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HR CLASS NOTES PART 1

[key words in bold letters]

WHY HR CLASS?
*To promote a CULTURE OF ADVOCACY
*EDUCATION: school, associations, communication, global friendships
*INCULTURATION: hopes to create a culture of respect and freedom
where man is FREE To think and to choose and to find for himself = for the
COMMON GOOD
*UDHR: will only awaken our SPIRIT OF INVOLVEMENT, which starts from
WITHIN, Therefore, respect for HR becomes the NORM.
*CREATING A CULTURE OF HR AND ETHICS: IF AND WHEN HR
becomes a talking point in every subject

HR as COMMON DENOMINATOR
*to begin dialogue with people
*Its what is in the HEARTS AND MINDS OF PEOPLE

PROTECTION, PROMOTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS


*James Fallows, A damaged culture: a new Philippines? Printed in The
Atlantic Monthly in November 1987.
Unfortunately for its people, the Philippines illustrates the contrary: that
culture can make a naturally rich country poor
BOILS DOWN TO RESPECT FOR HR AND CARE FOR PERSONS
*crimes: 20 persons die per day, etc.
*REFLECTS THE RESPECT we have for ourselves and our RELATIONS
with other human beings
because we are INTERRELATED

NO CLEAR DEFINITION OF HR?


*as a concept in INTERNATIONAL LAW = 1948 = UDHR (being quoted by
the Courts)
plus Convention for the Rights of the Child (CRC): provides doctrines to

patch loopholes in our laws; e.g. in Briones v. Miguel, the illegitimate child
is only related to the mother even if the father recognises him. Under PH
laws, parental authority lies with the mother; how if he chooses the father?
What are the rights of the child? We do not have law on this, only
jurisprudence. Under the law, the right of the father toward an illegitimate
child is only to VISIT because parental authority (PA) is with the mother. In
Briones, both parents worked in Japan, they fell in love, had a child, man
deported back to PH, then also the woman, but mother went back to Japan
and married a Japanese. SC: the fathers right is only to visit because PA is
with the mother.
*How about Private International Law issues?
the renvoir doctrine. Japan has 3 kinds of divorce: judicial, agreement of
Ps, decision of one.
3 issues of Japayukis: vulnerability, right to life, livelihood. Like human
trafficking, the REAL ISSUES are POVERTY and VULNERABILITY.
*it evolves? His example is Marriage, which now evolved to include samesex unions?
US v. Windsor [cf. dissenting opinion of J. Alito, well-written]
*CONCEPT: elusive, hardly defined, vague?
cultural differences: Americans v. Filipinos (the latter do not look straight
in the eye which may mean insincerity for the former)
on women: Iraqis v. Filipinos (genital mutilation; Pakistani women
considered as property of husbands; not a person but a thing)

WHERE DOES HR BEGIN? WITH US!


*verbalization or action?
*Starts WITH THE HEART because HR come from the PERSON
HIMSELF, not with the Magna Carta in 1215 or the American and French
revolutions
WHERE DID IT START IN THE PHILIPPINES?
*Malakas at maganda: equality, a proud PH tradition? because a woman is
considered equal to a man.

SOURCES OF HR
1. UDHR

2. Constitutional provisions
3. World/Country Report on HR
4. local decisions
5. international decisions
EXAMPLES
*Affirmative Action (AA)
rationale: because the minority cannot compete with the majority
favour the minorities in education, e.g., Blacks to be given more access
to education v. Each to be treated according to MERIT
but isnt AA discrimination against/for a person? REVERSE
DISCRIMINATION (for a person)
*Vergara v. Sate of California
questioned the SECURITY of TENURE (a license to LAZINESS:
detrimental to students)
Security of Tenure is tied to Right to Life
accdg to the state of CA: security of tenure does not really work for HR:
one loses interest in working harder because of ones security of tenure
*DAP case
line between Executive and Legislative branches
leverage: good faith?
problem: APPOINTING PoWER lodged in the Executive (within 90D from
submission of list)

UNs Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR)


WHAT ARE HUMAN RIGHTS?
*Human: a member of the homo sapiens: man, woman
*Rights: things to which you are entitled or allowed; freedoms that are
guaranteed
*Human Rights: the rights you have simply because you are human
the only ones that apply to absolutely everyone vs. other rights that
pertain to specific group of people, e.g., doctors, etc.
HISTORY OF HUMAN RIGHTS
539 BC. Cyrus the Great after conquering Babylon. Revolutionary: all
slaves were free to go; people free to choose their religion. The Cyrus

cylinder.
27 BC Rome. Natural Law: people follow it even if they are not told to
1215 AD. England. Magna Carta. No one can overrule rights of people,
not even the king
1776 AD. American Independence. All men are created equal.
1789 AD. French revolution. Changed NL to Natural Rights.
1915 AD. Mahatma Gandhi. In face of violence, he insisted that all
people have rights, not just in Europe
Then WWI and WWII: 19M people died [Hitler et al]
1945: United Nations. Basic purpose: to reaffirm faith in the fundamental
HR and in the dignity and worth of the human person
1948: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. NR became Human
Rights. under the supervision of Eleanor Roosevelt; apply absolutely to
everyone
UN UDHRS DEFECT?
PROBLEM: the UDHR did NOT HAVE THE FORCE OF LAW when signed.
It was OPTIONAL; hence, no more than words on the page. Who will make
them a reality? Eg Dr. Martin Luther King (racial equality), Nelson Mandela
(social justice), now against torture, etc.
*CLINCHER: According to Roosevelt: where they begin is in the small
places close to homein the world of the individual person: at home,
school, factory where one works. Equal justice, equal opportunity, etc:
unless these rights have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere.
INTERVIEW WITH AMBASSADOR MARY ANN GLENDON [Harvard Law
professor]
*On the UDHR: it was kind of a miracle: drafted by 18 people whose
countries were in serious conflict were with one another
started with convoking a group of philosophers from all over the world, to
discuss the philosophical foundations (1946)
*CONSENSUS in the midst of diversity
there are some things that are so good that no one would dissent from
them
and there are some things that are so ATROCIOUS that everybody
would condemn them
*HOW TO CHARACTERIZE THE NATURE OF THE DOCUMENT
it is impressively MULTICULTURAL but IMPERFECTLY

MULTICULTURAL because in 1948 when it was adopted the UN did not


include sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world
*WESTERN IDEA?
the idea of UNIVERSALITY comes out of WESTERN TRADITIONS but
although that it may be said to be Westernincluding the FORM and
STYLE of the documentit is impressive that in 1947 and 1948,
representative of Asian cultures, nine countries with predominantly Muslim
populations, along with Latin America, etc: all those representatives were
able to sign up to those principles AS UNIVERSALS. And then afterwards,
practically every CONSTITUTION in the world that has a BILL OF RIGHTS
is MODELED or INFLUENCED in some way by that CORE of principles
that are deemed to be FUNDAMENTAL.
*GOAL of the document vs. the HR concerns at that time
UDHR was NOT really about ENFORCEMENT; it was about
INCULTURATION; it was about SETTING CONDITIONS so that horrible
things would not happen, so that probability of atrocities would be reduced
EDUCATION in particular is what the UDHR is ALL ABOUTthat was
the idea; PREAMBLE: a sign to all people/nations; through education they
would somehow find a way to make these rights a reality; like a dream on
competition on excellence, depending on their cultures; nobody can waive
those rights up!
*MESSAGE
there was a time during the most unpromising circumstances that men
and women of different faiths and cultures were able to come together to
articulate a path together towards JUSTICE and PEACE a great
affirmation of the possibility of overcoming conflict through REASON and
GOODWILL.
PROFESSORS NOTES ON THE UDHR
*125 RPC
*1987 C rights of the accused
*Hamleting: people from a suspected area controlled by NPAs are forced to
leave their houses, etc.
Japanese settled in CA after WWII; resettled like in concentration camps
HR EMPHASIZED IN CLASS
*the 30 UDHR rights have DERIVATIVE rights
1. Right to education

HR is a developing country
relate to two functions of government: ministrant (may or may not) and
constituent (must). Under the 1933 Constitution, education was NOT a
right, only a privilege (ministrant); 1973C: Marcoseducation became a
constituent function (only RIGHT to education); 1987C: also a right but
given more EMPHASIS as a right to QUALITY EDUCATION.
2. Right to work
HR VIOLATIONS
*Human trafficking (HT)
we are in TIER 2 on HT [tier 3 is the worse where government is also a
partner, e.g., Middle Eastno law to protect humans workers] [tier 2 means
trying hard but wanting] [tier 1: no more human slavery or sex workers; but
in Holland/Netherlands, prostitution is legal]
SIMPLIFIED VERSION OF HR
Article 1
Right to Equality
Article 2
Freedom from Discrimination
Article 3
Right to Life, Liberty, Personal Security
Article 4
Freedom from Slavery
Article 5
Freedom from Torture and Degrading Treatment
Article 6
Right to Recognition as a Person before the Law
Article 7
Right to Equality before the Law
Article 8
Right to Remedy by Competent Tribunal
Article 9
Freedom from Arbitrary Arrest and Exile
Article 10
Right to Fair Public Hearing
Article 11
Right to be Considered Innocent until Proven Guilty

Article 12
Freedom from Interference with Privacy, Family, Home and
Correspondence
Article 13
Right to Free Movement in and out of the Country
Article 14
Right to Asylum in other Countries from Persecution
Article 15
Right to a Nationality and the Freedom to Change It
Article 16
Right to Marriage and Family
Article 17
Right to Own Property
Article 18
Freedom of Belief and Religion
Article 19
Freedom of Opinion and Information
Article 20
Right of Peaceful Assembly and Association
Article 21
Right to Participate in Government and in Free Elections
Article 22
Right to Social Security
Article 23
Right to Desirable Work and to Join Trade Unions
Article 24
Right to Rest and Leisure
Article 25
Right to Adequate Living Standard
Article 26
Right to Education
Article 27
Right to Participate in the Cultural Life of the Community
Article 28
Right to a Social Order that Articulates this Document
Article 29
Community Duties Essential to Free and Full Development
Article 30

Freedom from State or Personal Interference in the above Rights

DEMOCRACY AND HR
EDUCATION: A PRE-CONDITION TO A SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY
*to produce an ENLIGHTENED CITIZENRY; otherwise, it becomes a
MEANS TO ENSLAVE PEOPLE
*Glendon: EDUCATION is important for HR [see more notes on Glendon
below]
KEITH EWING [key points of his article]
1. Independence of the Judiciary
2. Judicial advocacy and activitism v. stare decisis
*judicial advocacy: when SC becomes an advocate and not just an activist
*Fear of judges: being charged with gross ignorance of the law
*His essay is like a JUMPING SALAD
TWO EXPECTATIONS OF A LAWYER
1. What do lawyers do as HR advocates?
expectation of HR lawyers of the society they represent
*EWING: lawyers are supposed to be ADVOCATES, that
a) they know the/ir rights
b) they determine the application of these rights as analysed by
Jurisprudence
*EWING: lawyers are supposed to be IMPLEMENTORS and
CARETAKERS OF SOCIETY, that
a) they know the standard
b) and how the standard is fulfilled and implemented in society
*eg, UDHR standard = the ONLY standard that counts
2. Conflict between democracy and HR; and HR and judges
*democracy and HR: standard for HR: UDHR
but what would be done if the majority will define things contrary to
UDHR? (is the majority right?; are their decisions in accord with HR; e.g.
Noy2 representing democracy to HR or minority?
*HR and judges: definition of judges on HR

judges criticised by Ewing as INSENSITIVE = do not represent


democratic institution; do they uphold HR? judges appointed by appointed
officer: JBCPresident: so do they uphold the law, HR or the appointing
authority?

Ewings answers are short


*Exec Branch which is SUPPOSED TO REPRESENT DEMOCRACY = SC
has right to say President is wrong? e.g. PDAF issue.
*plus multinationals operating within a State; move to another State which
tolerate their HR violations = evade payment of damages. Hiding under the
veil/cloak of corporate fiction.

ANUP SHAHs PAPER ON DEMOCRACY


DEMOCRACY AS A WESTERN IDEA: RULE OF THE PEOPLE
GRAND CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMOCRACY
1. extensive participation
*effectiveness of representation in government
*empowerment of all members of society
representation in policy-making bodies
each person as a CONTRIBUTOR in PH society
2. inclusiveness
we are all PARTS OF THE WHOLE vs. Exclusivity
feeling of BELONGINGNESS in society, regardless of time, place and
scenario vs. kanya-kanya, tayo-tayo, sila-sila
CRITICISM OF DEMOCRACY
*violations become an expected way of life
*culture of DEPENDENCE: object of everything the government does;
subject of SYMPATHY of government project
*Therefore, even if HR is violated, it comes accepted!
RIGHT OF FREE SPEECH
*ONLY vehicle to make alive a particular issue so it wont be forgotten
but its not considered a HR!

ACCOUNTABILITY and MANIPULATION


*Office of Ombudsman supposed to check even if there is no complaint as
long as there is a necessary lead
HR and DEMOCRACY CONNECTION
*HR is not something spoonfed. It is something fought for and therefore,
DESERVED, as a result of the VIGILANCE of the people.
1. Limited time in power: paradox
short term policies
2. low voter turnout: challenge
other countries: run away election: two candidates with top 2 votes will
run again to assure support of the majority
3. Fear, scare stories and political opportunism
use of fear as a TACTIC to undermine democracy, eg, fear of the leftists,
NPA
How destroy HR? If there is no basis to declare martial law, the
government will do it.
fear of famine: shortage of rice; government will invade an ow nongovernmental activity
CHOOSE BETWEEN
1. free dog but starving (free but hungry)
2. leashed dog but well-fed (like communism but it failed)
HAPPY BALANCE of freedom and food.
BEST ANTIDOTE: STRONG GOVERNMENT (vs weak democracies)
*against hostile opposition
EVALUATIVE DEMOCRACY: PH FAILS IN ALL THESE
*minimize political campaigning
*minimize the role of political influence
*min role of political organisations
*min role of money
*established accountability of political and govt decision-making through
the standard of COLLECTIVE INTEREST
CORRUPTION = political consideration

DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS AND THE MILITARY


*military: subservient to the people
*in a FUNCTIONING DEMOCRACY: CIVILIAN SUPREMACY over the
military
*But a current issue: appointment of military men to sensitive posts
(revolving door)
*military culture: unquestioning (do first before you complain): opposite to
civilian culture
*tendency towards authoritarianism/dictatorship
*military: biggest threat in a democratic society (guns and goons)
*HAPPY BALANCE BW MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SOCIETY
by the president/CE or by appointing former military men to the cabinet?
civilians bow down because of fear [they are supposed to have
supremacy over the military]
NATION STATES IN A WORLD OF GLOBALIZATION
*nation connotes UNITY
*states: political concept
State where there is UNITY OF PURPOSE, etc.
*comparison: becomes an instrument of frustration (e.g. Arab Spring,
among ME countries)
*Globalization: INTERDEPENDENCE and INTERRELATION
problem of different countries: same
+ products transported easily due to Globalization
OTHER TERMS
*Trickle-down effect: rich person employing many domestic workers
only PALLIATIVE: dependence on TEMPORARY solutions
*VIOLATION OF HR IN THE NAME OF POVERTY
*Voting: a scandal in democracies
because the vote of a dumb man is the same as a scientists
exclude illiterate voters? An undemocratic solution to foster democracy?
COURT DEADLINES OF DECISION
TC: 90 d
CA: 12 mo
SC: 18 mo


PEOPLE EMPOWERMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Judge Aguinaldo
KEYWORDS/IDEAS
*Meaningful participation
free and informed decision
*Democracy is a USELESS political ideology UNLESS and UNTIL it is
associated with EMPOWERMENT
only a political ideology that can promote, protect and enhance HR
*Empowerment is not to give people power (which they already have) but
to LET THIS POWER OUT: overcome obstacles in life and work
*Lack of enabling environment resulting in a continued marginalisation of
people
e.g. traffic
*Plus political culture of dependence and charity (people lose selfconfidence)
*Politics becomes a profession, not a SERVICE
*lawyering profession depends on the miseries of people?
*GOVERNMENT BY THE PEOPLE, OF THE PEOPLE, FOR THE PEOPLE
*US is spiritual but not religious
EMPOWERMENT
*making a person a CONTRIBUTOR thereby giving him POWER or make
him powerful
ANUP SHAH: Democracy EMPOWERS
*PROCESS by which individuals, groups would be able to have FULL
ACCESS to personal or collective POWERS and to employ that strength
1. the GIVING or DELEGATION of POWER OR AUTHORITY;
AUTHORIZATION
2. the giving of an ABILITY; ENABLEMENT or PERMISSION
3. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) a policy of PROVIDING special
OPPORTUNITIES in employment, training, etc., example : for
unrepresented MINORITIES, MARGINALIZED and other disadvantaged in
the mainstream society.
*How to make every Filipino a PARTICIPANT in the political system.

EMPOWERMENT AND DEMOCRACY


*Principles in a democracy
1. Each one is responsible
2. Each one participates, e.g., elections
*On IGNORANCE
1. Bec an individual is ALREADY EMPOWERED bec of our democratic
tradition
2. based on PRINCIPLE: every person is RESPONSIBLE for his OWN
ACTS
RELATED ISSUES
1. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY
*distribution of wealth in society
*land dispute
*controversies over wages
GDP: Does it benefit the poor?
2012 6.5% GDP
2013 5% predicted GDP
PH STATISTICS
In 2012, among the 5 original ASEAN member countries, the Philippines is
the
*4th in terms of LABOR productivity,
*the highest in POVERTY incidence,
*the lowest in PER CAPITA INCOME at $2,300 per year (US10,300)
2. EQUALITY
*Satisfaction of basic needs and human rights
*Emphasis on values supported by capitalism
3. QUALITY EDUCATION
*Equalizer of the GREAT DIVIDE
*Brain drain Philippines subsidizes economies of the First World through
OFW, Glass ceiling, Societal barriers, 2011 - 10.5 million abroad which
is 5% of international migrants worldwide
glass ceiling: you dream but you are PREVENTED BY A GLASS

CEILING (hang gang pangarap ka lang)


*OFW milking cows, 8% GDP
*87% national literacy rate
*1987 Constitution emphasizes RIGHT TO QUALITY EDUCATION and
HIGHEST PRIORITY
12% budget allocation below 20% WB suggested cut
4. INCLUSIVE GROWTH
*Philippine economy strong but unemployment remains challenge: ADB
*The Philippine economy continues to grow but Filipinos continue to suffer
due to lack of job opportunity
*Continuous deployment of overseas workers masks the severity of the
unemployment problem
*This country has 40 million labor force, and then its labor force continues
to grow by an average 2 percent (per year). About 800,000 new jobs should
be created just to sustain the same level (of employment)
*Usui said the country needs to revive its manufacturing sector to create
more jobs.
*China, South Korea and Japan are interested to invest in the country.
*Jain said the government needs to address the infrastructure gap and
implement a more predictable tax regime that will entice more investments
to come in the country.
5. ACCESS TO JUSTICE, RESOURCES AND SOCIAL SERVICES
*redress of grievances, speedy disposition of cases/complaints
*ACCESS TO MEDIA / Cyber Crime Law libel law
*representation in policy determining bodies, like Party List System in
Congress remedy to enhance bargaining power
*population almost 100 million which is 25 times that of Minnesota
*lack of enabling environment resulting to the continued marginalization of
people and the political culture of dependence and charity or welfare.
People lose their self-confidence because they cannot be fully selfsupporting and independent. The opportunities denied them also deprive
them of the pride of accomplishment which others, who have those
opportunities, can develop for themselves.
*Question on how to hold accountable erring public officials Ombudsman,
Sandiganbayan, Courts, pardoning power of the President

6. POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
*politics of kinship, personal relations, wealth, coercion and unholy
alliances
*14th Congress (2007-2010)
75 % members come from political dynasties, May 2013 election
percentage is higher no political dynasty law despite 1987 Constitutional
Provision
172 political dynasties (legitimate and illegitimate relations) control 78 of
80 provinces, they have private armies, breeding grounds of corruption,
violence and ineptitude, motivations pork barrel
Politics is a profession. Corruption Perception Index by Transparency
International
2008 141th in 180 countries
2009 139th in 176 countries
2010 134th in 178 countries
2011 129th in 178 countries
2012 105th in 176 countries
*Party-list groups don't have to be marginalized, Supreme Court says.
(Yahoo.Ph News April 5, 2013)
The party list is provided in the 1973 Constitution to represent
marginalized sector in Philippine society like the farmers, indigenous
communities, urban poor, which cannot compete in expensive elections.
Brillantes said via Twitter late Friday that the Supreme Court decision
"effectively deprives the poor and marginalized of opportunity to have
representation in Congress. "Under the new parameters, small and
marginalized groups will now have to compete with moneyed and wellconnected pol parties and groups," he added.
7. REVOLUTION OF RISING EXPECTATION (leads to FRUSTRATION)
*Social media discussions of issues have become personal
*Globalization Filipino can now relate to the world

EMPOWERMENT is the
1. process
2. which enables individuals/groups
3. to fully access personal/collective power, authority and influence, and
4. to employ that strength when engaging with other people, institutions or

society.
EMPOWERMENT IS TO LET THE POWER OUT, NOT GIVING PEOPLE
POWER
*Empowerment is not giving people power, people already have plenty of
power, in the wealth of their knowledge and motivation, to do their jobs
magnificently. Empowerment is letting this power out It encourages people
to gain the skills and knowledge that will allow them to overcome obstacles
in life or work environment and ultimately, help them develop within
themselves or in the society.

THE REQUIREMENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY THAT


PROTECTS AND PROMOTES HUMAN RIGHTS:
1. KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY EDUCATION AND INFORMATION
*Integrated Education and Information
2. STRONG MIDDLE CLASS
not created by our educational system
*25 million or of the entire population live on less than $1.50 per day
*March 2012 SWS Research: 11.1 million households live below the
poverty line or have nothing to eat
3. DEMOCRATIC CULTURE AND INSTITUTIONS
*democratic institutions that promote equality
4. EQUALITY (as exemplified by MALAKAS AT MAGANDA and other
values like communitarian spirit of PAGKAKAISA)
Women empowerment
*Philippines is No. 1 in womens advancement in Asia and No. 3 in the
Pacific Region behind Australia and New Zealand. 70.5 women for every
100 men in the public and private sector but it is the 4th lowest in the
ASEAN in terms of gender equality in the workplace.
*2011 DSWD statistics shows that in 15,104 recorded DOMESTIC
VIOLENCE against women
*CALL CENTERS BECOME BREEDING GROUNDS FOR IMMORALITY

Elections
*Elections are marred by coercion and violence due to the proliferation of
private armies.
*Private armies linked to local politicians continue to grow in the
Philippines. According to the Independent Commission against Private
Armies (ICAPA), 112 armed groups exist across the country, most of them
in Mindanao, the predominantly Muslim region in the southern Philippines,
where the Filipino Armed Forces and Muslim rebels have battled it out for
the better part of the past 40 years. (2010 Report).
*Former Philippines Defense Secretary Norberto Gonzales says there are
132 private militias in the country with a combined strength of 10,000 men
that politicians use to intimidate rivals and voters. (2010)
5. STRONG ECONOMIC BASE
*Philippines is No. 82 in 140 countries for economic development (World
Economic Forum)
*2012 Philippines is the most improved in tourism / OFW / overseas
contracting like call centers
*In the Asia Pacific 2011 report says that 40 richest families control 76% of
the Philippine economy
*Henry Sy (of Shoe Mart) and Lucio Tan control 6% of the Philippine
economy.

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM THAT DEPRIVES FILIPINOS OF ECONOMIC


EMPOWERMENT
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM THAT DOES NOT CREATE A STRONG
MIDDLE CLASS
Consider this:
*According to the Philippine Business for Education (PBEd), there is no
connection between education and economic / employment opportunities
*Philippines needs education and training in the fields of agro-based
goods, fisheries, health care products, rubber-based goods, textiles and
clothing, electronic goods, e-ASEAN, automotive products, tourism, woodbased products and logistics.
*Our Board of Investments (BOI) lists agribusiness and fisheries, creative
industries and knowledge-based services, shipbuilding, mass housing,

energy, infrastructure, research and development, green projects, motor


vehicles and tourism as priority industries.
*By contrast, the projected biggest enrollments in our colleges and
universities are in
1. business administration and related courses,
2. followed by information technology-related disciplines,
3. education science and teacher training,
4. engineering and technology, and
5. medical and allied professions. (See pie chart.)
***These top five fields make up 78 percent of the total enrollment,
according to Commission of Higher Education (CHEd) projections for 2012
to 2016.
***Only 2 percent enrollment in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and
veterinary medicine combined.
CONCLUSION : THERE CAN BE NO PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
IF THERE IS NO POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT WHICH IS BASED ON
STRONG ECONOMIC FOUNDATION.