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volu m e v ii : g l o s s a ry of t e r m s f r om a l e s t o z y m u r g y



be e r : a r e f e r e n c e g u i de



volu m e v ii : g l o s s a ry of t e r m s f r om a l e s t o z y m u r g y

Acetaldehyde A flavorful compound produced during
the fermentation process when the yeast digests sugars. At higher concentrations, it may affect a beers flavor. At low-concentration rates, it can taste like green
apples; at high concentration latex paint.
Acidic Relatively high in acid, slightly tart. Can be refreshing and bright or sour.
Acrospire The first sprout appearing in the germination of seed.
Adjunct A thing added to something else, but secondary in importance or not essential. In beer making,
adjuncts such as unmalted corn, rice, oats, wheat, inverted sugar or glucose are used in place of barley malt
as additional carbohydrate sources to make a paler and
lighter-bodied brew. See also volume ii: ingredients.
Aftertaste A palate sensation that occurs after the
beer has been swallowed.
Alcohol Beverage Any beverage containing ethyl alcohol, produced by the fermentation of sugars, such
as beer, wine or mead, or by the distillation of these
Alcohol by Volume/Alcohol by Weight The percentage of alcohol in a beer or other alcohol beverage. Alcohol by volume is the percentage volume of alcohol in the
total volume of the beverage. Alcohol by weight is the
percentage weight of the alcohol in the total weight of
the beverage. Alcohol by weight is lower than alcohol by
volume because alcohol is less dense than water or beer.
Four percent alcohol by weight approximately equals 5
percent by volume. As a general rule of thumb, multiply
alcohol by volume by 0.8 to get alcohol by weight.
Ale 1) Probably derived from the Norse oel, which
originally referred to fermented malt beverages that
were not flavored by hops. By that definition, in the
earliest times all such beverages would have been ale.
When the use of hops as a flavoring agent became
prevalent, such hopped brews were identified as beer.
Today, beer usually identifies lager specifically bottom-fermenting brews and the entire class of malt
beverages in general, while the term ale applies only to
top-fermented brews. 2) A beer produced by rapid fermentation at warmer temperatures (65 degrees Fahrenheit) than those used for lagers and with a shorter
storage time. These beers are generally darker in color
than lagers due to the more heavily roasted malts
used in the brewing process. They generally possess
a strong hop flavor and may be quite bitter in taste. 3)
The true ale, originally brewed in the British Isles,
uses an entirely different strain of yeast which, instead
of settling, floats to the top of the beer (top-fermenting), is fermented warmer and is not aged. See also volume iv: beer styles.

Alpha Acid One of the two major resins in hops. Alpha

acid is responsible for most of the bitterness in beer
after hops have isomerized in the brew kettle, at which
point it is called iso-alpha acid.
Alpha-Amylase A diastatic enzyme produced by
malting barley, which converts starch into carbohydrates called dextrins. The dextrins are then converted
into fermentable sugars by the enzyme beta-amylase.
Altbier Having a high hop content and bitter taste, an
old ale that originated in northern Germany.
Amino Acids Compounds which, when linked together, form protein or are in effect small proteins
themselves. There are some 50 different known amino
Amylolytic Enzyme An organic substance that converts starch into soluble substances, such as sugars.
Anaerobic Fermentation A generic name for any fermentation that takes place without oxygen. In making
beer, it occurs after eight to 12 hours of primary fermentation as well as in secondary fermentation, or
Aroma 1) Fragrance, usually in a pleasant sense. 2)
Applied to a beverage, it is the component of the odor
that derives from the ingredients of the beverage and
flavor-active byproducts of the fermentation process.
Aromatic Of or having an aroma, usually in the sense
of being particularly fragrant, sweet or spicy.
Astringent A mouthfeel sensation described as contraction or shrinking of tissue in the mouth. To understand astringency, bite a grape stem or banana peel.
Attenuation In a brewery, the unfermentable extract in
wort or beer by a balling measurement (See also balling).
For example, a wort sample with an attenuation of 3 degrees balling cannot be fermented to a final extract level
any lower than that corresponding to a 3 degrees balling.
Balance The feature of a beer concerned with the balance of various flavors, aromas, tastes and sensations.
Balance Tank Surge tank before or after a brewing operation, such as a filter, used to stabilize the beer supply
into or out of that operation.
Balling A measure of the density of wort or beer. Degrees balling (or Plato) corresponds to the percentage
of sugar in water and is used to measure the extract in
wort or in beer. Ballings may be determined by a hydrometer or balling spindle which floats in the liquid
at a level corresponding to sugar content (See also hydrometer), by a refractometer where a beam of light is
deflected in direct proportion to the amount of sugar or
by numerous methods of modern instrumentation that
measure density.


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Barley A cereal grass with bearded spikes of flowers
as its seed or grain. Barley is the most suitable cereal
grain for making malt beverages. It provides starch,
enzymes, flavor, foam, body and color. See also volume
ii: ingredients.
Barley Wine A strongly flavored ale that dates back
to the ancient Egyptians. Todays barley wine remains
strong in flavor and alcohol (often 8 to 14 percent), assertive of both sweetness and bitterness in the nose
and the mouth.
Barrel 1) A wooden cylindrical container with flat ends
and sides that bulge outward, usually made of wooden
staves bound with metal bands. 2) Traditional measure of beer volume equal to 31 U.S. gallons.
Batch Fermentation The most common, traditional
method of fermentation used to produce alcohol beverages where each batch is fermented separately.
Beer The generic name for alcohol beverages made
when yeast ferments extracts from cereal grains and
other starchy materials. Known to the Egyptians, Babylonians and probably earlier civilizations, beer became
the common beverage in Northern climates not conducive to grape cultivation. Although beer and wines are
both fermented and undistilled, wine is made from basic
materials rich in natural sugar, while beer is made from
materials high in starch content. These starches must be
converted to sugar before fermentation can occur.
Beer Stone Grayish-brown deposit formed from calcium and fermentation byproducts on the surface of
equipment in prolonged contact with beer.
Beery 1) That typical of beer. 2) As an aroma, one that
is generally yeasty and malty, but having a noticeable
level of hops.
Beta Acid One of the two major resins in hops. Beta
acids contribute very little to the bitterness of beer.
Beta-Amylase A diastatic enzyme produced by malting barley to convert dextrins and soluble starches into
fermentable sugars.
Biddle A small vessel traditionally used to measure the
amount of yeast to be proportioned into the wort for
the proper pitching rate.
Biochemical Pathway A sequence of chemical reactions, each of which is catalyzed by an enzyme supplied by microorganisms. Brewing takes advantage of
biochemical pathways.
Birch Beer A nonalcohol, usually carbonated beverage
flavored with oils of wintergreen, sweet birch or sassafras.
Bitter The tangy, basic taste in beer that results from
hops. Without the bitterness, a beer has no zest. With

too much bitterness, a beer is hard and biting.

Black Malt Partly malted barley of moderate nitrogen
content (1.5 percent) that is germinated for four to
six days, kiln-dried down to 2 to 5 percent moisture,
then roasted in a coke or gas-heated rotating drum at
a high temperature (450 degrees Fahrenheit) for two
to two-and-one-half hours. It is used in small amounts
in stouts and dark beers to which it contributes a burnt
or caramelized flavor. Since it contains no fermentable
sugar, all the solids extracted from it remain in the finished beer.
Bock Beer 1) A very strong beer originally brewed by
top fermentation in the Hanseatic town of Eiubeck in
Lower Saxon, where it is still brewed and known as
Ur-Bock, the original bock. 2) A dark lager type of beer
using caramelized or burnt malt for color, usually with
more body than typical lighter lager beers. Traditionally
brewed in the spring, bock beer has sometimes been
associated with Sagittarius since bock is German for
goat. German bock beers are now brewed by bottom
fermentation and are usually dark brown. See also volume iv: beer styles.
Body The mouth-filling property of a beer. Taken to
the extreme, stout has a heavy or full body; pale lowcalorie beer may be thin or watery.
Bottle-Conditioned Beer aged in the bottle.
Bottom Fermentation One of the two basic methods
of fermentation for beer, characterized by the fact that
dormant yeast cells sink to the bottom during the process. Beers brewed in this fashion are commonly called
lagers, or bottom-fermented beers.
Bouquet That portion of the aroma caused by byproducts of the fermentation process.
Brandhefe Reddish-brown deposits of yeast, hop resins and proteins on the top and sides of fermentation
vessels above the beer level.
Break The coagulation and precipitation of protein and
tannin matter during the boiling stage (hot break) and
cooling stage (cold break) in wort.
Brewer One who brews. The leading brewer at a brewery is called the brewmaster.
Brewers Grains Synonym for spent grains. See also
spent grains.
Brewers Yeast Yeast specifically prepared for brewing beer. Two main types of yeast are used: one ferments at the top of the brew and the other ferments at
the bottom. Brewers yeast may be gathered from the
previous brew or purchased in dry or liquid form. See
also volume ii: ingredients.
Brewery A brewing plant; a place where beer is made.


volu m e v ii : g l o s s a ry of t e r m s f r om a l e s t o z y m u r g y

Brewhouse The section of a brewery where the actual
brewing or mashing takes place.
Brew Kettle A large vessel, similar in shape to a mash
tank or tun, made of copper or stainless steel, in which
the wort is heated for one to two hours by steam coils,
calandria or through a jacketed bottom.
Brink A refrigerated yeast storage tank for holding the
yeast prior to its use in pitching.
Budding The most common form of yeast cell reproduction. The cell increases in size, forming a rounded
outgrowth that eventually separates into a daughter
cell. See also volume ii: ingredients.
Buttery A palate sensation of butter or butterscotch,
caused by the presence of diacetyl, a natural fermentation byproduct. While acceptable in certain ale styles,
diacetyl is considered an indicator of immature beer.
Lagering reduces it to very low levels.
Calorie 1) Measure of energy required to do work. One
calorie equals the heat required to raise one kilogram
of water by 1 degree Celsius. 2) Human-body intake
and energy expenditure are measured in calories. A 12ounce portion of regular beer has approximately 150
calories. Light beers generally contain 100 calories.
Caramel Malt Malt prepared from fully modified
sugar-rich barley that is lightly steeped, kiln-dried,
resteeped and heat-dried again at temperatures of 150
to 170 degrees Fahrenheit for one to two hours, thus
converting the soluble starches within the grain into
sugar as in mashing. The temperature is then increased
to about 250 degrees Fahrenheit. Caramel malt is
available in pale (cara-pils) to dark colors and is used in
small amounts (5 to 15 percent) to impart sweetness,
aroma and a coppery color to beer.
Caramelize To turn into caramel; a burnt sugar.

Cereal Cooker A vessel in which cereal adjuncts

(wheat, rye, oats or corn) boil prior to their addition to
the mash.
Cerveza Spanish for beer.
Chill Haze Cloudiness caused by a combination and
precipitation of protein matter and tannin molecules
during secondary fermentation. It becomes visible
when beer is refrigerated too fast, too cold or too long.
It soon disappears once the beer warms up.
Chill-Proofing 1) A treatment applied to finished beer
to prevent the formation of chill haze. 2) To stabilize or
eliminate protein compounds to maintain beer clarity.
Cidery Taste and smell reminiscent of fermented apples or citrus fruits.
CIP 1) Acronym for clean in place. 2) A system of automatic cleaning, using high-velocity flows of caustic
solution through lines and vessels, followed by a clean
water rinse.
Clarification The process of removing suspended particles from the cloudy wort or the finished beer through
mechanical (filtration, centrifugation) or chemical
means (by adding proteolytic or pectolytic enzymes or
flocculating agents).
Clarify To clear of particulate matter, either naturally
with settling or through filtration or finishing.
Clarity The degree to which the beer has no particulate matter in its solution, ranging from clear to cloudy.
Cloying 1) Too sweet or rich. 2) An intense, thick
Cold Break The coagulation of protein and tannin material during the wort cooling stage. It starts around
140 degrees Fahrenheit and increases as the temperature drops.

Carbohydrate 1) Any one of a group of compounds

made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that has two
atoms of hydrogen for every atom of oxygen. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches and celluloses. 2) Carbohydrates in finished beer are predominantly those
unfermentable substances from the wort.

Cooling The process of lowering the temperature of

boiled wort prior to fermentation. In top fermentation,
the wort is cooled to 55 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. In
bottom fermentation, it is cooler, often 40 to 45 degrees Fahrenheit.

Carbon Dioxide (COb) Arising from the yeast during

fermentation, a natural, inert gas that gives beer its

Cream Ale A blend of top- and bottom-fermented

beers, usually more of the latter, resulting in a sweet
and lightly hop-flavored drink. See also volume iv: beer

Carbonation Carbon dioxide dissolved in the beer.

When saturated, carbon dioxide gas will be released
if the temperature is increased or the pressure reduced.
Cast or Knockout Wort Boiled wort.

Cooperage Draught beer containers. (See also kegs.)

Dark Beer A general name for dark-colored beers that

resemble the hue of caramelized or roasted malt. The
ingredient licorice is partly responsible for the blackish
color of some beers, such as porter.

Celite Brand name of diatomaceous earth, a substance

used in filtering.


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Decoction Mashing One of three brewing methods
and the one used for bottom-fermenting beers. The
process requires three vessels: a mash tank or tun for
mash mixing, a mash kettle (or copper or mash copper)
for boiling and a lauter tun (or clarifying tun) for straining. Mashing takes place in a mash tun and starts at a
low temperature while portions of the mash are taken
out and boiled in the mash kettle and later returned to
the mash tun.
Dextrin A complex, unfermentable carbohydrate produced by the partial hydrolysis of starch through the
action of alpha-amylases during mashing. Dextrins
contribute to the final gravity and body of beer. Some
dextrins remain undissolved in the finished beer, giving
it a malty sweetness and round body.

Enzyme Naturally occurring, complex compounds.

When in solution, enzymes produce chemical changes
in other compounds without resulting in changes to the
enzyme itself. Enzymes are sensitive to heat and undergo deactivation at about 112 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit.
Essential Oil A volatile, aromatic, oily compound
found in plants, especially hops.
Esters Volatile flavor compounds, which form during
fermentation through the interaction of organic acids
with alcohols. These contribute to the fruity aroma and
flavor of beer.
Ethanol Also known as ethyl alcohol, one of many
compounds classified as alcohol, but synonymous with
the common definition of alcohol as contained in beer.

Dextrose 1) A crystalline sugar found in plants and

animals. 2) In beer, a substance produced from starch
during the conversion of barley into malt.

Extract The total amount of dissolved materials in the

sweet wort after mashing and lautering malted barley
and sometimes malt adjuncts such as corn and rice.

Diatomaceous Earth (DE) Deposits created by the

skeletons of plankton-like marine algae, which are
mined for many useful purposes, in addition to serving
as the primary filtration media in brewing and in many
other industries. The substance also appears in face
powders and serves as a mild abrasive in toothpastes.

Fermentation In malt beverages, it is the decomposition of sugar into ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide and
other flavor compounds by the yeast. See also esters.

Doppelbock In Germany, a beer much stronger than

a simple bock, but not necessarily doubly so. See also
volume iv: beer styles.
Dortmunder A style of lager beer much the same as
Pilsner, developed in Dortmund, Germany.
Draught (or Draft) 1) Beer drawn from a keg. 2) The
act of drawing beer from a keg.
Dry Not sweet.
Dry Beer Beer with a more or less pronounced dry
taste. These beers are usually brewed like other beers,
but with a higher degree of fermentation, resulting in
a slightly lower calorie and alcohol content in the finished product.
Dry Hopping The addition of loose, dry hops to the
primary fermentor (after the wort has cooled to below
75 degrees Fahrenheit) or to the secondary fermentor
to increase the aroma and hop character of the finished
beer without affecting its bitterness.
Effervescence A bubbling up or foaming as gas escapes.
Endosperm The starch-containing sac of the barley
grain. The endosperm constitutes 80 to 85 percent of the
dry weight of the grain. Part of this starch serves as a food
reserve for the growing embryo, while the remainder constitutes the bulk of the extract during mashing.

Fermentor The vessel in which primary fermentation

takes place.
Filtration The passage of a liquid through a permeable
or porous substance to remove solid matter in suspension.
Fining A process of speeding up the clarification of
a malt beverage (or wine). Fining usually involves the
addition of fining agents, such as isinglass, enzymes,
gelatin (all coagulants) or bentonite or cellulose (mechanical fining agents).
Fire Brewing A traditional brewing method using direct fire to heat the brew kettle rather than steam or
hot water, thus producing heavier caramelization on
the direct-fired surface.
First Wort 1) The clarified extract strained from the
mash to the brew kettle prior to sparging. 2) The first
runnings of wort to be filtered in the straining vessel. It
is richer in extract than subsequent runnings.
Flat Beer lacking in amplitude and lift because it has
little or no effervescence.
Flavor The qualities of a substance that give it its characteristic taste.
Flocculation The phenomenon by which yeast cells
aggregate into masses toward the end of the fermentation cycle and drop. Certain yeast cells sink to the
bottom of the fermentor, thus contributing to the clarification of the beer. The ability of yeast (either top- or
bottom-fermenting) to flocculate varies with the strain
of yeast.


volu m e v ii : g l o s s a ry of t e r m s f r om a l e s t o z y m u r g y

Foremasher Device used to moisten milled malt before it enters the mash vessel. Foremashing helps prevent light material from floating on top of the mash.

Imperial Gallon A capacity measure in the United

Kingdom and the Commonwealth equivalent to 1.2
U.S. gallons or 4 liters.

Full-Bodied Quality in a beer that is rich and mouthfilling as opposed to one that is thin-bodied and watery.

India Pale Ale An ale of the type produced for British

troops serving in India during the last century. It was
produced strong and dry-hopped so it could survive
the long passage to India, which took more than six
months and involved equatorial crossings. See also volume iv: beer styles.

Gallon A liquid measure equaling four quarts, 128

ounces or 3.785 liters.
Gelatinize To bring starches to a soluble state for conversion during mashing.
Germination Beginning of vegetation or growth in
seeds. The malting process for barley is designed to
begin the germination process, then stop it at a critical
time to allow brewers to use the plants natural starches in the production of beer.
Grant Small vessel between the straining tank (tun)
and the brew kettle from which the runoff of the wort is
controlled and sampled.
Green Beer Young or immature beer, fresh from its
first fermentation, before it has undergone lagering.
Gypsum Calcium sulfate, a naturally occurring calcium
compound found in the earth and mined for a variety of
uses. Often used in brewing to increase calcium in water for yeast nutrition and for increased beer stability.
Hansel Often referred to as last hansel, the final
spargings, or measurement of extract remaining in
the wort going to the brew kettle at the conclusion of
High-Gravity Refers to the common practice of brewing and fermenting a concentrated brewhouse wort
and adjusting this beer to its final gravity or composition at the end of the process. High-gravity brewing
permits better use of equipment, can increase the capacity of a brewery and helps maintain better consistency of the strength of the final product.
Hops The dried, ripe cones of the female flowers of a
climbing-vine member of the nettle family. The resin
from the cones is used for aromatic flavoring, bittering
and preserving beer. See also volume ii: ingredients.
Hot Break The coagulation of protein matter from the
wort during boiling in the brew kettle.
Humulon(e) Synonym for alpha acid, one of the two
major resins found in hops. It is composed of humulone, cohumulone and adhumulone. See also volume ii:
Hydrometer A glass instrument for measuring the
specific gravity of liquids as compared to that of water.
Hydrometers consist of a graduated stern resting on a
weighted float.

Iodine Test Test used in brewing to check conversion of

the mash. A drop of iodine is added to a small sample of
mash. The sample turns dark blue if unconverted starch
remains; it remains unchanged if completely converted.
Kettle Break Formation of coagulated protein and hop
compounds during boiling in the brew kettle.
Kieselguhr Commercial German name for diatomaceous earth. Root word from which the term K filtration is derived to describe diatomaceous earth filtration.
Kiln 1) A large furnace for drying, hardening or burning,
it has application in the preparation of hops for brewing. 2) A drying oven to produce malt.
Knock-Out To empty the brew kettle.
Kraeusening A secondary fermentation whereby
young, fermenting wort (approximately 15 to 18 percent) is added to a fully fermented lager to accomplish
a natural infusion of carbon dioxide.
Lace Curtain The lacelike pattern of bubble sticking
to a glass of beer once it has been partially or totally
Lager Beer 1) From the German word lagern, which
means to store. Lagering, or aging, is a slow extension
of the main fermentation to mature beer flavor, usually
colder and under carbon dioxide pressure. Lager beers
are fermented with a yeast strain, which settles after
fermentation (bottom-fermenting or lager yeast). All
bottom-fermented beers are considered lagers as they
are aged or stored for a period of time at cold temperatures (40 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit) in lager tanks. 2) A
generic term for any beer produced by bottom-fermentation yeast, usually by decoction mashing, as opposed
to top-fermented beers called ales, usually produced
by infusion mashing. Lager brewing was introduced in
the 1840s and is now the predominant brewing method worldwide. See also volume iv: beer styles.
Lagering Storing (aging) bottom-fermented beer
in cold cellars at near-zero temperatures for periods
of time ranging from a few weeks to several months
and occasionally up to one year, during which time the
yeast cells and proteins settle out and the beer taste


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Lambic A unique Belgian wheat beer produced only
southwest of Brussels in a 15-kilometer radius in the
area called Pajottenand. Lambic is traditionally brewed
in winter from Oct. 15 to May 15 because at that
time, a microflora develops in the atmosphere of the
Senne River valley that is introduced into the beer. In
addition, the first few months of fermentation must not
be too vigorous. See also volume iv: beer styles.
Lauter Tun A large vessel fitted with a false, slotted
bottom and a drain spigot into which the mash settles
and the liquid wort is removed from the solid particulate through a straining process.
Lautering Straining of the mash to separate and clarify
the wort. Comes from the German word meaning clear.
Light Beer 1) Beer with a reduced calorie and carbohydrate content. Significant calorie reduction requires
some corresponding reduction in the alcohol content
as well. Light beers typically contain 90 to 150 calories
per bottle. 2) A low-alcohol beer ranging from 2.3 to
3.2 percent alcohol by weight. See also volume iv: beer
Malt Barley that has been steeped in water to produce
sprouting and enzyme production, then kiln-dried.
Malt Extract A thick, sugary syrup or dry powder prepared from malt. Basically, it is a sweet wort reduced to
a syrup or powder form by removing most or all of the
water by low-vacuum vaporization.
Malt Liquor Lager-type beer which generally has higher alcohol content than regular lager beers. See also
volume iv: beer styles.
Malting The process of converting barley into malt. It
is divided into three stages: 1) Steeping the barley is immersed in water until it reaches a chosen moisture level.
2) Germination the wet barley is allowed to germinate
under controlled conditions. 3) Kilning the germinated
barley (green malt) is heat-dried and partly cooked.
Maltose 1) Malt sugar comprised of two glucose units
and produced by the action of enzymes from malt on
starch. 2) Principal source of fermentable extract in
brewing. See also dextrose.
Mrzen(bier) In Germany, before the advent of artificial refrigeration, beer was brewed in winter and
the last batch, brewed in March, was made especially
strong to survive the many months of maturation before it was drunk at the end of the summer. See also
volume iv: beer styles.
Mash Crushed or ground malt soaked in water for
making wort.
Mash In Mixing of milled materials with water to begin
the mashing process.

Mash Kettle A large vessel wherein the mash is boiled

for the decoction brewing method.
Mash Out (Off) Transfer of completed total mash to
straining vessel.
Mead An ancient drink of fermented honey and water.
See also volume iv: beer styles.
Melanoidins Dark-colored (brown or black) organic
compounds which form during kilning and kettle boil
through a complex series of chemical reactions (called
Maillard reactions) involving amino acids (protein) and
Metallic An ironlike flavor in a beer that could be
caused by either its container or a flaw in the brewing
process. Sometime an overage beer will take on metallic flavors, even in a bottle.
Milling In brewing, the malt is ground into grist (or
meal) to facilitate the extraction of sugars and other
soluble substances during the mashing process. The
endosperm must be crushed to medium-sized grits
rather than flour consistency. It is important that the
husks remain intact when the grain is milled or cracked
because they will later aid filtering during lautering.
Millipore Filtration A type of filtration process sometimes used instead of pasteurization.
Modification 1) The physical and chemical changes
occurring in barley during malting. Physically, the grain
is rendered millable. Chemically, complex molecules
are broken down to simpler, soluble ones by the formation of hydrolytic enzymes, which later begin to break
down the starchy endosperm and its cell walls. 2) The
degree to which malt has been converted during the
malting process as determined by the extent of the
growth of the acrospire.
Mnchener A bottom-fermented style of beer produced in the mid-19th century in the Bavarian city of
Munich. The original Mnchener was dark. In 1928,
the Paulaner Brewery introduced a paler version, called
Helles, that almost has entirely overtaken the darker
brew. See also volume iv: beer styles.
Near Beer A beerlike beverage brewed either to be
nonalcohol or to have low-alcohol content from 0.5
percent up to 2 percent.
Nose 1) The total sensation in the nose. 2) The total
effect of the beers odor. 3) The combination of aroma
and bouquet.
Original Gravity (OG) 1) A measure of the total
amount of solids dissolved in the wort. 2) The alcohol content and extract remaining in a beer defines a
unique original gravity or OG for that beer. The OG is
expressed as the wort balling.


volu m e v ii : g l o s s a ry of t e r m s f r om a l e s t o z y m u r g y

Oxidation Term used in brewing to express the
degradation of beer flavor with time. Warm storage
temperatures and the presence of air accelerate oxidation.
Package The container that holds the beer, either
a bottle or can; otherwise, beer is on draught or tap.
Packaged beer is usually pasteurized, sterile, filtered or
flash pasteurized.
Pale Ale In England, an amber- or copper-colored, topfermented beer brewed with very hard water and pale
malts. This is the bottled equivalent of bitters, but drier,
hoppier and lighter. The adjective pale simply distinguishes it from darker brews, such as brown ale, stout
and porter. See also volume iv: beer styles.
Particulate Matter Particles held in suspension in
the liquid, such as protein matter, dead yeast cells and
grain fragments.
Pasteurization Unit (PU) A measure of the lethal effect on organisms during pasteurization. One PU equals
one minute of exposure at 140 degrees Fahrenheit.
Pasteurize To subject packaged beer to a temperature
of 142 to 145 degrees Fahrenheit for a specified time
to destroy enzymes, yeast and other bacteria, thereby
prolonging the products shelf life.

Porter A heavy, darker ale, but sweeter and less hoppy

than regular ale. Porters were first made in England in
the 18th century. See also volume iv: beer styles.
Premium A term used by brewers to indicate the top
of their product lines.
Primary Fermentation The first stage of fermentation
lasting from two to seven days, during which most of
the fermentable sugars are converted to ethyl alcohol
and carbon dioxide gas. See also volume iii: the brewing process.
Prohibition A law instituted by the 18th Amendment
(Volstead Act) on Jan. 18, 1920, forbidding the sale,
production, importation and transportation of alcohol
beverages in the United States. The 21st Amendment
repealed it on Dec. 5, 1933.
Prohibition Era The 13 years, 10 months and 18 days
during which the 18th Amendment remained in force.
Protein An organic compound in animal and plant tissues, basically composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. All proteins are composed of
large configurations of 20 amino acids. Proteins are
responsible for the head retention and body of beer,
and amino acids are a nutritional source for fermenting yeast.

pH Measure of the acidity or alkalinity of any liquid.

The pH scale of 0 to 14 is used, with 0 to 1 indicating
a very strong acid, 13 to 14 a strong alkali and 7 totally

Proteolytic Enzyme An organic substance that converts proteins into soluble substances.

Pils A synonym for pilsner.

Racking Filling of draught beer barrels or cooperage.

Pilsner Beer 1) A general name for beers that are pale,

golden-hued, highly hopped, and bottom-fermented.
2) The original pilsner was first brewed at the BrgerLiches Brauhaus in the Bohemian town of Pilzen (meaning green meadow) in 1842. It was then the palest beer
available and the style was soon copied worldwide. See
also volume iv: beer styles.

Rauchbier A beer with a unique smoked flavor made

from the malts that are dried over an open fire, peat or
beechwood. See also volume iv: beer styles.

Pitching The addition of yeast to cooled wort. The ideal

pitching temperature for top-fermenting yeast is usually
55 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit, whereas that for bottomfermenting yeast is often 40 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
Pitching Rate The amount of yeast used to ferment
a single batch of beer. It is usually expressed in either
pounds of yeast per barrel or the numbers of yeast cells
per milliliter of wort.
Plato Similar to the balling reading on a spindle
(percentage of sugar concentration of a solution), but
calculated for 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit) instead of 17.5 degrees Celsius (63.5 degrees
Fahrenheit). This reading is more accurate than the
balling number, although both designations are used
interchangeably in a brewery.

Pub A business establishment in Great Britain whose

principal wares are malt beverages.

Reinheitsgebot A German law, the title of which signifies pledge of purity or order of purity, governing
the production and quality of beer in Germany. William
IV, the Elector of Bavaria, decreed in 1516 that only water, malted barley and hops could be used to make beer.
Yeast was not included, but was taken for granted. The
use of adjuncts and adjustment water required to brew
heavier, gravity beers are considered additives under
this law.
Release To transfer finished, filtered beer to packaging
or racking operations.
Resin The gummy organic substance produced by
certain plants and trees. Humulone and lupulone, for
example, are bitter resins produced by the hop flower.
Roasted Barley Unmalted barley that has been kilned
to a dark brown color similar to that of chocolate or
black malt, but with a different flavor.


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Roasted Malt Malt made from barley heated sequentially, starting at a lower temperature, then raised in
increments. The malt acquires a brilliant external appearance, while the endosperm becomes black. Roasted
malt is used to flavor and color stout and dark beers.
Saccharification The natural process through which
malt starch is converted into fermentable sugars,
mainly maltose.
Saccharometer A form of hydrometer for measuring
the amount of sugar in a solution.
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Scientific name for topfermenting yeast. Compared to bottom-fermenting
yeast, ale yeast ferments more rapidly and has a higher
alcohol tolerance. However, it does not convert dextrins (sugars) as well, which means it yields sweeter
Saccharomyces Carlsbergensis Scientific name for
bottom-fermenting yeast. See also saccharomyces
Saccharomyces Uvarum Scientific name for bottomfermenting yeast. See also saccharomyces carlsbergensis.
Sak A traditional Japanese fermented drink made
from rice. Contrary to popular belief, sak is neither a
spirit (it is not distilled) nor a wine (it is not macerated),
but rather a special type of beer brewed from a cereal
base. The rice is washed, steamed and fermented with
a yeastlike fungus. Primary fermentation takes from 30
to 40 days, after which more rice and water is added to
generate a secondary fermentation lasting eight to 10
days with a special saccharomyces yeast. Sak is colorless and slightly hazy, lacks carbonation and is often
served warm. See also volume iv: beer styles.
Scotch Ale A top-fermented beer of Scottish origin,
but now also produced in Belgium and France with an
alcohol content of 7 or 8 percent by volume. Scotch ales
are traditionally strong, very dark, thick and creamy.
See also volume iv: beer styles.
Secondary Fermentation A second, slower stage of
fermentation carried out in closed vessels at 44 to 48
degrees Fahrenheit for about 22 days.
Shandy A mixture of beer and lemonade, popular in
England, which is typically lower in alcohol strength.
Silica Gel A chillproofing agent made from sand, which
has the unique ability to remove haze-forming proteins
from beer.
Six-Row Barley A variety of barley having three rows
of fertile spikelets at each node on which six rows of
grain ultimately form. Because it has a thicker husk
and a less-well-developed grain than two-row barley,

it yields less extract but normally contains higher enzyme activity.

Skunky Like the peculiar aroma of a skunk. The reaction of natural hopped beers when light of certain
wavelengths leaves the isoalpha acids, which react
to form a mercaptan, with its very strong and peculiar
Souring The spoiling of beer caused by bacteria contamination.
Sparge Water The fine spray of hot water used for
Sparging In lautering, an operation consisting of
spraying the spent grains in the mash with hot water
to retrieve the liquid malt sugar remaining in the grain
husks. To prevent the mash from packing, the sparging
volume of water must equal the volume of wort coming out the base of the mash tun, thus maintaining a
constant level.
Specific Gravity A measurement of the weight percentage of dissolved solids in 60 degrees Fahrenheit water,
calculated in Plato or Balling. Specific gravity is used to
calculate the amount of extract in wort or beer.
Spent Grains The solid residue remaining after the
wort has been removed by lautering the mash. Usually high in protein (25 percent), spent grains serve as
cattle feed.
Starch A white, tasteless but complex carbohydrate
made of strings of glucose molecules linked in a chainlike structure. Starches are natures primary means of
storing food in plants. They then convert to sugars by
enzyme activity. Barley starch is enclosed in the endosperm and constitutes 63 to 65 percent of the weight
of two-row barley and about 58 percent of that of sixrow barley.
Steam Beer A beer produced by hybrid fermentation, using bottom-fermenting yeast at top-fermenting
yeast temperatures (60 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit).
Fermentation takes place in long, shallow, panlike
vessels called clarifiers, followed by arm conditioning
at 50 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit and kraeusening. This
style of beer is indigenous to America and was first
produced at the end of the 19th century during the
Gold Rush in California, where temperatures were too
warm for proper fermentation of bottom yeasts. At one
time, as many as 27 breweries made steam beer in San
Francisco. It is presently brewed by the Anchor Steam
Brewing Co. under the registered trademark of Steam
Beer, a highly hopped, amber-colored, foamy beer
containing 3.8 percent alcohol by weight (4.7 percent
alcohol by volume).


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Steeping To prepare grain for germination by soaking
in water.

3.2 Beer Beers that contain less than 3.2 percent alcohol by weight (approximately 4 percent by volume).

Sterile Free of living organisms, especially microorganisms bacteria, molds and yeasts.

Tied House In England, a pub, inn or restaurant under

agreement to buy all its beer from a single brewer. Tied
houses are often owned by the brewer.

Stout A rich, dark brew made from roasted malt, often

with the addition of caramelized sugar and a reasonably high proportion of hops. See also volume iv: beer
Sugar A generic name for a class of carbohydrates, including fructose, glucose, maltose and lactose. Without qualification, it invariably refers to sucrose.

Synonym for sun flavor or lightstruck;

Sweet Stout The English version of stout as opposed

to the dry stout of Ireland. It has a slightly lactic flavor
and contains less alcohol than dry stout.
Sweet Wort The sugary liquid obtained by mashing
and sparging malt.
Sweetwater Additional spargings drawn from the
straining vessel after the brew kettle has been filled.
This low-extract wort can be used in mashing of another brew and reduce the raw materials required by
the amount of extract recovered in the sweetwater.
Swimmer Term used to sometimes describe the cooling coils for attemperating a fermentor. This carries
over from the days before mechanical refrigeration
when blocks of ice called swimmers controlled fermentation temperatures.
Tannin Any of a group of organic compounds contained in certain grains and other plants. Hop tannins
have the ability to help precipitate haze-forming protein materials during the boiling (hot break) and cooling (cold break) of the wort. Tannin is present mainly
in the bracts and twigs of the hop cone and imparts
an astringent taste to beer. Also called hop tannin as
opposed to tannins originating from malted barley. The
greater part of the tannin content in wort derives from
malt husks, but malt tannins differ chemically from hop
Tap 1) The lever that releases the beer from a tapped
keg. 2) To tap, or open, a keg of draught beer. 3) A taproom, a place where draught beer is served.
Tapping To begin emptying a brewing vessel or to begin straining.
Taste Test A test carried out in the industry to evaluate a new product or changes in an existing product,
usually held by a panel of experts and sometimes consumers.
Tavern A place where alcohol beverages are sold for
consumption on the premises.

Top Fermentation One of the two most basic fermentation methods characterized by the fact that dormant
yeast cells rise to the surface during fermentation. Primary fermentation occurs at 59 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit and lasts for about one week.
Trappist Beer Any beer brewed in one of the remaining abbeys in Belgium and the Netherlands. Trappist
beers are top-fermented, deep-hued (amber or brown)
and fairly strong ranging from 4.7 to 12 percent alcohol by volume (4 to 9.6 percent alcohol by weight).
They are fruity and often bittersweet. They are bottleconditioned by priming and reyeasting. The origin of
Trappist beers dates back to the Middle Ages, when
epidemics were spread by contaminated water. Monasteries located on the traveling route to pilgrimage areas provided travelers with food, shelter and a hygienic
beverage free of pathologic microbes.
Trub A protein and tannin precipitate, which results
when wort is boiled.
Tunnel Pasteurization A method of pasteurization for
bottled and canned beer. It consists of a tunnellike apparatus in which the bottles are sprayed with hot water
(preheating and pasteurizing) and later with cold water (precooling and cooling). The entire process takes
about an hour and the output ranges from 2,000 to
60,000 bottles or cans per hour.
Turbidity Cloudiness or lack of clarity, specifically in
the filtered beer. Turbidity can be measured both visually and electronically.
Two-Row Barley A variety of barley on which only the
central spikelet is fertile, forming two rows of grains each.
It is the variety most appreciated for brewing because
its kernels are better developed and the husk is thinner;
however, it generally has a lower amount of enzymes than
six-row barley. See also volume ii: ingredients.
Under-Modified Malt of high amylase (enzyme)
strength containing large amounts of unconverted
protein because the germinating barley had been dried
and kilned before the proteinase enzymes could convert protein materials to amino acids.
Vinous Winey, winelike, fruity in a fermented sense.
Volatiles Volatiles in beer are divided into seven
groups: alcohols (higher alcohols or fusel alcohols),
esters, carbonyls, organic acids, sulfur compounds,
amines and phenols, and are responsible for most of
the flavors found in beer.


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Weissbier 1) A type of beer still popular in Berlin. It
is white in color, cloudy and foamy, with a very yeasty
nose and taste. It is made from wheat, usually not
pasteurized. Traditionally, it is served in a large, widebowled, stem glass with a dash of raspberry syrup. 2)
Weiss is German for white. See also volume iv: beer
Wheat Beer Any beer containing a high proportion of
malted wheat. Such beers are now produced mainly
in Germany and Belgium. All wheat beers are top-fermented and many are bottle-conditioned by the addition of yeast. See also volume iv: beer styles.
Wild Yeast 1) Any airborne yeast. 2) In the fermenting
wort, any yeast other than the cultured strain used for
Wort The bittersweet sugar solution obtained by
mashing the malt and boiling in the hops before it is
fermented into beer.
Wort Receiver A cooling vessel into which the wort is
poured after straining the hops.
Yeast Microscopic, unicellular, vegetal organisms of
the fungus family (eumycophyta), distinct from bacteria since they possess a true nucleus. Brewing yeast,
or brewers yeast, is classified into three categories:

bottom-fermenting yeast, top-fermenting yeast or

wild yeasts/other species. Brewers yeast is sensitive
to heat and may die at exposure to temperatures of
125.6 degrees Fahrenheit or above for 10 minutes or
more. During the fermentation process, yeast converts
the natural malt sugars into equal parts of alcohol and
carbon dioxide gas. Yeast was first viewed under a microscope in 1680 by the Dutch scientist Antoine van
Leeuwenhoek. See also volume ii: ingredients.
Yeast Crop Yeast collected from the primary fermentor during or after fermentation.
Yield of Extract 1) Percentage of raw materials recovered as extract in the wort. Yield may be expressed as a
percent of the total raw materials used. However, each
type of raw material has a different starch content and
as a result, a different potential extract contribution.
2) Another measure of yield, called recovery rate, is
extract recovery as a percent of the extract theoretically available and which compensates for the different
mixes of materials being used, is most meaningful to
the brewer.
Zwickel Small sampling valve used on tanks and lines.
Zymurgy The branch of applied chemistry related to
how yeast does the work of fermentation.