You are on page 1of 86

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Assistive technology plays a critical role in the lives of people with
severe disabilities and help them to lead independent self-supportive lives. Persons
severely disabled as a result of causes ranging from traumatic brain and spinal cord
injuries to stroke and cerebral palsy generally find it extremely difficult to carry
out everyday tasks with continuous help. Assistive technologies that help them
communicate their intentions and effectively control their environment, wheelchair
for their movement can greatly improve the quality of life for this group of people
and may help them to be employed.

Alternative Assistive Technologies:

A large group of assistive devices are available that are controlled by switches.
The switch integrated hand split, sip and puff device, chin control system are all
switch based systems and provide the user with limited degrees of freedom.
A group of head mounted assistive devices have been developed that emulate a
computer mouse with head movements. Cursor movements in these devices are
controlled by tracking an infrared beam emitted or reflected from a transmitter or
reflector attached to the users glasses, cap, or headband. One limitation of these
devices is that only those people whose head movement is not inherited may avail
of the technology. Another limitation is that the users head should always be in
positions within the range of the device sensors. For example the controller may
not be accessible when the user is lying on bed or not sitting in front of a computer.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 1

Another category of computer access systems operate by tracking eye


movements from corneal reflections and pupil position. Electro-oculographic
(EOG) potential measurements have also been used for detecting the eye
movements. A major limitations of these devices is that they affect the users
eyesight by requiring extra movements that can interfere with users normal visual
activities such as reading, writing, and watching.

The needs of persons with severe motor disabilities who cannot benefit from
mechanical movements of any body organs are addressed by utilizing electric
signals originated from brain waves or muscle twitches. Such brain computer
interfaces (BCI) that operate on electroencephalography (EEG) signals are very
slow and limited in bandwidth. Implantable BCI technologies on the other hand are
very invasive (require a brain surgery) and heavily rely on signal processing and
complex computational algorithms, which can results in delays and bulky systems
that may also be very costly.
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 2

Why tongue?

Tongue and mouth occupy an amount of sensory and motor cortex that rivals
that of the fingers and the hand. Hence they are capable of sophisticated motor
control and manipulation tasks.

One of the major advantages of the tongue is that its directly connected to the
brain unlike the rest of the body, which is connected to the brain through the spinal
cord. A patient who has even the highest level of spinal cord injury can still move
his or her tongue. Also tongue is least affected in most neuromuscular degenerative
disorders. Noninvasive access to the tongue is readily available. The tongue has
many degrees of freedom, and it can move very fast and accurately within the
mouth cavity. Therefore it is a suitable organ for manipulating assistive devices.
The tongue muscles has a very low rate of perceived exertion. Therefore, a tongue
operated device can be used continuously over a long period.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 3

Tongue drive system:

Tongue Drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated unobtrusive wireless


assistive technology, which can potentially provide people with severe disabilities
with effective computer access and environment control. It translates users
intentions into control commands by touching tongue to copper plate mounted on a
headset outside the mouth or an orthodontic brace inside. The main aim of this
project is to design and construct a tongue controlled robot and device switching
wirelessly using RF technology. This device is portable and this system operation
is entirely driven by wireless technology.
The user can control the Robot directions with the simple tongue
movement and he can also request the basic needs like water, food or medicine
using voice module. The control system consists of copper plate and
microcontroller. Microcontroller collects data from the plate and transmits the

encoded data through the RF transmitter. At receiver end RF receiver receives the
data through the decoder and fed as input to the micro controller. The controller
performs the corresponding actions i.e., Robot movement. This Project consists of
two Microcontroller Units, Robot, relay, connecting copper plate and wireless
communication through RF technology.
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 4

Robot is made up of High torque Geared DC Motors, the Motors Directions


can be changed through the set of instructions given from the copper plate and the
action of these Instructions is already loaded into the Microcontroller using
Embedded C programming. The RF receiver provides the information to the
microcontroller (on board computer) from RF transmitter and the controller judges
whether the instruction is right movement or left movement based on the tongue
movement and controls the direction. This device is portable and this system
operation is entirely driven by wireless technology.
This project makes use of a Relay for switching the devices and APR6016 voice chip for audio announcements, DC motors for Robot movement, Micro
controller, which is programmed, with the help of embedded C instructions. This
microcontroller is capable of communicating with transmitter and receiver
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 5

modules. The copper plate collect information from the movement of the tongue
and provides the information to the microcontroller and the controller judges
whether the instruction is right movement or left movement instruction and
controls the operation respectively. To perform the task, the controller is loaded
with intelligent program written using Embedded C language.
An embedded system is a combination of software and hardware to
perform a dedicated task. Some of the main devices used in embedded products are
Microprocessors and Microcontrollers. Microprocessors are commonly referred to
as general purpose processors as they simply accept the inputs, process it and give
the output. In contrast, a microcontroller not only accepts the data as inputs but
also manipulates it, interfaces the data with various devices, controls the data and
thus finally gives the result. The Tongue Controlled speaking robot using 89c52
Microcontroller is an exclusive project that can move the wheel chair according to
the instructions given by the above said microcontroller.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 6

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 Embedded Systems
An embedded system is a computer system designed to perform one or
a few dedicated functions often with real-time computing constraints. It is
embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical
parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC),
is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded
systems control many devices in common use today.
Embedded systems are controlled by one or more main processing
cores that are typically either microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP).
The key characteristic, however, is being dedicated to handle a particular task,
which may require very powerful processors. For example, air traffic control
systems may usefully be viewed as embedded, even though they involve
mainframe computers and dedicated regional and national networks between
airports and radar sites. (Each radar probably includes one or more embedded
systems of its own.)
Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design
engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the
reliability and performance. Some embedded systems are mass-produced,
benefiting from economies of scale.
Physically embedded systems range from portable devices such as
digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights,
factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. Complexity
varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple
units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 7

In general, "embedded system" is not a strictly definable term, as most


systems have some element of extensibility or programmability. For example,
handheld computers share some elements with embedded systems such as the
operating systems and microprocessors which power them, but they allow different
applications to be loaded and peripherals to be connected. Moreover, even systems
which don't expose programmability as a primary feature generally need to support
software updates. On a continuum from "general purpose" to "embedded", large
application systems will have subcomponents at most points even if the system as a
whole is "designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions", and is thus
appropriate to call "embedded".
A modern example of embedded system is shown in fig: 2.1.

Fig 2.1 A modern example of embedded system

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 8

Labeled parts include microprocessor (4), RAM (6), flash memory


(7).Embedded systems programming is not like normal PC programming. In many
ways, programming for an embedded system is like programming PC 15 years ago.
The hardware for the system is usually chosen to make the device as cheap as
possible. Spending an extra dollar a unit in order to make things easier to program
can cost millions. Hiring a programmer for an extra month is cheap in comparison.
This means the programmer must make do with slow processors and low memory,
while at the same time battling a need for efficiency not seen in most PC
applications. Below is a list of issues specific to the embedded field.
In the earliest years of computers in the 193040s, computers were
sometimes dedicated to a single task, but were far too large and expensive for most
kinds of tasks performed by embedded computers of today. Over time however,
the

concept

of

programmable

controllers

evolved

from

traditional

electromechanical sequencers, via solid state devices, to the use of computer


technology. One of the first recognizably modern embedded systems was the
Apollo Guidance Computer, developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT
Instrumentation Laboratory. At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance
computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it employed the
then newly developed monolithic integrated circuits to reduce the size and weight.
An early mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-17 guidance
computer for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961. It was built from transistor
logic and had a hard disk for main memory. When the Minuteman II went into
production in 1966, the D-17 was replaced with anew computer that was the first
high-volume use of integrated circuits.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 9

Reliability

Embedded systems often reside in machines that are expected to run


continuously for years without errors and in some cases recover by themselves if
an error occurs. Therefore the software is usually developed and tested more
carefully than that for personal computers, and unreliable mechanical moving parts
such as disk drives, switches or buttons are avoided.
Specific reliability issues may include:
i. The system cannot safely be shut down for repair, or it is too inaccessible to
repair. Examples include space systems, undersea cables, navigational beacons,
bore-hole systems, and automobiles.
ii. The system must be kept running for safety reasons. "Limp modes" are less
tolerable. Often backup s are selected by an operator. Examples include aircraft
navigation, reactor control systems, safety-critical chemical factory controls, train
signals, engines on single-engine aircraft.
iii. The system will lose large amounts of money when shut down: Telephone
switches, factory controls, bridge and elevator controls, funds transfer and market
making, automated sales and service.
A variety of techniques are used, sometimes in combination, to recover from
errors both software bugs such as memory leaks, and also soft errors in the
hardware:
i) Watchdog timer that resets the computer unless the software periodically
notifies the watchdog.
ii) Subsystems with redundant spares that can be switched over
iii) Software "limp modes" that provide partial function.
iv) Designing with a Trusted Computing Base (TCB) architecture [6] ensures a
highly secure & reliable system environment.
v) Immunity Aware Programming
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 10

2.2 Microcontroller

2.2.1 Microcontroller
Introduction to Microcontrollers

Circumstances that we find ourselves in today in the field of


microcontrollers had their beginnings in the development of technology of
integrated circuits. This development has made it possible to store hundreds of
thousands of transistors into one chip. That was a prerequisite for production of
microprocessors, and the first computers were made by adding external peripherals
such as memory, input-output lines, timers and other. Further increasing of the
volume of the package resulted in creation of integrated circuits. These integrated
circuits contained both processor and peripherals. That is how the first chip
containing a microcomputer, or what would later be known as a microcontroller
came about.
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are widely used in
embedded systems products. Microcontroller is a programmable device. A
microcontroller has a CPU in addition to a fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports
and a timer embedded all on a single chip. The fixed amount of on chip ROM,
RAM and number of I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 11

applications in which cost and space are critical. The microcontroller used in this
project is AT89s52.

AT89S52
Features
Compatible with MCS-51 Products
8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory

Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles

4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range

Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz

Three-level Program Memory Lock

256 x 8-bit Internal RAM

32 Programmable I/O Lines

Three 16-bit Timer/Counters

Eight Interrupt Sources

Full Duplex UART Serial Channel

Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode

Watchdog Timer

Dual Data Pointer

Power-off Flag

Fast Programming Time

Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 12

Description
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit
microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory.
The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile
memory technology and is compatible with the industry- standard 80C51
instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory
to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory
programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system
programmable flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a
powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications.
The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K
bytes of flash, 256 bytes ,of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data
pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt
architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock
circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for
operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable
power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the
RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue
functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes
the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or
hardware reset.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 13

Pin configuration

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 14

Block diagram of microcontroller

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 15

Pin Description
VCC:- Supply voltage.
GND:- Ground.
Port0:-Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an
output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. Written to port 0 pins, the pins can
be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the
multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and
data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code
bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program
verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.
Port 1:- Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1
output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins,
they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs,
Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of
the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the
timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input
(P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the
low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 16

Port 2:- Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2
output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins,
they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs,
Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of
the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from
external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use
16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal
pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit
addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function
Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals
during Flash programming and verification.
Port 3 :-Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3
output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins,
they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs,
Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of
the pull-ups.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 17

RST:- Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator
is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the
Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to
disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out
feature is enabled.
ALE/PROG:- Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low
byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the
program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming.
In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator
frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note,
however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data
memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location
8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.
Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect
if the microcontroller is in external execution mode
PSEN:- Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program
memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory,
PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are
skipped during each access to external data memory.
EA/VPP:-External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable
the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at
0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be
internally latched on reset.
EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions.
This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during flash
programming.
XTAL1:- Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock
operating circuit.
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 18

XTAL2:- Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.


Instruction set

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 19

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 20

2.3 Power supply

Power supply is a supply of electrical power. A device or system that


supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads is
called a power supply unit or PSU. The term is most commonly applied to
electrical energy supplies, less often to mechanical ones, and rarely to others.
A power supply may include a power distribution system as well as
primary or secondary sources of energy such as

a) Conversion of one form of electrical power to another desired form and voltage,
typically involving converting AC line voltage to a well-regulated lower-voltage
DC for electronic devices. Low voltage, low power DC power supply units are
commonly integrated with the devices they supply, such as computers and
household electronics.
b) Batteries.
c) Chemical fuel cells and other forms of energy storage systems.
d) Solar power.
e) Generators or alternators.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 21

Fig 2.3.1 Regulated Power Supply


The basic circuit diagram of a regulated power supply (DC O/P) with led
connected as load is shown in fig: 3.3.3.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 22

The components mainly used in above figure are:a. 230V AC MAINS


b. TRANSFORMER
c. BRIDGE RECTIFIER(DIODES)
d. CAPACITOR
e. VOLTAGE REGULATOR(IC 7805)
f. RESISTOR
g. LED(LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)

Features

i. Good for automation insertion


ii. Surge overload rating - 30 amperes peak
iii. Ideal for printed circuit board
iv. Reliable low cost construction utilizing molded
v. Glass passivated device
vi. Polarity symbols molded on body
vii. Mounting position: Any
viii. Weight: 1.0 gram

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 23

2.4 LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs
are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting.
Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted lowintensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet
and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. The internal structure and
parts of a led are shown in figures 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 respectively.

Fig 2.4.1 Inside a LED

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Fig 2.4.2 Parts of a LED

Page No. 24

Working

The structure of the LED light is completely different than that of


the light bulb. Amazingly, the LED has a simple and strong structure. The lightemitting semiconductor material is what determines the LED's color. The LED is
based on the semiconductor diode.
When a diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to
recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons.
This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding
to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor.
An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical
components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs
present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy
consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching,
and greater durability and reliability. However, they are relatively expensive and
require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources.
Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than
fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. They also enjoy use in applications
as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in automotive lighting
(particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. The compact size of LEDs has
allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high
switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. The electrical
symbol and polarities of led are shown in fig: 2.4.3

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 25

Fig 2.4.3 Electrical Symbol & Polarities of LED

2.5 Relay
The basis for relays, is the simple electromagnet the simplest relay, is the
Single Pole, Single Throw relay. It is nothing more than an electrically
controlled on-off switch. Its biggest property is the ability to use a very small
current, to control a much larger current. This is desirable because we can
now use smaller diameter wires, to control the current flow through a much
larger wire, and also to limit the wear and tear on the control switch.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 26

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to


operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used.
Relays find applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power
signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays
were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from
one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays found extensive use in
telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of
relay that can handle the high power required to directly drive an electric motor is
called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts,
instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated
operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect
electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these
functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protection relays

Applications
Relays are used to and for:

Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of


modems or audio amplifiers,

Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter


solenoid of an automobile,

Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening


and closing circuit breakers (protection relays),

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 27

2.6 LCD Display


A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat electronic visual display that
uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. The basic function of
the LCD is to display the action performed by the microcontroller. The LCD
used here is 16X2 character LCD display. The figure shows the pin diagram
and pin description.
Liquid crystal Display (LCD) displays temperature of the measured element,
which is calculated by the microcontroller. CMOS technology makes the
device ideal for application in hand held, portable and other battery
instruction with low power consumption.

GENERAL SPECIFICATION:
Drive method: 1/16 duty cycle
Display size: 16 character * 2 lines
Character structure: 5*8 dots.
Display data RAM: 80 characters (80*8 bits)
Character generate ROM: 192 characters
Character generate RAM: 8 characters (64*8 bits)
Both display data and character generator RAMs can be read from MPU.
Internal automatic reset circuit at power ON.
Built in oscillator circuit.

Net Media 2x16 Serial LCD Display Module

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 28

Fig.2.6.1: LCD Display

PIN Configuration
JP1/JP14 Pins 1 Description

JP1/JP14 Pins 9 - Description

16

Pin1

Ground

Pin9

D2 (Not Used)

Pin2

VCC (+5)

Pin10

D3 (Not Used)

Pin3

Contrast

Pin11

D4

Pin4

Data/Command

Pin12

D5

(R/S)
Pin5

Read/Write (W)

Pin13

D6

Pin6

Enable (E1)

Pin14

D7

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 29

Pin7

D0 (Not Used)

Pin15

VCC
(LEDSV+)

Pin8

D1 (Not Used)

Pin16

Ground

2.7 RF Transmitter & Receiver


a. RF transmitter-TWS-434a

2.7.1 434 Mhz Transmitter

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 30

Specification

Applications
i. Remote Keyless Entry (RKE)
ii. Remote Lighting Controls
iii. On-Site Paging
iv. Asset Tracking
v. Wireless Alarm and Security Systems
vi. Long Range RFID
vii. Automated Resource Management
viii. Wireless security systems
ix. Car Alarm systems
x. Remote controls.
xi. Sensor reporting
xii. Automation systems

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 31

b. RF receiver-RWS-434

Specificatios

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 32

Applications
i. Car security system
ii. Sensor reporting
iii. Automation system
iv. Remote Keyless Entry (RKE)
v. Remote Lighting Controls
vi. On-Site Paging
vii. Asset Tracking
viii. Wireless Alarm and Security Systems
ix. Long Range RFID
x. Automated Resource Management

2.8 RF encoder & Decoder


A) RF encoder HT12E
Features
a. Operating voltage
b. 2.4V~5V for the HT12A
c. 2.4V~12V for the HT12E
d. Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology
e. Low standby current: 0.1_A (typ.) at VDD=5V
f. HT12A with a 38kHz carrier for infrared transmission medium
g. Minimum transmission word
h. Four words for the HT12E
i. One word for the HT12A
j. Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 33

k. Data code has positive polarity


l. Minimal external components
m. HT12A/E: 18-pin DIP/20-pin SOP package

Diagram of HT12E encoders

2.8.1 RF encoder

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 34

Pin Description
1) A0~A7: Input pins for address A0~A7 setting. These pins can be
externally set to VSS or left open
2) D0~D3: Input pins for data D0~D3 setting and transmission enable, active
low. These pins should be externally set to VSS or left open
3) DOUT: Encoder data serial transmission output
4) OSC1 OSCILLATOR 1 Oscillator input pin
5) VCC Positive power supply
6) TE is a transmission enable pin of the HT12E
Specifications
Supply Voltage (HT12A) 0.3V to 5.5V
Supply Voltage (HT12E) 0.3V to 13V
Input VoltageVSS-0.3 to VDD+0.3V
Storage Temperature -50_C to 125_C
Operating Temperature -20_C to 75_C
Operation
The 212 series of encoders begin a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a
transmission enable (TE for the HT12E or D0~D3 for the HT12A, active low).
This cycle will repeat itself as long as the transmission enable (TE or D0~D3) is
held low. Once the transmission enable returns high the encoder output completes
its final cycle and then stops Transmission enable For the HT12E encoders,
transmission is enabled by applying a low signal to the TE pin. For the
HT12A encoders, transmission is enabled by applying a low signal to one of the
data pins D0~D3.
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 35

B) RF decoder HT12F
Features
a. Operating voltage: 2.4V~12V
b. Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology
c. Low standby current
d. Capable of decoding 12 bits of information
e. Binary address setting
f. Received codes are checked 3 times
g. Address/Data number combination
h. HT12F: 12 address bits only
i. Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor
j. Valid transmission indicator
k. Easy interface with an RF or an infrared transmission medium
l. Minimal external components
m. Pair with Holtek_s 212 series of encoders
General Description
The 212 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system
applications. They are paired with Holtek_s 212 series of encoders (refer to the
encoder/decoder cross reference table). For proper operation, a pair of
encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be
chosen. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed 212
series of encoder that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR
transmission medium. They compare the serial input data three times
continuously with their local addresses. If no error or unmatched codes are
found, the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins.
The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 36

Diagram of HT12F decoder

2.8.1 RF decoder
Pin Description
i.

A0~A7 (HT12D): Input pins for address A0~A7 setting

ii.

These pins can be externally set to VSS or left open

iii.

D0~D (HT12D): Output data pins, power-on state are low.

iv.

DIN: Serial data input pin

v.

Valid transmission, active high

vi.

OSC1: Oscillator input pin

vii.

OSC2: Oscillator output pin

viii.

VCC: Positive power supply

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 37

Description
The 212 series of decoders provides various combinations of addresses and data
pins in different packages so as to pair with the 212 series of encoders. The
decoders receive data that are transmitted by an encoder and interpret the first N
bits of code period as addresses and the last 12_N bits as data, where N is the
address code number. A signal on the DIN pin activates the oscillator which in turn
decodes the incoming address and data. The decoders will then check the received
address three times continuously. If the received address codes all match the
contents of the decoders local address, the 12_N bits of data are decoded to
activate the output pins and the VT pin is set high to indicate a valid transmission.
This will last unless the address code is incorrect or no signal is received. The
output of the VT pin is high only when the transmission is valid. Otherwise it is
always low. Output type of the 212 series of decoders, the HT12F has no data
output pin but its VT pin can be used as a momentary data output. The HT12D, on
the other hand, provides 4 latch type data pins whose data remain unchanged until
new data are received.
Applications
i. Burglar alarm system
ii. Smoke and fire alarm system
iii. Garage door controllers
iv. Car door controllers
v. Car alarm system
vi. Security system
vii. Cordless telephones

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 38

2.9 DC Motor
A dc motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, very
typically through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying
conductors. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical
energy, is accomplished by an alternator, generator or dynamo. Many types of
electric motors can be run as generators, and vice versa. The input of a DC motor
is current/voltage and its output is torque (speed).

2.9.1 DC motor
The DC motor has two basic parts: the rotating part that is called the armature and
the stationary part that includes coils of wire called the field coils. The stationary
part is also called the stator. Figure shows a picture of a typical DC motor, Figure
shows a picture of a DC armature, and Fig shows a picture of a typical stator. From
the picture you can see the armature is made of coils of wire wrapped around the
core, and the core has an extended shaft that rotates on bearings. You should also
notice that the ends of each coil of wire on the armature are terminated at one end
of the armature. The termination points are called the commentator, and this is

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 39

where the brushes make electrical contact to bring electrical current from the
stationary part to the rotating part of the machine.
Operation
The DC motor you will find in modem industrial applications operates very
similarly to the simple DC motor described earlier in this chapter. Figure 12-9
shows an electrical diagram of a simple DC motor. Notice that the DC voltage
is applied directly to the field winding and the brushes. The armature and the
field are both shown as a coil of wire. In later diagrams, a field resistor will be
added in series with the field to control the motor speed. When voltage is
applied to the motor, current begins to flow through the field coil from the
negative terminal to the positive terminal. This sets up a strong magnetic field
in the field winding. Current also begins to flow through the brushes into a
commentator segment and then through an armature coil. The current continues
to flow through the coil back to the brush that is attached to other end of the coil
and returns to the DC power source. The current flowing in the armature coil
sets up a strong magnetic field in the armature.

2.9.1 Simple electrical diagram of DC motor


SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 40

2.9.2 Operation of a DC Motor

The magnetic field in the armature and field coil causes the armature to begin to
rotate. This occurs by the unlike magnetic poles attracting each other and the like
magnetic poles repelling each other. As the armature begins to rotate, the
commentator segments will also begin to move under the brushes. As an individual
commentator segment moves under the brush connected to positive voltage, it will
become positive, and when it moves under a brush connected to negative voltage it
will become negative. In this way, the commentator segments continually change
polarity from positive to negative. Since the commentator segments are connected
to the ends of the wires that make up the field winding in the armature, it causes
the magnetic field in the armature to change polarity continually from North Pole
to South Pole. The commentator segments and brushes are aligned in such a way
that the switch in polarity of the armature coincides with the location of the
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 41

armature's magnetic field and the field winding's magnetic field. The switching
action is timed so that the armature will not lock up magnetically with the field.
Instead the magnetic fields tend to build on each other and provide additional
torque to keep the motor shaft rotating.
When the voltage is de-energized to the motor, the magnetic fields in the armature
and the field winding will quickly diminish and the armature shaft's speed will
begin to drop to zero. If voltage is applied to the motor again, the magnetic fields
will strengthen and the armature will begin to rotate again.

2.10 Motor Driver


The L293 and L293D are quadruple high-current half-H drivers. The L293 is
designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 1 A at voltages from 4.5 V
to 36 V. The L293D is designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to
600-mA at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. Both devices are designed to drive
inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, dc and bipolar stepping motors, as well
as other high-current/high-voltage loads in positive-supply applications. All inputs
are TTL compatible. Each output is a complete totem-pole drive circuit, with a
Darlington transistor sink and a pseudo-Darlington source. Drivers are enabled in
pairs, with drivers 1 and 2 enabled by 1,2EN and drivers 3 and 4 enabled by
3,4EN.When an enable input is high, the associated drivers are enabled and their
outputs are active and in phase with their inputs. When the enable input is low,
those drivers are disabled and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance state.
With the proper data inputs, each pair of drivers forms a full-H (or bridge)
reversible drive suitable for solenoid or motor applications. On the L293, external
high-speed output clamp diodes should be used for inductive transient suppression.
A VCC1 terminal, separate from VCC2, is provided for the logic inputs to
minimize device power dissipation. The L293 and L293D are characterized for
operation from 0C to 70C.
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 42

2.10.1 L293D IC

2.10.2 L293D

Pin diagram

2.10.3 Internal structure of L293D.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 43

2.11 Voice Module


APR 6016 Voice Recording & Playback Device (16 Minute Duration)
Features
Multi-level analog storage
- High quality audio recording and playback
Dual mode storage of analog and/or digital data
- Eliminates the need for separate digital memory
Advanced, non-volatile Flash memory technology
- No battery backup required
SPI interface
- Allows any commercial microcontroller to control the device
Programmable Sampling Clock
- Allows user to choose quality and duration levels
Single 3V power supply
Low power consumption
- Playback operating current: 15 mA typical
- Standby current: 1 uA maximum
- Automatic power-down
Multiple package options available
- CSP, TSOP, PDIP, Bare Die
On-board clock prescaler
- Eliminates the need for external clock dividers
Automatic squelch circuit
- Reduces background noise during quiet passages

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 44

General Description
The APR6016 offers non-volatile storage of voice and/or data in advanced MultiLevel Flash memory. Up to 16 minute s of audio recording and playback can be
accommodated. A maximum of 30K bits of digital data can be stored. devices can
be cascaded for longer duration recording or greater digital storage. Device control
is accomplished through an industry standard SPI interface that allows a
microcontroller to manage message recording and playback. This flexible
arrangement allows for the widest variety of messaging options. The APR6016 is
ideal for use in cellular and cordless phones, telephone answering devices, personal
digital assistants, personal voice recorders, and voice pagers. APLUS In targeted
achieves this high level of storage capability by using a proprietary analog multilevel storage techno logy implemented in an advanced non-volatile Flash memory
process. Each memory cell can typically store 256 voltage levels. This allows the
APR6008 voice t o reproduce audio signals in their natural form, eliminating the
need for encoding and compression which can introduce distortion.

PIN diagram

2.11.1 Pin diagram


SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 45

Block Diagram

2.11.2 APR 6016 Block Diagram


Working
The EXTCLK pin allows the use of an external sampling clock. This input can
accept a wide range of frequencies depending on the divider ratio programmed into
the divider that follows the clock. Alternatively, the programmable internal
oscillator can be used to supply the sampling clock. The Mux following both
signals automatically selects the EXTCLK signal if a clock is present , otherwise
the internal oscillator source is chosen. Detailed information on how to program
the divider and internal oscillator can be found in the explanation of the PWRUP
command, which appears in the Op Code Command Description section. Guidance
on how to choose the appropriate sample clock frequency can be found in the
Sampling Rate & Voice Quality section. The audio signal containing the content
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 46

you wish to record should be fed into the differential inputs ANAIN-, and
ANAIN+. After pre-amplification the signal is routed into the anti-aliasing filter.
The anti-aliasing filter automatically adapts its response based on the sample rate
being used. No external anti-aliasing filter is therefore required. After passing
through the anti-alias filter, the signal is fed into the sample and hold circuit which
works in conjunction with the Analog Write Circuit to store each analog sample in
a flash memory cell. When a read operation is desired the Analog Read Circuit
extracts the analog data from the memory array and feeds the signal to the Internal
Low Pass Filter. The low pass filter converts the individual samples into a
continuous output. The output signal then goes to the squelch control circuit and
differential output driver. The differential output driver feeds the ANAOUT+ and
ANAOUT- pins. Both differential output pins swing around a 1.23V potential.
The squelch control circuit automatically reduces the output signal by 6 dB during
quiet passages. A copy of the squelch control signal is present on the /SQLOUT
pin to facilitate reducing gain in the external amplifier as well. For more
information, refer to the Squelch section. After passing through the squelch circuit
the output signal goes to the output amplifier. The output amplifier drives a single
ended output on the AUDOUT pin. The single ended output swings around a
1.23V potential. All SPI control and hand shaking signals are routed to the
Master Control Circuit. This circuit decodes all the SPI signals and generates all
the internal control signals. It also contains the status register used for examining
the current status of the APR6016 .

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 47

CHAPTER 3
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1Block diagram

3.1.1 Block diagram of transmitter section

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 48

3.1.2 Block diagram of receiver section 1

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 49

3.1.2 Block diagram of receiversection 2

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 50

3.2 Circuit Diagram

3.2.1 Circuit
ircuit diagram of transmitter section

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 51

3.2.2 Circuit
ircuit diagram of receiver section 1

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 52

3.2.3 Circuit
ircuit diagram of receiver section 2

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 53

CHAPTER 4
PCB FABRICATION
DEVELOPING THE PCB
Now that the Circuit Diagrams are ready, we can use them to develop the Printed
Circuit Boards.
1

The first step is to design the


schematics in a PCB Layout
Editor such as EAGLE. After
the schematic is entered, the
PCB layout program is used to
place the parts on the board and
route the copper traces.

2 After the first few parts are


mounted, the "rats nest" begins
to clear up. If you're lucky, you
get a PCB that requires no
external jumper wires.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 54

3 When the layout is done, the


board layers are printed onto
special toner transfer paper
with
This

laser

board

printer.

"image"

is

transferred to the bare copper


board

with

laminating

machine, or a hot clothes iron.

4 After laminating, the board


with the paper stuck to it is
soaked to remove the paper,
leaving only the toner behind

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 55

5 To the right is a photo of the


raw copper board with toner
remaining, after the transfer
paper has been soaked off

Inside the etch tank, two


aquarium pumps circulate
etchant
(Ammonium Persulfate)
over the copper boards while
two aquarium heaters keep
the solution at 110F.This
process can take anywhere
from 10-30 minutes
depending on the freshness
of the solution and
thickness of the copper.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 56

7 After etching, the toner is


removed with solvent and
the board is tinned using a
soldering iron and a small
piece of tinned solderwick.
Tinning

isn't

absolutely

necessary but it improves


the appearance of the board,
and prevents the copper
from oxidizing before it's
time to solder the parts to
the board.

8 At this point, holes are


drilled

for

any

leaded

components and mounting


holes.

9 Here is the completed board


ready to be populated

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 57

SOLDERING THE COMPONENTS


After the PCBs have been produced we start soldering the components on the
PCBs. Soldering is a delicate manual skill which only comes with practice.
Remember that your ability to solder effectively will determine directly how well
the prototype or product functions during its lifespan. Poor soldering can be an
expensive business - causing product failure and downtime, engineer's
maintenance time and customer dissatisfaction. At hobbyist level, bad soldering
technique can be a cause of major disappointment which damages your confidence.
It needn't be like that: soldering is really easy to learn, and like learning to ride a
bike, once mastered is never forgotten! These photos illustrate the basic steps in
making a perfect solder joint on a p.c.b. If you're a beginner, our advice is that it's
best to practice your soldering technique using some clean, new parts with perhaps
some new strip board (protoboard). Be sure to avoid using old, dirty parts; these
can be difficult if not impossible to solder.

Boards must be clean to begin with,


especially if they're not previously
1.

"tinned" with solder. Clean the


copper tracks using e.g. an abrasive
rubber block.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 58

Clean the iron "bit" (tip) using a


2.

damp sponge. Iron featured is an


Ungar

Concept

2100

Soldering

Station.

36

A useful product is Multicore's Tip


3.

Tinner Cleaner (TTC) - a 15 gramme


tin of special paste which cleans and
"tins" the iron, in one go.

4.

Insert components and splay the


leads so that the part is held in place.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 59

It's usually best to snip the wires to


5.

length prior to soldering. This helps


prevent

transmitting

mechanical

shocks to the copper foil.

Apply a clean iron tip to the copper


6.

and the lead, in order to heat both


items at the same time.

37

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 60

7.

Continue heating and apply a few millimetres


of solder. Remove the iron and allow the
solder joint to cool naturally.

8.

It only takes a second or two, to make the


perfect joint, which should be nice and shiny.

9.

An example of a "dry" joint - the solder failed


to flow, and instead beaded to form globules
around the wire.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 61

CHAPTER 5
SOFTARE DISCRIPTION
5.1 Programming code for robot control
#include <stdio.h>
#include "89C51.h"
#include "Delay.h"
#include "LCD.h"
#include "APR6016.h"
#define Buzzer

P3_7

#define REC

P0_7

#define LR

P2_5

#define LB

P2_6

#define RR

P2_7

#define RB

P0_6

#define rfVT

P2_4

#define rfPort

P2&0x0f

void Beep(unsigned char No,unsigned int Delay);


unsigned char ReadRF(unsigned long SDelay);
void Forward();
void Backward();
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 62

void Right();
void Left();
void RobotStop();
unsigned char idx;
unsigned int code Track[5]={0,80,160,240,320};
unsigned char Cmd;
unsigned char Dot
int main (void)
{
Beep(3,30000);
RobotStop();
SetAPR6016();
SetLCD();
if(REC==0)
{
LCD(1);printf("Recording Mode..");
LCD(2);printf("

VOICE

");

Beep(2,30000);
LCD(0);
for(idx=0;idx<3;idx++)
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 63

{LCD(1);printf("Track No:%3.3bu",idx);
if(REC==0)
{
Beep(1,10000);
LCD(2);printf("Recording.......");
SET_REC(Track[idx]);
DelayM(4000);
STOP();
LCD(2);printf("STOP............");
Beep(1,10000);
LCD(2);printf("Playing back....");
SET_PLAY(Track[idx]);
DelayM(4000);
STOP();
LCD(2);printf("STOP............");
}
else idx--;
DelayM(300);
}
}
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 64

LCD(1);printf(" Welcome to ");


LCD(2);printf(" S.S.J.C.E.T. ");
DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf(" Tongue CTRLed ");
LCD(2);printf("

ROBOT

");

DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("Project Done by.");
LCD(2);printf("****************");
DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("Navanath
LCD(2);printf("Pradeep

");
");

DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("Deepak
LCD(2);printf("Gulabchand

");
");

DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("Under Guidance..");
LCD(2);printf("Prof.Monali Patil ");
DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("System Started..");
LCD(2);printf("****************");
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 65

DelayM(3000);
LCD(0);
START:
LCD(0);printf("Waiting for CMD.");
LCD(2);
Dot=0;
while(1)
{
printf(".");if(Dot++==16)goto START;
if((Cmd=ReadRF(30000))==0)continue;
if((Cmd!=1)&&(Cmd!=5)&&(Cmd!=6)&&(Cmd!=7)&&(Cmd!=8)&&(Cm
d!=9)&&(Cmd!=10))continue;
switch(Cmd)
{
case 5:

//forward
LCD(2);printf("

Forward.");

Forward();
break;
case 6:

//right
LCD(2);printf("

Right.");

Right();
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 66

break;
case 7:

//left
LCD(2);printf("

Left.");

Left();
break;
case 1:

//stop
LCD(2);printf("

Stop.");

RobotStop();
break;
case 8:

//stop
LCD(2);printf("Message - 1

");

RobotStop();
SET_PLAY(Track[0]);
DelayM(4000);
STOP();
break;
case 9:

//stop
LCD(2);printf("Message - 2

");

RobotStop();
SET_PLAY(Track[1]);
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 67

DelayM(4000);
STOP();
break;
case 10:

//stop
LCD(2);printf("Message - 3

");

RobotStop();
SET_PLAY(Track[2]);
DelayM(4000);
STOP();
break;
}//end switch
Beep(1,10000);
goto START;
}//end if
}
void Forward()
{
LR=1;
LB=0;
RR=0;
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 68

RB=1;
}
void Backward()
{
LR=0;
LB=1;
RR=1;
RB=0;
}
void Right()
{
LR=1;
LB=0;
RR=1;
RB=0;
}
void Left()
{
LR=0;
LB=1;
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 69

RR=0;
RB=1;
}
void RobotStop()
{
LR=0;
LB=0;
RR=0;
RB=0;
}
void Beep(unsigned char No,unsigned int Delay)
{
unsigned char tNo;
for(tNo=1;tNo<=No;tNo++)
{
Buzzer=0;
DelayI(Delay);
Buzzer=1;
DelayI(Delay);
}
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 70

}
unsigned char ReadRF(unsigned long SDelay)
{
unsigned long tSDelay;
unsigned char KeyCode=0;
for(tSDelay=0;tSDelay<=SDelay;tSDelay++)
{
if(rfVT)
{
KeyCode=rfPort;
break;
}
}
return(KeyCode);
}

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 71

5.2 Code for device switching


#include <stdio.h>
#include "89C51.h"
#include "Delay.h"
#include "LCD4NW.h"
#include "APR6016.h"
#define Buzzer

P3_7

#define RL1

P0_0

#define RL2

P0_1

#define RL3

P0_2

#define rfVT

P2_4

#define rfPort

P2&0x0f

void Beep(unsigned char No,unsigned int Delay);


unsigned char ReadRF(unsigned long SDelay);
unsigned char RFID
int main (void)
{
RL1=RL2=RL3=0;
Beep(3,30000);
SetLCD();
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 72

LCD(1);printf(" Welcome to ");


LCD(2);printf(" S.S.J.C.E.T. ");
DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf(" Tongue CTRLed ");
LCD(2);printf("Device Switching");
DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("Project Done by.");
LCD(2);printf("****************");
DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("Navanath
LCD(2);printf("Pradeep

");
");

DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("Deepak
LCD(2);printf("Gulabchand

");
");

DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("Under Guidance..");
LCD(2);printf("Prof.Renu K. ");
DelayM(3000);
LCD(1);printf("System Started..");
LCD(2);printf("****************");
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 73

DelayM(3000);
LCD(0);
while (1)
{
RFID=ReadRF(30000);
if(RFID==0)continue;

//Read RFID

if((RFID!=2)&&(RFID!=3)&&(RFID!=4))continue;
LCD(0);LCD(1);printf("RFID:%bu",RFID);
switch(RFID)
{
case 2:
LCD(2);printf("Device-1 CTRL ");
RL1=~RL1;
break;
case 3:
LCD(2);printf("Device-2 CTRL ");
RL2=~RL2;
break;
case 4:
LCD(2);printf("Device-3 CTRL ");
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 74

RL3=~RL3;
break;
}
Beep(1,20000);
}
}

void Beep(unsigned char No,unsigned int Delay)


{
unsigned char tNo;
for(tNo=1;tNo<=No;tNo++)
{
Buzzer=0;
DelayI(Delay);
Buzzer=1;
DelayI(Delay);
}
}
unsigned char ReadRF(unsigned long SDelay)
{
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 75

unsigned long tSDelay;


unsigned char KeyCode=0;
for(tSDelay=0;tSDelay<=SDelay;tSDelay++)
{
if(rfVT)
{
KeyCode=rfPort;
break;
}
}
return(KeyCode);
}

5.3 code for transmitter section


#include "89C51.h"
#include "Delay.h"
#define SW1

P3_2

#define SW2

P3_3

#define SW3

P3_4

#define SW4

P3_5

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 76

#define TE

P1_4

#define RFPort

P1

#define Buzzer

P3_7

void Beep(unsigned char No,unsigned int Delay);


unsigned char MODE=0;
unsigned char TxData;
void main(void)
{
Beep(3,100);
while(1)
{
if(SW1==0)
{
MODE++;
if(MODE==3)MODE=0;
RFPort=1;
TE=0;
Beep(2,100);
TE=1;
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 77

DelayM(2000);
}
if(SW2==0)
{
if(MODE==0)TxData=2;
if(MODE==1)TxData=5;
if(MODE==2)TxData=8;
RFPort=TxData;
TE=0;
Beep(1,100);
TE=1;
DelayM(2000);
}
if(SW3==0)
{
if(MODE==0)TxData=3;
if(MODE==1)TxData=6;
if(MODE==2)TxData=9;
RFPort=TxData;
TE=0;
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 78

Beep(1,100);
TE=1;
DelayM(2000);
}
if(SW4==0)
{
if(MODE==0)TxData=4;
if(MODE==1)TxData=7;
if(MODE==2)TxData=10;

RFPort=TxData;
TE=0;
Beep(1,100);
TE=1;
DelayM(2000);
}
}
}
void Beep(unsigned char No,unsigned int Delay)
{
SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 79

unsigned char tNo;


for(tNo=1;tNo<=No;tNo++)
{
Buzzer=0;
DelayM(Delay);
Buzzer=1;
DelayM(Delay);
}
}

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 80

CHAPTER 6
ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS
ADVANTAGES:
Robot can be controlled by the tongue movement.
Devices can be controlled by the same movement of the tongue.
Wireless controlling using RF communication.
Feedback status of the devices and robot movement can

be announced

using voice module.


Efficient and low cost design.
Low power consumption.
Fast response.

DISADVANTAGES:
Input from tongue is very sensitive.
APPLICATIONS:
Useful for paralyzed persons.
Useful for handicapped persons

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 81

CHAPTER 7
RESULTS

7.1 Result
The project Tongue Controlled Speaking Robot was designed
such that robot can move either forward or backward or right side or left side by
the movement of tongue. The tongue movement can be detected using connecting
copper plate and wireless communication through RF. The system can also be used
to control the electrical devices. The feedback status can be obtained using Voice
module.

7.1.1 Robot & Voice module section

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 82

7.1.2 Transmitter section

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 83

7.1.3 Device switching section

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 84

7.2 Conclusion

Integrating features of all the hardware components used have


been developed in it. Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed
carefully, thus contributing to the best working of the unit. Secondly, using highly
advanced ICs with the help of growing technology, the project has been
successfully implemented. Thus the project has been successfully designed and
tested.

7.3 Future scope


Our project Tongue Controlled Speaking Robot is mainly intended to
design a robot which can be controlled by a movement of tongue, which is
very useful for handicapped and paralyzed persons.
This project can also be done using gesture , eye movement and voice
control.
To control a robotic arm to use it to eat, drink, hold anything and use it as a
natural arm.
To drive cars.

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 85

7.4 References
Embedded Books & Websites

Myke
Customizing the

Predko,

Programming

and

8051

Microcontroller, Edition 1999, Tata McGraw-Hill

Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie


Mazidi,

8051

Microcontroller and Embedded Systems, Prentice-Hall

Dogan Ibrahim, Microcontroller Projects in


C for the

8051,
Kenneth J. Ayala, The 8051 Microcontroller

ARCHITECTURE,
PROGRAMMING and APPLICATIONS, WEST PUBLISHIN

Michael J. Pont, Embedded C, Edition


2002, Addison Wesley,

SSJCET, Asangaon, EXTC

Page No. 86