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# 1) A saturated solution of lead iodate in pure water has a lead ion concentration of 4.

0 x
10¯5 mole per liter at 25 °C
(a) Calculate the value for the solubility-product constant of Pb(IO3)2 at 25 °C
(b) Calculate the molar solubility of Pb(IO3)2 in a 0.10-molar Pb(NO3)2 solution at 25 °C
(c) To 333 milliliters of a 0.120-molar Pb(NO3)2 solution, 667 milliliters of 0.435-molar KIO3 is
added. Calculate the concentration of Pb2+ and IO3¯ in the solution at equilibrium at 25 °C
2)
Compound DH°f (kilocalories/mole)S° (calories/mole K)
H2O (l) - 68.3 16.7
CO2 (g) - 94.1 51.1
O2 (g) 0.0 49.0
C3H8 (g) ? 64.5
When 1.000 gram of propane gas, C3H8, is burned at 25 °C and 1.00 atmosphere, H2O(l) and
CO2(g) are formed with the evolution of 50.33 kilojoules.
(a) Write a balanced equation for the combustion reaction.
(b) Calculate the molar enthalpy of combustion, DH°comb , of propane.
(c) Calculate the standard molar enthalpy of formation, DH°f , of propane gas.
(d) Calculate the entropy change, DS°comb , for the combustion reaction and account of the sign
of DS°comb.
3) A solution of hydrochloric acid has a density of 1.15 grams per mL and is 30.% by weight
HCl.
(a) What is the molarity of this solution of HCl?
(b) What volume of this solution should be taken in order to prepare 5.0 liters of 0.20-molar
hydrochloric acid by dilution with water?
(c) In order to obtain a precise concentration, the 0.20-molar hydrochloric acid is standardized
against pure HgO (molecular weight = 216.59) by titrating the OH¯ produced according to the
following quantitative reaction:
HgO(s) + 4I¯ + H2O --->HgI42¯ + 2 OH¯
In a typical experiment, 0.7147 gram of HgO required 31.67 milliliters of the hydrochloric acid
solution for titration. Based on these data, what is the molarity of the HCl solution expressed to
four significant figures?
4) Use appropriate ionic and molecular formulas to show the reactants and the products for the
following. each of which occurs in aqueous soluiton except as indicated. Omit formulas for any
ionic or molecular species that do not take part in the reaction. You need not balance. In all cases
a reaction ocurs.
(a) A solution of copper(II) sulfate is electrolyzed using inert electrodes.
(b) Hydrogen sulfide gas is bubbled through excess potassium hydroxide solution.
(c) Solutions of silver nitrate and sodium chromate are mixed.
(d) Sodium hydroxide solution is added to a precipitate of aluminum hydroxide in water.
(e) Solid sodium sulfite is added to water.
(f) A solution of formic acid, HCOOH, is oxidized by an acidified solution of potassium
dichromate.
(g) Ammonia gas and carbon dioxide gas are bubbled into water.
(h) Concentrated hydrochloric acid solution is added to solid manganese(IV) oxide and the
reactants are heated.
5) Draw Lewis structures for CO2, H2S, SO3, and SO32¯ and predict the shape of each species.
6) In a laboratory determination of the atomic weight of tin, a sample of tin is weighed in a
crucible. Nitric acid is added, and the reaction proceeds to give a hydrated tin(IV) oxide plus
NO2 and H2O. The hydrated tin(IV) oxide is then heated strongly and reacts as follows:
SnO2 . xH2O(s) -------> SnO2(s) + xH2O(g)
The SnO2 is finally cooled and weighed in the crucible. Explain the effect on the calculated
atomic weight of tin that would result from each of the folowing experimental errors:
(a) Considerable spattering occurs when the nitric acid is added to the tin.
(b) The hydrated tin(IV) oxide is not heated sufficiently to change it completely to tin oxide.
7) Butane, chloroethane, acetone, and 1-propanol all have approximetely the same molecular
weights. Data on their boiling points and solubilities in water are listed in the table below.
Compound Formula Boiling Point, °C Solubility in Water
Butane CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 0 Insoluble
Chloroethane CH3CH2-Cl 12 Insoluble
Acetone CH3-C=O-CH3 56 Completely miscible
1-Propanol CH3-CH2-CH2OH 97 Completely miscible
On the basis of dipole moments (molecular polarities) and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a
qualitative way the differences in the
(a) boiling points of butane and chloroethane
(b) water solubilities of chloroethane and acetone
(c) water solubilities of butane and 1-propanol
(d) boiling points of acetone and 1-propanol

Connectivity of acetone:
8)
NH4+ + OH¯ ---> NH3 + H2O
H2O + C2H5O¯ ---> C2H5OH + OH¯
The equations for two acid-base reactions are given above. Each of these reactions proceeds
essentially to completion to the right when carried out in aqueous solution.
(a) Give the Brönsted-Lowry definition of an acid and a base.
(b) List each acid and its conjugate base for each of the reactions above.
(c) Which is the stronger base, ammonia or the ethoxide ion, C2H5O¯? Explain your answer.
9)

The hydrolysis of thioacetamide is used to generate H2S as shown by the equation above. The
rate of the reaction is given by the rate law as follows:
rate = k [H+] [CH3-C=O-NH2]
Consider a solution which is 0.10-molar in H+ and 0.10-molar in CH3-C=O-NH2 at 25 °C. For
each of the changes listed in (1) , (2), and (3) below, state whether:
(a) the rate of reaction increases, decreases or remains the same
(b) the numerical value of k increases, decreases or remains the same

## (1) Sodium acetate in added to the solution.

(2) The solution is heated to 75 °C.
(3) Water is added to the solution.