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Heat Transfer:

Chap 15:

Chap 16:

Chap 17:

Chap 18:

Chap 19:

Fundamentals of Heat Transfer Differential Equations of Heat Transfer Steady-State Conduction Unsteady-State Conduction Convective Heat Transfer

What is heat transfer?

Heat transfer is thermal energy transport due to a spatial temperature difference.

What is thermal energy?

Thermal energy is associated with the translation, rotation, vibration and electronic states of the atoms and molecules that comprise matter. It represents the cumulative effect of microscopic activities and is directly linked to the temperature of matter.

* Thermal Energy, Temperature and Heat Transfer:

Quantity

Meaning

Symbol (units)

Thermal energy

Energy associated with microscopic behavior of matter

E or U (J, J/kg)

Temperature

A means of indirectly assessing the T (K, °C) amount of thermal energy stored in matter

Heat transfer

Thermal energy transport due to temperature gradient

Heat

Amount of thermal energy transferred over a time interval

Q (J, Btu)

(1 Btu = 252 cal)

Heat transfer rate

Thermal energy transfer per unit time

q (J/s or W)

Heat flux

Thermal energy transfer per unit time per unit surface area

q” (W/m 2 )

(vector)

* Modes of Heat Transfer (or Heat Transfer Mechanisms):

* Modes of Heat Transfer (or Heat Transfer Mechanisms): Conduction • Conduction: Convection Radiation - Heat

Conduction Conduction:

Convection

Radiation

- Heat transfer in a solid or a stationary fluid (gas or liquid) due to the random motion of its constituent atoms, molecules and /or electrons.

- No bulk fluid motion

- Dominant in solids, important in fluids

* Modes of Heat Transfer (or Heat Transfer Mechanisms):

Convection:

- Heat or energy transfer by fluid motion

- Forced convection:

- Natural convection:

fluid flow caused by external means (pump, etc.)

fluid flow caused by energy transfer itself (i.e., density gradient in space)

- Conduction and convection require the presence of temperature variations in a material medium.

Radiation:

- Heat or energy transfer by photons All materials radiate thermal energy in the form of electromagnetic waves (or photons). When this radiation falls in a second body, it may be partially reflected, transmitted or absorbed. It is only the fraction that is absorbed that appears as heat in the body.

- Although radiation originates from matter, its transport does not require a material medium and occurs most efficiently in a vacuum.

* Convective Heat Transfer (Newtonian fluid):

T 0 L U ∞ , T ∞
T
0
L
U ∞ , T ∞

ρ, µ, C p , k

 ∇ ⋅ u = 0

Du

 = −∇ p

ρ

Dt

DT

ρ

C

p

Dt

=

+

k

(continuity equation)

µ

2

T

2

u

+

ρ

+

µ

Φ

g

(Navier - Stokes equation)

(convective energy equation)

Unknowns :

p, u,

T

(5 unknowns and 5 equations)

* Convective Energy Equation:

ρ C p

D T

D t

= −∇ • q′′ + µ Φ

or

ρ C p

 ∂ T

q

′′ +

µ Φ


t

+

u

⋅∇

T

 = −∇ •

Fourier’s law of conduction q = q"= −k ∇T
Fourier’s law of
conduction
q
= q"= −k ∇T

ρ C p

D T

D t

= k

2 T + µΦ

 

ρ

C p

 ∂ T

t

+

u

⋅∇

T

 =

k

2

T

+

µ

Φ

 
         
 
   
   
   
 

convection

   

conduction

     

Viscous

 

term

   

term

 

dissipation

or

* Fourier’s law of conduction:

q

= q"= −k T

- Heat flux is proportional to the temperature gradient.

- Heat flux is in the direction of decreasing temperature.

- The proportionality constant, k is called thermal conductivity.

Unit of k :

[

k

]

=

W

m

K

* Thermophysical Properties

 ∂ T

t

ρ C p

+

u ⋅∇ T

 =

k

2 T

+

µ Φ

- Transport properties: k (thermal conductivity), µ (viscosity)

- Thermodynamic properties: ρ, C p

kg   

m

 

J

kg

K

m

K

[ ρ

C p

]

J

3

=

3

=

   m   K  [ ρ C p ] J 3 ⋅

“volumetric heat capacity” (ability of a material to store thermal energy per unit volume)

Thermal diffusivity:

α

Recall kinematic viscosity:

k

ρ

C

p

ν

µ

ρ

[

α

]

[

ν

]

=

=

2

m

s

2

m

s

* Convective Energy Equation:

Conduction:

 ∂ T  ρ C p u ⋅∇ T  = k ∇ 2
 ∂ T
ρ C p
u ⋅∇
T
 =
k
2 T
+
µ
Φ

t

+

- Heat transfer in a solid or a stationary fluid (gas or liquid) due to the random motion of its constituent atoms, molecules and /or electrons.

- No bulk fluid motion

i.e., u = 0

&

Φ = 0

- Dominant in solids, important in fluids

ρ C p

 ∂ T

2 T


t

=

k

or

T

t

k

ρ C

p

=

2 T

Here α is the thermal diffusivity

α =

k

ρ C

p

or

 

T

=

α

2

T

t

[

α

]

=

m 2

 

s

* Heat Transfer by Conduction:

T

t

=

α

2

T (heat equation)

Boundary conditions (?)

α ∇ 2 T (heat equation) Boundary conditions (?) Temperature profile, T ( x , t

Temperature profile, T(x, t)

- Fourier’s law of conduction provides the heat flux.

q

= q"= −k T

- Boundary conditions depend on the heat transfer situation.

If there is an energy source within the medium,

ρ C p

T

t

=

k

2

T

+ q 
+
q 

Rate of energy generation per unit volume (W/m 3 )

* Heat Transfer by Conduction:

T

t

=

α

2

T (heat equation)

In Cartesian coordinate system:

T

q

t

=

=

q "

α

=

2

T

(

q

"

x

,

q

=

"

y

,

α

2

T

x

2

+

2

T

y

2

+

q

"

z

)

= −

k

T

x

,

T

y

2

T

z

2

,

T

x

In cylindrical coordinate system:

T

=

α

t

q

=

q "

=

(

q

2

T

"

r

,

q

=

"

θ

,

α

 

 

1

r

r

 

q

"

z

)

= −

k

r

T r   +

1

r

2

2 T

2 T

θ

2

T

1

T

T

r

,

r

θ

,

z

+

2 T

2

z

* One-dimensional steady-state conduction in a slab (17.1)

L  2  st.-st. ∂ T ∂ T   2 T = α
L
2
st.-st.
T
T
2 T
=
α
T
∂ = 0
t
2
x
2
x
T
1
Initial condition:
BC’s:
At t = 0,
T (0, x) = T
2
T
T
=
T
1
2
 At x = 0,
 At
x =
L
,
T
=
T
2
x
• Steady-state solution:
T
T
1
2
T
(
x
) =
T
x
1
L
∂ T 
T
"
1
2
q
= −
k 
= k   T
(W/m 2 )
x
∂ x
L
"
q = A⋅q
x
(heat transfer rate, W)

* One-dimensional steady-state conduction in a slab (17.1)

T 1

L

T
T

T 2

x

T 1 L T T 2 x

Steady-state solution:

T

(

"

q x

T

1

T

2

x

L

= k   T

1

L

T

2

x

) = T

1

=

k

T

x

  (W/m 2 )

q = Aq

"

x

(heat transfer rate, W)

- Temperature profile is the same regardless of the material (e.g., wood, metal block)

- Heat flux (and heat transfer rate), however, is proportional to k.

wood:

Aluminum:

k = ~0.15 W/m-K

k = 237 W/m-K

Thermal Conductivity of Various Materials

[

k

]

=

q "

T

=

W

/ m

2 W

=

K

/

m

m

K

Materials (300K) gas liquid non-metallic solid metallic solid

W/m-K

~0.05

~1

1 ~ 10

~100

k = k(T , P)

Dependence on T & P?

Materials

W/m-K

air

Steam (380K) Water Glass Soil Teflon Wood Plaster board Glass fiber Aluminum Copper

Steam (380K) Water Glass Soil Teflon Wood Plaster board Glass fiber Aluminum Copper
Steam (380K) Water Glass Soil Teflon Wood Plaster board Glass fiber Aluminum Copper
Steam (380K) Water Glass Soil Teflon Wood Plaster board Glass fiber Aluminum Copper
Steam (380K) Water Glass Soil Teflon Wood Plaster board Glass fiber Aluminum Copper
Steam (380K) Water Glass Soil Teflon Wood Plaster board Glass fiber Aluminum Copper
Steam (380K) Water Glass Soil Teflon Wood Plaster board Glass fiber Aluminum Copper
Steam (380K) Water Glass Soil Teflon Wood Plaster board Glass fiber Aluminum Copper
Steam (380K) Water Glass Soil Teflon Wood Plaster board Glass fiber Aluminum Copper

2.63 X 10 -2 2.46 X 10 -2

0.613

1.4

0.52

0.35

~0.15

0.17

0.036

237

401

* Dependence of k on T & p ?

In case of gases:

k ncλ

of k on T & p ? • In case of gases: k ∝ nc λ
of k on T & p ? • In case of gases: k ∝ nc λ

mean free path

mean molecular speed number density

- If T increases,

- If molecular mass is smaller,

c increases.

Thus, k increases.

c is larger.

Thus, k is large.

k

hydrogen

> k

helium

- If p increases, n increases. But λ decreases.

Thus, k is a weak function of p.

k(T, p) of liquids:

not well understood