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EFFECT OF FEED RATE ON

METAL REMOVAL RATE


ME 261 METAL MACHINING AND MACHINE TOOLS

MADE BY: SUYASH AGARWAL


CLASS:

B.TECH PART II, MECHANICAL ENG.


IIT(B.H.U) VARANASI

ROLL NO. : 14135087


BATCH 2, GROUP 3

TURNING OPERATION
Machining is a metal removing process in which the unwanted metal is removed
from the workpiece in the form of chips with the help of cutting tool and
machine tools. In machining operation there are two relative motions, primary
motion or the generatrix, and secondary motion or the directrix.
Turning is one of the most common of metal cutting operations. In turning, a
workpiece is rotated about its axis as single-point cutting tools are fed into it,
shearing away unwanted material and creating the desired part. Turning can
occur on both external and internal surfaces to produce an axially-symmetrical
contoured part. For turning in lathe machine the cutting motion is the generatrix
or the turning of work piece and the directrix is the feed motion or the
movement of the tool.
The capacity of a lathe is expressed in two dimensions. The maximum part
diameter, or "swing," and the maximum part length, or "distance between
centers." The general-purpose engine lathe is the most basic turning machine
tool. As with all lathes, the two basic requirements for turning are a means of
holding the work while it rotates and a means of holding cutting tools and
moving them to the work. The work may be held on one or by both its ends.
Holding the work by one end involves gripping the work in one of several types
of chucks or collets. Chucks are mounted on the spindle nose of the lathe, while
collets usually seat in the spindle. The spindle is mounted in the lathe's
"headstock," which contains the motor and gear train that makes rotation
possible. Directly across from the headstock on the lathe is the "tailstock." The
tailstock can hold the work by either a live or dead center. Additionally, longer
workpieces may have a "steady rest" mounted between the headstock and
tailstock to support the work.
Typically workpieces are cylindrical, but square and odd shaped stock can also
be turned using special chucks or fixtures. Lathe cutting tools brought to the
work may move in one or more directions. Tool movement on the engine lathe
is accomplished using a combination of the lathe's "carriage", "cross slide", and
"compound rest". The carriage travels along the machines bedways, parallel to
the workpiece axis. This axis is known as the "Z" axis. Motion perpendicular to
the work is called the "X" axis. On an engine lathe this motion is provided by
the cross slide mounted on the carriage.

Three key parameters determine productivity and part quality. These parameters
are:
The cutting speed
The feed rate
The depth of cut
The cutting speed is the speed of the work as it rotates past the cutting tool. The
feed rate is the rate at which the tool advances into the work. The depth of cut is
the amount of material removed as the work revolves on its axis. Other factors
include the machinability of the stock, the type and the geometry of the cutting
tool, the angle of the tool to the work, and the overall condition and power of
the lathe itself.

EXPERIMENT
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of feed rate on material removal rate during
turning operation.
MATERIALS REQUIRED: Mild steel rod of 40mm diameter and 200mm
long.
APPARATUS REQUIRED: Vernier callipers, spanner, chuck spanner,
weighing balance and turning tool.
THEORY: Machining is a metal removal process in which unwanted material
is removed from the workpiece, in form of CHIPS, with the help of cutting tool
and machine tool. Tool material should be harder than the work piece material
for efficient removal of material. Lathe is a versatile machine tool which can
perform many operations like turning, threading, chamfering knurling, drilling
etc.
PROCEDURE:
1. The work piece is fixed in a 4- jaw chuck with sufficient overhang.
2. Adjusts the machine to run the job to a required cutting speed.
3. Fix the cutting tool in the tool post and centring operation is performed so
that the axis of the job coincides with lathe axis.
4. Change the feed rate of the cutting tool while keeping the RPM and depth of
cut constant and measure the corresponding change in MRR by weight loss.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Theoretically, when all other parameters like


RPM, time of machining, depth of cut etc. are kept constant, the metal removal
rate is directly proportional to the feed rate of the tool but due to experimental
error certain deviations from the expected behaviour are observed.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Work piece should be held rigidly in the chuck before operating the
machine.
2. Tool should be sharp and hard, fixed at correct height and properly
secured.
3. Chips should not be allowed to wound around a revolving job and
removed as soon as possible.