonians 2: "...whom the Lord Jesus
shall kill with the spirit of his mouth; and shall

destroy with the brightness of his coming..."


Item
in
primo
adventu
ostendit
mansuetudinem. Isa. 53: Tamquam
agnus coram tondente ductus est. Unde
nihil
dixit
coram
principibus
et
sacerdotibus, nec coram pilato; sed tunc
non silebit, sed loquetur. Isa. 42: Silui,
semper tacui, et patiens fui, in iudicio
quando iudicabar, quando tolerabam
malos: sed ut parturiens clamabit.

Again, in (His) first coming, He shows (His)


gentleness; Isaiah 53: "He is led as a sheep to
the slaughter." Hence, he said nothing in the
presence of rulers, priests and Pilate. But at (the
time of his second coming), he will not be silent,
but will speak; Isaiah 42: "I have always held my
peace, I have kept silence, I have been patient"
when I was judged in the courts, and endured
evil things; "but I will shout out like a woman in
labor."

Et dicit, Noster; quasi dicat, non alius


Deus est iste qui venit quam noster, extra
quem non est salus.

And he says, Our, as if to say, "No other God


than our God, He who comes, beyond whom
there is no salvation."

Hieronymus incipit versum, ex Sion


perfecta decore Deus apparebit; quasi
dicat: Deus apparebit ex Sion quae est
perfecta decore spiritus sancti.

Jerome's version begins the line (as follows):


From Sion God will appear in perfect beauty, as
if to say, "God will appear from Sion, which is in
the perfect beauty of (His) holy Spirit."

Quantum ad primum subdit, Deus


manifeste veniet. Quantum ad secundum,
ignis in conspectu eius ardebit. Hic ponit
apparatum venientis.

With respect to (His) first (coming, the Psalmist)


adds, God shall come manifestly. With respect to
(His) second (coming), A fire shall burn before
him. At this point, he sets down the preparation
for (His) comming.

Principes coram se faciunt deferri


insignia et gladios. Rom. 13: Non sine
causa gladium portat; quasi dicat, quia
habent potestatem iudicandi. Sic ante
Christum praecedent signa vindictae, et
ministri iudicis. Primo ergo ponit signa et
instrumenta vindictae. Secundo ostendit
potestatem quantum ad ministros, ibi,
Advocavit

Rulers arrange for insignias and swords to be


brought before them; Romans 13: "For he
beareth not the sword in vain," as if he were
saying that they have the power of passing
sentence. And so, signs of vengeance and
ministers of judgment precede (the coming of)
Christ. Therefore, (the Psalmist) first sets down
the signs and instruments of vengeance, and
secondly shows (His) power as far as concerns
(His) ministers, at, He shall call.

Instrumentum divini iudicii est duplex.


Unum principale ex parte ignis punientis;
et aliud ex parte totius creaturae
pugnantis contra insensatos. Sap. 5.
Quantum ad primum dicit, ignis in
conspectu eius exardescet. Ad litteram
ignis praecedet ante eum, ut habetur
Hebr. 10, quia ignis confringens ardebit,
et purgabit superficiem terrae, et purgabit

The instrument of divine judgment is two-fold.


The first is primarily in relation to the punishing
fire, the second in relation to fighting against the
foolishness of all creatures - see Wisdom 5. With
respect to the first, he says, A fire shall burn
before him. Literally considered, the fire will
precede him, as is stated at Hebrews 10, since
the destroying fire will burn and cleanse the face
of the earth, (burn and cleanse) whatever is to

si quid est purgandum in bonis, et tandem


involvet malos in infernum.

be cleansed in the good, and, finally, descend


upon the evil in hell.

Vel ignis conscientiae remordentis. Isa.


50: Ambulate in lumine ignis vestri.

O r (A fire shall burn before him can be


understood as) the fire of a gnawing conscience;
Isaiah 50: "Walk in the light of your fire."

Quantum ad secundum dicit, et in circuitu


eius tempestas valida, quae consurget ex
commotione omnium elementorum ante
iudicium. Luc. 21: Erunt signa in sole etc.,
et erit tanta commotio quod etiam virtutes
caelorum movebuntur. Tempestas, idest
indignatio erit in circuitu eius, idest in
sanctis qui erunt circa ipsum. Isa. 3: Ad
puniendum
peccatores.
Iob
27:
Apprehendet eum, quasi aqua, inopia.
Prover. 1: Cum venerit repentina
calamitas.

With respect to (His) second (coming), the


Psalmist says, And a mighty tempest shall be
round about him, which arises from the
commotion of all the elements before the
judgment; Luke 21: "And there shall be signs in
the sun" etc. And there shall be such a great
commotion that even the heavenly bodies will
be moved. Tempest, that is, (God's) indignation,
shall be round about him, that is, about the
saints who will be round him; Isaiah 13: "to
destroy sinners"; Job 27: "Poverty like water
shall take hold on him"; Proverbs 1: "When
sudden calamity shall fall upon you."

c. Advocavit caelum desursum etc. Posito


adventu iudicis ad iudicium, et iudicis
apparatu quantum ad instrumentum
poenae, hic ponit apparatum iudicii
quantum ad ministros. Et primo agit de
assistentia ministrorum; secundo de
officio angelorum, ibi, Congregate; tertio
de officio apostolorum, ibi, Annuntiabitur.

He shall call heaven from above. Having set


forth the coming of the judge to the judgement,
and the preparation of the judge with respect to
(His) instruments of punishment, the psalmist
sets forth here the preparation of the judge with
respect to (His) ministers. And first he treats of
the assistance of his ministers, second, of the
angels' duty, at, Gather ye together, and third, of
the apostles' duty, at, It shall be declared.

In prima parte fit mentio de caelo et terra.


Et intelligitur dupliciter. Uno modo, ut
intelligatur per metonymiam continens
pro contento, ut per caelum designet
sanctos qui in caelis sunt, et per terram
designet homines qui sunt in terra; et isti
omnes ad iudicium vocantur. Et haec est
secunda vocatio, quia supra dixit et
vocavit terram, quia illa vocatio est
vocatio ad fidem, ad quam omnes
vocantur boni et mali. Matth. 13: Simile
est regnum caelorum sagenae missae in
mare etc. Sed ista secunda vocatio est ad
segregandum, quia, elegerunt bonos in
vasa sua, malos autem foras miserunt; et
ideo dicit, Ut discerneret populum suum,

In the first part, the Psalmist makes mention of


heaven and earth, which can be understood in a
two-fold way. First, so that by a metonymy the
container be understood in place of [or standing
for] the contained. And so, by Heaven the
Psalmist designates the holy who are in the
heavens. And it is these very people who are all
summoned to judgment. This is the second
summons, since the Psalmist said previously
(that) He hath called the earth. That particular
summons was a call to faith, to which all, good
and bad, are called; Matthew 13: "The kingdom
of heaven is like to a net cast into the sea," etc.
But this second summons is with the purpose of
separation, that they gather the good into His
vessels, but cast the evil out of them. Thus, he

discretione bonorum a malis. Matth. 25:


Segregabit oves ab haedis. Ps. 42: Iudica
me Deus, et discerne causam meam.

says, To judge his people, by the separation of


the good from the evil; Matthew 25: "He shall
separate the sheep from the goats"; Psalm 42:
"Judge me, O God, and distinguish my cause."

Sed aliter vocantur caeli, aliter terra; quia


caelestes viri vocantur ad hoc, quasi
iudices. Matth. 19: Vos qui reliquistis
omnia etc. usque tribus Israel. Terreni
vocantur,
ut
iudicentur.
Ioel
3:
Congregabo omnes gentes, et deducam
eas in vallem Iosaphat.

However, the heavens are summoned in a


different fashion from the earth. For the men of
heaven are called to be like judges; Matthew 19:
"You who have left all things" etc., including the
tribe of Israel. The men of earth are called that
they may be judged; Joel 3: "I will gather
together all nations, and will bring them down
into the valley of Josaphat."

Vel, vocavit caelum, idest caelestes, idest


iustos ad praemium. Dan. 12: Docti
fulgebunt sicut splendor firmamenti etc. Et
terram, idest terrenos, idest malos ad
poenam.

Or, He summons the Heaven, that is, the


heavenly, or the just, to their reward; Daniel 12:
"They that are learned shall shine as the
brightness of the firmament" etc. And the Earth,
that is, the earthly, or evil, he summons to their
punishment.

Potest etiam esse alius sensus, ut


caelum et terra ponantur pro ipsis
creaturis corporalibus: et sic vocantur per
modum testimonii vel impugnationis
contra infideles, quia in eis mali potuerunt
advertere ex caelo et terra. Iob 20:
Revelabunt caeli iniquitatem eius, et terra
consurget
adversus
eum,
scilicet
peccatorem.

There can also be another sense, namely that


Heaven and Earth are asserted for corporeal
creatures themselves. And so, they are
summoned by way of their testimony or
impugnment against the faithless, because by
(their) testimony and impugnment, the wicked
can have attention drawn to them out of heaven
and earth; Job 20: "The heavens shall reveal his
iniquity, and the earth shall rise up against him,"
namely the sinner.

Vel, advocavit caelum desursum, ut det ei


animas sanctorum quas tenet, et terram,
ut det animas malorum quas tenet in
profundo. Et huic concordat littera
Hieronymi, quae dicit, congregate mihi
omnes sanctos meos; quasi dicit: ad hoc
advocat, ut exhibeat sanctos suos.

Or, He shall call heaven from above, so that he


might admit into it the souls of the holy whom he
holds, And the earth, that he might admit the
souls of the evil whom he binds into the abyss.
Jerome's
version
agrees
with
this
(interpretation). It says, "Gather unto me all my
saints," as if to say, "For this reason does he
summon, that he might display His saints."

Congregate illi sanctos eius. Hoc est


officium angelorum, ut in iudicio scilicet
congregent electos. Matth. 24: Mittet
angelus suos etc. Et est vox Danielis
prophetae ad angelos ad ministerium
missos. Sancti enim eius sunt, qui
ordinant testamentum super sacrificia.

Gather ye together his saints to him. This is the


duty of the angels, namely that they gather the
elect in judgment; Matthew 24: "And he shall
send his angels...(and they shall gather together
his elect...). This voice (speaking at this point in
the psalm) is of the prophet Daniel (directed) to
the angels who were sent to (God's) ministers.

For (the latter) are His saints who set his


covenant before sacrifices.
Ly super, dupliciter accipitur. Uno modo,
ut designet ordinem causae materialis: et
tunc est sensus, super sacrificia, idest qui
fecerunt pactum cum Deo de sacrificiis
offerendis. Et fecit mentionem de
sacrificiis propter duo. Primo quia
sequens disceptatio erit de sacrificiis;
secundo quia disceptatio in iudicio erit
solum cum fidelibus qui iudicabuntur. Et
isti sunt qui cum Deo pactum in sacrificiis
fecerunt.

The word "before" can be taken in two ways.


First, to designate the order of the material
cause. And then, the sense of Before sacrifices
(would be that the covenant is set before) those
who made the pact with God concerning the
sacrifices being offered. He made mention of
sacrifices for two reasons. First, because there
will be an inquiry following concerning
sacrifices, and second, because the inquiry
during the judgement will only be with the
faithful who will be judged. And these are the
one who have made a pact with God in
sacrifices.

Alio modo ut ly supra, notet excessum. Et


sic dicendum est quod per Testamentum
intelligitur novum testamentum, quod
excedit: unde est sensus, super sacrificia,
idest qui praeferunt novum testamentum
sacrificiis veteris testamenti.

The second way in which the word "before" can


be taken is as it indicates a going beyond. And
in this way it should be said that by Covenant is
understood the new covenant, which surpasses
(the old). This, then, is the sense of Before
sacrifices, namely, (that the covenant is set
before) those who prefer the new covenant to
the sacrifices of the old covenant.

V e l Testamentum promissum a Deo: et


sic, super sacrificia, idest qui bona
promissa a Deo reputat maiora omnibus
meritis nostris. Rom. 8: Non sunt
condignae passiones huius temporis etc.

Or, Covenant (can be understood as that which


was) promised by God. In this way, (the sense
o f ) Before sacrifices, (is) namely that (the
covenant is set before he) who considers the
goods promised by God to be greater than all of
our merits; Romans 8: "For I reckon that the
sufferings of this time (are not worthy to be
compared with the glory to come)."

Vel per testamentum illud anima habet


foedus cum iustitia, misericordia, fide et
huiusmodi. Oseae 2: Sponsabo te mihi in
fide. Et sic sunt, super sacrificia, idest qui
praeferunt bona spiritualia huiusmodi
sacrificiis
corporalibus.
Oseae
6:
Misericordiam volo, et non sacrificium.

Or, by Covenant (is meant that) this soul has a


bond with justice, mercy, faith, and other such
things; Hosea 2: "And I will espouse thee to me
in faith." And so, they are Before sacrifices, that
is, those who prefer spiritual goods of this sort to
corporeal sacrifices; Hosea 6: "I desired mercy,
and not sacrifice."

Vel, qui ordinant testamentum etc., idest


qui in sacrificiis quae Deo exhibent,
habent respectum ad testamentum Deo,
quia aliqui referunt bona quae faciunt ad
aliud, ut in ipsum congregentur. 1 Cor. 10:

Or, those Who set his covenant etc., that is those


who, in the sacrifices which they offer to God,
have a relation to God according to the
covenant. For they refer the good things that
they do to another, so that they may be gathered

Omnia in gloriam Deo facite.

into him; 1 Corinthians 10: "Do all to the glory of


God."

Annuntiabunt caeli. Officium apostolorum


est annuntiare; et hi designantur per
caelos. Unde, caeli, idest apostoli,
annuntiabunt, iustitiam Deo. Et dicuntur
caeli, quia ipsi eminent omnibus choris
sanctorum, et illuminant totam ecclesiam.
Psal. 18: Caeli enarrant gloriam Deo.

The heavens shall declare. The duty of the


apostles is to declare. And these men are
designated by the heavens. Hence, The
heavens, that is, the apostles, shall declare
justice in God. The heavens are indicated
because they themselves are prominent in all
the choruses of the holy, and they illuminate the
entire church; Psalm 18: "The heavens shew
forth the glory of God."

Annuntiabunt autem, quoniam Deus


iudex est, per doctrinam instruendo. Act.
10: Ipse est qui constitutus est a Deo
iudex vivorum et mortuorum. Instruunt
ergo de futuro iudicio. 2 Cor. 5: Omnes
nos manifestari oportet ante tribunal
Christi.

But They shall declare that God is judge through


teaching doctrine; Acts 10: "(And he
commanded us to preach to the people,) and to
testify that it is he who was appointed by God to
be judge of the living and of the dead"; 2
Corinthians 5: "For we must all be manifested
before the judgment seat of Christ."

Alio modo nuntiabunt per iudicis


auctoritatem promulgantes sententiam
contra malos, quando sedebunt super
sedes duodecim, ut dicitur Matth. 19.

In another way, they shall declare by means of a


judge's authority, promulgating a sentence
against the evil when they will sit upon the
twelve seats (of judgment), as is said at Matthew
19.

d. Audi. Hic agit de discrepatione iudicii.


In discrepatione iudicii tria sunt
necessaria. Unum requiritur ex parte
nostra. Aliud ex parte Deo. Tertium est
ipsa discrepatio. Ex parte nostra requiritur
auditus non solum exterior corporalis,
respectu
eorum
quae
audiuntur
corporaliter, sed etiam interior. Eccl. 6: Si
dilexeris audire etc. Et ideo dicit, Audi,
idest etiam interius attende. Matth. 13:
Qui habet aures audiendi, audiat.

Hear. Here, the psalmist treats of the dispute of


judgment. With respect to this, three things are
necessary. One thing is sought on our part,
another on God's part, and finally the third is the
dispute itself. On our part, one seeks to hear not
only something exterior to the body (with respect
to those things which are heard corporally), but
(one) also (seeks to hear something) within;
Ecclesiasticus 6: "If thou love to hear (thou shalt
be wise)." Thus he says, Hear, that is, listen also
within; Matthew 13: "He that hath ears to hear,
let him hear."

Populus meus, quia qui non est de


populo suo, non audit eum. Ioan. 6:
Omnis qui audit a Patre meo. Item ibidem
8: Propterea vos non auditis, quia ex Deo
non estis.

O my people, because he who is not of his


people, do not hear him; John 6: "Everyone that
hath heard of my Father." Again, at John 8:
"Therefore you hear them (the words of God)
not, because you are not of God."

Ex

On God's part speech and testimony are sought

parte

Deo

requiritur

locutio

et

testificatio; et ideo dicit, Et loquar; Israel,


et testificabor tibi. Est autem duplex
locutio Deo. Una est exterior per
praedicatores. Hebr. 1: Olim Deus
loquens patribus in prophetis. Alia est
interior per inspirationem. Psal. 84: Quid
loquatur in me etc.

after. And so, he says, And I will speak: O Israel,


and I will testify to thee. Now God's speech is
two-fold. On the one hand, it is external by way
of (His) preachers; Hebrews 1: "God (who, at
sundry times and divers manners,) spoke in time
past to the fathers by the prophets..." On the
other, it is interior by way of (His) inspiration;
Psalm 84: "(I will hear) what the Lord God will
speak in me..."

Item testificatio est duplex. Una est per


miracula. Ioan. 5: Opera quae ego facio
testimonium perhibent de me. Alia per
testes. Isa. 44: Vos testes mei. Act. 1:
Eritis mihi testes etc. Et sic ista possunt
esse verba Christi populum instruentis.
Audi populus meus, et loquar; Israel, et
testificabor tibi, per miracula. Ioan. 5:
Opera quae dedit mihi Pater ut perficiam.
Item, ibid.: Scrutamini scripturas. Et ideo
loquar per miracula et per scripturas,
idest apparebit quod ego vera loquor, et
quod verus sum per scripturas. Et quid
testificabor? Deus Deus tuus ego sum,
scilicet singulariter. Exod. 20: Ego
Dominus:
et
dicit, Sum, propter
aeternitatem, quia non declinat nec in
praeterito nec in futuro. Et dicit, Deus
tuus, quia de semine Abrahae. Rom. 9:
Ex quibus Christus est secundum
carnem.

Likewise, (His) testimony is two-fold. First, it is


by way of miracles; John 5: "The works
themselves, which I do, give testimony of me."
Second, by way of witnesses; Isaiah 44: "You
are my witnesses"; Acts 1: "You shall be
witnesses unto me" etc. And in this way, these
witnesses can be the words of Christ instructing
the people. Hear, O my people, and I will speak:
O Israel, and I will testify to thee, by way of
miracles; John 5: "The works which the Father
hath give me to perfect." Again, in the same
chapter: "Search the scriptures." And in this way
I speak by way of miracles and the scriptures,
that is, it will become apparent that by way of the
scriptures, I speak the truth, and that I am true.
And what will I testify? I am God, thy God,
namely singly; Exodus 20: "I am the Lord." And
he says, I am, on account of (His) eternity, which
does not decrease either in the past or in the
future. And he says, Thy God, because (they
are) of the seed of Abraham; Romans 9: "Of
whom is Christ, according to the flesh."

e . Non in sacrificiis tuis arguam te. Hic


agit de ipsa disceptatione; et circa hoc
tria facit. Primo reprobat vetus sacrificium;
secundo inducit sacrificium novum, ibi,
Immola Deo; tertio ab hoc sacrificio
repellit malos, ibi, Peccatori. Sacrificia
sunt protestationes fidei; et ideo
praemissurus de vultu Deo, praemittit de
fide unius Deo. Et primo proponit
intentum; secundo assignat rationem.

I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices. Here, the


psalmist treats of the dispute itself, concerning
which he does three things. First, he rejects the
old sacrifice, second, introduces the new, at,
Offer to God, and third, repels the evil by means
of this sacrifice, at, To the sinner. Sacrifices are
professions of faith. And so, about to set (this)
before the face of God, the psalmist puts forth
concerning the faith of one God. First, sets forth
his intention, and second, he supplies the
reason (for it).

Dicit ergo: Veniam et iudicabo, et, non


arguam te de sacrificiis tuis, quae non
omisisti.

Thus, he says, "I will come and judge, and I will


not reprove thee for they sacrifices, which you
have not neglected.

Sed contra. Qui tunc omisisset, errasset;


sed pro omni errato adducetur in
iudicium, ut dicitur Eccl. 12.

But on the contrary, (it may be said that) he who


neglected (to perform the sacrifices he should
have) at that time, erred, and that he will be
brought to judgment for every error, as is said in
Ecclesiasticus 12.

Dicendum, quod homo arguit, quando


non facit voluntatem superioris. Voluntas
autem Dei est sanctificatio vestra. 1
Thessalonic. 4. Haec autem sacrificia
non conferunt ad sanctitatem vestram; et
ideo non sunt per se volita a Deo, sed
prout sunt signa alterius; et ideo dicit
Oseae 6: Misericordiam volo, et non
sacrificium; et prout sunt signa interioris
virtutis, et ideo de virtutibus arguuntur per
se, quas non exercuerunt, non de
sacrificiis.

I respond that a man complains when he does


not do the will of (his) superior. But the will of
God is your sanctification; see 1 Thessalonians
4. But this sacrifice does not contribute to your
sanctity. Hence, (these sacrifices) are not willed
by God for themselves, but as a sign of another
thing (and so, he says in Hosea 6: "I desired
mercy, and not sacrifice"), and of an interior
virtue. And in this way, they are reproved
concerning (these) virtutes as such, which they
did not exercise, and not concerning the
sacrifices (themselves).

Rationem manifestat. Primo ex parte


eorum; secundo ex parte sua; unde dicit,
Holocausta tua in conspectu meo sunt
semper; quasi dicat: non arguam te de
sacrificiis, quia promptus es ad sacrificia
carnalia
offerenda,
quia
libenter
offerebant sacrificia propter hoc quod
delectabantur in eis in conviviis. Isa. 22:
Ecce gaudium immolare victimas etc.

(Next,) he makes the reason (for his intent) clear.


(He does this) first on their part, and secondly on
his own part. Hence he says, Thy burnt offerings
are always in my sight, as if to say, "I will not
reprove you for (your) sacrifices, because you
were prompt to offer carnal sacrifices, and have
freely offered sacrifices for this reason, namely
that they were delighted in them [namely, the
sacrifices of animal flesh] in their communal
meals; Isaiah 22: "And behold joy (and
gladness), killing sacrifices" etc.

Vel aliter, non arguam te in sacrificiis,


carnalibus, quia holocausta tua, scilicet
spiritualia, in conspectu meo sunt
semper, idest mihi placent. Et haec sunt,
sicut Gregorius, quando totum Deo
offertur, scilicet qui seipsum offert, et
totum quod habet, et sic expendit in Deo
servitio.

Or again, I will not reprove thee for thy carnal


sacrifices, because Thy burnt spiritual offerings
are always in my sight, that is, they please me.
And, as Gregory says, these (offerings) are
(made) when all is offered up to God, namely, he
himself who offers and all that he has. In this
way, he expends (himself) in the service of God.

Ex parte Deo manifestat rationem cum


dicit, non accipiam de domo tua vitulos.
Ratio quare non arguam te de sacrificiis,
est, quia quae non quaero principaliter,
non principaliter arguo de eis. Duo erant
principalia sacrificia, vitulus et hircus.
Lev. 4. Et haec duo ostendit se non

On God's part, the psalmist makes the reason (of


God's intent) clear) when he says, I will not take
calves out of thy house. The reason why I will
not reprove thee for thy sacrifices is that
concerning those things which I do not
principally seek, I do not principally reprove you
for. Now there were two principal kinds of

accipere, idest acceptare de domo


carnal i um, de gregibus tuis, scilicet
carnalibus, accipiam, idest acceptabo,
hircos. Mich. 6: Numquid placari potuit
Dominus in millibus arietum?

sacrifices, namely the calf and the goat (see


Leviticus 4). And he appears not to accept
either, that is, to receive (calves or) carnal things
from thy house (or goats) from thy flocks;
Micheas 6: "May the Lord be appeased with
thousands of rams?"

Quoniam meae sunt omnes ferae


sylvarum. Probat quod dixit, scilicet quod
nec vitulos nec hircos approbat; et quod
si indigeret, non acciperet de domo sua.
Nullus petit aliquid quod sit in potestate
sua; omnia autem quae isti offerebant,
erant in potestate Deo.

For all the beasts of the woods are mine. Here,


he proves what he has said, namely that neither
favors calves nor goats, and that if he stands in
need (of them), that he would not take (them)
from his house - no one asks for something
which is in his power; whatever they offered,
these things were in the power of God.

Tria offerebantur in veteri testamento:


animalia quadrupedia, aves et fructus,
scilicet primitias, et panes. Quantum ad
primum
dicit, Omnes ferae sylvarum
meae sunt. Quadrupedia in duo genera
dividuntur: quia quaedam sunt silvestria,
et quaedam domestica: et licet silvestria
non offerantur, tamen enumerat ea ut
magis appareat quod etiam domestica
sunt sua.

Three things were offered (to God) in the old


testament: four-footed animals, birds and fruit,
namely the best or first fruits and bread. With
respect to the first (offering) he says, All the
beasts of the woods are mine. Four-footed
animals are divided into two categories. There
are those which are wild, and those which are
domesticated. And although the wild are not
offered, the psalmist enumerates them so that it
is more evident that even the domesticated
(animals) are His.

Mystice autem per ista animalia possunt


designari diversa genera personarum;
unde dicit, Ferae, idest infideles, iumenta,
idest fideles, boves in montibus, idest
apostoli, omnia mea sunt.

Mystically (speaking), different kinds of people


can be designated by these very animals. And
so, he says (those) Of the wood, that is, the
infidels, The cattle, that is, the faithful, The oxen
on the mountains, that is, the apostles, Are all
mine.

Quantum ad secundum dicit, Cognovi


omnia volatilia caeli, idest ista subsunt
meae providentiae. Per haec volatilia
sancti angeli intelliguntur, qui sunt
similitudo.

With respect to the second he says, I know all


the fowls of the air, that is, these very creatures
are under my providence. By Fowls are to be
understood the holy angels, who are a likeness
(to them, namely the fowls).

Quantum ad tertium dicit, Et pulchritudo


agri mecum est, idest quicquid pulchrum
est in eis, mihi servit.

With respect to the third he says, And with me is


the beauty of the field, that is, Whatsoever is
beautiful in these things, serves me.

V e l pulchritudo agri mecum est, quia


ubique sum. Et est, quia semper sum,
sine praeterito et futuro.

Or, With me is the beauty of the field, since I am


everywhere. And because "I always am", He is
without past and future.

Si esuriero, non dicam tibi. Concludit per


impossibile. Si indigerem eis, non
dicerem tibi, idest non quaererem a te.
Quare? Quia Meus est orbis terrae, et
plenitudo eius. Psal. 23: "Domini est
terra" etc.

If I should be hungry, I would not tell thee. He


concludes by means of the impossible. "If I were
lacking these things, I would not tell you," that is,
I would not seek (them) from you. Why?
Because The world is mine, and the fullness
thereof; Psalm 23: "The earth is the Lord's" etc.

f. Numquid manducabo? Supra psalmista


ex persona Domini assignavit rationem
quare Dominus non accipiet hircos, etiam
si indigeret; hic autem ostendit, quod non
indiget.

Shall I eat? Previously, the psalmist assigned,


on the Lord's part, the reason why the Lord
would not accept goats, even if he needed them.
Here, however, he shows that he does not need
(them).

Sciendum est autem quod in lege


praecipitur quod carnes holocaustorum
comburerentur, et sanguis effundebatur
ad altaris crepidinem. Et posset aliquis
suspicari, quod Deus delectaretur in
sanguine et carnibus illorum. Haec etiam
fuit opinio gentilium, quod dii eorum
delectarentur odoribus carnium et
sanguinis effusione, ut dicit Augustinus.

It must be noted that in the law, it is set forth that


the flesh of the offerings be consumed by flame,
and the blood be poured be upon the base of the
altar. Now someone could suppose that God
takes pleasure in the blood and flesh of those
creatures. This, according to Augustine, was the
opinion of the gentiles, namely that their gods
took pleasure in the odor of flesh and the
shedding of blood.

Et Dominus dicit quod in his non


delectatur quae non delectant secundum
se; et ideo dicit, Numquid manducabo
carnes taurorum, aut sanguinem hircorum
potabo? Quasi dicat, non, quia non
indigeo, nec delector, quia delector in his,
quae per se sunt cibus Deo, sed alius est
cibus Deo quam carnes et sanguis
animalium: cibus enim Deo est id, quod
est cibus omnium sanctorum: Luc. 22:
"Ego dispono vobis sicut" etc. Et sic
eadem est refectio sanctorum et Deo.
Sed sancti reficiuntur ipsius amore Deo;
et sic Deus reficitur in fruitione suiipsius:
Tob. 12: Ego cibo invisibili, et potu qui ab
hominibus videri non potest, utor.

Now the Lord says that he does not take


pleasure in those things which in themselves do
not delight. Thus, he says, Shall I eat the flesh of
bullocks? or shall I drink the blood of goats? It is
as if (the psalmist) were saying "No (I shall not
partake of such) because I do not stand in need
(of these), nor do I take pleasure (in them). For I
take pleasure in those things which in
themselves are food (so to speak) for God. But
the flesh and blood of animals is different from
this food. For food for God is that which is food of
all of the holy; Luke 22: "I dispose to you, as (my
Father hath disposed to me, a kingdom; that you
may eat and drink at my table, in my
kingdom..."). In this way, the refreshment of the
holy, and refreshment for God are the same. But
the holy are refreshed by the love of God
Himself. And so God is refreshed in the
enjoyment of Himself; Tobias 12: "(I seemed
indeed to eat and to drink with you:) but I use an
invisible meat and drink, which cannot be seen
by men."

g. Immola Deo. Hic ostendit quid sit illud


sacrificium, quod Deus acceptat. Et primo
ostendit quid Deus acceptat ab homine.
Secundo quid retribuit.

Offer to God. Here, the psalmist shows which


that sacrifice is which God accepts. And he
shows first God accepts from man, and second,
what he returns.

Duo requirit Dominus ab homine. Primo


sacrificium
laudis.
Et
dicitur Laus
sacrificium, quia nihil est aliud sacrificium
nisi protestatio interioris devotionis et
fideo: quia per sacrificium recognoscimus
Deum creatorem omnium: 1 Paral. 29:
Tua sunt omnia, et quae de manu tua
accepimus dedimus tibi.

The Lord requires two things from man. First, a


sacrifice of praise. And A sacrifice of praise is
said because a sacrifice is nothing other than a
profession of interior devotion and faith. For by a
sacrifice we recognize God as the creator of all
things; 1 Paralipomenon 29: "All things are
thine; and we have given thee what we received
of thy hand."

Augustinus lib. de Doctr. Christiana dicit,


quod nullum signum est ita expressum et
intentionem cordis significans, sicut
verbum, et exterior fides; et devotio non
potest melius explicari, quam per
devotionem laudis: et sic laus est magis
Deo accepta quam occisio animalium:
Heb. ult.: Per ipsum offeramus hostiam
laudis semper Deo: Oseae ult.:
Reddemus vitulos labiorum nostrorum.

In his book, On Christian Doctrine, Augustine


states that there is no sign signifying as clearly
both the heart's intent as does the word and
exterior faith; and devotion cannot be better
revealed than by the devotion of praise. And so,
praise is accepted more by God that the killing of
animals; Hebrews 13: "By him therefore let us
offer the sacrifice of praise always to God";
Hosea 14: "(Take with you words, and return to
the Lord, and say to him: Take away all iniquity,
and receive the good:) and we will render the
calves of our lips."

Secundo Dominus requirit ut reddat vota


altissimo. Et ideo dicit, Et redde altissimo
vota
tua. Laus est sacrificium Deo,
inquantum
est
signum
interioris
devotionis; quia laus significat quod
homo Deo offert mentem suam; et hoc
vult Deus quod sibi reddatur, et hoc est
votum, et ita votum est actus latriae: Isa.
19: Colent eum in hostiis et muneribus, et
vota vovebunt Deo, et solvent: Eccl. 5: Si
quid vovisti Deo, ne moreris reddere.

The second thing that the Lord requires from


man is that he render vows to the most high. And
so, he says, And pay your vows to the most
High. Praise is a sacrifice to God insofar as it is
a sign of interior devotion. For praise indicates
that man offers his very mind to God. And God
wants that this be rendered to him; it is a vow,
and as it is a vow, it is an act of adoration; Isaiah
19: "They shall worship him with sacrifices and
offerings: and they shall make vows to the Lord,
and perform them"; Ecclesiastes 5: "If thou hast
vowed any thing to God, defer not to pay it."

h . Et invoca. Hic Dominus exponit quid


retribuet colentibus eum. Et primo
ostendit quid sancti patiantur. Secundo
quid faciant in tribulationibus. Tertio quid
a Deo recipiant. Quarto quid Deo
recompensant.

And call. At this point, the Lord sets forth what he


will return to those who honor him. First, he
shows what the holy suffer, secondly, what they
do in times of trial, third, what they receive from
God, and fourth, what they pay back to Him.

Dicit ergo quod per hoc quod aliquis


reddit vota, nihilominus affligitur: Psal. 68:
Persequuntur me inimici mei iniuste. Et
ratio huius est, quia nisi affligerentur iusti
in hoc mundo, multi servirent Deo non
propter ipsum, sed propter prosperitatem.

And so, he says that although one pays his


vows, he is nevertheless afflicted; Psalm 68: "My
enemies...have wrongfully persecuted me." The
reason for this is that unless the just are afflicted
in this world, many will serve God not on His
account alone, but rather for the sake of
prosperity.

Secundo ostendit quid faciant tempore


tribulationis, quia debent eum invocare: et
invocabis me. Deus quid faciet ei?
Liberabit eum, eruam te: Ps. 119: Ad
Dominum cum tribularer clamavi etc. Et
postea
liberatus
debet
Deum
honorificare, et honorificabis me.

Next, he shows what they do in times of


tribulation, namely that they ought to call upon
Him: And you will call upon me. What will God
do for him? He will free him, I will deliver thee;
Psalm 119: "In my trouble I cried to the Lord" etc.
And after He has freed him, he ought to honor
God, And thou shalt glorify me.

i . Peccatori autem dixit Deus. Hic arcet


quosdam, scilicet peccatores, a sacrificio
laudis; et ponit tria. Primo humanam
perversitatem. Secundo Deo patientiam.
Tertio comminatur divinam severitatem.

But to the sinner God hath said. At this point, he


prevents certain people, namely sinners, from
(making) a sacrifice of praise. He sets down
three things (in this regard). First, the perversity
of man, second, the patience of God, and third,
he threatens the divine severity.

Perversitas humana consistit in hoc quod


bona dicunt et mala faciunt: et ideo
ostendit, quomodo indigni sunt bona
dicere. Est autem duplex bonum: unum
est instructio morum, aliud est informatio
ad laudem Deo.

Human perversity consists in this, namely that


they say good things, but do evil. And so, he
shows how they are unworthy to say good
things. However, good speech is two-fold. One
kind is the instruction of morals, and the other is
of forming one in the praise of God.

Dicit ergo, T u , scilicet popule meus,


Immola Deo sacrificium laudis etc. Sed
peccatori
dixit Deus, idest Deo
praeordinatione fixum est, quod hoc
iniustum est, quod bona dicat et mala
faciat. Et hoc dixit, quia hoc in mente
omnium, etiam peccatorum impressum
est. Et quid dixit? Quare tu enarras
iustitias meas: Rom. 2: Qui praedicas non
furandum furaris.

And so, he says, You, namely my people, Offer


to God the sacrifice of praise. But To the sinner
God says, that is, it is fixed by God through
preordination, that this is unjust, that he say
good things, but do evil. And he says this
because it is in the mind of all, even impressed
in the mind of sinners. And what did he say?
Why dost thou declare my justices; Romans 2:
"That thou preachest that men should not steal,
stealest."

Sed numquid, qui in statu peccati mortalis


est, peccat mortaliter, quando praedicat
vel docet?

But does one, who is in a state of mortal sin, sin


mortally [that is, sin again, a new sin], if he
should preach or teach?

Dicendum, quod eius peccatum aut est

It must be said that his sin is either public or

publicum vel occultum: et si occultum, vel


est ex contemptu, et sine poenitentia, aut
cum poenitentia. Dicendum est ergo,
quod si aliquis est in peccato publico,
non debet publice praedicare vel docere.
Et dico publico; quia si peccatum non est
publicum, posset cum caritate occulte
fratrem suum de peccato etiam minori
quam sit suum peccatum quod occultum
est reprehendere, reprehendendo tamen
seipsum. Si vero est in peccato occulto,
et sine poenitentia, tunc provocat Deum,
quia simulat: Prov. 11: Simulator ore
decipit amicum suum. Et de his loquitur
hic, sicut dicit Glossa Augustini, lingua
laudare non praesumat cui contradicit
conscientia. Si vero peccatum est
occultum
et
dolet,
non
peccat
praedicando vel docendo, etiam si
publice loquatur contra peccatum: quia
sic detestando aliorum peccata detestatur
etiam suum.

private. If it is private, either it is from contempt


and without penance, or it is with penance.
Therefore, is must be said that if one's sin is
public, one ought not to preach or teach
publically. And I say this because if one's sin is
not public, one could, with love and in private,
find fault with one's brother for a sin lesser than
one's own which also is private, by finding fault
with oneself. If, however, one is in sin privately,
and without penance, then he provokes God,
because (such a person) feigns (goodness);
Proverbs 11: "The dissembler with his mouth
deceiveth his friend. These matters are spoken
of here, as Augustine's Gloss indicates, (namely
that) it is not the priviledge of the one whose
conscience contradicts him to praise with the
tongue. If, however, the sin is private and (the
sinner) is sorry for it, he does not sin by
preaching or teaching, even if the speaks
publicly against sin. For just as he detests the
sins of others, so too does he despise his own.

Et assumis testamentum meum per os


tu u m. Iustitia refertur ad instructionem,
testamentum refertur ad laudem fidei:
Eccl. 15: Non est speciosa laus in ore
peccatoris, quia nomen Dei est
sanctissimum; et ideo inconveniens est
quod a peccatoribus assumatur, quasi
usurpatum: Prov. 26: Quomodo pulchras
frustra habet claudus tibias, sic indecens
est in ore stultorum parabola.

And take my covenant in thy mouth. Justice is


referred to instruction, and covenant to faith's
praise; Ecclesiasticus 15: "Praise is not seemly
in the mouth of a sinner." For the name of God is
most holy, and as such it is unseemly that such
be assumed, or usurped as it were, by sinners;
Proverbs 26: "As a lame man hath fair legs in
vain: so a parable is unseemly in the mouth of
fools."

Tu vero odisti disciplinam. Hic ostendit


mala quae faciunt peccatores. Et faciunt
duo mala: primum est, quod odiunt
divinam correptionem; unde dicit, Tu vero
odisti disciplinam. Haec correptio morum
fit per difficilia: Heb. 12: Omnis disciplina
in praesenti quidem videtur esse non
gaudii, sed moeroris. Hanc odiunt mali:
Heb. 12: Si extra disciplinam estis etc.
Psal. 118: Bonitatem et disciplinam etc.
Amos 5: Odio habuerunt corripientem in
porta.

Seeing thou hast hated discipline. Here, the


psalmist sets forth the evil things which sinners
do. The evil they do is twofold. First, they hate
divine correction. Hence, he says Seeing thou
hast hated discipline. The correction of (one's)
practices is done with difficulty; Hebrew 12: "All
chastisement for the present indeed seemeth not
to bring with it joy, but sorrow." This, the evil
hate; Hebrews 12: "But if you be without
chastisement (whereof all are made partakers,
then are you bastards, and not sons)"; Psalm
118: "(Teach me) goodness and discipline
(chastisement)"; Amos 5: "They have hated him
that rebuketh in the gate."

Tu ergo non vis ab aliis castigari cum


quotidie
delinquas, Et
proiecisti
sermones meos retrorsum, quibus
informaris ad bene operandum et
merendum. Tales sermones debent
haberi in reverentia. Sed isti, scilicet
peccatores, non accipiunt eos, nec
considerant:
Ezech.
33:
Audiunt
sermones tuos, et non faciunt eos, quia in
canticum oris sui convertunt illos.

Therefore, you do not want to be corrected by


others when you do wrong daily, And hast cast
my words behind thee, by which you are formed
so that you might act well and be found
deserving. Such Words ought to be held in
reverence. But these people, namely sinners, do
not accept or (even) consider them; Ezechiel 33:
"They hear thy words, and do them not: for they
turn them into a song of their mouth (and their
heart goeth after their covetousness)."

Vel, Proiecisti, scilicet pro nihilo habuisti,


Retrorsum, ita ut nec etiam considerares
eos.

Or, Thou hast cast, that is, you held (them, my


words) as though (they were) nothing, (these,
thou hast cast) Behind thee, in such a fashion
that you would also not consider them.

Si videbas furem, currebas cum eo. Hic


proponit malitiam peccatorum quantum
ad operationem mali. Sed paulo ante
ostendit defectum eorum quantum ad
desertionem boni, cum dixit, Tu vero
odisti etc. Et primo ponit eorum
nequitiam, quantum ad malum operis;
deinde quantum ad malum oris.

If thou didst see a thief thou didst run with him.


Here, the psalmist sets down the wickedness of
sinners with respect to (their) performance of
evil. But a little before (this), he set forth their
failure with respect to (their) abandonment of
good when he said, Seeing thou hast hated etc.
He first describes their wickedness with respect
to the evil of (their) work, and then to that of
(their) mouth.

Dicit ergo, Si videbas. Ubi sciendum est,


quod haec verba ex persona Dei
proponuntur peccatori annuntianti et
praedicanti iustitiam Dei. Et competunt
maxime praelatis et doctoribus, qui non
de facili per se in peccatum labuntur; sed
aliis peccantibus consentiunt, et haec
convertuntur in eos. Rom. 1: Digni sunt
morte non solum qui faciunt etc. 1 Reg. 2:
Punitus est Heli, qui non correxit filios;
ideo de hoc reprehendit eos.

And so, he says, If thou didst see. It should be


noted here that these words are applied (by the
psalmist) on God's part to sinners announcing
and preaching of God's justice. And (this,
namely this condition of being in sin while
announcing and preaching) applies most to
prelates and teachers (of the Christian faith) who
are not easily brought to sin, but who consent to
other people sinning, and these [sins of other
people] fall on their heads; Romans 1: "...they
who do such things, are worthy of death; and not
only they that do them (but they also that
consent to them that do them)"; and 1 Kings 3
(wherein) Heli is punished, he who did not
correct his sons by way of reprimanding them.

Et tangit duo, scilicet furtum et


adulterium.Quantum ad primum dicit, Si
videbas furem, ad te delatum ad iudicium,
Currebas cum eo, non corrigendo: Isa. 1:
Principes tui infideles.

The psalmist touches upon two things, namely


theft and adultery. With respect to the first, he
says, If thou didst see a thief, (if) brought to you
for judgment, thou didst run with him, by not
correcting him; Isaiah 1: "Thy princes are

faithless."
I t e m , Cum adulteris portionem tuam
ponebas, quia non corrigis adulteros, sed
blandiris, et cooperis et foves eos, cum
ad notitiam tuam perveniunt: Ier. 9:
Omnes adulteri sunt.

A g a i n , With adulterers thou hast been a


partaker, because you have not corrected
adulterers, but have flattered, cooperated with
and favored them, when they came to your
notice; Jeremiah 9: "They are all adulterers."

Spirituale autem furtum est, quando ex


verbis sacrae scripturae depravator
furatur verum intellectum; et sic videns
depravare et occultare verum intellectum,
et tu consentiens, Curris cum eo: Ier. 23:
Ecce ego ad prophetas qui furantur verba
mea.

Spiritually (speaking), theft occurs when a


corruptor steals the true understanding from the
words of Sacred Scripture. And thus, seeing the
corrupting and concealment of (its) true
meaning, and consenting (to it), Thou runs with
him; Jeremiah 23: "Behold I am against the
prophets... who steal my words..."

Adulterium spirituale est, quando verba


detorquentur in alium sensum, vel ad
alium finem; puta si praedicet aliquis ad
lucrum vel seductionem: 1 Corinth. 2:
Non sumus sicut plurimi adulterantes
verbum Dei.

Adultery, in the spiritual sense, occurs when the


words (of Sacred Scripture) are twisted into
another sense, or to some other end, for
instance, if one were to preach something for the
sake of gain or seduction; 2 Corinthians 2: "We
are not as many, adulterating the word of God."

i. Os tuum. Hic agit de peccato oris, quod


aggravatur
dupliciter.
Primo
ex
circumstantiis. Secundo ex conditione
personarum, ibi, Sedens. Circa primum
duo facit. Primo ponit conditiones
aggravantes, scilicet frequentiam. Aliud
est dolositas.

Thy mouth. At this point, the psalmist treats of


mouth's sin, which is made worse in two ways.
First, by way of the circumstance, and second,
by way of the person's condition, at, Sitting.
Concerning the first, he does two things. First,
he puts forth the aggravating conditions, namely
that of frequency and deceit.

Frequentia: quia si aliquando quis


committat aliquod peccatum, aliquo modo
tolerabile est. Vel si ex lapsu linguae
aliquod inordinatum dicat, facilius
portatur: Iac. 3: Si quis verbo non offendit,
hic perfectus est vir. Si quis autem os
suum implet maledictionibus, tunc ex
malitia propria procedit: nam ex
abundantia cordis os loquitur, Mat. 12.
Psal. 13: Quorum os maledictione etc.

Frequency (is an aggravating condition)


because if at some point one were to commit a
sin, this, in a way, is tolerable. Or, if by a slip in
one's speech, one says something inordinate, it
is more easily endured; James 3: "If any man
offend not in word, the same is a perfect man."
However, if one fills one's mouth with evil
speech, then one acts from wickedness proper:
for the mouth speaks from the fullness of one's
heart - see Matthew 12 and Psalm 13: "Their
mouth is full of cursing and bitterness."

Aggravatur etiam peccatum linguae ex


dolositate, sive fraude: Ier. 9: Sagitta
vulnerans lingua eorum dolum locuta est;
et ideo dicit, Et lingua tua concinnabat

The sin of speech is also aggravated by way of


deceit or fraud; Jeremiah 9: "Their tongue is a
piercing arrow, it hath spoken deceit." And thus
he says, And thy tongue framed, that is,

d o l o s , idest componebat, et quasi ut


docens ordinabat dolos, ut verba eius
essent placentia: Prov. 12: Qui testis est
repentinus, concinnat verba mendacii.

composed, deceits, as if the one teaching


arranged his deceits, so that his words would be
pleasing; Proverbs 12: "He that is a hasty
witness, frameth a lying tongue."

Sedens
adversus
fratrem
tuum
loquebaris. Hic ostendit quomodo
peccatum
linguae
aggravatur
ex
conditione personarum. Et primo ex
conditione
loquentis;
secundo
ex
conditione eius contra quem loquitur;
tertio ex conditione audientium.

Sitting thou didst speak against thy brother. At


this point, the Psalmist shows how the sin of
speech is aggravated by peoples' condition, and
(this) first by the condition of the one speaking,
second, by the condition of him against whom
he speaks, and third, by the condition of those
listening.

Dicit ergo, Sedens. Contingit aliquando


quod aliquis dicit amarum verbum
commotus et provocatus: et hoc
utcumque tolerabile est. Sed quando
aliquis quieto corde, non provocatus, dicit
mala, hoc iniquum et detestabile est: et
ideo dicit, Sedens, scilicet quietus: Ps.
68: Adversum me loquebantur qui
sedebant in porta.

And so, he says, Sitting. At times, it is


appropriate that one who has been agitated and
provoked speak an unpleasant word. And this is
tolerable in one way or another. But when one in
peace of heart, and who has not been provoked,
speaks evil things, this is wicked and detestable.
And so he says, Sitting, namely, peace; Psalm
68: "They that sat in the gate spoke against me."

Ex persona eius contra quem loquitur,


aggravatur peccatum: quia si loqueretur
contra iniquum, secus esset. Sed dicit,
Adversum
fratrem
tuum:
Ier.
9:
Unusquisque a proximo se custodiat.

Sin is aggravated on account of the person of


him against whom he speaks. For if one spoke
against evil things, one would not be so [evil].
But he says Against thy brother; Jeremiah 9: "Let
every man take heed of (his) neighbor."

Et adversum filium matris tuae ponebas


scandalum. Hic ostendit quomodo
aggravatur ex parte eorum qui ex hoc
scandalizantur, scilicet audientium; et
ideo dicit, Ponebas scandalum, scilicet
aliorum contra fratrem tuum. Et quod dicit,
filium matris tuae, ostendit, quod parvuli
lactentes dicuntur filii matris, et pusilli
scandalizantur de verbis malis quae dicit.

And didst lay a scandal against thy mother's


son. Here, the psalmist shows how (sin) is
aggravated on the part of those who are
scandalized by this, namely those who listening.
And thus he says, Thou didst lay a scandal, that
is, of different things against your brother. And
when he says, Against thy mother's son, he
shows that children at the breast are called a
mother's sons, and that little ones are
scandalized by the evil words which he (the one
voicing scandal) says.

Haec fecisti, et tacui. Hic agit de Dei


simulatione. Et primo ponitur dissimulatio
Dei.
Secundo
ponitur
effectus
dissimulationis in malis, ibi, Existimasti.
Dicit ergo, Haec fecisti, scilicet omnia
quae supra dicta sunt: locutus es bona, et
perpetrasti mala, ut sic loquatur psalmista

These things hast thou done, and I was silent.


Here, the psalmist treats of God's assumed
appearance. First he describes God's
concealment, and secondly, this concealment's
effect in evil people, at, Thou thoughtest. And so,
he says, These things hast thou done, namely
everything which was said above: you spoke

in persona Dei, et ego tacui, quasi scilicet


non statim te correxi et punivi; sed ex
clementia et misericordia te ad
poenitentiam expectavi: Isa. 42: Tacui,
semper silui: Rom. 2: An ignoras quod
benignitas Dei ad poenitentiam te
adducit? Sed homo malus et peccator
hac clementia abutitur in superbia: Rom.
2: Secundum duritiam tuam et cor
impoenitens thesaurizas tibi iram etc. Et
ideo dicit, Existimasti inique, quod ero tui
similis.

good things, but have brought about evil, and, as


the psalmist speaks in the manner of God's
person, I was silent, as if to say, I did not
immediately correct and punish you, but out of
clemency and compassion I waited for you to
make penance; Isaiah 42: "I have always held
my peace, I have kept silence"; Romans 2: "Or...
knowest thou not, that the benignity of God
leadeth thee to penance?" But the evil man and
the sinner abuse this clemency in (their) pride;
Romans 2: "But according to thy hardness and
impenitent heart, thou treasurest up to thyself
wrath..." And so, he says, Thou thoughtest
unjustly that I should be like to thee.

Dictum est autem supra, si videbas furem


etc. Arguunt ex hoc peccatores, et
credunt iniqui quod peccatum placeat
Deo et non puniat, quia tacet, haec fecisti
et tacui;

However, it was said above, If thou didst see a


thief etc. Sinners argue in this manner, and the
wicked believe that sin pleases God, and that
He does not punish, because he remains silent These things hast thou done, and I was silent.

sed haec existimatio est iniqua, quia


similiter odio sunt Deo impius et impietas
eius, ut dicitur Sap. 14: Et Habac. 1:
Mundi sunt oculi tui ne videant mala, et
ad iniquitatem respicere non poteris.

But this way of thinking is wicked, since the


impious and their impiety are hateful to God
alike, as is said at Wisdom 14 and, again, at
Habacuc 1: "Thy eyes are too pure to behold
evil, and thou canst not look on iniquity."

Sed arguam te. Unde hic ponitur divina


securitas. Et primo in eius reprehensione.
Secundo in effectu. Dicit ergo, Arguam te,
idest condemnabo te: Psal. 7: Domine ne
in ira tua corripias me. In ira est effectus,
statuam contra faciem tuam. Deus qui
punit, non solum punit per seipsum, sed
per alias creaturas: Sap. 5: Pugnabit cum
eo orbis terrarum contra insensatos:

But I will reprove thee. And so, at this point, the


divine guarantee, so to speak, is set down, first,
in His reprimand, and second, in its effects. And
so, he says, I will reprove thee, that is, I will
condemn you; Psalm 6: "O Lord...chastise me
not in thy anger." The effect is in His anger, And
set before thy face. God punishes not only
through Himself, but also by means of other
creatures; Wisdom 5: "And the whole world shall
fight with him against the unwise."

item etiam ipse homo contra se pugnat


per remorsum conscientiae. Et sic etiam
contra se pugnat, et per seipsum arguit; et
hoc est, quod dicit, Statuam te contra
faciem tuam, idest tu
ipse
te
condemnabis: Ioan. 8: Nemo te
condemnavit: nemo Domine: nec ego te
condemnabo.

Again, even man himself fights against himself


by means of the remorse of conscience. And
even in this way, he fights against himself and
argues with himself. This is what the psalmist
says, S e t yourself before thy face, that is, you
will condemn yourself; John 8: "(Woman, where
are they that accused thee?) Hath no man
condemned thee? (Who said) No man, Lord.
(And Jesus said) Neither will I condemn thee."

Vel, Statuam contra faciem tuam, scilicet


creaturas, ut dicitur Sap. 5.

Or, Set before thy face, namely creatures, as is


said at Wisdom 5.

Sive rationales, idest angelos et sanctos;

Or, rational beings, that is, the angels and the


saints;

sive irrationales, quibus male usus est in


peccatis: Iob 7: Posuisti me contrarium
tibi, et factus sum mihimetipsi gravis, quia
contra seipsum peccator dicet, Sap. 5:
Erravimus a via veritatis: Nahum 3:
Revelabo pudenda tua in faciem tuam:
Isa. 3: Agnitio vultus eorum respondebit
eis. Et haec poena est vermis
conscientiae.

or irrational beings, whose bad use lies in sins;


Job 7: "(Why) hast thou set me opposite to thee,
and I am become burdensome to myself(?)";
Wisdom 5: "We have erred from the way of
truth"; Nahum 3: "I will discover thy shame to thy
face"; Isaiah 3: "The shew of their countenance
hath answered them." And this punishment is
the worm of conscience.

k. Intelligite haec qui obliviscimini Deum.


Hic
hortatur
ad
peccatorum
considerationem.
Et
primo
ad
considerandum
Dei
severitatem.
Secundo ostendit, quid sit acceptum Deo
in sacrificiis.

Understand these things, you that forget God. At


this point, the psalmist urges one to a
consideration of one's sins. First, (he urges that
we) consider God's severity. Second, he shows
what is accepted by God in sacrifices.

Primo ergo hortatur ad intelligendum;


unde
dicit,
intelligite
haec
qui
obliviscimini Deum, scilicet quae dicta
sunt considerate. Et hoc necessarium est,
quia estis obliti Dei: Deut. 32: Oblitus es
Dei creatoris tui. Secundo, quid intelligat,
Nequando rapiat, scilicet diabolus, Et non
sit qui eripiat, scilicet de eius potestate.
Quando diabolus rapit ad poenam inferni,
non est qui eripiat. Aliquando rapit ad
peccatum, et Deus eripit peccatorem:
Psal. 90: Eripiat eum. Quod non eripiat de
potestate diaboli ad poenam, non est ex
impotentia, sed ex sua iustitia non vult.

And so, he first urges one to understand; hence


he says, Understand these things, you that
forget God, namely consider those things which
have been said. And this is necessary because
you have forgotten God; Deuteronomy 32: "Thou
hast forgotten the God that created thee."
Second, let him understand what (has been
said) Lest he snatch you away, that is to say, the
devil, And there be none to deliver you, that is,
from his power. When the devil carries one off to
the punishment of hell, there is no one to deliver
you. Sometimes, the devil carries one off to sin,
but God snatches back even the sinner; Psalm
90: "He (I) will deliver him." When he does not
snatch one from the devil's power to punish, this
is not from a lack of power (on God's part), but
rather that he does not desire (to do this) on
account of His justice.

Sacrificium laudis honorificabit me. Hic


concludit, quid sit acceptum Deo in
sacrificiis. Et ostendit duplicem fructum in
eis. Unus fructus ex parte Deo, ut
excellentia eius manifestetur; et hoc fit

The sacrifice of praise shall glorify me. At this


point, the psalmist concludes (with) what is
accepted by God in sacrifices. And he shows
that there are two fruits in these sacrifices. The
first fruit is on God's part, that His excellence is

per sacrificium laudis vocalis: 1 Corinth.


10: Omnia in gloriam Dei, facite. Alius
fructus est ex parte nostra, scilicet vera
salus; unde dicit, Et illic iter quo
ostendam illi salutare Dei, idest ad
videndum Deum: Isa. 52: Levaverunt
vocem: simul laudabunt.

clearly shown. And this is accomplished through


the sacrifice of vocal praise; 1 Corinthians 10:
"Do all to the glory of God." The other fruit is on
our part, namely true deliverance from our sins;
hence he says, And there is the way by which I
will shew him the salvation of God, that is the
living God; Isaiah 52: "They have lifted up their
voice, they shall praise together."

Hieronymus
habet, Et qui ordinate
ambulat, ostendam illi salutare Dei; quasi
dicat, duo autem necessaria sunt ad
salutem, idest sacrificium laudis, et quod
ordinate ambules.

Jerome has, And to he who goes about in an


orderly manner, I will shew him the salvation of
God; as if to say, two things are necessary for
deliverance from sin, that is, the sacrifice of
praise, and that you go about in an orderly
manner.

Latin Text according to the Venice Edition of MDCCLXXV


The Aquinas Translation Project (http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)