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Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

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Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

1. POLARITY
A welder should understand the meaning of polarity, and recognize what effect it has
on the welding process. For proper penetration, uniform bead appearance and good
welding result, the correct polarity must be used when welding with any wire or
electrode.
Incorrect polarity will cause: poor penetration, Irregular bead shape, excessive spatter,
difficult to control the arc, overheating, and rapid burning of wire or electrode.
ARC BLOW
Occurs when the arc refuses to go where it is supposed to, blows wildly forward or
back, and produces spatters badly.
Most frequently encountered at the start and finish of joints, and in corners and
deep grooves, particularly when high amperages are being used in welding thick.
Makes welding very difficult, reduce speed and lowers weld quality
When the arc blow opposite to the direction of travel it is called back blow.
When the arc blows with the direction of travel, it is called forward blow.
Is caused by magnetic force acting on the arc, making the arc blow from its normal
path.
TO REDUCE ARC BLOW:
Reduce current
Weld toward a heavy tack or toward a weld already made
Use back stepping on long welds
Place ground connection as for from joint to be welded as is possible
If back blow is in the problem, place ground connection at start of weld and weld
towards a heavy tack
If forward blow causes trouble, place ground connection at the end of weld

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

Wrap ground cable around the work piece and pass ground current through it in
such a direction that magnetic field will be set-up to neutralize the magnetic field
causing the blow
Hold as short and arc possible to help the arc force counteract the arc blow
If the machine bring used is of type producing both AC&DC, switch to AC.

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

2. THE EFFECT OF THE WELDING HEAT ON METAL


Metals become larger when heated and become smaller upon cooling. During welding
the arc heats the metal being welded, causing it to become larger or expand. As the
heat is removed, the surrounding metal and air cause a cooling effect upon the heated
area, which results in the metal becoming smaller, or contracting. When this
expansion and contraction is not controlled, distortion (warping) is likely to result. On
the other extreme, if expansion and contraction is restrained, or controlled too rigidly,
severe stress and strain may result and impair the weld.
Three rules can be followed to aid in the prevention and control of distortion:
Reduce the forces that cause shrinkage.
Make shrinkage forces work to reduce distortion
Balance shrinkage force with other forces.
Reduce the force that cause shrinkage:
Avoid over welding
Over welding causes distortion, it is a waste of time and money. In certain cases it
may even weaken the joint.
Use proper joint preparation and fit-up
Use intermittent welds
Use back step welding method
Make shrinkage force work to minimize distortion
Pre-set parts out of position
Space parts to allow for shrinkage
Pre-bend (pre-camber)
Balance shrinkage forces with other forces
Balance one shrinkage force with another, i.e. by welding alternatively on both
sides.
Peering (but no advisable)

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

Use of jigs and fixtures such as clamps, jigs, strong backs to hold the work in a
rigid position during welding.

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

Legends:
Contraction in the weld & HAZ along
the length.
Bowing due to the greater volume
of metal at the top of the weld
Peaking due to the V angle
Ripple (in sheet) away from the weld
Contraction in the weld metal and
HAZ transverse to the weld

BACK STEP METHOD

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

3. TO STRIKE AND ESTABLISH AN ARC


The basis of arc welding is the continuous electric arc. The arc is maintained when the
welding current is force across gab between the electrode tip and bar metal. A welder
must be able to strike and establish the correct arc easily and quickly.

a.

Too long arc length


Increase of spatter
Poor penetration
Sound of arc will be more
of a hiss than a crackle
Metal will melt off the electrode
in large drops
Slag removal will be difficult

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

b. Travel speed too fast


Bead will be thin & stringy
Poor penetration
c. Travel speed too slow
Weld metal will pile up and roll over
Excessive overlap
d.

Amperage too high


Bead will be flat
Excessive spatter
Excessive porosity
Electrode becomes overheated

e. Amperage too low


Difficult in striking the arc
Difficult in maintaining
correct arc length
Weld metal pile up
Excessive overlap
Poor penetration
LEGENDS:
Made by a correct procedure
To restart a continuous bead:
Amperage too low
Strike the arc
Spatter and undercut caused by excessively high amperage
Move the electrode to the crown of the crater
Voltage too low
Resume forward travel
Excessively high voltage or long arc
Travel speed too slow
Travel speed too fast

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

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4. RUNNING BEAD WITH WEAVING MOTION


Weaving is an oscillating motion, back and forth, crosswise to the direction of travel.
These motions are used to:
Flat out slag,
Deposit a wider bead,
Secure good penetration at the edge of the weld,
Allow gas to escape,
Avoid porosity.
Types of weaving motion:

The weave should not be wider than three times the diameter of electrode. And the
purpose accomplished by both these motions is substantially the same and their
usage is largely a matter of preference.

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

Lap weld in the horizontal and flat position

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Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

5. WELDING TECHNIQUES IN ALL POSITIONS

Fillet weld in the horizontal or flat position

Butt Weld in the horizontal position

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Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

Running a bead in the vertical position welding down

Running a bead in the vertical position uphill progression.

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Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

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Running a bead in the overhead position


6. REHEAT AND INTERPASS CONTROL
The main reason for preheating and interpass control is to lower the cooling rate in the
Weld Metal (WM) and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). The lower cooling rate, the lesser
the chance WM and Base Metal (BM) cracking. It lowers the chances of shrinkage
stresses. It will maintain the desired properties of the weld and the base material.
PREHEAT METHODS
Portable heating torches with rosebud tips
Ceramic heating elements
PREHEAT AREAS
At least 3 (75mm) away from the joint towards the center of the joint.
Preheat both external and internal (if accessible) areas of the joint.
MONITORING OF PREHEAT TEMPERATURES
Use temperature indicating crayon (ex: tempil stick) with the appropriate preheat
temperature requirements.
Apply to the joint at least one minute after preheated, 3 away from the joint.
MONITORING OF INTERPASS TEMPERATURE
Use temperature indicating crayons (tempil stick)
Apply to the joint at least one inch away from the welded joint.

Welder Handbook PT McDermott Indonesia

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7. HOW TO READ AND USE THE WELDING PROCEDURE


SPECIFICATION (WPS)
Welding Procedure Specification is a specific guide for welders in execute their job.
Welder must understand the contents of a welding procedure and must be able to
identify the parameters stated in the WPS.
When there is doubt in executing a weld, always refer to the WPS for guidance.
Always follow the parameter in the welding procedure. DO NOT WELD WITHOUT A
WELDING PROCEDURE IN YOUR WORK AREAS.
HOW TO READ METHOD STATEMENT AND SPECIAL INSTRUCTION?
Certainly critical applications will require additional instructions to ensure that the work
will be done correctly. This instruction will supplement the welding procedure and
should also be followed strictly. The method statement will be displayed in the work
areas.
7. HOW TO READ AND USE THE WELDING PROCEDURE
SPECIFICATION (WPS)