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FLUID MECHANCIS II

BDA 30203
CHAPTER 2
POTENTIAL FLOW
DR. AZMAHANI SADIKIN
C16-101-09
azmah@uthm.edu.my

Overview
Velocity field

Equations for Viscous Flow


(the Navier-Stokes Equation)

Continuity equation

Momentum equation

Energy equation
Equations for Inviscid Flow
(the Euler Equation)

Continuity equation

Momentum equation

Energy equaiton
Stream function
Rotational Flow, Vorticity, Circulation and Irrotational Flow

Velocity potential
Basic, Plane potential flows
Uniform flow, Source and sink and Vortex

Velocity Field

The velocity field can be described by


specifying the velocity V at all points, and at
all times, within at flow field as interest

V( x, y, z, t )

This method of describing the fluid motion is


called the Eulerian method.

Velocity Field

Fig. 2.1: Fluid element moving in the fluid flow

Velocity Field

V ui vj wk

Velocity Field
where the x, y, and z components of velocity
are given, respectively by
u u ( x, y , z , t )
v v ( x, y , z , t )
w w( x, y, z , t )

The acceleration of a fluid particle can be


expressed as
V
V
V
V
a
u
v
w
t
x
y
y

Velocity Field
And in component form
u
u
u
u
u v w
ax
t
x
y
z
v
v
v
v
ay u v w
t
x
y
z

w
w
w
w
u
v
w
az
t
x
y
z

Velocity Field
The acceleration is also expressed as
DV
a
Dt

The Substantial Derivative

The substantial derivative, D is time rate of change


Dt

following a moving fluid element. Using the Fig. 2.1, the


scalar density is given by , ( x, y, z, t ) from point 1 to 2
is;


u
v
w

Dt
x
y
z
t

The Substantial Derivative

In Cartesian coordinates, the vector


operator is defined as

i
j
k
x
y
z

So, the Eq. 2.9 can be written as


D
( V . )
Dt t

The Substantial Derivative


D
Dt

V .

substantial derivative, which is physically that time


rate of change following a moving fluid element. Total
derivative.

local derivative, which is physically the time rate of


change at a fixed point

convective derivative, which is physically at the time


rate of change due to the movement of the fluid
element from one location to another in the flow field
where the flow properties are spatially different

The Divergence of the


Velocity
1 D(V )
.V
V Dt
the time rate of change of the volume of a moving
fluid element, per unit volume Fluid dynamicist

u v w
.V

x y z
Pure mathematician

Governing flow equations


The fundamental governing equations of fluid flow are
continuity
momentum
energy equations
These equations speaks physics. They are mathematical
statements of three fundamental physical principals
upon which all of fluid dynamics is based:
Mass is conserved
Newtons second law, F = ma
Energy is conserved

Governing flow equations


Models of the flow

Governing flow equations


Continuity Equation
Rate of Change of Mass

Net loss of Mass 0

d u .dA 0

CS
t cv

( uA)out ( uA)in 0
cv t dV
out
in

Governing flow equations


.
.

m m
cv t dV
in
out

We apply to infinitesimal control volume,

cv t dV t dx dy dz

Governing flow equations

Governing flow equations


the net rate of flow of mass into the
element across its boundaries is given
by
[ u

( u )
dx] dy dz ( u )dy dz
x
( v)
[ v
dy ] dx dz ( v)dx dz
y
( w)
[ w
dz ] dx dy ( w)dx dy
z

Governing flow equations


Hence, the net mass flow out of the
element is given by;
( u ) ( v) ( w)
Net mass flow

y
z
x

dx dy dz

Time rate of mass increase


(dx dy dz )
t

Governing flow equations


So the Continuity Equation
( u ) ( v) ( w)

0
t
x
y
z

Or in compact vector notation

. ( V ) 0
t

Governing flow equations


For the incompressible fluid, like
most liquids, its density does not
change, neither over time nor over
space. the continuity equation
simplifies greatly to

u v w

0
x y z