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Ch 5 – Applications of Newton’s Laws

In this chapter, we only study sections 5.1 and 5.2. We will have a combined shorter test on Ch 5 with some Ch 4 material, as well.

5.1 Friction

Do you remember the following notes from 10 th grade?

4.2 Friction DEF: Friction = a counter-active force that acts:

In response to force

In the opposite direction of the force

Can’t be morr than the force applied

Does not depend on speed

Does not depend on area of contact

Can happen in solids, liquids, and gases

2 Types of Friction A. Static friction is

the friction that prevents something from moving (F s )

equal in size and opposite in direction to the force applied (F s = - F)

increases / decreases in direct proportion to F

Has a maximum value, F s,max above which the object will begin to accelerate

B. Sliding (Kinetic) Friction is

F k

Less than static friction

Still a slowing force

Is proportional to the normal force on the object

Once an object is in motion, F net = F applied - F k

DEF: Cold welding = molecular forces between a stationary object and the surface it’s resting on.

Because of cold welding, F k is always less than F s

DEF: Coefficient of Friction is

Denoted by µ

the ratio of friction to the normal force acting between two objects

Coefficient of Static Friction = µ s = F s, max

F n

Coefficient of Kinetic Friction = µ k = _F k _

F n

Your text lists the formulas this way:  What this table tells you is the

A. coefficients of static friction (the ratio of the maximum force that can be

applied for the object to remain still to the normal force)

B. coefficients of kinetic friction (the ratio of the minimum force needed to cause acceleration of the object to the normal force) Friction doesn’t just happen between solids, it can occur in liquids and gases, as well. Because liquids and gases both flow, they are called fluids.

Without friction, we couldn’t walk, drive a car, play sports, et cetera. There is one more type of coefficient of friction to consider: Typical values of µµµµ r range from 0.01 – 0.02 for rubber tires on concrete and from 0.001 – 0.002 for steel wheels on steel rails.

Q: How do these values for rubber on concrete and steel on steel compare to the others in the table? Does that make sense?

A: They are substantially less. It will in a moment if it doesn’t already!

Q: Why do these coefficient values have no units?

A: They are derived from a ratio of two forces so the units cancel out.

Let’s talk about the molecular source of friction for a moment. This is a magnified section of highly polished steel. You can see that even for something like polished steel, there are still a considerable number of crevices and resultant spaces. If you have steel-on- steel, the surfaces will still only make contact at those high points, or asperities.

So, the cold fusion we discussed earlier happens at those asperities. Cold fusion is simply the forces of attraction that exist between the atoms that come in contact with each other at those asperities. Cold fusion bonding is only valid within a range of a few atoms’ diameters. The less surface area you have (thus, the fewer asperities that are in contact with one another), the less friction you have. That’s why it’s easier to move things that are on wheels. There is much less contact between surface areas, and procession of motion is facilitated by the fact that the object will roll automatically.

Q: What do you think would happen if you continue to scrape two surfaces like these together?

A: As the normal forces increase respectively (the forces they exert on each other), the steel slabs flatten out morr.

Q: What would this resultant flattening do to the overall friction?

A: Increase it, of course!

Let’s take a look at the graph below. This graph shows the plot of frictional force on a box by a floor as a function of the applied force. The frictional force balances the applied force until the point at which the box is jarred out of equilibrium and just starts to move. Then, the frictional force is constant.

Q:

move?

Why is there a decrease in the graph at the point at which it starts to

A: The bonds of cold fusion are broken. Once something is moving, it’s easier to keep it moving.

See Ex 5-1, p 120

A cruise ship passenger uses a shuffleboard cue to push a shuffleboard disk of

mass 0,40 kg horizontally along the deck so that the disk leaves the cue with a speed of 5.5 m/s. The disk then slides a distance of 8m before coming to rest.

Find the coefficient of kinetic friction between the disk and the deck. See Ex 5-2, p 121

F x : - F k = ma F k = µµµµ k F n = µµµµ k mg

∴∴∴∴ - F k = - µµµµ k mg Also, a = F/m

a Note: The m’s end up canceling here.

= - µµµµ k mg

m

a Q: What does that really mean?

= - µµµµ k g

A: A greater mass is harder to stop, but greater mass also means greater friction. The net effect is that the mass has no effect!

Now, use Ch 2 kinematics to solve for a in terms of v f and v i .

v f 2 = v i 2 + 2a∆∆∆∆x 0 = (5.5 m/s) 2 + 2(- µµµµ k )(-9.81 m/s 2 )(8 m)

- (5.5 m/s) 2

2(-9.81 m/s 2 )(8 m) µµµµ k = 0.19

= µµµµ k

A hardcover book is resting on a table top with its front cover facing upward.

You place a coin on this cover and very slowly open the book until the coin starts to slide. The angle θθθθ max is the angle the front cover makes with the horizontal just as the coin starts to slide. Find the coefficient of static friction F y : F n – mg cosθθθθ = m⋅⋅⋅⋅0 F n = mg cosθθθθ

F s = µµµµ s F n

F s = µµµµ s mg cosθθθθ

F x : F s – mg sinθθθθ = m⋅⋅⋅⋅0 F s = mg sinθθθθ

Since both of these are equal to F s , set them equal to each other.

µµµµ s mg cosθθθθ = mg sinθθθθ

Because the question is asking you about θθθθ max , you’ve got to express this in terms of just one θθθθ.

Remember, tan = sin/cos, divide both sides by mg cosθθθθ.

µµµµ s mg cosθθθθ = mg sinθθθθ

mg cosθθθθ

mg cosθθθθ

µµµµ s = tan θθθθ

KNOWKNOWKNOWKNOW thisthisthisthis formula!!!!formula!!!!formula!!!!formula!!!! ☺☺☺☺ So, θθθθ max = the angle of repose = the angle at which the object just begins to slip!

See Ex 5-3, p 122

Two children sitting at rest in the snow ask you to pull them. You pull the sled’s rope by making an angle of 40 0 with the horizontal. The children have a combined mass of 45 kg and the sled has a mass of 5 kg. The coefficients of static and kinetic friction are: µµµµ s = 0.2 and , µµµµ k = 0.15. Find the frictional force exerted by the ground on the sled, and the acceleration of the children and the sled, starting from rest, if the tension in the rope is a) 100 N b) 140 N

What they are really asking is if these tensions are enough to accelerate these children.

Q: Why is F n shorter than mg? A: It will be compensated for by the y-component of T.
ΣΣΣΣF
:
y
ΣΣΣΣF
:
x
F n – mg + T sinθθθθ = m••••0
F n = mg - T sinθθθθ
F s = µµµµ s F n = µµµµ s (mg - T sinθθθθ)
- F s + T cosθθθθ = m••••0
F s = T cosθθθθ
Since these are both equal to F s , set them equal to each
other.
µµµµ s (mg - T sinθθθθ) = T cosθθθθ
µµµµ s mg
µµµµ s mg
- µµµµ s T sinθθθθ = T cosθθθθ
= µµµµ s T sinθθθθ + T cosθθθθ

µµµµ s mg = T(µµµµ s sinθθθθ + cosθθθθ)

µµµµ s mg (µµµµ s sinθθθθ + cosθθθθ)

=

T(µµµµ s sinθθθθ + cosθθθθ) (µµµµ s sinθθθθ + cosθθθθ)

µµµµ s mg (µµµµ s sinθθθθ + cosθθθθ)

= T

T = 110 N

Since part “a” only gave you 100 N, this is not Enough to accelerate the kid-sled system ∴∴∴∴ a = 0

F s at this point = T cosθθθθ = 100 N (cos 40 0 ) = 76.6 N

To find F k we use F k = µµµµ k F n = µµµµ k (mg - T sinθθθθ) = 0.15[(50 kg)(9.81 N/kg) – (140 N)(sin 40 0 )] = 60.1 N

ΣΣΣΣF x :

- F k + T cosθθθθ = m••••a x

a x = - F k + T cosθθθθ = (- 60.1N + (140 N)( cos 40 0 ))

m

50 kg

a x = 0.943 m/s 2

See Ex 5-5, p 125

A runaway baby buggy is sliding without friction across a frozen pond toward a hole in the ice. (Are you kidding me?! There better not be a baby in there! ). You race after the buggy on skates. As you grab it, you and the buggy are moving toward the hole with velocity v 0 . The coefficient of friction between

your skates and the ice is given by µµµµ k . D is the distance to the hole when you reach the buggy, M is the total mass of the buggy, and m is your mass.

a) What is the lowest value of D such that you stop the buggy before it reaches

the hole?

b)

What force do you exert on the buggy? a)

ΣΣΣΣF y : F n1 – mg = m⋅⋅⋅⋅0 F n1 = mg F k = µµµµ k F n1 F k = µµµµ k mg

ΣΣΣΣF x :

F – F k

= ma x

F - µµµµ k mg = ma x

ΣΣΣΣF x : -F = Ma x

- Ma x - µµµµ k mg = ma x

∴∴∴∴ a x =

- µµµµ k g

1 + M/m (a is negative, as you’d expect!)

Now that you have “a” you can use Ch 2 Kinematics to solve for D

v f 2 = v 0 2 + 2a x ∆∆∆∆x

0 =

D =

v 0 2 + 2a x D

v

0

2

2

a

x

=

1 +

M

m

v

0

2

2µ

k

g

b) F = -Ma x =

µ

k

Mg

1+

M

m

Let’s shift over to talking about the forces on a car (n’yuk, n’yuk…). Q: What balances / cancels the weight vector for a car?

A: The normal force on each tire.

Q: If a road were frictionless, how would that affect the motion of a car?

A: Your wheels would spin around and around, but you wouldn’t be able to move!

For forward motion of a vehicle: When friction is present, the frictional force of the road on the tires is in the forward direction, opposing the tendency of the tire to slip backwards. It is that frictional force that provides the acceleration necessary to propel the car forward. If the friction between the tire and the road is small, the tire does not “slip” on the road. The wheels roll without slipping and the tread touching the road at any given instant is at rest relative to the road.

Q: What type of friction is this, then?

A: Static.

The largest frictional force that the tire can exert on the road (and the road

can exert on the tire) is: FFFF s,s,s,s, maxmaxmaxmax ==== µµµµ ssss FFFF nnnn

For a car moving in a straight line with speed v relative to the road, the center of each wheel also moves with speed v as shown. In the picture, the dashed lines represent velocities relative to the body of the car while the solid lines represent velocities relative to the ground. If a wheel rolls without slipping, its top is moving faster than v while its bottom is moving slower than v. That’s because there is NO friction on the top of the wheel, but there IS friction on the bottom. However, relative to the car, each point on the perimeter of the wheel moves with the same speed v. At that point, the speed of the point on the tire momentarily in contact with the ground is zerozerozerozero. If it weren’t zero, the tire would be skidding along the ground!

Given more power from the engine, the tire will slip and the wheels will spin. At that point, the force that accelerates the car is the force of kinetic friction. Q: What did this graph tell you about F k versus F s ?

A:

F k < F s, max

So, if you’re stuck on ice or snow, you’d be better off using a light touch of the accelerator as you’d potentially have F S,max versus F k working for you.

Q: Is that true of braking a car, as well? In other words, would you be better off using a light touch of the brakes for stopping, or slamming on the brakes?

A: Within reason, the lightest force you can apply to the brakes to get them to stop on time is best. That’s what anti-lock braking systems (ABS) do!

If you slam on the brakes so that the tires skid on the road, the force working to stop the car is F k , the force of kinetic friction. Before ABS systems, one would “pump” the brakes in effort to stop. The problem is that the pumping of the brakes is applied to all of them. In ABS systems, the pumping action is only applied to the locking wheel. This is called threshold braking. This type of braking maximizes quick stopping ability. Pretty cool, huh?!

See Ex 5-7, p 128.

A car is traveling at 30 m/s along a horizontal road where µµµµ s = 0.5 and µµµµ k = 0.3. How far does the car travel before stopping if

a) the car brakes using an ABS system so that threshold braking is sustained?

b) the car is braked hard with no ABS so the wheels lock? a) Use Ch 2 kinematics to solve for x

v f 2 = v 0 2 + 2a x x 0 = v 0 2 + 2a x x x = - v 0 2 2a x

Now solve for a x

ΣΣΣΣF y : F n – mg = m⋅⋅⋅⋅0 F n = mg

F s, max

= µµµµ s F n = µµµµ s mg

ΣΣΣΣF x : - F s, max = ma x - µµµµ s mg = ma x

 a x = - µµµµ s g ∆∆∆∆x = - v 0 2 = 2a x - (30 m/s) 2 = 91.8 m 2(- 0.5)(9.81)

b) When the wheels lock, a x is given by:

a x = - µµµµ s g as indicated above.

 ∆∆∆∆x = - v 0 2 = - (30 m/s) 2 = 153 m 2a x 2(- 0.3)(9.81)

Note: The stopping distance is more than 50% greater when the wheels are locked. Also note that the stopping distance is independent of mass, providing the coefficients of friction are the same.

Do you remember covering this in 10 th grade? We said that when the speed was tripled, the stopping distance required was nine times morr. This was based on the equation for KE. We know KE = ½ mv 2 . What we determined was that in the ratio below, the m’s ended up canceling out. KE 1 = ½ m 1 v 1

KE 2

2

2

½ m 2 v 2

Same is true here; m’s end up canceling out!

5.2 Motion Along a Curved Path

Q: What is the formula for centripetal acceleration that we learned in Ch 2?

A: a c = v 2 / r where the centripetal acceleration was always toward the center of the circle.

The tangential component of a c given by a t is:

a t = dv/dt in the tangential direction. We learned in 10 th grade that the centripetal force is a center-seeking force and that the velocity is always tangent to the circle at any given instant. The evidence is that if you cut the string (or source of the force) the object flies off tangent to the circle at that point. There is no real centrifugal force (outward-seeking force), or the object would fly outward, not tangent.

See Ex 5-8, p 129.

You swing a pail of water in a vertical circle of radius r. If its speed is v t at the top of the circle, find

a) the force exerted on the water by the pail at the top of the circle

b) the minimum value of v t for the water to remain in the pail

c) the force exerted by the pail on the water at the bottom of the circle, where the speed of the pail is v b

Water at top

Water at bottom  a) ΣΣΣΣF y, top :
- F p – mg = m (-v t 2 / r)
2 
v t
F p = m
 
− g
r
The pail can push on the water, but not pull on it.
The water is there via its own initial inertial state.
The minimum force it can exert is zero.
2
v t
,min
 
b) 0 = m
− g
Solve for v t, min
r 
rg
v t, min =
c) ΣΣΣΣF y, bottom : F p – mg = m (v b 2 / r)
2
v b
F p = m
 
r 

+ g

Q: Why is there no arrow for the centripetal force in the FBD’s?

A: It is a resultant force in the centripetal direction. Those never go in the FBD, regularly. Think of the ball rolling down the ramp!

Q: Is the centripetal force still real, if it’s not in the FBD?

A: Yep. See the paragraph on the previous page for a reminder.

A couple of extra notes:

When the bucket is at the top of its path, both the bucket and g contribute to the centripetal force on the water. At that peak, the water is moving with minimum speed, and is in free-fall. At the bottom of the path, F p has to be greater than mg to still provide a net force in the centripetal direction, or up.

Q: At the bottom, when v = 0 again, what is F p ?

A: F p , of course!

When a car rounds a curve on a horizontal road, both the centripetal and forward forces are provided by the force of static friction exerted by the road on the tires.

If the car travels at constant speed, then the forward component of the frictional force is balanced by the rearward forces of air drag and rolling friction.

Q: If air drag is negligible, what does that mean about the forward component of frictional force in this case?

A: It is zero.

See Ex 5-10, p 131

You have a summer job as part of an automobile tire design team. You are testing new prototype tires to see whether or not the tires perform as well as predicted. In a skid test, a new BMW 530i was able to travel at constant speed in a circle of radius 45.7 m in 15.2 s without skidding.

a) What was the speed, v?

b) What is the acceleration?

c) Assuming negligible air drag and rolling friction, what is the minimum value for the coefficient of static friction between the tires and the road? a) v = 2ππππr = 2ππππ(45.7 m) = 18.9 m/s

t 15.2 s

b) a c = v 2 = (18.9 m/s) 2 = 7.81 m/s 2

r (45.7 m) This is just distance over time.

a t = dv = 0 dt

(Constant speed)

the only acceleration is 7.81 m/s 2 in the centripetal direction.

c) ΣΣΣΣF y : F n – mg = m⋅⋅⋅⋅0 F n = mg F s, max = µµµµ s F n = µµµµ s mg

ΣΣΣΣF r :

- F s, max = m

v 2

r

∴∴∴∴ µµµµ s mg = mv 2

µµµµ s =

v 2 = rg

r

(18.9 m/s) 2

(45.7 m)(9.81 m/s 2 )

= 0.796