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CHAPTER 4: The Relational Model

An applications programs or an individual users picture of
the database.

Defining Query
The SELECT command that creates the view.

Row-and-Column Subset View

Consists of a subset of the row and columns in some
individual table.

A file that relates key values to records that contain those
key values.

Index Key
The field or combination of fields on which the index is built.

Creates an index.

Single-field(column) Index
When you create an index whose key is a single field.

Multiple-field(column) Index
An index with more than one key field.

DROP INDEX command

Drops(deletes) an index that is no longer necessary.

The prevention of unauthorized access to the database.

GRANT Statement
Different types of privileges can be granted to users and, if
necessary, later revoked.

REVOKE statement
To revoke user privileges.

Entity integrity

The rule that no field that is part of the primary key may
accept null values.

To specify the primary key.

Foreign key
A field(or collection of fields in a table whose values is
required to match the value of the primary key of the
second table.

Referential Integrity
The rule that if table A contains a foreign key that matches
the primary key of table B, the values of this foreign key
must match the value of the primary key for some row in
table B or be null.


To spcify referential integrity.

Legal-Values Integrity
The property that states that no record can exist in the
database with a value in the field other than the one of the
legal values.

CHECK clause
To enforce legal-values integrity.

Validation Rule

Validation Text


To change a tables structure.

System Catalog
Where information about tables in the database is kept.

Information about the tables known to SQL.

Information about the columns or fields within these walls.

Information about the indexes that are defined on these

Information about the views that have been created.

Allows you to print detailed documentation about any table,
query, report, form, or other object in the database.

Client/Server System
The database resides on a computer called a server and
users access the database through clients.

A computer that is connect to a network and has access
through the server to the database.

Stored Procedure
Improves the overall performance by saving the query in
this kind of file .

An action that occurs automatically in response to an
associated database operation such as an INSERT, UPDATE,
or DELETE command.

Data Macro
Enables you to add logic to table events such as adding,
changing, or deleting data.



User Views
Business rules or requirements for database

Cumulative Views
-"Classes" vs "Courses"

Physical Level
Development of Database

Information Level
Analyst of information

Info-Level Design Method

1) Represent the user view as a collection of tables
2)Normalize these tables
3)Identify all keys in these tables
4) Merge 1-3 into cumulative design

Represent the user view as a collection of tables

1) Determine entities involved and create a separate table
for each type of entity
2) Determine primary Key
3) Determine properties for each entity
4) Determine relationships between the entities

Secondary Keys
Columns of interest strictly for retrieval purposes
(Candidate keys)

Alternate Keys
Columns could be primary key but not chosen (Phone

Bottom-Up design method

Specific User requirements are implemented into the design

Top-Down Design Method

Begins with general database design that models the
overall enterprise and repeatedly refines the model to
achieve a design that supports necessary applications

Survey Form
Must Contain:
-entity information
-attribute information

-functional dependencies
-processing information.

Entity Subtype
A table whose primary key is a foreign key to a second
table and whose fields are additional fields for the second

Incomplete Category
Records That do not fall into a subtype (Students that do
not fall under StudentDorm)

CHAPTER 7 and 8

-Formulates database policies
-Communicates policies to users
-Enforces policies

-Access Privileges
-Disaster Planning

Access Privileges
Read, Write, Update, Select, Execution (If assigned to
multiple groups then user gets highest privileges)

Prevention of unauthorized access, intentional or accidental
to database.

Security (DBA)
-Creates security policies and procedures
-Obtains management approval
-Distributes policies and procedures authorized

DBMS's Security Features

-Authentication (VPN)

-Views (Hide salary,SS#)

Disaster Recovery Plan

Ongoing Emergency actions and procedures to ensure data
availability if a disaster occurs

Leased, has hardware and network company can use if
anything happens

Redundant Array of Inexpensive/Independent Drives

Database updates replicated to multiple hard drives


alphabetic check
Validity check that ensures users enter only alphabetic data
in a field

Each data element in an object

To make a copy of selected files or an entire hard disk to
another storage medium

A number, letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol that is
represented by a single byte in the ASCII and EBCDIC
coding schemes

check digit
Validity check consisting of a number(s) or character(s) that
is appended to or inserted in a primary key value

collaborative databases
Web databases where users store and share photos, videos,
recordings, and other personal media with other registered

Term used by users of relational databases for field

completeness check
Validity check that verifies that a required field contains

continuous backup
Backup plan in which all data is backed up whenever a
change is made

Collection of unprocessed items, which can include text,
numbers, images, audio, and video

data dictionary
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a
database and each field in those files

data file
Collection of related records stored on a storage medium
such as a hard disk, CD, or DVD

data model
Rules and standards that define how a database organizes

data type
Specifies the kind of data a field in a database can contain
and how the field can be used

data warehouse
Huge database that stores and manages the data required
to analyze historical and current transactions

Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access,
retrieval, and use of that data

database administrator (DBA)

Person who creates and maintains the data dictionary,
manages security of a database, monitors the performance
of a database, and checks backup and recovery procedures

database analyst (DA)

Person who focuses on the meaning and usage of data,
including proper placement of fields, defining the
relationships among data, and identifying users' access

database approach
System used to store and manage data in which many
programs and users share the data in a database

database management system (DBMS)

Program that allows user to create a computerized
database; add, modify, and delete data in the database,
sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms
and reports from the data in the database

database software
Application software used to create, access, and manage a
database; add, change, and delete data in the database;
sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms
and reports using the data in the database

Each column in a database that contains a specific category
of data within a record

field name
Name that uniquely identifies each field in a database

field size
Defines the maximum number of characters a field can

file maintenance
Procedures that keep data current

file processing system

System used to store and manage data in which each
department or area within an organization has its own set
of files

Window on the screen that provides areas for entering or
changing data in a database

garbage in, garbage out (GIGO)

Computing phrase that points out the accuracy of a
computer's output depends on the accuracy of the input

Processed data that conveys meaning and is useful to

Listing of activities that change the contents of a database

multidimensional database
Database that stores data in dimensions

Database item that contains data, as well as the actions
that read or process the data

object-oriented database (OODB)

Database that stores data in objects

primary key
Field in a database that uniquely identifies each record in a

principle of least privilege

Policy adopted by some organizations, where users' access
privileges are limited to the lowest level necessary to
perform required tasks

Request for specific data from a database

query by example (QBE)

DBMS feature that has a graphical user interface to assist
users with retrieving data

query language
Language used with databases that consists of simple,
English-like statements that allows users to specify the data
to display, print, or store

range check
Validity check that determines whether a number is within a
specified range

Each row in a database that contains data about a given
person, product, object, or event

recovery utility
DBMS feature that uses logs and/or backups to restore a
database when it becomes damaged or destroyed

relational database
Database that stores data in tables that consist of rows and
columns, with each row having a primary key and each
column having a unique name

Link within the data in a database

report generator
DBMS feature that allows users to design a report on the
screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then
display or print the report

Term used by users of relational databases for record

Structured Query Language (SQL)

Query language used with databases that allows users to
manage, update, and retrieve data

Term used by users of relational databases for file

Term used by developers of relational databases for record

Process of comparing data with a set of rules or values to
find out if the data is correct