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Proceedings of the Twenty-first (2011) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Maui, Hawaii, USA, June 19-24, 2011


Copyright 2011 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)
ISBN 978-1-880653-96-8 (Set); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set); www.isope.org

CO2 Anthropogenic Pipeline Transportation


Antonio Lucci, Giuseppe Demofonti
Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA, Structural Integrity Department
Roma, Italy

Carlo Maria Spinelli


eni gas & power
San Donato Milanese, Milano, Italy

the presence of impurities as H2S, CO, Amine, O2, N2 etc. The


approach is to deepen the knowledge by perform comprehensive state
of the art reviews, later on accompanied by mid scale testing to get the
feeling of a real CO2 pipeline behaviour prior to perform full scale
testing (highly cost impacting and never performed before) which is the
final and necessary step.

ABSTRACT
CO2 anthropogenic pipeline transportation has been pointed out as
one of the most promising way to gather captured CO2 from power
plant to permanent underground storage sites for final sequestration or
for Hydrocarbon Enhanced Recovery. A lot of efforts have been, till
now performed, to develop economically feasible capture systems
applicable either on existing (Post Combustion) or new generation
(Oxyfuel and Precombustion) electric coal or gas fired power plant;
furthermore funds were allocate to individuate and perform deep
studies on the geo-stability of underground sink storage (mainly in
Aquiferi loci) to be selected by avoiding leaks or to exploit oil recovery
from mature wells. Unfortunately few efforts have been put in place to
fill the existing gaps of knowledge in CO2 handling and transportation
in a safely, efficient and convenient manner.
Up to now it was thought to transfer the existing know how based on
CO2 pipelines transportation for enhanced oil recovery (these pipelines
are in service since the 70 in North America) to anthropogenic carbon
dioxide, but this approach could be questionable if specific issues arent
properly faced. This paper will address the main differences in terms of
issues related to the transportation of these two apparently alike fluids.
Furthermore many of the integrated energy Companies around the
world recently have decided to sponsor collaborative activities to define
guidelines and recommended practices for line design and material
procurement as well as to define how to cope with operation and
maintenance pipeline issues. There are some relevant technicalfeasibility issues to be addressed for an emerging CO2 safe
transportation as:
x
-Pipeline integrity, that is fracture propagation avoidance and
control as well as environmental assisted cracking prevention
(Corrosion and stress-corrosion including the selection of
proper material for internal painting/coating);
x
-Safety, that is a deeper understanding of the carbon dioxide
release/dispersion phenomenon. This need forces to collect
data to validate model(s) to asses the carbon dioxide release
(area of interest and consequences) in case of an unlike event
of pipeline leak or rupture;
x
-Operational, that is how to avoid hydrate formation.
All these issues are strongly related on actual CO2 composition due to

KEY WORDS: Carbon capture transportation storage, carbon dioxide,


supercritical CO2 , enhanced hydrocarbon recovery, enhanced oil
recovery, enhanced gas recovery, long running shear fracture
propagation, green house gases.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CCTS = Carbon Capture Transportation Storage, CSM = Centro
Sviluppo Materiali i.e Center for Material Development, HER =
Enhanced Hydrocarbon Recovery, EOR = Enhanced Oil Recovery,
EGR = Enhanced Gas Recovery, GHG = Green House Gases, EGIG =
EGIG (European Gas pipeline Incident data Group), ZEP = Zero
Emissions Platform
INTRODUCTION
Among the GHG greenhouse gases, CO2 is identified as the major
polluter, therefore, governments and industries worldwide are now
proposing to capture and store the anthropogenic CO2 or exploiting it
for EOR application; the way to do that is the CCTS technology. As a
large amount of the CO2 emissions comes from fossil fuels (e.g. in
power plants), the International Energy Agency (IEA) suggests that
CCTS could contribute up to 1/3 of global CO2 mitigation by 2050. To
tackle the challenges of CCTS technology much of the effort has
focused on developing the capture technology and on assessing the
risks of leak from potential storage locations. The proposal to tackle
climate change, by using fossil fuels, is to capture anthropogenic CO2
and to transport it to permanent storage underground areas (as oil/gas
depleted fields or within specifically selected geological structures, Fig
1. As a rule of thumb the industrial use of CCTS technology will allow
to reduce the carbon dioxide emission in atmosphere from 0.40.8
metric ton/MWh (natural gas combined cycle/Pulverized Coal power
plants without CO2 capture) to 0.050.12 metric ton/MWh (NGCC/ PC
plants with CO2 capture devices). (McCoy, 2008) .

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whole pipeline design.


The development and the growing acceptance of the industrial CCTS
chain necessarily passes through the availability of well established,
referenced technical know how for all the three parts of it (Capture
Transportation and Storage), but while CO2 capture units and
sequestration field wells are clearly localized within the power plant
border or storage areas, so they can be easily controlled and they dont
represent an installation having a breakthrough degree of novelty,
anthropogenic carbon dioxide pipelines is an innovative solution never
proposed and in operation before in populated areas, even on a small
scale. So its fundamental to achieve the best understanding of all those
factors affecting the safety, environmental and long term integrity of
the transportation system to propose guidelines and then later on
standards. As very often happens, its a duty of the industrial sector to
push ahead the research and development efforts to get the necessary
deepening on the matter. This paper intends to highlight the most
critical key points to be resolved and the ways how to get the results.
Within this context eni/CSM are acting together since 2009 in order to
establish an integrated research and development network on carbon
dioxide transportation. Its important to highlight also that the time to
market for the issue of guidelines is short; in fact most of the CCTS
pilot plants must be switched on in a three years time span maximum.
Finally it must be highlighted that up to now no one referenced arena
has been found to cope with all the three parts of CCTS. The three
sections are deeply interacting; the transportation is in the middlesection, so its of paramount importance to find a proper place to
discuss about it soon: ISOPE appears to be the viable solution, so lets
try!

Figure 1 - Carbon Capture Transportation & Storage (CCTS)


conceptual idea. Anthropogenic CO2 captured from coal-fired power
plants is safely and economically transported to the storage sites.
Several studies of CO2 capture from coal or gas fired power plants have
been active since some years. There have been several European
projects, such as CASTOR (Le Thiez, 2004), ENCAP, CACHET and
DYNAMIS (Hopman, 2008), focused on capture and storage
technology but there are no specific projects addressing the major
challenges of the pipeline transport issues. The strategic vision is for a
large anthropogenic CO2 pipeline emerging network aimed to support
long transportation. This reason requires a unified European approach
to design, operate and conduct fitness-for-service assessment to
maintain structural safety in an identical manner. Its however to be
taken in account that the cost of long distance transportation (from
capture area to the sequestration zone) can be a percent relevant of total
cost of CCTS process. From some technical-economical evaluation
(Lucci, Spinelli, Tudori, 2011) pipeline appears to be the only viable
manner to gather carbon dioxide on an industrial scale and cope with
safety and environmental issues. CO2 can be transported through
pipelines either as gas or as a dense fluid or in the sub-cooled liquid
state. However, there are significant challenges associated to the
transport of CO2. North American oil companies have over 30 years
experience in CO2 transportation by pipeline; however it must be
remembered that this CO2 comes mainly from natural nearly pure
sources and it is exploited for onshore EOR purpose.
Now around 7000 km of CO2 pipelines are in service in the world with
a range of diameter between 6 to 30 diameter, with a maximum
length of a single pipeline of 808 km (Cortez Pipelines operated by
Kinder Morgan with a capacity of transport of about 20 Milion metric
ton/year), they are operated up to 20 MPa as maximum allowable
operative pressure. See Table 1 at the end of the paper.
As the transportation is performed in dense/supercritical phase the
minimum operative pressure should be above 8.0 MPa (7,4 MPa for
pure carbon dioxide). Most of these pipelines are operated in remote
areas (in particular in the South-West of USA, as Texas and New
Mexico) having low population density; in these scenarios the
probability of third part interaction is much lower than the average
value in Europe recorded in the last 5 years (about 0,2 leak events for
1000 km of line for year), as indicated in the 7th EGIG report (EGIG,
2008) for the European natural gas network. As a matter of fact the
high pressure pipeline transportation of anthropogenic CO2 (with
impurities) is very limited. Even if the relevant know-how in pure CO2
transportation is nowadays available, however it should be not directly
applicable to anthropogenic CO2 transportation; as a matter of fact the
presence of impurities (as H2S, SO2, CH4, H2) changes significantly the
physical properties of the CO2 mixture with an impact on transportation
issues. As a matter on fact some impurities (CH4 and NOx, generally
elements with a critical temperature lower than the CO2 one) have a
detrimental effect on fracture control; in addition corrosion/stress
corrosion phenomena may occur when free water phase affecting the

Experience from natural gas transportation


It must be highlighted however that the only chance to build an
integrated pipeline net grid in Europe for CCTS aims will exploit the
large experience and know how established in natural gas
transportation, in fact within the European borders, natural gas industry
has growth a huge transportation net grid and collected an extensive
experience on pipeline transportation, as well as a well recognized safe
track record along with the past 40 years.
The design (pressure containment plus limit state design) approach, the
materials selection as laying and construction techniques (in field
welding and pipeline back filling) applicable for natural gas
transportation systems could be exploited as much as possible for an
economically viable carbon dioxide netgrid infrastructure; however,
CO2 (and in particular the anthropogenic CO2) shows significantly
different physical properties and behaviour in the pipeline
transportation process from natural gas and this must taken into
account. The European transportation netgrid is operated up to a
maximum allowable operative pressure of 8 MPa in onshore
applications and up to 30 MPa in sub sea applications; pipes are made
by carbon steel according to detailed specifications taking into account
different levels of strength (up to 555 MPa of Yield Strength in Europe
and above 900 MPa as international standard) and are available by
different production routes from some diameter inches up to 64, with
wall thickness up to 40 mm and more. Current transportation pipeline
applications are applied in different areas from the desert to the artic, as
well as they are laid down to 2200 m in water depth. Construction
methods allowing building up to 5-6 km/day in offshore and 1,2
km/day in onshore scenarios are available. Main requirements for
pipeline safety long term operation are based on the assumption to
contain the fluid shipped, to withstand the external loads and to resist to
the aggressiveness of the internal fluid, as well as from the external
environment. Pipes should be cheap and easily weldable and inspected.
In case of failure they must be replaced and protected from the external
environment by coating and electrically protected by the external

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corrosion. Furthermore in case of accident the extent of the failure


should be minimized by the steel property (toughness) even at low
temperature. This is a well established technology and millions of km
of natural gas pipelines are currently operated in the world. At the least
it must be highlighted that the re-use of existing natural gas pipeline for
CO2 transportation doesnt seem to be practicable as the minimum
operative pressure for carbon dioxide shipping (7,4-8 MPa) is in the
range of the maximum operative pressure of the actual gas onshore net
grid, furthermore as the potential gas lines to be reconverted should
be the oldest ones, the problem of the pressure compatibility is much
higher.

CO2 leaks can be potentially dangerous over a large amount of people.

Challenges for CO2 transportation


Figure 2 Full scale long propagation test with a long running fracture
on a natural gas pipeline section.
Currently there is no European standard or guideline for anthropogenic
CO2 pipelines design. Applicability of the current pipeline standards for
transportation of hydrocarbons needs to be verified whether they can
cover the design and operational issues of pipeline transmission of CO2
from large-scale capture plants to suitable onshore or offshore storage
sites. This and other major challenges (i.e. lack of specific data and
knowledge) can cause limitations for wider deployment of CCTS
technology. Transportation of anthropogenic CO2 from industrial
sources in Europe is rather different than the pipeline projects and
experience existing in USA which uses high purity CO2 for injection in
high pressure natural underground deposits for EOR purpose

Pipeline integrity In the event of a leak or pipeline rupture, the sudden


expansion of the dense phase CO2 causes significant driving force
acting on the broken wing of the pipe, this event may lead to the long
propagation fracture along the pipeline when inappropriate toughness
of the pipeline steel cannot act a resistant force. There are indications
pointing out that CO2 pipelines are susceptible to fast running ductile
fracture because CO2 is transported in dense phase (i.e. high saturation
pressure and low decompression velocity). From simulations
performed, based on models developed for natural gas application
appears that carbon dioxide pipelines suffer higher susceptibility to
long-running ductile fracture propagation than natural gas pipelines
operating at similar working conditions (see Fig. 2 showing a long
propagation occurring when the pipe resistance force is lower than the
driving force). So the achieving of crack arrest conditions can be
reached only using steel pipes with very high characteristic (toughness,
deformability) or using external mechanical devices (crack arrestors).
Up to now, no sound design criteria for ensuring the sure arrest of a fast
running ductile fracture propagating in anthropogenic CO2 pipelines
exist; despite the fact such mode of transportation is widely considered
as the only practical option for transporting captured CO2 from major
industrial sources. Its assumed that most electricity generation stations
are built close to energy consumers and the number of people
potentially exposed to risks from CO2 capture and transportation will
be greater than the corresponding number exposed to potential risks
from CO2 storage facilities.
Fracture arrest is an essential requirement for safe operation of gas
pipelines. Arrestability of fracture in line pipes is determined by the
interaction between crack velocity and gas decompression velocity
(depending on the gas composition) behaviours. Decompression
modelling of the natural gas which is currently transported safely can
not be used for the design and fracture control of the planned densephase CO2 pipelines where they differ significantly from natural gas.
Therefore, particularly for the anthropogenic CO2, analyses and
modelling of gas escape from an opened crack need to be developed for
predicting the gas decompression behaviour and to quantify the fracture
driving force acting at the crack tip during the fracture propagation
event.
Furthermore also the consequences in case of hazard are somewhat
different from the natural gas pipeline. As CO2 is heavier than air it will
lay in depressed surroundings, see Fig. 3 for a natural carbon dioxide
analogue. It is not explosive or inflammable as natural gas but
nevertheless it is toxic, asphyxiating and odourless causing asphyxia at
low concentration, so of 46 % (vol), it can be dangerous a few
minutes and 1720 % (vol) can lead to death immediately. Existing
data about the release of large amounts of CO2 are not available, this
issue is particularly relevant for European population densities which
are higher than those in USA; moreover some events (CO2 leak in a
paint factory in Mnchengladbach Germany in 2010, the derailment of
a freight train carrying CO2 in Rickerscote, UK in 1996 and most
famous the Lake Nyos, Cameroun natural event) have reported how

Figure 3 CO2 lake in the Amiata region (Tuscany ,Italy) . The gas
accumulation has been made visible by igniting a smoke bomb in the
morphological depression. The yellow colour highlights the zone where
CO2 concentration is lethal. The manifestation caused a fatality on the
20th November 2003.
Impurities are addressed as the main driving difference in EOR
from anthropogenic CO2.
Dense phase carbon dioxide transportation needs to meet reservoir
specifications; it is compressed to a high pressure enough to overcome
the frictional and static pressure drops and to deliver the CO2 at a high
enough pressure to avoid flashing of gas, so that two-phase flow is
avoided. Furthermore, depending on the capture source and method, the
level of impurities (SOx, NOx, H2S, CH4, N2, H2, H2O, Ar) present in
CO2 mixture could be different.

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Figure 4 CO2 stream with impurities from different capture systems


(Seevam, Race ,Downie, Hopkins 2008).

Figure 7 Carbon Dioxide mixture viscosities at 10 MPa with different


temperatures with 2 mole % of another component.

The impurities in the CO2 change the phase envelope shape, as shown
in Fig. 5, they increase the region of two phase slugs (gas and liquid),
they affect the operating parameters of the pipeline and increase
compressor-power.

Fig. 8 Carbon Dioxide mixture vapour phase envelope at 10 MPa with


different temperatures with 2 mole % of another component.

Figure 5 CO2 Phase diagram for the three different capture streams and
EOR pipeline specification. (Downie, Race, Seevam , 2007)

Figure 9 Recompression distance dependent on the % of impurity,


having a given pipeline diameter.

Figure 6 Carbon Dioxide mixtures densities at 10 MPa with different


temperatures with 2 mole % of another component.

When the impurities are present with a large extent, higher operating
pressures will be needed to maintain dense phase (see Fig. 5), so an
increase of decompression pressure should lead to a higher crack
driving force to propagate fracture further; as can be seen from see Fig.
10.

Density and viscosity (Fig. 7), vapour pressure (Fig. 8) as well as


design of the pipeline and compression facilities (Fig 9) are affected by
chemical composition variation.

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the possible presence of free water in the CO2 for reduced operational
periods. The role of chemical composition of CO2 and service
conditions on corrosion resistance in terms of general corrosion,
localized corrosion (also on girth welds) and hydrogen assisted
cracking phenomena, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue
should be investigated for various steel grades and welds, since no data
are available for anthropogenic carbon dioxide mixtures. The likelihood
and severity of these different corrosion mechanisms not only depends
on the level of respective impurities in the CO2, but also on the partial
pressure of each impurity, which is governed by the total system
pressure. Presence of atomic hydrogen can lead to environmental
assisted cracking. Furthermore the presence of liquid impurities as
water, amine, HCl, HNO3 and NaOH (Ayello.,Evans, Sridhar, Thodla,
2010) has a deep impact on the corrosion steel rate when free water
may be present.

Figure 10 Effect of impurities (low amount in postcombustion high %


in oxyfuel mixtures) on decompression behaviour.

Corrosion Issues
Corrosion and stress corrosion studies utilizing CO2 at high pressure
and corresponding field experiences suggest that corrosion on carbon
steel in pure and dry CO2 is negligible. But it is well known that at low
to medium CO2 partial pressure severe corrosion damage will occur if a
water-enriched phase is present. This issue should be balanced with the
economical considerations for the power plant capture system design to
reduce the amount of water down to acceptable level for transportation
needs. Moreover impurities as H2S, CO, SOx, NOx and probably even
H2 could lead to corrosion phenomena like hydrogen assisted cracking,
and stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. These examples
shown here clearly points out that a specific experience on the
anthropogenic CO2 behaviour is missing. It is known that severe
corrosion damage may occur if free phase water is present; it must be
remembered that water solubility in carbon dioxide (Fig. 11) depends
on temperature and pressure, on the other hand, CO2 pipelines operated
without free water dont show any corrosion phenomena on the inner
wall surface (Fig. 12).

Figure 12 Pipeline Internal surface feature appearances after several


years of operation without free water.
However all these considerations either on integrity and corrosion are
not validated by the absence of sound data, furthermore the application
of existing models, outside of their calibration ranges may lead to
mistakes. In this contest a gap analysis has been performed and many
of the industrial companies involved in CCTS decided to put in place
collaborations research activities aimed to fill the lacks; all these efforts
are scheduled on a tight timeline to issue guidelines and/or
recommended practices; later on they may feed the standardization
bodies with a critical mass to issue one or more standards on the matter.
In this respect specific projects dedicated to the transportation of CO2
by pipeline inside the European Community countries have been
launched in these last two years (2008-2010) or are going to be started,
(mainly inside the framework of Frame Program-7-Energy-Call). All
these new initiatives are focused on some specific aspects of
transportation of CO2 via pipeline with specific focus on the
identification of requirements for a safe and reliable CO2 transportation
pipeline design and operation.
In particular within the European Community framework of the Zero
Emissions Platform (ZEP), acts as a voluntary force technology task,
where a group of European experts on carbon dioxide transportation is
working to identify the key cost elements and to forecast the long term
costs of carbon dioxide transport.
Moreover projects with the financial support of European Community
are in progress focused to develop:
x
Criteria for a quantitative analysis of failure hazard release of

Figure 11 shows H20 solubility in CO2 vs Pressure and Temperature


However, economical considerations at the power plant capture may
require a minimum degree of residual moisture. Under such
prerequisites the presence of liquid water necessary for corrosionrelated mechanisms can even be achieved if the CO2 temperature in the
pipeline is above the water dew point, e.g. where the lower temperature
of the pipe wall compared to the CO2 temperature or the reduction of
CO2 temperature due to the pressure drop along the pipeline results in
the water vapour in the CO2 condensing. Therefore, the mechanisms
and levels of corrosion damage for various pipeline steel grades and
their welds need to be investigated and well-understood by considering

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next generation of CO2 pipeline.


Know-how to enable the determination of steel pipe
requirements for anthropogenic CO2 pipelines. In this case
the most critical goal is the definition of base material
toughness requirements to avoid running ductile fracture
propagation, so full scale fracture propagation tests on real
sections of pipeline are planned to be executed.
In parallel Joint Industrial Project proposals are in progress with the
aim to study:
x
The release of pure and/or anthropogenic CO2 from a smallmedium diameter pipeline.
x
to collect and produce experimental data about CO2 mixtures
decompression starting from supercritical conditions to be
used for a better definition of the driving force during a
running ductile fracture propagation event.
Finally as reported in the magazine 3R International Special Summer
2010 an European consortium of the electricity and gas supplier
companies, integrated energy providers and three pipe manufactures
has been formed with the aim to launch a JIP to define requirements for
anthropogenic CO2 transportation pipeline systems with regards to
corrosion and stress corrosion issues by performing extensive
laboratory testing.
Having in mind the above scenario, eni and CSM, since the 2009, have
launched an integrated approach to perform all the needed activities on
the issue related to the demanding CO2 network integrity criteria, either
as simulation modelling, small scale and large/full scale testing.
Specifically CSM has devoted a large area of its own Remote Full
Scale Testing Laboratory located in Sardinia, within the Perdasdefogu
Military Firing Range to the carbon dioxide full scale facility, this was
necessary due to the tight safety measure to take in account when
handling large carbon dioxide amount.
CSM has deeply studied the safety and environment consequences due
to the CO2 release on a laboratory area to work out a risk assessment
data for choosing the correct location of these kind hazardous tests. For
this reason the testing laboratory is located in a deserted area were the
access is allowed by the military forces. Moreover the control room is
positioned in a higher altitude respect to the pumping and storage
systems, this gives an intrinsically safe condition.
The testing devices are devoted to four main classes of tests:
1. long term pressure cycling.
2. leakage test.
3. release test.
4. ductile fracture propagation test.
Pressure cycling tests foresees a plant capacity of a maximum pressure
of 34 MPa, a flow rate above 30 l/min. A range of supercritical CO2
mixture can be taken into account (impurity as H2S and CO as an
example) it allows verifying the corrosion and defect assessment on
long term pressure cycling. The same plant is used to perform leakage
test, the steady flow condition can assure the complete observation of
phenomena related to the Joule Thomson effects.
The release plant is based on a 48 diameter pipeline section, 550 meter
long. It can be connected to a nearby set on of the same diameter pipe
section 250 m long. The total amount of CO2 stored is about 800 metric
tons up to 15 MPa. The difference of altitude from the top to the bottom
of the line is around 50 meter, this is a useful condition to perform
release of liquid CO2 having an intrinsic gas segregation on the top.
A complete instrumentation is foreseen for the release test. In particular
temperature and pressure transducers are applied inside the pipeline.
Infrared camera for jet cloud temperature monitoring, as well as a
matrix of temperature sensors distributed around the release area at
different altitude are foreseen. Heat flux sensors for heat transfer
monitoring are distributed on the area, high speed camera is used for
collecting the starting event evolution till the steady state condition,
turbulence and flow path can be detected. Microphones are used for

monitoring the noise evolution and propagation around the nozzle area.
Chemical sensors are applied to monitor the oxygen concentration and
distribution. All this instrumentation is foreseen to collect as much as
possible information from the experimental activities to supply useful
information in terms of safety health and environment congruence to
such an event. Moreover all the recorded data can be used to fine tune
modelling.
For the ductile fracture propagation has been studied and selected a
specific plant with a pumping system of the following characteristics: a
flow capacity 8 metric ton/hour and maximum pressure of 15 MPa.
As an ultimate device can be mentioned the weather condition station.
In fact a very important key issue is the monitoring of the weather
condition by means of a local station. It can gives the boundary
condition of the ambient parameters as wind speed, solar heat flux,
temperature, pressure, atmospheric stability etc. these can useful be
used in simulation or recorded and associated to a specific test.

CONCLUSIONS
CO2 anthropogenic pipeline transportation has been recognized as one
of the most promising way to gather captured CO2 from power plants to
permanent underground storage sites for final sequestration or for EOR
applications.
While a lot of efforts have been put in place to develop economically
feasible capture and storage systems, a limited effort has been spent so
far to fill the existing gaps of knowledge in CO2 handling and
transportation in a safely, efficient and convenient manner.
The straightforward application of the know how (design criteria,
material requirements, etc.) developed over the years for natural gas
transmission pipeline as well as the experience gained (especially in
USA) on pure CO2 pipelines for oil recovery applications; this is an
interesting starting point but it is not the final solution, since significant
differences exist when anthropogenic carbon dioxide is transported in
particular due to the effect of the impurities on structural integrity
related issues, particularly fracture control and corrosion-stress
corrosion prevention.
Several projects have been recently launched or are about to be
launched to fill gaps on a tight timeline, with the final aim to issue
guidelines and recommended practices to soon feed the standardization
bodies.
With this scenario several companies have launched an integrated
research approach which for the experimental part is strongly centred
on the new carbon dioxide devoted facilities that CSM is going to
realize in its full scale testing laboratory in Sardinia. These devices are
designed to allow release and leakage as well as fracture propagation
testing involving large amount of CO2 representative of a real pipeline
failure. Specific effort is being spent on design and installation of
suitable instrumentation able to capture all the main parameters of the
event under consideration so to allow, through the test data post
processing, significant improvement of modelling.

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impurities on corrosion of carbon steel in supercritical CO2,
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Hopman,J.(2008), TNO CASTOR - ENCAP - CACHET
DYNAMIIS Common Technical Training CASTOR-SP2 Workshop,
Lyon
2008
(available
at
web
address:

248

McCoy S. (2008) The Economics of CO2 Transport by Pipeline and


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http://www.encapco2.org/papers.htm
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Lucci A, CSM Rome, Spinelli C.M. eni g&p , Tudori P. CCTS (Carbon
Capture Transportation & Storage) Transportation issue,(2011) The 21st
International Offshore (Ocean) and Polar Engineering Conference,
, Maui, Hawaii, USA, ISOPE, Vol 4, www.isope.org

7th EGIG report,(2008), Doc Num EGIG 08.TV-B0502 downloadable


at http://www.egig.nl/, pp 16-25.

ANNEX 1 Table 1 List of existing or in construction carbon dioxide pipelines.

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