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# 1) An acidified solution of a sample of pure oxalic acid dihydrate, H2C2O4 .

## 2 H2O, was used to

standardize a solution of potassium permanganate. In this process, the oxalic acid was oxidized
to carbon dioxide and the permanganate ion was reduced to manganese(II) ion. Use the
following data to calculate the molarity (formality) of the permanganate solution:
Weight of flask and acid crystals 68.6153 grams
2) Two hydrocarbons, one a gas and the other a solid at room temperature, have the same
composition.

## a) When either hydrocarbon is burned, the weight of carbon dioxide produced is

3.26 times the weight of water formed. Derive the empirical formula for the
hydrocarbons
b) When 2.60 grams of the gas is placed in an evacuated 2.00-liter container, at 527
°C the pressure is 1.20 x 103 millimeters of mercury. Determine the molecular
weight of the gaseous hydrocarbon.
c) A solution of 3.25 grams of the solid hydrocarbon in 40.0 grams of benzene
begins to freeze at 2.969 °C. The freezing point of pure benzene is 5.533 °C and the
molal freezing point constant for benzene is 5.128 centigrade degrees per molal.
Determine the molecular weight of the solid hydrocarbon.

3)
Zn(s) ---> Zn2+ + 2e¯ E°= 0.76 volt
Cu(s) ---> Cu2+ + 2e¯E°= -0.34 volt
2.3 (RT/F) = 0.059 at 25 °C
A cell is set up to plate zinc onto a zinc electrode. The loss of weight of a copper electrode is
used to determine the amount of current passed.

## a) Assuming box A to be a source of direct current, if 100 milliliters of a solution of

Zn2+, initially at a 1.00-molar concentration, is electrolyzed until 1.00 per cent of
the original Zn2+ remains in solution,

## 1. how many coulombs are required?

2. how much weight does the copper electrode lose?
b) Assuming box A to be a voltmeter,
what is the standard potential of the
cell?
c) What is the minimum voltage to be
applied to this cell if the electrolysis is
to continue until the concentration of
Zn2+ reaches 1.00 per cent of the
original? (Assume that the
concentration of Cu2+reaches
1.00-molar and that the temperature is 25 °C.)

## Questions 4 - 14 are not available.

15) Criticize the statement. Chemical reactions tend to proceed in the direction of the evolution
of heat.
16) Explain why the spectra of gaseous atoms consist of sharp lines.
17) Give an explanation for each of the following observations:

## a) The boiling point of CBr4 is distinctly higher than that of CCl4.

b) The boiling point of CH3OH is distinctly higher than that of CH3Cl.

18) In each of the following cases, a slight excess of dilute base is added to a 0.05-molar solution
of acid. The resultant heats of neutralization per mole of acid reacting are indicated for each
acid-base reaction.
Heat of Neutralization
a) HCl + NaOH 13.7 kcal.
b) HNO3 + KOH 13.7 kcal.
c) HCl + NH3 12.6 kcal.
d) CH3COOH + NaOH13.4 kcal.
e) HClO4 + KOH 13.7 kcal.
Account for the fact that the heats are the same in (a), (b), and (e) but are different in (c) and (d).
19) Give an explanation for each of the following observations:

## a) Many complex ions of zinc, such as Zn(CN)42-, exhibit a coordination number of

four.
b) Complex ions of Fe(III), such as Fe(CN)63-, are paramagnetic.

20) The terms "activation energy" and "activated complex" (or "transition state") are commonly
employed in a theoretical discussions of rates of reaction. What is the significance of these
terms?
21) You are given a sample of ordinary sodium chloride, some glassware, a crucible, a 3-volt
battery, an ammeter, wires, distilled water, carbon tetrachloride, a bunsen burner, a balance,
equipment for supporting a crucible or beaker, and a selection of thermometers. Your problem is
to obtain experimental evidence for the assertion that sodium chloride is electrovalently bonded.
Describe a series of relevant observations and experiments. Explain how the concept of ionic
bonding gives a consistent interpretation of all of the observations and experiments.
22) Discuss a chemical and a physical method for the determination of atomic weights. State
what experimental data are needed and show how the data may be employed to achieve the
desired objective. Indicate any assumptions that are made in the use of each method.