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Rapidly Varied Flow

Flow is called rapidly varied flow (RVF) if the flow depth has a large
change over a short distance

Sluice gates
Weirs
Waterfalls
Abrupt changes in cross section

Often characterized by significant 3D and transient effects

Backflows
Separations
Rapidly varied flow has very pronounced curvature of the streamlines.
The change in curvature may become so abrupt that the flow profile is
virtually broken, resulting in a state of high turbulence.

Rapidly Varied Flow-Contd

In view of the contrast with gradually varied flow, the following
characteristic features of rapidly varied flow should be noted:

1. T he Curvature of the flow is so pronounced that the pressure

distribution cannot be assumed to be hydrostatic

2. The rapid variation in flow regime often takes place in a relatively

short reach. Accordingly, the boundary friction, which would
play a primary role in a gradually varied flow, is comparatively
small and in most cases insignificant
3. When rapidly varied flow occurs in a sudden transition structure,
the physical characteristics of the flow are basically fixed by the
boundary geometry of the structure as well as by the state of the
flow

Rapidly Varied Flow-Contd

4.When rapid changes in water area occur in rapidly varied flow, the velocitydistribution coefficients and are usually far greater than unity and a
cannot be accurately determined
5. The separation zones, eddies and rollers that may occur in rapidly varied
flow tend to complicate the flow pattern and to distort the actual velocity
distribution in the stream. In such cases, the flow is actually confined by one
or more separation zones rather than by solid boundaries

Hydraulic Jump
A hydraulic jump is an abrupt change from a shallow, high-speed flow to a
deep, low-speed flow of lower energy.

Under certain conditions it is possible that the fluid depth will change very
rapidly over a short length of the channel without any change in the channel
configuration.
Such changes in depth can be approximated as a discontinuity in
the free surface elevation (dy/dx=). This discontinuity is called
hydraulic jump
A simplest type of hydraulic jump in a horizontal, rectangular channel

Hydraulic Jump-Contd

Across a hydraulic jump

mass is conserved
the momentum principle is satisfied
mechanical energy is lost (mostly as heat)

Hydraulic Jump-Contd

Assume that the flow at sections (1) and (2) is nearly uniform, steady,
and one-dimensional.
From Continuity Equation
The volume flow rate is the same at each section. For a rectangular channel,
per unit width

q = V1Y1 = V2Y2

Hydraulic Jump-Contd
From Momentum Equation:
Net pressure force = Rate of change of momentum
The average pressure is given by:
Pressure force per unit width by:

Pav =

gy

Pav y =

gy 2
2

gy1 2
2

gy 2 2
2

Divide through by g(y1-y2) non-zero

by assumption) and then multiply by y1y2

= q(V2 V1 )

q
1
q
2
2
g y1 y 2 = q
2
y2 y2
1
2 y1 y 2
g ( y1 y 2 )( y1 + y 2 ) = q
2
y1 y 2

Hydraulic Jump-Contd
Divide through by g(y1-y2)(non-zero by assumption) and then multiply by
y1y2

q2
1
y1 y 2 ( y1 + y 2 ) =
g
2

Since we are looking for the depth ratio y2/y1 divide through by: y13

y2 q 2
1 y2
1 + =
2 y1
y1 gy13
The RHS is just V12/gy1 or Fr12 . Hence,

1 y2
y2
1 + = Fr1 2
2 y1
y1
2

y2
2
y
+ 2 2 Fr1 = 0
y1
y1

Hydraulic Jump-Contd
This is a quadratic equation for the depth ratio y2/y1 and its positive root by
the quadratic-equation formula gives the downstream depth in terms of
upstream quantities:

y1
2
y2 = 1 + 1 + 8 Fr1

y2
2
y1 =
1 + 1 + 8 Fr 2

The energy loss

2

v1
v2
y1 +
= y2 +
+ hL
2g
2g

v1
v2
= y2 +
+ hL
y1 +
2g
2g
v1 v2
hL = ( y1 y2 ) +
2g
2

1
q2 1
2 2
h L = ( y1 y2 ) +
2 g y1
y2

Hydraulic Jump-Contd
Since

q2
1
y1 y 2 ( y1 + y 2 ) =
g
2
q2 1
1
2 2
h L = ( y1 y2 ) +
2 g y1
y2
y1 y2 ( y1 + y2 ) 1
1

2
hL = ( y1 y2 ) +
2

4
y2
y1

Simplifying, the above equation, we have the formula for the energy loss as:

(
y2 y1 )
=

hL

4 y1 y2

Where Y1 and Y2 are called sequent

depths/ conjugate depths
For energy to be lost in the jump we require Y2
> Y1; i.e., on energy grounds, a hydraulic jump
will always go from shallow to deep in the
direction of flow.

Classification of Hydraulic Jump

The actual structure of a hydraulic jump is a complex function of Fr1, even
though the depth ratio and head loss are given quite accurately by a simple
one-dimensional flow analysis.
A detailed investigation of the flow indicates that there are essentially five
type of surface and jump conditions.

i)

ii) When mixing of fluids is required

processing plants.

iii) Reduction of velocity e.g. at the base of a dam where large

velocities will result in scouring.
It is, however, undesirable and should not be allowed to occur where
energy dissipation and turbulence are intolerable.

Example
# Water on the horizontal apron of the 100-ft-wide spillway shown in Fig. has
a depth o 0.60 ft and a velocity of 18 ft/s. Determine the depth, y2, after the
jump, the Froude numbers before and after the jump, Fr1 and Fr2, and the
energy loss.

Example
Solution

Conditions across the jump are determined by the upstream Froude

number

A)

B)

Example-Contd
Y2
1
=
1 +
2
Y1

1 + 8 F1

Y2
1
=
1+
2
Y1

2
1 + 8 * (4.10 )

Y2
1
=
1+
2
Y1

1 + 134.48

Y2
1
= ( 1 +
2
Y1

135.48 )

Y2
1
= ( 1 + 11.639)
2
Y1
Y2
1
= (10.639)
2
Y1
Y2
= 5.32
Y1
Y2 = 5.32 0.60 ft
Y2 = 3.19 ft

Example-Contd

C)

V1Y1 18 0.60
V2 =
=
= 3.39 ft
sec
3.19
Y2

D)

E)

hL

3
(
y2 y1 )
=

4 y1 y2

Example-Contd

(3.19 0.6)

hL =

4 3.19 0.6
3
(
1.59 )
hL =
7.656
4.02
hL =
7.656
hL = 0.525

Flow Control and Measurement

Discharge
Weir
sharp crested
Venturi Flume
Spillways
Sluice gates
Velocity-Area-Integration
In open channel flows, flow rate is controlled by partially blocking the
channel.
Weir : liquid flows over device
Underflow gate : liquid flows under device

Weirs
Weirs are elevated structures in open channels that are used to measure
flow and/or control outflow elevations from channels.
There are two types of weirs in common use: Sharp-crested weirs and
Sharp-crested or thin plate, weirs consist of a plastic or metal plate that
is set vertically across the width of the channel.
A sharp-Crested weir is essentially a vertical-edged flat plate placed
across the channel.

Weirs-Contd
Sharp-crested weir plate geometry: (a) rectangular, (b) triangular, (c)
trapezoidal.

Weirs-Contd
The falling sheet of water springing from the weir plate is called the
nappe

Weirs-Contd
Broad-crested weirs have a horizontal crest with a finite length, Lb, in
the flow direction
A weir is classified as broad-crested if-

Streamlines become straight and parallel over a broad-crested weir, with

the critical depth occurring at some point over the crest.
Various cross-sectional shapes, such as parabolic and triangular, are
possible for broad-crested weirs. Most common is rectangular broad
crested weir

Discharge over a Weir

Where :
H: Head over the crest/Water surface
elevation above the crest
Z: Height of the Weir

2
1

2
2

V
V
= y2 +
y1 +
2g
2g

and

y2=0

V2 = 2 gy1 + V

2
1

2
1

V
y1 +
=H
2g
2

V2
H=
2g

V = 2 gH

V2 = 2 gH

Assume V1=0

Discharge through the element:

dQ = VdA = 2 gH LdH

Discharge over a Weir-Contd

Integrate across the head (0 - H):

Q = 2g L H

Total discharge across the weir:

1/ 2

2
dH =
2 g LH 3 / 2
3

2
Q = Cd
2 g LH 3 / 2 = CLH 3 / 2
3

Losses due to the advent of the drawdown of the flow immediately upstream
of the weir as well as any other friction or contraction losses; To account for
these losses, a coefficient of discharge Cd is introduced.

2
Q = Cd
2 g LH 3 / 2 = CLH 3 / 2
3

C d = 0.611 + 0.08H / Z

Discharge over a Weir-Contd

2
Q = Cd
2 g LH 3 / 2 = CLH 3 / 2
3

C d = 0.611 + 0.08H / Z

Use this equation up to H/Z = 2

where,
H- is the head on the weir crest,
Z- is the height of the weir.
L- Crest Width

Example
#A broad-crested weir has a crest length of 0.75m, crest width of 1.0 m, and
crest height of 0.30 m. The water surface at the approach section is 0.20m
above the crest . Determine the Discharge.
Solution

L = 1m
H = 0.2m
Z = 0.3m

2
Q = Cd
2 g LH 3 / 2 = CLH 3 / 2
3

C d = 0.611 + 0.08H / Z

Example-Contd
0.2
C d = 0.611 + 0.08

0.3
C d = 0.611 + 0.08(0.667 )
C d = 0.611 + 0.053
C d = 0.664

Q = CLH

2
C = 0.664 2 9.81
3
C = 0.664 0.667 4.43
C = 1.96
3

Q = 1.96 1 0.21.5
Q = 1.96 1 0.089
Q = 0.175 m 3 s