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como diseñar los agujeros de las mallas que retienen la arena. A través de muchos experimentos en el mar del norte

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SPE 31087

P. Markestad, SPE, and 0. Christie, RF- Rogaland Research, and Aa. Espedal, SPE, Statoil,

and 0. R0rvik, SPE, Saga Petroleum as;

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium

held in Lafayette, U.S.A., 14-15 February, 1996.

This paper was selected for presentation be an SPE Program committee following review of

information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). C_ontents of the pap.er, as

presented have not been reviewed by the society of Petroleum Eng1neers and.are subject to

correction by the author(s). The materi.al, as ~res~nted, does not necessanly reflect and

position of the society of Petroleum Engineers, 11 off1cers, or members. Papers prese~ted at

SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the soc1ety of

Petroleum Engineers. Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of no.t more th~n 300

words. Illustrations may not be copied. The abstract should con!a1n. con.splcuous

acknowledgement of where and by whom the paper was presented. Wnte L1branan, SPE,

P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax (+1) 214-952-9435.

suggested that screen completions should be designed with

screen slots that were 2 times wider than the d 10 of the

formation sand. He did not address the problem of screens

becoming plugged by fines from the formation sand. This

criterion has been used in California, while slot widths equal

to d 10 has been used on the U.S. Gulf Coast area (Ref. 4).

In this paper it is shown that the design criterion

suggested by Coberly, or any other criteria based on a single

point on the particle size distribution curve, can not

adequately describe either sand production or plugging of

single wrapped screen. Instead a method is developed where a

more complete description of the particle size distribution is

used to predict the plugging and sand control properties of

single wrapped screens.

The study described in this paper has been limited to one

screen type, single wrapped screens, and erosion of the

screens have not been considered. An extension of the study

is currently being planned that will include alternative screen

designs, and also compare the susceptibility of the various

screen types to erosion.

Abstract

A numerical model has been developed that addresses both

plugging of, and sand production through single wrapped

screens. The model was developed on the basis of a fractal

model for the particle size distribution of reservoir sands. A

database of sand types from the North Sea and Haltenbanken

areas was established. Principal component analysis was

used to reduce the number of significant variables in the

database, and to provide a basis for a prediction model for

critical slot widths. A series of laboratory experiments were

performed, and four critical slot widths were identified for

each sand type, defining a safe design interval for screen slot

width. A mathematical model was developed that can be

used to predict the critical slot widths for other sand types

from the area.

In a traditional presentation of the results from a sieve

analysis, the accumulated mass percentage of particles larger

than a certain diameter is plotted on a semi-logarithmic

scale.

Since the particle distribution is plotted as a function of

particle mass, the distribution function will emphasise the

largest particles. When the purpose is to describe plugging

of screen slots, it is more relevant to concentrate on the

smaller particles. It is obvious that a particle matrix with

zero porosity will be able to plug a screen slot completely

as long as it contains particles large enough to be retained

by the slot.

Such a particle mixture must consist of large particles

with smaller particles that fit into the pores between the

large particles, still smaller particles that fit into the pores

between the small particles, and so on down to the

molecular level (Fig. 1). Finally, mathematical speaking,

there will be an infinite number of infinitely small particles

with an infinitely small total volume. This type of particle

size distribution is described by Kaye in Ref. 5. The

function is based on the number of particles instead of

particle mass. The accumulated number of particles larger

than a certain diameter is described by the p.ower function

Introduction

Single, wire wrapped screens with keystone shaped wire

have been used to control sand production in oil and gas

wells since the 1930's. They have the advantage over

prepacked screens in that they do not become pl~gged as

easily by drilling mud. Furthermore they functiOn as a

surface filter, where the plugging material is easily removed,

whereas prepacked screens are depth filters where plugging

material tends to get trapped inside the prepack.

Single wrapped screens do, however, have a reputation

for being susceptible to plugging and/or sand production

when designed according to the various traditional criteria

(Refs. 1 and 2). This indicates that the design criteria for

single wrapped screen completions should be revised.

Sand control with screens is basically a function of the

relationship between particle size and screen slot width. The

pioneering work was published by Coberly (Ref.3) in 1937.

Coberly concluded that spherical particles could generally be

retained when the slot width was 2.5 times the particle

diameter or smaller. He also stated that in a mixture of

particles of different size, the sand control properties of a

155

.............

SPE 31087

N(d;;,di)=K(

~ir

3 and 4.

(I)

Sieve analysis data for 97 different sand types from thre

fields (Field A, B and C) the North Sea and Haltenbanken

areas were analysed. Nine different parameters describing

particle size and particle size. distribution were calculated for

the various sands and entered in a database. These were the

standard parameters d 90, d50, d40 and d 10 , as well as the

sorting coefficient c 11 , and 4 parameters related to the fractal

particle size distribution model:

fi

which is the fractal dimension of the finer sand

fraction

f2

which is the fractal dimension of the coarser sand

fraction

Inti which is the intercept between the two straight lines

in microns

Int2 which is the mass percentage of particles larger than

as a straight line with the slope f. The constant K is a

proportionality constant that depends on the size of the

sample. It is not important for the sand properties.

This function is also called a fractal particle size

ditribution, and the exponent f of eq. (1) is equal to the

fractal dimension of the sand matrix.

Theoretical arguments, that are beyond the scope of this

paper, indicate that a particle distribution with 2<f <3 can

have close to zero porosity and permeability. Such a sand is

likely to plug sand control screens.

Experience from the analysis of many North Sea field

sands shows, that most sands have different values off over

and under a certain grain diameter: dk. Over dk, f is typically

larger than 2, while under dk, f is frequently smaller than 2.

In such a sand, for the part with />2 and d >db the

smaller grains more than fill up the pore space between the

larger grains, and one can expect the sand to be relatively

stable. Smaller grains can not move through the matrix of

larger grains, e.g. during fluid flow through the matrix.

Also, if dk is not too small, this part of the sand taken

separately will have a finite porosity and permeability since

it is filled with connected pores of approximate size dk.

The situation is the opposite in the part with grains

smaller than dk and f<2. The sum of sand of all grains sizes

will have a final volume, when the distribution continues

down to smaller sizes ad infinitum. One can expect this part

of the sand to be rather loose. Smaller grains do not quite

fill up the pore space between the larger grains, and may

under certain conditions be able to migrate through the

matrix of the larger grains.

If the largest grain sizes of the first part of the sand are

large enough to bridge the slots in a sand control screen,

this is a favourable sand mixture concerning sand control.

The part of the distribution withf>2 would make a stable,

permeable surrounding for the screen. The part with f<2

would be produced through sand matrix and screen slots,

rather than plugging the sand matrix. However, only the

relatively small part of the sand close to the screen would

experience a liquid or gas flow swift enough to become

mobilised and be produced.

In the laboratory experiments, plugging and sand

production only occurred on some occasions when the

inflow into the screen came from below, and a fluidized sand

bed was created. The mechanism behind this plugging is not

completely understood. However, the tendency to plug the

screen did correlate with the value of f. The sands with an

unfavourable f value for the fine particles according to the

argument above, i.e. close to 2, had the tendency to plug

larger slot widths than sand with a f close to 1. It may

seem, that the fluidization process tends to more efficiently

pack an unfavourable size distribution, and thereby further

reduce an already low permeability.

The distribution function in eq. 1 can be fitted to normal

sieve analysis data if one assumes that the sand grains are

roughly spherical and one counts the number of particles

retained by each sieve size. This was done for all the sand

Inti

Prior to the laboratory testing, the database was subjected to

a principal component analysis. The purpose of this

analysis was:

1. To identify typical sands for further testing.

2. To define a test matrix that would be suitable for

formulating a prediction model for sand production and

plugging of the screens.

3. To find out whether there are typical differences between

the various oil fields and other underlying structures in

the data set.

4. To identify which ones of the 9 variables in the database

that are most important for the variations in the data.

Principal component analysis is a standard method of

multivariate analysis. Very briefly explained, the

dimensionality of the data set is reduced by this method if

there is some degree of correlation between the original

variables. The first principal component, PCi, represents

the direction in the n-dimensional space of variables with

the largest correlations in the data. The second principal

component, PC2, is orthogonal to PC1 and represents the

direction with the next largest correlation, and so on until

no further useful description is achieved by adding more

principal components. The contributions from the original

variables to the principal components are called loadings,

and the set of loadings define the direction of the principal

component vectors. Each data point is characterised by a set

of score values, which are the projections, or co-ordinates,

of the datapoints on the principal component vectors.

The principal component analysis was performed on the

9 variables in the database described above.

Each significant Principal component is often interpreted

as representing a principal property, some underlying

process that manifests itself in the observed variables. In

this case analysis of the loadings show that PCi can be

considered as a general measure of absolute particle size,

while PC2 can be considered as a measure of the content and

sorting of fine particles in the sand. Sands with low scores

156

SPE 31087

on PCJ and PC2 are fine and badly sorted, while sands with

high scores on PCJ and PC2 are coarse and well sorted.

It was found that these two principal components were

the most important ones for describing plugging and sand

control of single wrapped screens. The first component,

PCJ, explained 48% of the variation in the data and PC2

explained 24%, in total 72% of the total variance for the

first 2 principal components.

The principal component analysis effectively reduces the

number of variables from 9 to 2.

A total of 5 sand types were chosen for laboratory

testing. The sand types and their database entries are shown

in Table 1. They were chosen on the basis of their scores

on PC1 and PC2 as illustrated in Fig. 2. Particle size

distribution curves are shown in Figs. 3,4 and 5.

The principal component analysis showed that there were

no typical variation in the particle size distribution between

the various North Sea fields. Neither were there any

significant regional difference between the North Sea and the

Haltenbanken.

created by flow through 150 mm of sand pack well away

from the screen. The other measures the differential pressure

across the screen and 5 em of sand adjacent to the screen.

The positions of the differential pressure measuring points

is illustrated in Fig. 6.

The concept of using a flow cell filled with loose,

unstressed sand was chosen because it was felt that this

would represent the worst case situation for sand production.

Differential pressures and flow rates as indicated in

Fig. 7 were logged on a computer running a data

acquisition program. Sand production was measured in a

graduated cylinder placed below the sand trap.

The actual particle size distribution of the formation sand

was approximated by mixing a range of sands with known

particle size distribution. The cell was flooded with single

phase, synthetic seawater during all the tests since this

represents a worst case situation with no capillary forces.

Test procedures. Each sand was tested against screens

with slot widths ranging from 100 to 800 microns.

Each test .consisted of two parts. Initially the cell was

completely filled with sand and oriented with the screen at

the bottom. In this situation the screen was always in direct

contact with the sand. This corresponds to a well where the

annulus outside the screen is completely filled with sand.

In the second part of the test the cell was oriented with

the screen on top, and 3-4 em of sand was removed. This

was done to simulate an annulus that is not completely

filled with sand. In this situation liquid flowing towards the

screen will fluidize the sand and lift it towards the screen.

Fluid flow through the sand typically caused some

separation of fine material. Both sand production and

plugging did occur more easily in this situation.

Experimental procedures

Identification of main experimental parameters.

In a typical North Sea sandstone reservoir, the variation in

both particle size and distribution is large. The permeability

often varies by a factor of 100 within the reservoir. Thus,

design criteria that specifies one single optimum slot width

for each sand type are not very useful because it will be very

difficult to chose which sand to use as a basis for the design.

It would be more relevant to define a range of acceptable slot

widths for each sand type, and then attempt to select a screen

that will fit into this range for all the sand types in the

completed interval.

This approach was adopted in the present study. Four

slot widths were determined for each sand type:

d__

the largest slot size where severe plugging was

frequently observed.

d_

the smallest slot size where no plugging was

observed.

d+

the largest slot size where sand production did not

occur.

d++

the smallest slot size where continuous sand

production did occur.

The d __ and d++ slot widths should be considered as

extreme lower and upper limits that should not normally be

exceeded, while d_ and d+ are lower and upper limits for an

ideal screen design.

The other parameters that were recorded during the

experiments were:

Amount of produced sand and sand production mode

(initial, intermittent, continuous)

Permeability ratio and skin factor for each sand type, slot

width and flow rate

Nature of plugging (permanent or removable)

Particle size distribution of produced sand.

Experimental set up. The screen filtration experiments

were performed in a radial flow cell as illustrated in

Figs. 6 and 7. The experimental set-up consisted of an

adjustable pump, a radial flow cell representing a 22.5

section of a well with a 7 .5" screen, a sand trap and a fluid

reservoir. The radial cell was fitted with 2 differential

Experimental results

The critical slot widths, determined from the experiments are

presented in Table 2.

157

Discussion

General flow properties. A sand control screen will

necessarily restrict the fluid flow into the well to some

degree, even when it is functioning as intended. Intuitively,

one should expect that the degree of flow restriction would

be a function of the screen slot width, the particle size

distribution of the sand, and maybe the rate of flow through

the screen. This turned out not to be the case, however, as

the skin factor varied unsystematically between 0.0 and 0.5

for all the sands and screen slot widths. Even if the

permeability of the sand varied from 0.2 Darcy for All to

20 Darcy forB 19. This can not be considered to be a serious

flow restriction, and it can be concluded that single screen

completions will not significantly restrict well production

as long as they function as intended.

The slot area is typically only 5-10% of the total screen

area. Fluid flow will converge on the slots, and the fluid

velocity will increase by a factor of 10-20 through the

slots, depending on the slot width and the width of the

wrapped wire. The converging flow results in a differential

pressure that is higher than expected from the Darcy

equation, where it appears as the observed skin factor. In

this way the flow properties of the screen is very dependent

SPE 31087

slot width, d+, varied from 100 micron for All to 400

micron for B 10. In all the tests the risk of sand production

is underestimated by the Coberly criterion, while the Gulf

Coast criterion both over and underestimates it. The results

presented in Table 3 clearly show that other parameters

than d 10 must be important when choosing the slot width of

sand control screens.

to the screen. If the permeability of this layer is decreased by

contamination by fine particles, the skin factor will be high.

If the finer particles are produced away from this sand layer,

the skin factor will be low or negative. This conclusion is

supported by Runar Mfl)ller in Ref. 6. He showed that the

fines content of the layer of sand next to a screen tends to

become reduced with time, resulting in a small and often

negative skin factor.

model for prediction of the critical slot widths was fitted to

the experimental data by the least squares method. Several

models, both using the principal components and various

combinations of the 9 original variables in the database,

were tested against the experimental data. The best results

were achieved with the following model

defined as a situation where the differential pressure across

the screen is more than two times as high as expected from

the Darcy equation.

Plugging was never observed in the screen down

position. In the screen up position, representing an annulus

which is not completely filled with loose sand, plugging

occurred to some degree for all the tested sand types except

for All. The severity of the plugging, and the width of the

slots that can be plugged depends on the particle size

distribution of the sand. Plugging was more likely to occur

when the flow was started suddenly at a relatively high rate.

Plugging in the screen up position was initiated by the

following mechanism: When fluid was flowing towards the

screen, the finest fraction of particles from the sand was

separated from the bulk of the sand and transported towards

the screen. These particles formed a filter cake along the

screen slots with a much lower permeability than the bulk

sand, restricting flow through the screen slots. This process

was typical for situations where the flow was initiated

suddenly, corresponding to a well that is brought on stream

suddenly at a high rate.

When the rate of flow was increased gradually, the first

particles that were separated from the bulk of the sand tended

to be small enough to pass through the screens. As the fluid

velocity increased, particles large enough to be retained by

the screen was lifted. But since most of the fines had already

been produced the resulting filtercake did not have a

sufficiently low permeability to significantly restrict the

flow through the slots.

This mechanism can also explain why plugging was not

observed for the All. This sand has a very high fines

content, dominating the permeability of the bulk sand which

is very low. A filtercake consisting of the finest fraction of

the sand will not have a permeability that is significantly

different from the permeability of the bulk sand, and thus do

not reduce productivity through the screens.

The filter cake that formed along the slots when they

became plugged, was generally thin and could be easily

removed. It would often fall off by gravity alone if left

without fluid flow for some time. But some particles were

able to invade the slots and got trapped there. There are

however, no indications from the differential pressure

measurements that the trapped particles reduce the overall

flow efficiency of the screens.

Sand control properties of single screens. In

Table 3 the results from the present study are compared

with Coberly's criterion of 2d 10 (Ref. 3) and with the Gulf

Coast criterion of ld JO (Ref. 4 ). It is clear that sand is

generally produced through much narrower slots than 2

times the d 10 of the sand. The d 10 diameters are very similar

for the A 11, B 10 and C31 sands, but the largest sand free

dail

(2)

Here dcrit is the predicted critical slot width, {30, ... /312 is a

set of constants, and t 1 and t2 are the score values, or coordinates, on the first two principal components. The

predicted values are compared with the observed values from

the laboratory experiments in Table 4. The difference

between the observed and predicted values are less than 50

microns which is approximately half the typical step of 100

micron between two consecutive screen sizes. This indicates

that the accuracy of the prediction model is equal or better

than the accuracy of the experiments. The accuracy of the

prediction model cannot be evaluated statistically because of

the limited number of experiments. Two more sand types

have been tested to verify the model, however, and the

observed results are very similar to the predicted critical slot

widths.

The predicted values for the critical slot widths are

plotted as a function of PC 1 and PC2 in Figs. 8 to 11.

From Figs. 8 and 9 one can see that the risk of

screens being plugged is high for fine sands and for coarse

sands with a large fraction of fine material. As expected, the

risk of plugging the screens is low for coarse, well sorted

sands. But the risk of plugging is also reduced for fine sands

with a high fines content. This is maybe surprising, but it

means that the original permeability of these sands are so

low that it is in the same range as the permeability of the

filter cake.

In Fig. 10 one can observe that sand control is a

function both of the particle size and the degree of sorting

and content of small particles. For fine sands, a low score

on PC2, indicating a badly sorted sand with a lot of fines,

will increase the risk of sand production. But for coarse sand

with high scores on PCI, a low score on PC2 will reduce

the risk of sand production.

Once the data from the principal component analysis and

the set of constants (from eq. 2) for the critical slot widths

are known, the prediction model is easily implemented in a

standard spreadsheet. A simple, user-friendly computer

program for the design of screen slot widths is currently

being developed.

158

typically have to be ordered long before the well is actually

drilled through the reservoir, and the screen slot width will

have to be based on samples from other wells in the area.

For this reason, the ideal solution would be to identify a

SPE 31087

the whole reservoir with small variations.

A possible method to achieve this is presented in

Fig. 12. Here the critical slot widths are plotted for all the

samples from Field A. Screen slot width design is then a

matter of drawing a straight, horizontal line through the

graph that intersects the critical slot width curves as seldom

as possible. A possible solution is shown in Fig. 12.

By this method one can:

Find the optimal screen slot width for a reservoir or part

of a reservoir.

Identify sand types that are well suited to screen

completions.

Identify sand types that may cause problems for the

chosen screen size.

From Fig. 12 one can see that the All and A12 may

cause sand production through the suggested slot width of

250 micron. In this case it is known from the laboratory

testing that the All sand will require a 100 micron screen,

and it may be necessary to reduce the screen size across the

A 11 sand. In general, when such potential problem sands are

identified, it will be necessary to go back and study the cotes

and find out whether these sands are typical for the reservoir,

whether they strong or weak, and whether they are likely to

produce at all.

theoretical sieve size that will retain X

percent of the particles by weight.

N(d ~d.)= number of particles ~di

l

K = proportionality constant

f = exponent of particle size distribution

function (and fractal dimension of sand

matrix)

ell= d4ofd90

dcrir= critical slot widths (d__, d_, d+ ord++)

/30 , /312 = constants in the prediction model

ti = score value, or co-ordinate, on principal

component i

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Saga Petroleum as and Statoil for

the permission to publish the material; Bjarne Aas of RFRogaland Research for helpful review comments; and Jorunn

0vsthus of RF for her accurate laboratory work.

References

1. Penberthy, W. L. and Shaugnessy, C. M.: Sand

Control, SPE, 1992

2. Sparlin, D. D. and Hagen, R. W., Selection and

design of sand control methods, Course Manual,

ICCI, 1991

Conclusions

1. No sand types have been identified during the reported

work that are not suited to screen completions. For all the

sand types tested it has been possible to identify an interval

of screen slot widths that will neither be plugged nor

produce sand. The width of the design interval varies as a

function of the particle size distribution of the sand.

2. A well functioning screen represents a skin factor of

less than 0.5.

3. The risk of sand production is increased in a situation

corresponding to an open annulus, partially filled with sand.

Plugging of screens by formation sand has only been

observed in this situation.

4. The risk of plugging the screen is decreased when the

fluid flow velocity through the screen is increased gradually.

This corresponds to bringing a well on stream slowly.

5. Design criteria for screen slot width based on one

single point on the particle distribution curve can not

accurately predict neither plugging of the screens nor sand

production through the screens.

6. By introducing a fractal description for the particle

size distribution of the formation sand, and using

multivariate analysis, it has been possible to develop a

quantitative method for design of screen slot widths. The

method identifies a safe interval of slot widths where

plugging and sand production are not likely to occur.

7. The prediction model is applicable to sands from the

North Sea area and Haltenbanken, and can easily be extended

to other areas.

8. A method is proposed, where the prediction model

can be used to design screen completions for specific

reservoirs or parts of reservoirs.

unconsolidated sands", Drill. and Prod. Prac., API,

1937.

4. Suman, G. 0., Ellis, R. C. and Snyder, R. E., Sand

Control Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company,

Houston, 1985

5. Kaye, Brian H., Fractal dimensions in data space;

New descriptors for fineparticle systems, Particle and

particle system characterization, Vol4, No 10, 1993

6. M!ISller, R.: The influence of formation grain size

distribution on production through a sand screen,

Thesis, Stavanger College, 1994

Nomenclature

159

SPE 31087

Sand

d 10

[micron]

d 40

d 50

d 90

[micron] [micron]

f1

ell

f2

[micron]

lnt1

lnt2

[micron]

[%]

A11

213

109

89

38

2.91

-3.22

-8.86

173

18.47

810

219

136

126

68

1.99

-1.12

-6.49

104

60.87

C31

249

210

197

131

1.61

-0.45

-9.23

152

84.55

815

475

340

316

169

2.01

-2.20

-7.99

379

29.25

819

491

353

329

197

1.79

-0.78

-8.41

306

59.59

critical slot widths (micron)

Sand

d __

d_

d+

d++

A11

0*

100

100

200

810

100

250

250

300

C31

0*

200

400

600

815

200

300

600

800

819

0*

100

500

800

micron slot was not observed.

with the Coberly and Gulf Coast criteria

Sand

d1o

2d1o

(Gulf Coast)

(Coi:JOOy)

A11

213

810

d+

d++

427

100

200

219

439

250

300

C31

249

498

400

600

815

475

949

600

800

819

491

982

500

800

160

SPE 31087

results

d.

d..

Sand

d+

d++

values

values

values

values

values

values

values

values

A11

0*

100

100

100

93

200

185

810

100

79

250

249

250

273

300

351

C31

0*

21

200

201

400

377

600

550

815

200

205

300

300

600

594

800

787

819

0*

-11 **

100

100

500

512

800

827

* d__ were set equal to 0 when severe plugging of the 100 micron slot was not observed.

** Negative slot widths are artefacts of the prediction model.

++C31

++

+*

ll.

-1

+

t+

t"'+

++

/819 +

+

+

:\:

::t ~to

-q.

+

+

++

++

++ + +

++

+

t+

+

+

+

+ +

+ +

++ ++ + +

+

+

+++ + +

+

+815 +

-1

-2

-2

+ +

-3

-3

+ A11

-4

-4

-4

-2

4

PC1

Fig.2-AII the sand types in the database plotted

161

SPE 31087

Differential pressure points

A 11

150mm

50mm

100

100

10

10

..

~

z

0.1

0.1

0.01

Isomm

0.001

1000

L---'------'--L-..L.....J......L...L..J....L_----"---'---'-........__......._L.J...J

100

Particle size

10

250mm

(micron)

Directionofflow

~mm

curve for the A 11 sand.

819

100

..

10

10

0.1

0.1

en

i.

.

0.01

:I

0.001

L___

_l____j__L_..J........I.....L...J....Ll...-_

Particle

100

size

0.0001

1000

___..L._L-...JL....L.....J.....J.....LU

(micron)

curve for the 815 sand.

100

100

-~---~-~-~-~~~~~-----~-

..<:

80

en

a;

~

60

".

.

40

D.

20

0

1

10

100

Particle size

1000

(micron)

0

1 o'

plugging and sand production.

Fig. 5-Accumulated percent by weight as a

function of particle size for the tested sand

types.

162

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