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Pavement Marking Manual

Safety and Service Division

Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure (DPTI)


Pavement Marking Manual
First Published : September 2004
Version 4.0 : March 2015

This manual was developed by Technical Services, Safety and Service Division.

It has been approved and authorised for use by DPTI staff and its authorised agents and other Road
Authorities as defined by the Road Traffic Act, by :

Stephen Pascale
A/Manager, Technical Services

Extracts may be reproduced providing the subject is kept in context and the source is acknowledged.
Every effort has been made to supply complete and accurate information. This document is subject to
continual revision and may change.
All printed copies are uncontrolled unless otherwise marked.
For information regarding the interpretation of this document please contact:
Technical Services,
DPTI
Telephone: (08) 8343 2289
Facsimile: (08) 8343 2630

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Pavement Marking Manual

Revisions
Revision to this document will be made from time to time. Revisions will only be published on
the DPTI Home page (http://www.dpti.sa.gov.au/standards/tass).
It will be the responsibility of the users of this document to ensure that the most current revision
is followed.

Version

Month/Year

Part/Section

Sept 2004

Description of Revision
Removal of 'Draft' status

Approved By
S.C

1.0

Sept 2005

Minor changes in section A, Major alterations in section B

S.C

2.0

March 2007

Minor changes in section B, section C added

S.C

3.0

Dec 2010

Issued for comment, changes and additions to section B and C

S.C

3.1

Oct 2012

Coloured bicycle lane - high potential conflict removed

S.C

4.0

March 2015

4.0

May 2015

Pavement Marking Manual

All
Part C 2.23
All
Part C 3.14

Changes and additions to all sections


Removed the Stop and Give Way line placement notes

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S.C
S.C

INTRODUCTION
This manual specifies the lines, patterns, symbols, letters and numerals,
pavement bars and markers used in or on roads, road related areas and
other places including kerbs, for the purpose of regulating, guiding and
warning road users, and provides guidelines for appropriate use.

TYPES OF MARKINGS
This Section describes the types of markings including paint substitutes,
pavement bars, raised pavement markers and coloured and/or textured
surfaces.

A
B

It details the actual dimensions and other specification attributes of


markings which need not be shown on traffic control and road design
drawings.

DESIGN GUIDE
This section describes the requirements for the correct and consistent
use of pavement markings in South Australia.

It is intended that the section provide specific diagrammatic examples of


the application of markings and where necessary explain to the designer
the reasons why certain treatments are used. It also provides references
to the Code of Technical Requirements (The Code), Australian
Standards, Austroads and Department of Planning, Transport and
Infrastructure (DPTI) Operational Instructions.
All road authorities including their consultants and contractors are
required to conform to this manual.

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Pavement Marking Manual

Table of Contents

Page

PART A - INTRODUCTION
1.0 Scope ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.0 Legal Requirements ____________________________________________________________
3.0 General Attributes ______________________________________________________________
3.1 Purpose __________________________________________________________________
3.2 Removal of Markings ________________________________________________________
3.3 Limitations ________________________________________________________________
3.4 Reflectorisation ____________________________________________________________
3.5 Anti-Skid Treatments ________________________________________________________
3.6 Materials __________________________________________________________________
3.7 Colours ____________________________________________________________________
3.8 Distinctive Pavement Marking Colours and Texture ______________________________
3.9 Off Street Parking Areas ____________________________________________________

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PART B - TYPES OF MARKINGS


1.a Scope ________________________________________________________________________ B-1
1.b Installation Specifications ________________________________________________________
2.0 Types of Markings ______________________________________________________________
2.1 Longitudinal Lines __________________________________________________________
2.1.1 Dividing and Barrier Lines ________________________________________________
2.1.2 Lane Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.1.3 Special Purpose Broken Lines ____________________________________________
2.1.4 Edge Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.1.5 Continuity Lines ________________________________________________________
2.1.6 Turn Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.1.7 Outlines ______________________________________________________________
2.1.8 Community Event Pedestrian Control Line (Honour Line)________________________
2.2 Transverse Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.2.1 Stop Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.2.2 Give Way Lines ________________________________________________________
2.2.3 Pedestrian Crosswalk Lines ______________________________________________
2.2.4 Pedestrian Holding Lines (Rail Station Platforms Only)__________________________
2.2.5 Pedestrian Kerb Ramp Access (Off Street) __________________________________
2.3 Parking Control Lines ________________________________________________________
2.3.1 Parking Control Edge Lines ______________________________________________
2.3.2 Parking Space Outline __________________________________________________
2.3.3 Shared Space or Area Markings __________________________________________
2.4 Rural Intersection __________________________________________________________
2.4.1 Private Accesses and Minor Side Roads (Generally Unsealed) __________________
2.4.2 Sealed Side Roads ____________________________________________________
2.4.3 Cross Road and Staggered T Intersections __________________________________
2.5 Diagonal Stripes and Chevron Marking ________________________________________
2.5.1 Diagonal Stripes Edge Treatments__________________________________________
2.5.2 Diagonal Stripes Dividing Treatments ______________________________________

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2.5.3 Chevron Marking ______________________________________________________ B-10

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2.6 Arrows ____________________________________________________________________


2.6.1 Arrows - Common Type __________________________________________________
2.6.2 Arrows - Special Type____________________________________________________
2.6.3 Arrows - Lane Change __________________________________________________
2.6.4 Arrows - Expressway Exit ________________________________________________
2.7 Messages and Symbols ______________________________________________________
2.7.1 Letters and Numbers ____________________________________________________
2.7.2 Words ________________________________________________________________
2.7.3 Bicycle and Pedestrian Pavement Symbols __________________________________
2.7.4 International Symbol of Access ____________________________________________
2.7.4a Accessible Boarding Indicator Patch (station platforms only) ______________
2.7.4b Identification of Dedicated Parking Space for People With Disabilities ______
2.7.4.1 Station Platforms ________________________________________________
2.7.4.2 Dedicated Parking Space Identification & Delineation (angle Parking) ______
2.8 Railway Level Crossing Pavement Message ____________________________________
2.9 Railway Level Crossings Yellow Box Markings __________________________________
2.10 Zigzag School Zone Markings ________________________________________________
2.11 Point to Point Safety Camera Markings (Stub Line) ______________________________
2.12 Raised Road Pavement Markings ____________________________________________
2.12.1 On Street ____________________________________________________________
2.12.2 Off Street (Watts Profile 1.2m Length Only)__________________________________
2.13 Pavement Bars ____________________________________________________________
2.14 Raised Pavement Markers __________________________________________________
2.14.1 Dividing and Barrier Lines (Separates Opposing Traffic Flows Only) ______________
2.14.2 Lane Lines __________________________________________________________
2.14.3 Edge Lines __________________________________________________________
2.14.4 Corner Islands ________________________________________________________
2.14.4.1 Speed Limit <80 ______________________________________________
2.14.4.2 Speed Limit >90 ______________________________________________
2.14.5 Freeway/Expressway Type Ramps ________________________________________
2.14.6 Urban Arterial Road ____________________________________________________
2.14.7 Rural Multi-lane Road __________________________________________________
2.14.8 Rural Two-lane Two-way Road __________________________________________
2.14.9 Rural Intersections ____________________________________________________
2.14.10 Overtaking Lane - Merge Area Delineation Treatment 80km/h or Greater ________
2.14.11 Wide Dividing Line Treatment __________________________________________
2.15 Distinctive Coloured Pavement Areas ________________________________________
2.16 Outlines and Painted Kerbs __________________________________________________
2.16.1 Medians ____________________________________________________________
2.16.2 Roundabouts ________________________________________________________
2.16.3 Through Lanes and Auxiliary Right Turn Lanes ______________________________
2.16.4 Other Raised Islands __________________________________________________
2.16.5 Pedestrian Refuges ____________________________________________________
2.16.6 Local Area Traffic Management (LATM) ____________________________________
2.17 Barrier Line Installation ____________________________________________________
2.17.1 Intersections __________________________________________________________
2.17.2 Property Accesses ____________________________________________________

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2.18 Longitudinal Line Style Transition ____________________________________________


2.18.1 Dividing Lines ________________________________________________________
2.18.2 Barrier Lines __________________________________________________________
2.18.3 Unbroken Edge Lines or Outlines ________________________________________
2.18.4 Edge Line Mis-match __________________________________________________

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PART C - DESIGN GUIDE


1.0 Scope ________________________________________________________________________
2.0 Traffic Control Drawings and Design Layouts ________________________________________
2.1 Longitudinal Lines __________________________________________________________
2.2 Transverse Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.3 Parking Control Lines ________________________________________________________
2.3.1 Parking Control Edge Lines ______________________________________________
2.3.2 Parking Space Outlines __________________________________________________
2.4 Diagonal Stripes and Chevron Markings ________________________________________
2.5 Arrows ____________________________________________________________________
2.6 Messages and Symbols ______________________________________________________
3.0 General Treatments ______________________________________________________________
3.1 Dividing Lines ______________________________________________________________
3.2 Barrier Lines ______________________________________________________________
3.3 Diagonal Stripes and Chevron Markings ________________________________________
3.3.1 Corner Treatment ______________________________________________________
3.3.2 Flush Medians ________________________________________________________
3.3.3 Corner Islands ________________________________________________________
3.3.4 High Angle Treatment____________________________________________________
3.4 Diverge and Merge Taper Treatments __________________________________________
3.4.1 Diverge Taper Treatments ________________________________________________
3.4.2 Merge Taper Treatments (lane drop and acceleration lane situations) ______________
3.5 Raised Pavement Markers ____________________________________________________
3.5.1 Continuity Lines ________________________________________________________
3.5.2 Bicycle Lanes __________________________________________________________
3.6 Lane Lines ________________________________________________________________
3.6.1 Roundabouts __________________________________________________________
3.6.2 Bicycle Lanes Adjacent to Bus Stops________________________________________
3.6.3 Bicycle Lane Start and End ______________________________________________
3.7 Continuity Line ____________________________________________________________
3.7.1 Left and Right Turn Storage / Deceleration / Acceleration Lanes __________________
3.7.2 Bicycle Lane Continuity Lines ____________________________________________
3.7.3 Side Road Continuity Lines ______________________________________________
3.8 Pavement Arrows __________________________________________________________
3.8.1 Unsignalised Intersections ________________________________________________
3.8.2 Mid-block (includes local road and property access)____________________________
3.8.3 Median Turning Bays ____________________________________________________
3.9 Edge Lines ________________________________________________________________
3.10 On-Street Parking Control __________________________________________________
3.11 Pavement Messages (Including Symbols) ______________________________________
3.11.1 Keep Clear __________________________________________________________

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3.17

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3.22

3.23

3.11.2 Speed Limits __________________________________________________________


3.11.3 Other Messages ______________________________________________________
Kerb Extensions Markings __________________________________________________
Standard Intersections (Local Urban Roads) ____________________________________
Give Way and Stop Line Markings ____________________________________________
Changed Priority __________________________________________________________
Roundabouts ______________________________________________________________
3.16.1 Single Lane Roundabout ________________________________________________
3.16.2 Multi-lane T-intersection Roundabout ______________________________________
3.16.3 Bicycle Lane Approach and Exit to a Single Lane Roundabout __________________
Signalised Intersections ____________________________________________________
3.17.1 Pedestrian Crosswalk Lines______________________________________________
3.17.2 Stop Lines __________________________________________________________
3.17.3 Turn Lines____________________________________________________________
3.17.4 Pavement Arrows ______________________________________________________
3.17.4.1 Multiple Turn Lanes ____________________________________________
3.17.5 Lane Lines __________________________________________________________
3.17.6 Non-reflective Raised Pavement Markers __________________________________
Expressways ______________________________________________________________
3.18.1 Expressway Exit Lane Arrows ____________________________________________
Path Treatments____________________________________________________________
3.19.1 Destination Group Layout ______________________________________________
3.19.2 Connector Group Layout ________________________________________________
3.19.3 Shared Use Path T Intersection Layout ____________________________________
3.19.4 Shared Use Path Intersection Layout ______________________________________
3.19.5 Shared Use Path T Intersection Offset Layout ______________________________
Pedestrian Facilities ________________________________________________________
3.20.1 Pedestrian Refuge ____________________________________________________
3.20.2 Emu Crossing ________________________________________________________
3.20.3 Koala Crossing ________________________________________________________
3.20.4 Wombat and Zebra Crossing ____________________________________________
3.20.5 Pedestrian Actuated Crossing ____________________________________________
School Zones______________________________________________________________
3.21.1 Zigzag Marking Position ________________________________________________
3.21.2 Basic School Zone ____________________________________________________
3.21.3 Curved Alignment ______________________________________________________
3.21.4 At Intersections and Emu Crossing ________________________________________
3.21.5 Undivided Multi-lane Road ______________________________________________
3.21.6 Divided Multi-lane Road ________________________________________________
Bus Facilities ______________________________________________________________
3.22.1 Placing of Lane Messages ______________________________________________
3.22.2 Full-time / Part-time Bus Lanes __________________________________________
3.22.3 Parking Bays in Bus Lanes ______________________________________________
3.22.4 Bus Only ____________________________________________________________
Distinctive Coloured Bicycle Lanes __________________________________________
3.23.1 Left Turn Deceleration Lane______________________________________________
3.23.2 Left Turn Acceleration Lane ______________________________________________

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3.23.3 High Angle Left Turn Lane ______________________________________________


3.23.4 Minor Side Road Junction ______________________________________________
3.23.5 Bicycle Storage Area (with a bicycle lane) __________________________________
3.23.6 Bicycle Storage Area (without a bicycle lane) ________________________________
3.24 Other Bicycle Facilities______________________________________________________
3.24.1 Indented Hook Turn ____________________________________________________
3.24.2 Detector Loop ________________________________________________________

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4.0 Rural Treatments ________________________________________________________________


4.1 Divided Roads ______________________________________________________________
4.2 Multi-Lane Undivided Roads __________________________________________________
4.3 Dividing Lines on Rural Roads ________________________________________________
4.4 Barrier Lines on Rural Roads ________________________________________________
4.5 Wide Line Dividing Treatments ________________________________________________
4.6 Lane Lines on Rural Roads __________________________________________________
4.7 Edge lines on Rural Roads____________________________________________________
4.7.1 Narrow Rural Two-lane Two-way Road ______________________________________
4.7.2 Standard Rural Two-lane Two-way Road ____________________________________
4.7.3 Wide Sealed Shoulder Rural Two-lane Two-way Road __________________________
4.7.4 Multi-lane Divided Road __________________________________________________
4.8 Audio Tactile Line Marking (ATLM) ____________________________________________
4.9 Overtaking Lane Treatments __________________________________________________
4.9.1 Overtaking Lane - Diverge ______________________________________________
4.9.2 Overtaking Lane - Merge ________________________________________________
4.10 Slow Vehicle Turnouts ______________________________________________________
4.11 Rest Areas ________________________________________________________________
4.11.1 Roads With Edge lines __________________________________________________
4.11.2 Roads Without Edge lines ______________________________________________
4.11.3 Full Acceleration / Deceleration Lane ______________________________________
4.11.4 Sealed Shoulders Only__________________________________________________
4.12 Structures and Obstructions ________________________________________________
4.13 Floodways and Causeways __________________________________________________

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Pavement Marking Manual

Introduction

PART A
INTRODUCTION
1.0 SCOPE
This manual specifies the lines, patterns, symbols, letters and numerals, pavement bars and
markers used in or on roads, road related areas and other places including kerbs, for the
purpose of regulating, guiding and warning road users, and provides guidelines for appropriate
use.

2.0 LEGAL REQUIREMENTS


An "Instrument of General Approval" has been issued by the Minister for Transport and
Infrastructure to Councils, the Commissioner of Highways, and some other road authorities to
use traffic control devices, which includes pavement markings. The conditions of this general
approval, which are required by law under the Road Traffic Act, are contained in Part 2 - Code
of Technical Requirements (The Code) which forms part of Manual of Legal Responsibilities
and Technical Requirements for Traffic Control Devices. One of the conditions of general
approval is the requirement that the design, installation, alteration and removal of pavement
markings be in accordance with the Code.
This manual has been developed to conform with the Code and takes into consideration the
relevant Australian Road Rules, Australian Standards, Austroads guidelines and Department of
Planning, Transport and Infrastructure (DPTI) Operational Instructions.
Pavement markings not conforming to this Manual and the Code, such as innovative or nonstandard treatments are not authorised to be used under the Instrument of General Approval
issued by the Minister. Authorisation for such treatments may only be given by the Manager,
Technical Services, Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure (DPTI), acting as the
Ministers delegate.

3.0 GENERAL ATTRIBUTES


3.1 PURPOSE
A system of clear, effective and consistently applied pavement markings is essential for
the proper regulations, warning and guidance of drivers, cyclists, pedestrians and other
road users.
Pavement markings may guide traffic or give advance warning or may impose restrictions
which are supported by the Road Traffic Act. They may act as a supplement to other
traffic control devices or may be used alone to convey certain regulations, warnings and
guidance.
It is therefore important to ensure that the use of the markings conforms with the legal
requirement mentioned above before they are approved, installed, altered or removed to
avoid possible conflict or confusion, legal or otherwise.
3.2 REMOVAL OF MARKINGS
Where traffic conditions are altered and the existing pavement markings no longer apply
it is essential that those markings be removed, covered or obliterated. It is important that
the end result of removing or covering markings does not leave an impression of the
marking on the road surface which may otherwise be interpreted as a marking in any
lighting and/or weather conditions. It is also important that any covering material create a
surface of a similar skid resistance to that of the surrounding road surface.
In rare cases, redundant pavement markings may be allowed to fade but only when
these markings cannot be misinterpreted or otherwise create a confusing message to the
road user which may create a safety hazard.
Substantial changes to pavement markings will usually require pavement resurfacing.
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Introduction

3.3 LIMITATIONS
Pavement markings have the following limitations:
(a) They may not be clearly visible if the road is wet or dusty, for example near an edge of
a median.
(b) They are subject to traffic wear and usually require frequent maintenance.
(c) They can be obscured by traffic.
(d) Their effect on skid resistance requires careful choice of materials and precludes the
use of large marked surface areas.
(e) They cannot be applied to unsealed roads.
In spite of these limitations they have the advantage under favourable conditions of
conveying information to the driver without diverting attention from the road.
3.4 REFLECTORISATION
All longitudinal lines except zig zag markings shall be reflectorised. Lane change arrows
as shown in Part B 2.6.3 and painted kerbs as shown in Part B 2.16 shall also be
reflectorised.
3.5 ANTI-SKID TREATMENT
An anti-skid treatment shall be applied to all markings other than longitudinal lines.
3.6 MATERIALS
Road pavements may be marked with paint, thermoplastics, pre-cut sheeting, raised
pavement markers (retro-reflective, non reflective or illuminated) or pavement bars.
3.7 COLOURS
Pavement markings shall be white unless specified as yellow or blue. Yellow shall be used
on pavement bars and to define tram only lanes and areas where parking/stopping
restrictions apply. Blue is used for disability access. Raised pavement markers may be
white, red or yellow.
Black paint may be used in the gaps and around the edges of pavement markings to
heighten contrast where a light coloured pavement does not allow adequate marking
definition to be obtained. Where this is being considered advice should first be sought
from Manager, Technical Services, DPTI.
In situations such as community events on temporarily closed roads light blue coloured
pavement markings (known as honour lines) may be used to define pedestrian
boundaries. The preferred width of the line is 50mm (75mm max) and shall be nonreflective. It should be painted with one coat and allowed to fade, or removed after the
event, to ensure road users are not confused by the markings. These markings are not
considered traffic control devices
3.8 DISTINCTIVE PAVEMENT MARKING COLOURS AND TEXTURE
There is a trend by road authorities to use distinctive coloured pavements and/or textures
to highlight the road surface in a visual, tactile or audible manner. Such treatments may
supplement traffic control devices (e.g. Bus Only areas, bicycle lanes and islands) or they
may be aesthetic marking devices to supplement streetscape designs. For commonly used
distinctive coloured pavement marking used in South Australia, refer to Part B 2.15.
3.9 OFF STREET PARKING AREAS
AS 2890.1 and AS 2890.6 are used in South Australia for off street car parking pavement
markings.

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Pavement Marking Manual

Types of Markings

PART B
TYPES OF MARKINGS

1.0 SCOPE
This Section describes the types of marking used including paint substitutes, pavement bars, raised
pavement markers and coloured areas.
It details the actual dimensions and other specification attributes of markings which need not
be shown on traffic control and road design drawings.

IMPORTANT :
All drawings are not to scale. The reader shall use the dimensions specified throughout the manual.
DO NOT SCALE OFF DRAWINGS.

1.1 INSTALLATION SPECIFICATIONS


DPTI shall and all other road authorities should require pavement marking to be installed in
accordance with DPTI Master Specification Division 2: Roadworks
Part 245 Supply of Materials for Pavement Markings
Part 246 Application of Pavement Marking
Part 247 Application of Audio Tactile Line Marking
These documents can be found at http://www.dpti.sa.gov.au/contractor_documents/specifications

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Types of Markings

2.0 TYPES OF MARKINGS


2.1 LONGITUDINAL LINES
Line
width Colour
(mm)

2.1.1 Dividing and Barrier lines


(separates opposing traffic flows
only)

width Colour
(mm)
3m

9m

3m

9m

3m

9m

3m

(a) Single broken (standard)

150

3m

(b) Wide dividing line treatment


(double broken)

9m

3m

9m

3m

9m

3m

100

1.05m to 1.2m. The gap between the wide dividing


line treatment (double broken) may be increased to
provide safer separation between opposing traffic
flows. Such treatments shall be referred to the
Manager, Technical Services, DPTI.

200

100

200

100
100
100

100
100
100

9m

3m

9m

150

(c) Enhanced broken (multi-lane)

(d) Single continuous barrier

t
t

(e) Enhanced single continuous barrier

3m

9m

3m

9m

3m

9m

3m

(f) Double one-way barrier

t
t

(g) Double two-way barrier


t

Where the road speed limit is <70 km/h and :


- Double two-way barrier lines are justified then a single continuous barrier line shall be used, including approaches to
railway crossings and ferries. No gaps should be left for driveways or other accesses, only side roads.
Where the road speed limit is >80 km/h and :
- Double two-way barrier lines are justified, then double two-way barrier lines shall be used. Gaps should be left in linemarking
for driveways, or other accesses and side roads.
- Double one-way barrier lines are justified, then double one-way barrier lines shall continue across driveways and other
access but gaps shall be left for side roads.
- Double two-way barrier lines are justified on the approaches to railway crossings and ferries, an enhanced single barrier line
shall be used. Gaps should not be left for driveways or other accesses, only side roads.

3m

9m

3m

9m

3m

9m

3m

(h) Wide dividing line treatment


(double one-way)

1.05m to 1.2m. The gap may be increased to


provide safer separation between opposing traffic
flows i.e wide dividing line treatment on the Dukes
Highway. Such treatments shall be referred to the
Manager, Technical Services, DPTI.

150

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Types of Markings

Line
width Colour
(mm)

(i) Wide dividing line treatment


(double two-way)

1.05m to 1.2m. The gap may be increased to


provide safer separation between opposing traffic
flows i.e wide dividing line treatment on the Dukes
Highway. Such treatments shall be referred to the
Manager, Technical Services, DPTI.

150

(j) Continuous
(bicycle and shared paths off road)

150

80

100

100

100

100

150

3m

9m

3m

9m

3m

9m

3m

2.1.2 Lane lines


t

(a) Standard broken

t
t

(b) Continuous

9m

3m

9m

2.1.3 Special purpose broken lines


t

2.1.4 Edge lines


(a) ** Standard
- All roads with sealed shoulders
unless (b) below, applies.

t
t

(b) ** Enhanced
- Dukes Highway
- Sturt Highway
- Riddoch Highway
- Pt Wakefield Highway
- Augusta Highway
- Princes Highway
(Murray Bridge toTailem Bend)
- Port River Expressway
- Northern Expressway
- Southern Expressway
- North-South Motorway
- All dual carriageway roads with
sealed shoulders > 0.5m

** Note: Should there be just a few kilometres of sealed shoulder >0.5 metres in the
middle of a route (between townships) with sealed shoulder <0.5 metres, the edge line
should be applied with a transition to existing, refer to Part B 2.18.4

Colour : W = White, Y = Yellow and B = Blue


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Types of Markings
ads as determine

Line
width Colour
(mm)

2.1.5 Continuity lines


1m

3m

1m

3m

1m

3m

1m

(a) Standard

150

100

100

150

50

450

600

450

600

150

150

1m

3m

1m

3m

1m

3m

1m

(b) Enhanced (used in conjunction with


150mm edge lines)

100

2.1.6 Turn lines

600mm stripe and gap

2.1.7 Outlines
t

(a) Standard

(b) Enhanced (roads where 150mm edge


lines are used, see Part B 2.1.4 (b)

2.1.8 Community event pedestrian control


line (honour line)

2.2 TRANSVERSE LINES


2.2.1 Stop lines
t

(a) Standard (<70 km/h)

t
t

(b) Enhanced (>80 km/h


t

2.2.2 Give way lines

600mm stripe and gap

(a) Standard (<70 km/h)

600mm stripe and gap

(b) Enhanced (>80 km/h)

2.2.3 Pedestrian crosswalk lines

1m stripe and 300mm gap

(a) Standard (pedestrian actuated crossings,


pedestrian crossings at signalised
intersections, koala and emu crossings)

NOTE: When a road is resealed or a new


scheme is required, the above
shall be used.

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600mm stripe and 300mm gap

(b) Previous standard (For maintenance


purposes only. Not to be used for
planning/design)

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Types of Markings
Line
width Colour
(mm)

600mm stripe and gap

Kerb

Kerb

(c) Wombat and Zebra crossings

3m min
off street
6m min
on street

(wombat)

* Equal, 600mm or less

2.2.4 Pedestrian holding lines (rail station platforms only)


Refer to Part B 2.7.4.1 for layout of platform markings.

(a) Platform edge hazard line

(b) Platform wait behind line

100

100

Colour : W = White, Y = Yellow and B = Blue


2.2.5 Pedestrian kerb ramp access (off street)
Access to kerb ramps between parking spaces may be marked with diagonal stripes to discourage drivers from impeding
access to the ramp. Where marked they shall be white.

NOTE : For new works and large car parks, consideration should be
given to raised kerb extensions and/or formal pedestrian
crossings e.g wombat crossings.

path / walkway

See Detail A

1.8m (preferred)

Detail A

150mm

20

-3

00
m

approx
600mm

parking aisle

100mm
45%

100mm

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2.3 PARKING CONTROL LINES

2.3.1 Parking control edge lines


(a) *No Stopping at all times

100

100

100

100

100

600mm stripe and 900mm gap

(b) *Restricted parking other than


Clearway

2.3.2 Parking space outline


(a) All vehicles/*no restrictions
(individual bays may be marked)

900mm stripe and 600mm gap

(b) *Restricted vehicle type and/or parttime restriction (individual bays


may be marked).

(3) **Parking for people with disabilities

* Restricted Parking: Parking restriction by time and/or by vehicle type

** Dedicated parking spaces for people with disabilities shall be outlined


on all sides excepting any side delineated by a kerb, barrier or wall.

Colour : W = White, Y = Yellow and B = Blue

2.3.3 Shared space or area markings


Within off street car parking areas, shared areas or spaces located adjacent to the longitudinal side only of dedicated angle
parking spaces for people with disabilities shall have a yellow outline and yellow diagonal stripes with a slip resistant surface.
Yellow diagonal stripes shall not be used in trafficked areas including walkways within or partly within a shared area, parking
aisles or roadways.
Walkways within or partly within a shared area or space shall be marked with yellow 100mm wide unbroken longitudinal lines on
both sides of the walkway excepting any side delineated by a kerb, barrier or wall (see Part B 2.7.4.2).

-3
00

approx
600mm

20
0

dedicated
space

m
m

150mm

100mm
45%

100mm

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2.4 RURAL INTERSECTIONS


For more information regarding gaps in barrier lines see Part B 2.18.
For more intersection examples see Part B 2.14.6 - 2.14.8, Part C 3.7 and 3.13 - 3.15.

2.4.1 Private accesses and minor side roads (generally unsealed)

private
access

private
access

TP

TP

road

road

10m

TP

TP

TP

Inset A

TP

road

10m

TP

TP

TP

TP

road

TP

TP

Inset B

private
access

private
access

5m

TP

10m
TP

TP
TP

road

10m *

road

TP

10m

TP

TP

10m *

TP

road

TP

10m

road

TP

NOTES: 1. The gap in the edge line for side roads starts/ends at the tangent point or clear of the vehicle turning envelope.
2. Where sufficient width is available on the sealed shoulder or apron, a Give Way line or Stop line (in accordance with
AS1742.2 - 2009 Section 2.5.4) may be installed. See Inset A for example.
3. Continuity line may be used across wide side roads, generally wider than 12m TP to TP. See Inset B for example and
Part C 3.7.
4. Edge line type (see part B 2.1.4) or no edge line.
* Australian Road Rule 134 allows a driver to cross double one-way barrier lines to enter or leave the road. Nevertheless a gap of 10m
is provided to provide drivers with a visual cue to the location of a side road and where to prop.
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2.4.2 Sealed side roads

10m

stop line (and sign) only


if conditions in AS1742.2
2009 Section 2.5.4 are met
10m

TP

TP

10m

10m

10m

TP

TP

48m standard
continuous

double one-way barrier line


may be in the opposite
direction

2.4.3 Cross road and staggered T intersections

48m standard
continuous

10m standard
continuous

unsealed

unsealed

>50m

B-8

10m standard continuous


or to end of seal if less

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<50m

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2.4.3 Cross road and staggered T intersections (cont)

B
TP

TP

10m
TP
TP

TP

5m
cL

TP

TP

gap in continuous
line only

TP

TP

cL

5m
10m
TP
TP

TP

TP

TP
5m

10m

cL

3m minimum
TP

TP

10m

TP

TP

cL

5m
TP

TP
Note: For small offsets consider
using continuity line across
the side roads, see Part C 3.7

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2.5 DIAGONAL STRIPES AND CHEVRON MARKINGS


2.5.1 Diagonal stripes edge treatment

**100mm
100mm

Outline/Edgeline

~ 45

*1.0m

0m

seal

1.

Edge of water table or

100mm

2.5.2 Diagonal stripes dividing treatment

Outline/Edgeline

**100mm
100mm

*1.0m

~ 45

100mm

1.

0m

2.5.3 Chevron markings

**100mm
100mm

Outline/Edgeline

~ 45

*1.0m

~ 45

100mm

1.

0m

* 1st diagonal marking or chevron is placed where the width of the treatment is 1.0m.
** In rare cases wider outlines/edge lines may be specified on traffic control drawings.

~ 45%= nominally 45 degrees


x - Spacing may be modified to suit corner islands, flush medians and merges.
For design details see Part C 3.3 and Part C 3.12.

Indicates direction of travel


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2.6 ARROWS
2.6.1 Arrows - common types

Centre of lane

Centre of lane

Centre of lane

X= 100

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2.6.2 Arrows - special types

(a) Double turn


arrow

Centre of lane

(b) U- turn arrow

Centre of lane

(c) 45% turn


arrow

Centre of lane

(d) Through right


left turn arrow

Centre of lane

B-12

Centre of lane

X= 100

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2.6.3 Arrows - lane change


780

NOTES: 1. Lane change arrows shall not be used in SA without the


approval of Manager, Technical Services, DPTI,
other than at the termination of overtaking lanes.
2. Previous arrow design may continue to be used for
maintenance purpose only.

1500

1000
600

1400

780
580
880
550
60
860
7500
1310

780
780

1880

edge of lane

centre line
of lane

edge of lane

2.6.4 Arrows - expressway exit

900

650

875

15
15

2m

2m

2m
3.1m

200
4m
4m
4m
2.7m

2m
630

200

725
edge of lane

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centre line
of lane

edge of lane

edge of lane

centre line
of lane

edge of lane

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2.7 MESSAGES AND SYMBOLS

2.7.1 Letters and Numerals


Letters and numerals other than those shown in Words (Part B 2.7.2) are available from Australian Standard 1742.2.
The length of letters and numerals shall be 2.5m where the speed limit is up to 80km/h and 5.0m at higher speed
limits unless otherwise specified.

2.7.2 Words
Refer to Part C 3.11.1 for the placement of KEEP CLEAR messages and Part B 2.8 for the placement of RAIL X
messages.

NOTES:
The grid width (X) is constant at 100 mm, but the grid height
(Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter or numeral required (mm)
40
However the word AHEAD may be made narrower
(eg grid width reduced to 75mm) to fit into a lane.

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2.7.2 Words (cont)

NOTES:
The grid width (X) is constant at 100 mm, but the grid height (Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter or numeral required (mm)
40

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2.7.2 Words (cont)

NOTES:
The grid width (X) is constant at 100 mm, but the grid height (Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter or numeral required (mm)
40

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2.7.2 Words (cont)

NOTES:
The grid width (X) is constant at 100 mm, but the grid height (Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter or numeral required (mm)
40

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2.7.2 Words (cont)

X
X= 50

Centre of lane

Centre of lane

2.7.3 Bicycle and pedestrian pavement symbols

Arrow pavement symbol


(path only)
X=100mm

Pedestrian pavement symbol


(path only)
X=75mm

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2.7.3 Bicycle and pedestrian pavement symbols (cont)

B
X
X

Bicycle pavement symbol


Road X = 65mm
Path X = 28mm

lane line

kerb

For bicycle lanes less then 1.2m, bicycle pavement symbol may be reduced
proportionally. As an atternative parts of the bicycle pavement symbol may
be omitted to ensure the symbol fits within the lane (refer to right diagram).

water table

Road Y = 1800mm
Path Y = 800mm

50
mm

do not paint part of


the bicycle symbol
indicated in gray.

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2.7.3 Bicycle and pedestrian pavement symbols (cont)

1220mm

300mm
X

No-Bicycles Pavement symbol for path use


X=30mm

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2.7.3 Bicycle and pedestrian pavement symbols (cont)

All skaters prohibited


X=24mm

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2.7.4 International symbol of access

NOTE:
The grid is for positional purposes

2.7.4.a Accessible boarding indicator patch (station platforms only)


1000mm

Symbol shall be centrally located


within the blue background

786mm

1000mm

The colour used for the blue background


shall be Ultramarine (AS2700-B21)

160mm

2.7.4.b Identification of dedicated parking space for people with disabilities


1200mm max

Symbol shall be centrally located


within the blue background

1200mm max

800 - 1000mm

The colour used for the blue background


shall be Ultramarine (AS2700-B21)

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2.7.4.1 Station platforms

B
600mm

100mm yellow line

600mm

Tactile ground surface indicators

100mm white line

Accessible Boarding Indicator Patch

PLATFORM AREA

Note : For design requirements specific to station platforms, contact DPTI Technical Services.

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Types of Markings

2.7.4.2 Dedicated parking space identification & delineation (angle parking)


Each dedicated parking space for people with disabilities shall be identified by a white symbol of access on a blue
background in the centre of the space between 500mm and 600mm from its entry point.

dedicated space
kerb, barrier or wall

Either :
- end of parking module
- dedicated space
- other parking spaces

other parking
spaces

primary access
path

Tactile ground
surface indicators

500 to
600mm

2.4m

Parking aisle

2.4m minimum
when adjacent to a dedicated
parking space for people with
disabilities.

Note : The primary access path or the shared


space can be located on the left or
right side of the dedicated space.

dedicated space
kerb, barrier or wall

Either :
- end of parking module
- dedicated space
- other parking spaces

other parking
spaces

shared space

bollard

800mm
_
+ 50

500 to
600mm

2.4m

2.4m

Parking aisle

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2.8 RAILWAY LEVEL CROSSING PAVEMENT MESSAGE

Urban < 70km/h

Rural > 80km/h

( Message shall commence with the 'X' )

( Message shall commence with the 'RAIL' )

2.5m

6m

2.5m

7.5m

3m

5m

The grid width (X) is constant at 100mm, but the


grid height (Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter (mm)
40

Note :
1. Marking to commence 15m to 20m beyond the first warning sign, towards the railway level crossing.
2. When a new message scheme is required, the above example shall be used. When repainting
original message, existing markings can be used.

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Types of Markings

45%

2.

45%

0m

2.9 RAILWAY LEVEL CROSSINGS YELLOW BOX MARKINGS

5.0m minimum

Parallel to track

0m

2.
AY

RAILW

150mm yellow lines

TRACK

150mm

150mm yellow lines

0.5m gap

If a bicycle lane is installed

150mm

0.5m

150mm
0.5m

NOTE:
When a new scheme is required, the above example shall be used.
When repainting original box markings, existing lines can be used.
Refer to AS1742.7 for the warrants for box markings.

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2.10 ZIGZAG SCHOOL ZONE MARKINGS


150mm

1.1m

6.0m
30.0m

NOTE:

ZIGZAG marking commences 30m in advance of School Zone Sign.

2.11 POINT TO POINT SAFETY CAMERA MARKINGS (STUB LINE)

Dividing line

400mm

Direction of travel

400mm

400mm

100mm

100mm

Direction of travel

Direction of travel

Edge line or
lane line

2.12 RAISED ROAD PAVEMENT MARKINGS

2.12.1 On street
Includes Flat-top Road Humps, Watts profile (3.7m length), Wombat Crossings (on street and off street) and
Raised Intersections.

0 to 300mm

400mm

See Detail A
Nominal start of ramp

400mm

200mm

Kerb
face

1000mm
Kerb
face

Nominal top
of ramp

Detail A
(measurements are in mm)

1000mm

500

500

200mm
0 to 300mm

200

Nominal start of ramp


500

'Inverted Piano Key' marking

1000
200
200

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Types of Markings

2.12.2 Off street (Watts profile 1.2m length only)

Edge of road

road hump

See Detail B

Edge of
road hump

Detail B
(measurements are in mm)
Edge of
road hump

500

500

200

1200
300
The transverse part of the pavement marking is placed
on the original road in front of the road hump.

200

200

500

200

2.13 PAVEMENT BARS

385mm

100mm radius
200mm

PLAN

nominal 140mm radius


chamfer 1 in 5
all round

FRONT ELEVATION

NOTE:

B-28

10mm

END ELEVATION

1. Not to scale
2. Size B Bars 50mm nominal height.

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2.13 PAVEMENT BARS (cont)

Double row, triple row etc

Single row
Outline or edge line

Outline or edge line


75mm

75mm
90%

90%

75mm min

Control of turning movements at intersections

9m

10m taper

75mm gap

1.5m
400mm 750mm

100mm

3m

1.5m

750mm

Note : The 9m length using 4 bars at 3m spacing may be extended to 18m using 7 bars at 3m spacing.

90%

90%

A
A

Where used to supplement diagonal markings or chevrons,


pavement bars shall be placed centrally (longitudinally)
between the markings

NOTE:
Pavement bars shall not be used where *85th percentile approach speeds are greater than 75km/h. (The use of yellow
RRPMs is an alternative, refer to inset Part B 2.14.9).
Standard pavement bar median may be supplemented by RRPMs where physical turning control is less important. See
Part B 2.14.9.
Pavement bars shall always be placed at 90 degrees to the direction of traffic.
* 85th percentile speed (V85 km/h) - the speed at or below which 85% of vehicles are observed to travel under free-flowing conditions past a nominated
point. A vehicle is considered to be operating under free-flowing conditions when the preceding vehicle has at least 4 s headway and there is no apparent
attempt to overtake the vehicle ahead.

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2.14 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS


COLOUR OF RETROREFLECTIVE RAISED PAVEMENT
MARKERS TO AUGMENT PAINTED LINES
Applications

RRPM colour

Lane lines, small* channelizing island outline,


painted or raised - all sides.

White
SYMBOLS FOR RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS

Left hand edgeline, divided and 2-way roads.


Left side of diverge outline, including expressway
exit nose, and approach end of large island.

Red

Marker

Symbol

Non-retroreflective raised pavement marker


Retroreflective raised pavement marker :
Dividing lines, right hand edgeline (divided road),
median island outline, painted or raised - all sides.
Tram lane lines.
Right side (when viewed in the direction of travel)
of exit lane on diverge outline, including
expressway exit nose, and approach end of large
island.

Unidirectional

- White
- Yellow

Yellow

- Red
Bidirectional

- Yellow
Line extension on symbol indicates direction of reflection.
Face of marker to be normal to direction of travel.

* A small island should generally be regarded as one with no side


longer than 12m including approach and departure markings.

2.14.1 Dividing and Barrier lines


(separates opposing traffic flows
only)
4.5m

(a) Single broken (standard), unlit


24m

4.5m

(b) Single broken (standard), lit


12m

1.5m

(c) Enhanced broken (multi-lane),


unlit

24m

1.5m

(d) Enhanced broken (multi-lane),


lit
12m

25mm min
50mm max

(e) Single continuous (standard),


unlit
24m

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25mm min
50mm max

(f) Single continuous (standard),


lit

12m

25mm min
50mm max

(g) Enhanced continuous barrier,


unlit
24m

25mm min
50mm max

(h) Enhanced continuous barrier,


lit
12m

4.5m

(i) Double one-way barrier, unlit


25mm min
50mm max

24m

4.5m

(j) Double one-way barrier, lit


25mm min
50mm max

12m

25mm min
50mm max

(k) Double two-way barrier, unlit

24m

25mm min
50mm max

(l) Double two-way barrier, lit

12m

24m

25mm min
50mm max

(m) Outline urban roads, unlit


edge of kerb

median or island kerb

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12m

25mm min
50mm max

(n) Outline urban roads, lit


edge of kerb

median or island kerb

24m

(o) Enhanced outline rural roads


freeways and expressway,
unlit

25mm min. 50mm max.

edge of kerb
median or island kerb

where sufficient width permits (also see Part B 2.14.6)

12m

(p) Enhanced outline rural roads


freeways and expressway,
lit

25mm min. 50mm max.

edge of kerb
median or island kerb

where sufficient width permits (also see Part B 2.14.6)


4.5m
150mm

(q) Wide dividing


(double broken)

150mm
24m

4.5m

(r) Wide dividing


(double one-way barrier)

150mm

25mm min
50mm max

150mm

24m

150mm

(s) Wide dividing


(double two-way barrier)

25mm min
50mm max
150mm

24m

X = The gap between the lines may be increased to provide a safer separation between opposing traffic
flows i.e. wide dividing line treatment on Dukes Highway. Such treatments shall be referred to the
Manager, Technical Services, DPTI.
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2.14.2 Lane lines


4.5m

(a) Broken, unlit


24m

4.5m

(b) Broken, lit


12m

25mm min
50mm max

(c) Continuous, unlit. Markers


may be on left or right of line.
24m

25mm min
50mm max

(d) Continuous, lit. Markers may


be on left or right of line.

12m

1.5m

(e) Special purpose lane line,


unlit
24m

1.5m

(f) Special purpose lane line,


lit

12m

Note: Direction of travel is left to right in above diagrams.

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2.14.3 Edge lines


25mm min
50mm max

(a) Standard, unlit


24m

25mm min
50mm max

(b) Standard, lit


12m

25mm min
50mm max

(c) Enhanced, unlit


24m

25mm min
50mm max

(d) Enhanced, lit


12m

Note: Direction of travel is left to right in above diagrams.

NOTES: 1. Edge lines in the merge taper on overtaking lanes from this specification (see Part B 2.14.10).
2. RRPM shall not be used on narrow sealed shoulders <0.5 metres.
3. RRPM shall be placed to the left of the edge line (direction of travel) where sealed shoulder width is > 0.5 metres.

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2.14.4 Corner islands


2.14.4.1 Speed limit <80km/h

B
< 15m

RRPMs shall not be


installed adjacent to
bicycle lane lines see
Part C 3.5.2

RRPMs shall not be


placed within crosswalks

> 15m

<3m

<3m

minimum of 2 RRPMs
on any one edge

NOTE :
In urban areas RRPMs on corner islands are to be white except where large
raised dividers are used (refer to Part B 2.14.5) or where red RRPMs have been
used on the edge lines on the approach or downstream from the corner island.
In the latter cases, red RRPMs shall be used to 'continue' the line of RRPMs on
the drivers left hand side only.

2.14.4.2 Speed limit >90km/h


>12m

>3m - <12m

>3m - <12m

>12m

NOTE :
On rural roads with edge lines (standard or enhanced) red RRPMs
should be located on the other side of the corner island outline.

Indicates direction of travel

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2.14.5 Freeway/Expressway type ramps


(a) Preferred

Indicates direction of travel


kerb or
edge of seal

N* = 12m lit or 24m unlit


N*

N*

6m
6m

NOTE :

N*

RRPMs should be placed on the


median traffic island or shoulder
side where sufficient pavement
width permits.
6m

6m

6m

6m

N*

6m

6m

N*
N*

kerb or
edge of seal

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2.14.5 Freeway/Expressway type ramps (cont)


(b) Alternative

Indicates direction of travel

kerb or
edge of seal

N*
N*

N* = 12m lit or 24m unlit

N*
N*

6m

6m

NOTE :
This treatment narrows the lane
width and may not be consistant
with RRPM locations before and
after the ramp.
6m

6m

6m

6m

6m

N*

6m

N*

N*
N*

kerb or
edge of seal

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2.14.5 Freeway/Expressway type ramps (cont)


(c) Two lane exit

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2.14.6 Urban arterial road

B
for RRPMs on urban corner
islands see Part B 2.14.4.1

kerb

kerb

red RRPMs on edge lines


in urban areas is optional.
RRPMs shall not be
installed adjacent to
bicycle lane lines see
Part C 3.5.2

raised divider

200m maximum
between bicycle
symbols.

Generally no
RRPMs on
continuity lines.

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2.14.7 Rural multi-lane road

edge of seal

NOTE : If the intersection is lit


RRPM spacing is 12m

for RRPMs on rural corner


islands see Part B 2.14.4.2

200
X

sealed shoulder
> 0.5m
200
X
2

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2.14.8 Rural two-lane two-way road

Unsealed

< 50m

NOTE : Continuity line may be used across


side roads. See Part B 2.4 and
Part C 3.7

extend edge line into


side road where seal on
side road extends > 50m
48m standard
continuous

TP

Unsealed

TP
48m standard
continuous

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2.14.9 Rural intersection

(b) Channelised Right Turn


(CHR and CHRS)

(a) Auxiliary Left Turn (AUL)

Generally no RRPMs
on continuity lines

For storage and taper lengths refer to Austroads


Guide to Road Design Part 4A.

See Inset A on the next


page for more detail

See Inset B on the next


page for more detail

Start laying yellow RRPM's


before first diagonal marking
then every 24m.

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2.14.9 Rural intersection (cont)

Inset A

200
200

X
2

Inset B
650mm
CL to CL

400mm
1.5m

125mm
from CL

750mm

1.5m

125

200

9m

200

3m

Note :
The 9m length using 4 sets of RRPM's
at 3m spacing may be extended to 18m
using 7 sets of RRPM's at 3m spacing.

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2.14.9 Rural intersection (cont)

mm

200

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24m

24m

edge line

24m
24m

edge line

Pavement Marking Manual

24m
24m

24m

24m

12m

24m

12m

48m

12m

24m

12m

12m

12m

12m

12m

12m

24m

12m

12m

24m

12m

24m

12m

48m

12m

24m

12m

24m

24m

2.14.10 Overtaking lane - merge area delineation treatment 80km/h or greater

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2.14.11 Wide dividing line treatment


Wide Dividing Line Treatment
RRPMs past this point see
Part B 2.14.1 (q), (r) and (s)

1.05m to 1.2m

12m

start 70m
taper

30m
minimum

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2.15 DISTINCTIVE COLOURED PAVEMENT AREAS


Only
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

the following AS2700 colours shall be used:


Bus Only areas (not bus lanes) - Red (Signal Red, R13).
Bicycle lanes - Green (Emerald, G13).
Full time signalised pedestrian crossings (only) - Yellow (Golden Yellow, Y14).
Accessible boarding indicator patch and identification of dedicated parking spaces for people with disabilities - Blue
(Ultramarine, B21) (refer to Part B 2.7.4).
Islands and medians with diagonal stripes and chevron markings - Red (Terra Cotta, R52).

The above coloured pavement areas shall be treated with skid resistant material to a minimum value 45 BPN (British
Pendulum Number).
Distinctive coloured pavements for areas other than those stated above shall be referred to Manager, Technical Services,
DPTI.

Bicycle Lane
line or kerb

Bicycle Lane line

No gap between green


distinctive pavement marking
and continuity line

No gap between red


distinctive pavement
marking and lane line

continuity lines

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2.16 OUTLINES AND PAINTED KERBS


- Raised median kerbs shall be outlined where the adjacent through lane width is 3.0m or greater in width.
- Raised median kerbs shall be painted where the adjacent through lane width is less than 3.0m.
- Raised median kerbs in auxiliary right turn lanes shall not be outlined unless the right turn lane is greater than or
equal to 3.0m in width.
- Raised islands, other than raised medians and roundabouts shall be outlined unless the adjacent lane is a bicycle
lane less than or equal to 1.5m wide.
- All roundabouts and splitter island kerbs shall be painted and may be outlined.
- Outlines on raised islands and medians shall be standard continuous, except on roads where 150mm edge lines are
used (refer to Part B 2.1.7)

2.16.1 Medians
Isolated openings in median kerbs left for drainage purposes shall not be painted.

6.0m min
TP
TP
< 2.0m
TP
TP
6.0m min

6.0m min
TP
TP
< 2.0m
TP
TP
6.0m min

6.0m min
TP
TP

TP
> 2.0m

TP
TP
6.0m min

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6.0m min
TP
TP

TP

> 3.0m

TP
TP
6.0m min

6.0m min
TP
TP

TP
TP
6.0m min

6.0m min
TP
TP

TP

TP
TP
6.0m min

6.0m min
TP
TP

TP

TP

6.0m min

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2.16.2 Roundabouts
Kerbs on roundabouts including stand alone splitter islands shall be fully painted. On roundabouts with provision for heavy
vehicle movements i.e. with mountable or semi-mountable areas, the first 200mm of the mountable or semi-mountable
area shall be painted white. The kerb of the central or main island in these circumstances may be painted.

100mm outline

inner island kerb


painting optional

mountable
area
200mm of mountable or
semi-mountable area

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2.16.3 Through lanes and auxiliary right turn lanes

Outlines and median kerb painting for auxiliary right turn lanes <3.0m

<3.0m

<3.0m

TP
6.0m min

>3.0m

<3.0m

TP
6.0m min

Outlines and median kerb painting for auxiliary right turn lanes >3.0m

<3.0m

>3.0m
TP
TP
6.0m min

>3.0m

>0.15m

TP

>3.0m

TP
6.0m min

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2.16.4 Other raised islands


Unless specified otherwise on traffic control drawings the approach ends of traffic islands shall be painted white for a
distance of 6 metres. Exit ends of islands need not be painted.
Where approach end of islands have outlines with diagonal markings or chevrons, kerbs need not be painted.
Kerbs on islands with sides measuring less than or equal to 9 metres (between end tangent points) shall be fully painted.

6m

TP

TP
TP

6m

TP

6m

6m

TP
TP

TP TP

6m

6m

Indicates direction of travel

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2.16.5 Pedestrian Refuges

Adjacent lane > 3.0m

100mm outline

for taper treatments


see Part C 3.4.2

painted kerb

Adjacent lane < 3.0m


as above but no outline, add line across opening as prolongation of kerb line.

2.16.6 Local Area Traffic Management (LATM)


For each length of kerb 24m or less, the entire kerb must be painted. Where the length of kerb is greater than 24m, at
least 6m of kerb from each end must be painted.
The kerb is painted the full length where the width of the adjacent lane is less than 3m. Otherwise the usual markings
for medians apply.
It is not necessary to delineate the drainage channel formed by the existing kerb and kerb extensions, unless pedestrian
safety is compromised or it forms part of a by-pass of the device for cyclists.
Typical installations of RRPMs at LATM treatments are shown in AS1742.13-2009.

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2.17 BARRIER LINE INSTALLATION


2.17.1 Intersections
Gaps shall be provided in double two way barrier lines and shall generally be 10m wide and centrally placed at the
intersecting centre point of the side road.
Where barrier lines are required for vertical or horizontal alignment sight restrictions take precedence over standard rural
two lane, two way road intersection treatments.
2.17.2 Property accesses
Gaps should not generally be provided in double two way barrier lines. Leaving a gap allows a driver to legally enter and
leave the road as well as U-turns at a place where there may be a restricted sight distance due to horizontal or vertical
curves. A gap may only be provided where a survey determines that sufficient sight distance is available to safely allow
all movements.
Where provided the gap shall generally be 5m. The gap may be increased at wider accesses or where the turning
vehicle envelope would otherwise cross the double two way barrier lines.

2.18 LONGITUDINAL LINE STYLE TRANSITIONS

2.18.1 Dividing lines


100mm

Broken (standard) to enhanced


broken

Centre line

200mm

100mm

Continuous to enhanced continuous

Centre line

200mm

12m

Enhanced continuous to standard


outline

200mm
Centre line

100mm

100mm

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2.18.2 Barrier lines


Transition from one direction to both
directions lines

2.18.3 Edge lines or outlines


Transition between normal and enhanced
150mm

100mm

Direction of travel

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2.18.4 Edge line mis-match


A mis-match of the edge line road markings may result where a change of lane width occurs after sealing the road
shoulders, resealing works or road reconstruction. Where this occurs, a transition of the edge line between the new
and existing markings shall be made as indicated in the diagrams below.

edge of seal

existing surface
seal width <6.8m
(no edge line)

10
ed
new work

transition edge line


a minimum of 24m

w work

standard edge line


on sealed shoulders

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2.18.4 Edge line mis-match (cont)

B
edge of seal

existing surface
sealed shoulder <0.5m

new work

transition edge line


a minimum of 24m

w work

standard edge lines if sealed


shoulders unless Part B 2.1.4 (b)
enhanced applies

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Design Guide

PART C
DESIGN GUIDE
1.0 SCOPE

This section contains the requirements for the correct and consistent use of pavement
markings on roads in South Australia.
It is intended that this section provides specific diagrammatic examples (i.e. not to scale or
proportion) of the application of markings and where necessary explain to the designer the
reasons why certain treatments are used. It also provides references to:
l
The Road Traffic Act
l
Australian Road Rules (ARR)
l
DPTI Code of Technical Requirements (the Code)
l
Australian Standards (AS)
l
Austroads Guide to Traffic Management (GTM)
l
Austroads Guide to Road Design (GRD)
l
Master Specifications (MS)
l
DPTI Traffic Engineering and Road Management Operational Instructions (OI)
All road authorities including their consultants and contractors are required to conform to this
manual.

NOTE:
Dimensioning Convention
All drawings are not to scale. The reader shall use the dimensions
specified throughout the manual. DO NOT SCALE OFF DRAWINGS.
All markings (longitudinal and transverse) are dimensioned centre
to centre, except for Give Way, Stop lines and pavement messages.

lane lines

Give Way, Stop lines and pavement messages are generally measured
from either the leading or trailing edge of the line or message.

crosswalk line

y
trailing edge

stop line

leading edge
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Design Guide

2.0 TRAFFIC CONTROL DRAWINGS AND DESIGN LAYOUTS


2.1 LONGITUDINAL LINES
Longitudinal lines shall be shown on all traffic control drawings. This includes edge lines and outlines.
Dimensions to kerbs shall be to the kerb face. Dimensions to longitudinal lines (other than zigzag school zone markings )
shall be to the centre of the line. Dimensions of barrier lines shall be to the centre of the combination of the two parallel
lines.
2.2 TRANSVERSE LINES
Transverse lines shall be shown on all traffic control drawings. Dimensions shall be clearly shown to either the leading or
trailing face of all transverse lines, except pedestrian cross walk lines. Pedestrian crosswalk lines shall be dimensioned
to the centre of the line.
2.3 PARKING CONTROL LINES
2.3.1 Parking Control Edge lines
All parking control lines (where used) shall be shown on traffic control drawings.
Parking control edge lines shall be marked in a consistent alignment parallel to and approximately 400mm from the
kerb or edge of seal. This is to ensure that the line is not marked on the water table.
2.3.2 Parking Space Outlines
Parking space outlines shall be shown and dimensioned on traffic control drawings.
2.4 DIAGONAL STRIPES AND CHEVRON MARKINGS
Diagonal stripes and chevron marking shall be shown on traffic control drawings.
2.5 ARROWS
All arrows shall be shown on traffic control drawings and may be dimensioned longitudinally. Arrows shall be located
centrally within the lane width as shown in Part B 2.6.
2.6 MESSAGES AND SYMBOLS
All messages and symbols shall be shown and the longitudinal spacing dimensioned longitudinally on traffic control
drawings.
Messages and symbols shall be located centrally within the lane such that a minimum of 150mm gap is maintained
between the edge of the message or symbol and the centre of any adjacent longitudinal line or to the edge of seal.
Spacing between letters to form commonly used words are shown in Part B 2.7.2.
Bicycle symbols shall be located approximately 100mm from the bicycle lane line adjacent to the traffic lane. Where the
bicycle lane is less than 1.4 metres wide it will be necessary to reduce the width of the symbol. This will be achieved by
masking part of the rear wheel to preserve the 100mm gap between the edge of the symbol and the centre of lane line.
Symbols on paths shall be located centrally within the designated area of travel i.e. between the left edge of the path and
the separation line. Examples for both symbols and messages on paths is shown in Part C 3.19.

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Design Guide

References

3.0 GENERAL TREATMENTS


General treatments are considered those that apply in all built up areas. These include
local residential roads, collector roads, arterial roads and expressway type roads in or near
cities and townships. They may include roads of any speed environment.

3.1 DIVIDING LINES


There is no traffic volume warrant for the provision of dividing lines on urban roads in South
Australia. It is important for designers to remember that the use of single continuous dividing
line prohibits certain crossing movements, including U turns, but does not prohibit entering or
leaving the road. U turns should generally not be restricted by the use of single continuous
lines unless site distance is poor or special facilities have been provided to satisfy U turn
demand within the section of road.

ARR 132, 134, 208 (6)


AS1742.2 Section 5
GTM Part 10
OI 2.15
OI 2.27
OI 2.40

Parking is also prohibited if the parked vehicle is less then 3 metres from the dividing line as
specified in ARR 208 (6).
Any assessment for the need for dividing lines should take the following into consideration:
l

All arterial roads shall be provided with dividing lines in urban areas, and shall be
augmented with RRPMs.

All collector roads should be provided with dividing lines.

Local roads may be provided with dividing lines. Installing dividing lines on narrow roads may
have implications for parking.

Where provided between major intersections dividing lines should be broken, and shall be
standard width for two lane roads and enhanced for multi lane roads.

Where provided on minor or local roads at intersections, short sections of continuous


dividing lines may be provided (see intersection examples in Part B 2.4.2, 2.4.3, 2.14.8,
2.14.9 and Part C 3.13).

Double barrier lines, i.e. multiple lines consisting of combinations of broken and continuous
lines or double continuous lines, are not used on urban roads.

Broken dividing lines on arterial roads continue through minor road intersections.

On any road, a break is provided in continuous dividing lines through intersections (see
Part B 2.4 for examples).

Dividing lines are not normally necessary on minor road approaches to major roads. However
there may be situations where such lines could provide additional guidance to road users.
Such cases include :
- Wide side roads
- Multi lane side roads
- High volumes of right turn movements into and/or from minor road
Dividing lines should not be provided on minor road approaches where right turn and through
movements are prevented or prohibited from the minor road.
Dividing lines should always be provided on minor road approaches that have give way or stop
lines (also see Part C 3.13).

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Design Guide

References

Kerb

PARKING

Kerb

Kerb

Kerb

PARKING

3.1 Dividing lines (cont)

Kerb

PARKING

Kerb

two-lane
two-way road

two-lane two-way road


with marked parking

multilane two-way road


(with bicycle lanes)

multilane two-way road


(two plus one with parking)

Indicates direction of travel

3.2 BARRIER LINES


Double one-way barrier lines are used at Railway Crossings and Ferries in both rural and
urban areas where the speed limit is >80km/h to prohibit overtaking on the approached side.
A single continuous barrier line should be used where the speed limit is <70km/h or as an
alternative to permit traffic to cross the line to enter or leave the road. Where single
continuous barrier line is used, it shall be standard width on roads <70km/h and enhanced
on roads >80km/h.

ARR 132, 134


AS1742.2 Section 5
AS1742.7 Section 3
GTM Part 10
OI 2.15
OI 2.40
OI 7.1

Generally single continuous lines should be used instead of double barrier lines (one-way or
two-way) in urban and low speed rural areas (also see Part B 2.1.1).
There is a temptation to use double barrier lines (double one-way or double two-way) to
control vehicle movements. However experience has shown that such treatments are
generally too passive in nature. Where it is considered necessary to prohibit all crossing
movements (for road safety) then preference should be given to physical controls e.g. raised
medians and islands, that are self regulating and do not rely on police enforcement to be
effective.
For further information on the use of barrier lines on rural roads refer to Part C 4.4.

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Design Guide

3.3 DIAGONAL STRIPES AND CHEVRON MARKINGS

References

Diagonal stripes and chevron markings are used to augment and highlight pavement
marking treatments. They often have legal significance under the ARR. They take the form
of chevrons when used to indicate that drivers, travelling in the same direction may pass
either side of the treated area or as diagonal stripes where the treatments separate
opposing traffic flows. Refer to Part B 2.5 for detailed layout of stripes.

ARR 88, 138 and 197


AS1742.2 Section 5
GRD Part 4A

Spacing between diagonal stripes at low speed turns is generally 6m. The spacing for
diagonal stripes and chevron markings is generally 6m on roads <70km/h, 12m on roads
>80km/h and 24m or 48m on freeways/expressways.
Diagonal stripes shall be nominally 45 degrees to the direction of travel whether straight or
curved and shall be nominally 45 degrees to the centre line of the divergence where drivers
travel on both sides of the markings.
While not exclusive, below are examples of diagonal treatments.

Traffic on either side


(opposing direction)

Traffic to right side only

ge

r ed
bo
ker
eal

of s

Traffic on either side (same direction)

Indicates direction of travel

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Design Guide

3.3.1 Corner Treatment

References

On curved alignments, where diagonal markings are not parallel, the spacing of the markings
shall be measured at the outline or edge line.

ARR 138 (2)(a)

edge line

nominally 45

nominally
6m*
nominally 45

Indicates direction of travel

The use of diagonal stripes is discouraged on left turn treatments,


where the left turn driver has priority i.e. AUL type treatment see
Part B 2.14.9. Stripes are a passive treatment and in this location
are usually driven over regularly, requiring additional maintenance.
They can also be a slip hazard with differential skid resistance
between the painted area and the pavement.

*Nominal spacing between stripes is 6 metres and nominally 45 degrees to the tangent along
the edge line but may be varied. For rural treatments the spacing may be increased depending
on the radius of the curve. Where the section to be striped is short it is preferable to provide
stripes closer together (as close as 3 metres) to ensure the stripes provide the desired effect.

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Design Guide

3.3.2 Flush medians

References

Flush medians (also known as painted islands) may separate lanes dividing opposing traffic
streams, while allowing access to and from the road or entrance to a turning lane.

ARR 138

It should be noted that unlike raised medians, flush medians do not provide physical control of
traffic movements nor do they have the advantages of being clearly visible, especially at night
and in wet weather.

Spacing between median breaks

*12m

Diagonal marking variations for median breaks

widest
point

widest
point
*15m

*15m
>10m
but <20m

widest
point

45m

widest
point

taper
point

>10m

widest
point

Indicates direction of travel

* Generally spacing between diagonal markings should be 12m. Spacing may be varied
between 10 - 15m to suit median lengths. Spacing must be consistent along entire length
of each median section. Although it is preferable to provide at least 2 diagonal markings
in short lengths, one marking may be used in cases of very short lengths.
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Design Guide

References

3.3.3 Corner islands


The use of very small corner islands (less than 3m sides) should be avoided. Such islands
cause confusion to drivers regarding give way responsibilities when turning at intersections.
Chevrons and diagonal stripes may be used between the outline and the kerb of a raised
island where better turning control is required. However, they should only be augmented with
diagonal stripes where the distance between the kerb and outline is greater than 1.0m.

Flush Corner Island


>3m - <12m

<3m

<3m

>3m - <12m

1m

1m

Corner Islands both flush and raised for left turning vehicles should be augmented with
chevron markings for the guidance of both left turn and through vehicles. The treatment also
clearly define the differences in the ARR between turning movement priorities at intersections.

ARR 62, 69 (2A) and


72 (4)

Raised Corner Island

>1m

3m

3m

3m

<1m
3m

3m

3m

Indicates direction of travel


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Design Guide

3.3.4 High angle treatment

References

Diagonal stripes adjacent to kerbs at left turn treatments may be placed to guide standard
design vehicles through left turns.

ARR 138 (2) (a)

Vehicles such as semi-trailers are permitted to turn over diagonal stripes to complete turns.
Diagonal markings may be supplemented with pavement bars to promote lane compliance.

C
rb

ke

Special purpose lanes and corner island treatments, adjacent to motor vehicle through lanes.

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Design Guide

3.4 DIVERGE AND MERGE TAPER TREATMENTS

References

For overtaking lanes see Part C 4.9 and for diverges at kerb extensions see Part C 3.12, the
approaches to intersections e.g. CHR type treatments, see Austroads Guide to Road Design
Part 4A.

GRD Part 4A

3.4.1 Diverge taper treatments


It is often necessary to move traffic laterally across a section of road without merging lanes.
Examples include divergence of lanes to avoid pedestrian refuges, on street parking areas
and at the start of median sections.
It is preferable to provide as long a divergence length as possible, especially where two or
more adjacent lanes must diverge and also if visibility to the island is reduced by vertical or
horizontal alignment. The following diverge calculation provides a minimum length. However,
experience has shown that greater lengths should be provided whenever possible. For
example, extra taper length is important for pedestrian refuge situations to provide additional
protection for pedestrians and to avoid damage to signs and pedestrian hand rails (see Part C
3.20.1).

GRD Part 3 Section 9

Undivided to divided
The following example may be applied to locations where road widening has been undertaken
predominantly on one side of the road.

Td = diverge length (m)


V = design speed or speed limit (km\h)
W = lateral movement (m)
S = rate of lateral movement (m/s)
(0.6 m/s for multi-lane roads
otherwise 1.0m/s)

ARR 135, 137, 138


AS1742.2 Section 2
GRD Part 3 Section 9

Td = V W
3.6S

A longer transistion taper is required for multi-lane


roads to ensure drivers in all lanes understand the
need to diverge together.

C-10

painted median is preceded by a


enhanced single barrier line extending
for 30m minimum (this may be double
one-way or double two-way barrier line
on rural roads)

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Design Guide

3.4.2 Merge taper treatments (lane drop situations)


Zip merge, is the preferred merge treatment in
urban areas with a speed limit of less than 80km/h
This is a minimum merge taper length. However,
experience has shown that greater lengths should
be provided, to assist drivers undertake the
zip merge.

for a merge, S = 0.6m/sec

for a 3.5m lane width, Tm = 70 x 3.5


3.6 x 0.6

ARR 149
AS1742.2 Section 4
GRD Part 4A

kerb, edge of seal


or edge line
median

Tm = Merge length
V = Design speed or speed limit *(km/h)
Y = Lateral movement (m)
S = Rate of lateral movement

References

direction
of travel

Tm = V Y
3.6 S

note :
no continuity
lines

= 110m

Lane termination is required for areas where the


road is restricted.
Design Speed
or Speed Limit (km/h)*
< 60
< 80
*whichever is higher

x
x

36m
48m

lane widths
3.5m

Zip merges are not to be used on roads with a


speed limit of 80 km/h or greater.

3.5 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS

AS1742.2 Section 5.6

Painted lines, stripes and chevrons may be augmented with retroreflective raised pavement
markers (RRPMs) to improve their visual properties (see Part B 2.14).
As a minimum on arterial roads, RRPMs shall be provided on all dividing lines in urban areas
and should be provided on dividing lines in rural areas. RRPMs should also be provided on
lane lines, special purpose lane lines and flush island outlines.
RRPMs enhance longitudinal lines to such an extent that they discourage crossing
movements. For this reason RRPMs shall not be used on continuity lines except in
circumstances shown (see Part C 3.5.1).
RRPMs may be used on collector and local roads if additional delineation treatment is
considered necessary.
Standard spacing is 12m on lit and 24m on unlit roads.
For the use of non-reflective pavement markers through intersections, refer to Part C 3.17.6.
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Design Guide

3.5.1.Continuity lines

References

Generally RRPMs are not required on continuity lines. However, in some rare cases they may
be required to provide guidance:
- on tapers where traffic is required to deviate from their path eg. trapped lane situation.
- on long lengths of curvilinear continuity lines.
Note:
- RRPMs shall not be used on continuity lines in merging situations.
- Where used, spacing shall be generally the same as that applied to lane lines i.e 12m
on lit and 24m on unlit roads.

12m

where RRPMs on continuity lines are used, it must


be shown / indicated on the design drawings.

3.5.2 Bicycle lanes


The provision of RRPMs can be hazardous to cyclists when placed adjacent bicycle lane lines.
This is particularly the case for part-time bicycle lanes when cyclists are required to ride
around parked cars outside bicycle lane operating times. Therefore it is recommended that
RRPMs not be located adjacent to or near part-time bicycle lane lines. It may also be
appropriate to not install RRPMs on full-time bicycle lanes in areas where cyclists are required
to ride around buses and other vehicles legitimately stopped on the road.
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Design Guide

3.6 LANE LINES

References

Lane lines divide two or more lines of traffic travelling in the same direction and shall be
provided on roads where traffic is expected to travel in more than one lane.

ARR 146, 147, 148


AS1742.2 Section 5

When re-allocating the carriageway width to allow cyclists and drivers to travel side by side
within the wide kerbside lane, the minimum lane width shall be 3.7m.

Lane lines are normally standard broken. However, continuous lane lines may be required
between exclusive through and exclusive turn lanes on approaches to intersections (see Part
C 3.7). They may also be used to restrict lane changing mid-block.
Lane lines should be continued through minor road intersections.
At a lane drop, the lane line should cease before the taper commences. This distance is
shown in the table in Part C 3.4.2.
For lane lines on the approach to signalised intersections see Part C 3.17.5.
For the use of continuity lines as lane lines (including the length of continuous line) see
Part C 3.7.

continuity lines
see Part C 2.7

length of unbroken lane line


see Part C 2.7

lane drop
see Part C 2.4.2

5m

7.5

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Design Guide

3.6.1 Roundabouts

References

Lane lines on the approach to a multilane roundabout are positioned as they would be for
other intersections. The lane lines within the circulating lanes and leading out of a
roundabout, known as special purpose lines, provide added guidance through the curves
while negotiating within and exiting the roundabout. Lane lines must be curved where
necessary to ensure this guidance is further enhanced.

ARR Part 9
AS1742.2 Section 5
GTM Part 6
GTM Part 10

Exit line placement

Additional two exit lines


should be provided after
the exit.

The exit line extends from within the circulating


path and continues into the exit road.
exit area

Starting position for exit line, see inset for


each exit line around the roundabout.

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Design Guide

Multi-lane roundabout with two single lane approaches


and two single lane exits

References

Multi-lane roundabout with two lane approaches and two


lane exits

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Design Guide

Multi-lane roundabout with two approach lanes, one exit


lane, and featuring an exclusive left turn lane

References

Multi-lane roundabout with two approach lanes, one exit


lane, and featuring an exclusive right turn lane

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Design Guide

References

3.6.2 Bicycle lanes adjacent to bus stops

ARR 77, 183, 187, 195

car park

Standard
continuous
line

Standard
continuous
line

bus stop

bus stop
sign

kerb

car park

20m

median (or other dividing treatment)

indented bus stop

10m

kerb

NOTE:
For bus stop design requirements, refer to GD800 (www.dpti.sa.gov.au/standards/roads-all)

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Design Guide

References

3.6.3 Bicycle lanes start and end

ARR 153, 187


AS1742.9
GRD Part 3
GTM
OI 9.2
OI 9.3

start of
bicycle lane

d=VW
3.6

d = minimum length of taper (m)


V = design speed or speed limit (km/h)
W = lateral movement of vehicle, or width
reduction (m)

30m or d
(whichever is greater)

formula for calculating


diverging taper

end of
bicycle lane

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Design Guide

3.7 CONTINUITY LINES

References

Continuity lines generally provide longitudinal continuity to traffic along lengths of road where
lane lines or other longitudinal lines either cannot or should not be provided. They are used to
substitute lane, dividing or edge lines where it is intended that the line be crossed by traffic
turning or lane changing.

ARR 147, 148

Where they are used in lieu of a lane or dividing line it is important to remember that they
may continue to have the same legal effect in regard to traffic movements.

Examples of continuity lines include :


l

To provide continuity at very wide straight openings across side roads or other entry and
exit points along a road or across those openings that are subject to significant vertical
or horizontal changes. Continuity lines should only be provided for such situations where
it is likely that through traffic would otherwise loose continuity of travel (see Part C 3.7.3 and
3.15 for example).

At the start and end of auxiliary and special purpose lanes to indicate the section of road
that should be crossed to access or exit the auxiliary lane. Examples include:
- Acceleration and deceleration lanes (see below)
- Bus lanes (Part C 3.22.2 - 4)
- Bicycle lanes (Part C 3.6.3)
- Overtaking lanes (Part C 4.9)
- Slow vehicle turnouts (Part C 4.10)

Across side roads and other sections of road to indicate the continuance of bicycle lanes.

Across median openings where the median is greater than 2 metres in width.

3.7.1 Left and right turn storage / deceleration / acceleration lanes


A
x

kerb or edge
of bitumen

A
x

kerb or edge
of bitumen

A
<72m

x
0m (all continuity line)

72m - 120m

12m continuous line

120m - 180m

24m continuous line

>180m

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Design Guide

3.7.2 Bicycle lane continuity lines

PARKING

kerb

kerb

References

Note:
1. Check turning vehicle envelope for
standard design vehicle.
2. Bicycle lane continuity lines to extend
across turning vehicle envelope.
3. Bicycle logo not to be placed within
bicycle lane continuity lines.

C-20

kerb

kerb

PARKING

turning vehicle
envelope

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Design Guide

3.7.3 Side road continuity lines

References

Notes
- Side roads >12m wide
- Continuity line may be used across
narrower side roads if there is a loss
of continuity of edge line due to the
road geometry.
- Edge line and barrier / dividing line
type will vary.

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Design Guide

3.7.3 Side road continuity lines (cont)

References

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55.00
55.00

50.00
50.00

45.00
45.00

40.00
40.00

35.00

CURVE

35.00

30.00
30.00

25.00
25.00

20.00
20.00

15.00
15.00

10.00
10.00

5.00

5.00

CREST VERTICAL

Pavement Marking Manual

Design Guide

References

3.8 PAVEMENT ARROWS

3.8.1 Unsignalised intersections


(a) Auxiliary Left Turn (AUL)

(b) Channelised Right Turn (CHR)

7.5m

5m

6m

TP
6m

15m-30m

these distances
must be equal

15m-30m
15m-30m

these distances
must be equal

15m-30m

first arrow placed


at full lane width

first arrow placed


at full lane width

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Design Guide

3.8.1 Unsignalised intersections (cont)

References

(c) Channelised Left Turn (CHL)

TP
6m

15m-30m

these distances
must be equal

15m-30m

first arrow placed


at full lane width

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Design Guide

References

3.8.2 Mid-block (includes local road and property access)

Note: For longer turning lanes, see arrow


placement for AUL, CHR & CHL
treatments on the previous pages

25m minimum for 2 turn arrows*


first arrow placed
at full lane width

15m-30m

6m

5m

7.5m
kerb or edge line

no arrow
<12m*

5m

7.5m
kerb or edge line

7.5m

5m

>12m*
single arrow placed
mid-way along lane
(minus taper)

kerb or edge line

TP
15m-30m

6m

first arrow placed


at full lane width

25m minimum for 2 turn arrows*

* If lane is <25m but >12m then place one arrow


mid-way along lane. If lane is <12m then no arrows.

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Design Guide

3.8.2 Mid-block (includes local road and property access) cont

References

no arrow
<12m*

kerb or edge line

TP
15m-30m

6m

first arrow placed


at full lane width

25m minimum for 2 turn arrows*

* If lane is <25m but >12m then place one arrow


mid-way along lane. If lane is <12m then no arrows.

3.8.3 Median turning bays


ARR 86

centre of lane

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Design Guide

3.9 EDGE LINES

References

Kerbed roads in urban areas are generally not edge lined.

Unkerbed roads in urban areas shall be provided with edge lines.

For edge lines on rural roads, highway and freeways see Part C 4.7.

3.10 ON-STREET PARKING CONTROL


On-street parking control markings shall conform to the Australian Standard AS 1742.11,
except as indicated below.

ARR 169, 184, 195


AS1742.11

Generally parking control markings, such as lines, Ts and Ls used to delineate parking spaces
are white.
Clearways, both part time and full time shall not be marked with edge lines.
Full time parking restriction lines i.e. continuous yellow lines, may be used to designate No
Stopping areas (with or without signs), but shall not be used to designate No Stopping areas
already covered in the Road Rules i.e. driveways, corners of road intersections, bus stops and
post boxes.
If yellow parking control lines are used along a section of road, they shall not be marked
through full time bus stops. The lines shall also not be marked 3m each side of a post box or
through designated taxi zones (taxi zones must be signed and may be delineated with parking
space markings).
Note: The yellow line at fire plug indicators (blue RRPM) and hydrants are the responsibility of
SA Water.
3.11 PAVEMENT MESSAGES (Including Symbols)
The length of letters and numerals shall be 2.5m where the speed limit is up to 80 km/h and
5.0m at higher speeds. A message should, if possible, be confined to one line. Where two or
more lines are required they shall be designed as follows:

AS1742.2 Section 5

(a) Where the 85th percentile speed is greater then 80 km/h, a separation of four times the
character height shall be used, and the message arranged to read sequentially, i.e. with
the first word nearest to the driver.
(b) At speeds lower than in Item (a), the separation between lines shall be from one-half to
one times the character height and the message arranged to read from top to bottom.
Pavement messages and symbols detailed in this manual are as follows:
BUS LANE - see Part C 3.22

RAIL X - see Part B 2.8

KEEP CLEAR - see Part C 3.11.1

School Zone (Zig zag) - see Part C 3.21


Pavement messages on roads shall be limited to the following :
l

BUS LANE AHEAD

BUS LANE

BUS ONLY

BUS ONLY AHEAD

RIGHT TURN ONLY

KEEP CLEAR

FERRY

LEFT TURN ONLY

NO LEFT TURN

NO RIGHT TURN

PED XING

RAIL X (X RAIL)

SIGNALS AHEAD

SCHOOL

NO ENTRY

Bicycle (symbol)

Yellow Box Markings

Pavement Arrows

For pavement messages other than those stated above shall be referred to the Manager,
Technical Services, DPTI.

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Design Guide

Pavement messages for road related areas shall be limited to the following:
l

Bicycle (symbol)

Access (symbol)

Bicycle Prohibited (symbol)

Path Arrows

Pedestrian (symbol)

Skater Prohibited (symbol)

References

AS1428.1
AS1742.9
OI 2.12

3.11.1 Keep clear


The keep clear pavement message shall only be used in accordance with Operational
Instruction 2.23 KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings.
Keep clear pavement markings shall consist of the words KEEP CLEAR and:
l

Be positioned wholly within a single lane where possible.

Shall have 2.5m letter height with 2.5m spacing between words.

Shall have a letter style as shown in AS1742.2 and Part B 2.7.2.

Where two or more lanes in the same direction are to be marked with KEEP CLEAR, the
message may be staggered at wide side roads or driveways.

The spacing of the letters in the word CLEAR may be reduced to fit the whole word into
the lane.

If the lane widths in the same direction are, on average, less than 3.3m wide then a single
KEEP CLEAR message may be used across 2 lanes or 2 messages across 3 lanes.

ARR 96
AS1742.2 Section5
OI 2.23

Single lane

2.5m
150mm line, positioned to the limits
of the required keep clear area. e.g.
in line with side road kerbs.

2.5m

2.5m

Multi-lane (preferred)

Note:
a single message covering
two lanes may be adequate.
The words may be spaced
wider to suit.

2.5m

2.5m

2.5m

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References

3.11.2 Speed limits


Speed limit pavement messages shall not be used in South Australia.
3.11.3 Other messages
Where it is desired to use other pavement messages, the matter shall be referred to the
Manager, Technical Services, DPTI.

C
3.12 KERB EXTENSION MARKINGS
Kerb extensions are used to reduce road widths, especially in pedestrian crossing locations.
As the name suggests, kerb extensions should preferably consist of raised areas bordered
by semi mountable median type kerbing. However, they may also consist of pavement
markings designated by outline markings with diagonal stripes, and pavement bars and/or
RRPMs.
Kerb extensions may also be used to physically control the movement of vehicles, such as a
traffic divergence on a road section or to create a high angle entry to the main road.

taper length determined in


accordance with Part C 3.4

raised
kerb or edge of seal

Note: Diagonal stripes should be placed at 6m spacing on the divergence


taper section and then at 12m spacing for long parallel sections
up to 200m. For sections longer than 200m where diagonal stripes
are considered necessary they may be spaced at up to 24m in urban
areas and up to 48m in high speed rural areas.

Indicates direction of travel

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Design Guide

References

Painted kerb extensions

ARR 195

No painted
kerb extension

10m

Standard
continuous line

10m
0

Bus
stop
20m

nominally
10m

3m

Painted kerb
extension

3m
may be supplemented
with pavement bars for
positive lane control
refer to Part B 2.13

6m

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References

3.13 STANDARD INTERSECTIONS (Local Urban Roads)


Local or minor roads need not to be line marked. However, where they are, it is preferred to
provide a single dividing line to the extent of the limit of the No Stopping restriction from the
intersection (only) on the road with priority.
The controlled road approaches i.e. the road under Give Way or Stop sign control must be
provided with a give way or stop line. The provision of a dividing line from the give way or
stop line is preferred.
The dividing line would not normally extend beyond 10m from the kerb alignment of the
intersecting road. This length of line matches the road rule which prohibits stopping within
10m of an intersecting road.

ARR 170

10m
minimum

dividing line
5m

5m

kerb

10m
minimum

3.14 GIVE WAY AND STOP LINE MARKINGS

width = 450mm (<80km/h)


width = 600mm (>80km/h)
Note: Examples shown apply for both GIVE WAY and STOP locations.

typical no special
turn requirements

typical no special
turn requirements

x = placement of give way line may have to be


further in advance of the roundabout to allow
for the wider swept path of some larger vehicles
travelling around the roundabout.

kerb

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Design Guide

References

3.14 GIVE WAY AND STOP LINE MARKINGS (cont)

kerb or edge line


or edge of seal
nominally
10m

edge line

edge line

kerb or
edge of seal

kerb or edge line


or edge of seal

kerb or edge line


or edge of seal

kerb or edge line


or edge of seal

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References

3.15 CHANGED PRIORITY

Changed priority intersection

C
kerb or
edgeline

7.

5m
5m

enhanced

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Design Guide

3.16 ROUNDABOUTS

References

Give Way lines


All roundabouts shall be provided with give way lines at the point drivers are expected to
hold to give way before entering the circulating lane(s). To determine the location of the
give way line it is important to consider sight distance to approaching vehicles from the right
while ensuring that the holding vehicle is not placed within the turning path of vehicles
travelling within the circulating lane(s), see Part C 3.14.

The Code Section 7


AS1742.2 Section 2
AS1742.2 Section 5
ARR Part 9

Special purpose and lane lines


Refer to Part C 3.6.1.
Note: Spiral lane line markings i.e. where additional lanes are created within a
roundabout shall not be used in SA without the authorisation of Manager,
Technical Services, DPTI.
Pavement arrows
Pavement arrows, while not used on single lane roundabouts, shall be used on any
approach to the roundabout which has more than one lane. See part C 3.6.1 for examples.
Splitter islands
Splitter islands, raised or flush, shall be provided on each approach. A standard single
continuous barrier line should be marked on the approach to a splitter island.
Painted kerb and outlines
All roundabouts, splitter islands and kerb extensions shall be painted and may be outlined.
For semi-mountable central islands and splitter islands refer to Part B 2.16.

3.16.1 Single lane roundabout

kerb
extension

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References

3.16.2 Multi-lane T-intersection roundabout

3.16.3 Bicycle lane approach and exit to a single lane roundabout

locate start of bicycle lane


outside turning envelop

locate end of bicycle lane


outside turning envelop

design vehicle
turning template

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Design Guide

References

3.17 SIGNALISED INTERSECTIONS

Signalised intersection treatment index

C-36

Pedestrian crosswalk lines

(page C-37)

Pavement arrows

(page C-40)

Stop lines

(page C-38)

Lane lines

(page C-44)

Turn lines

(page C-39)

Non-reflective raised
pavement markers

(page C-45)

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Design Guide

References

3.17.1 Pedestrian crosswalk lines


(a) Pedestrian
The marked crossing should be at least 2m wide and delineated by two parallel lines. See
Part B 2.2.3.

AS1742.2
AS1742.10
AS1742.14

The line nearest the centre of the intersection should be not less then 0.6m (desirably 1m)
clear of the cross street kerb line projection.

Crosswalks shall always be on a straight alignment between staged crossing points.


No other lines shall be placed between the crosswalk lines.

kerb
0.6 - 1m

line width 150mm,1m


stripe and 300mm gap

Generally crosswalks are 2.4m wide and should


be parallel. The width of the crosswalkmay be
increased where there are high pedestrian volumes.

1.2m m

in

(b) Shared Use


Shared use marked crossings may vary in width between 2.4m - 4.0m depending on the
facility width leading to the marked crossing.

(c) Scramble Pedestrian Crossings


Scramble pedestrian crossing markings are covered in Operational Instruction 14.1.

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OI 14.1

C-37

Design Guide

3.17.2 Stop lines

References

(a) Stop line and bicycle lane

ARR
AS1742.2
AS1742.9
AS1742.14

Stop lines for bicycles should be placed ahead of the vehicular stop line so that drivers will be
aware of bicycles waiting at the stop line prior to the start of the green period.

450 or 600mm
(see part B 2.2.1)

1.5m

200mm

1.2m
minimum

1m

1.8m

1.1m

(b) Angled and stepped stop lines


The correct stopping position at an angled stop line is often difficult for drivers to accurately
determine when the angle of the line is less then 60 degrees to the direction of travel.
Generally it is preferred to use shallow angle stop lines but this will sometimes depend upon
site suitability.
Greater or equal to 60 degrees to the
direction of travel, use angled stop line

1.2m
min

> 60%

Less then 60 degrees to the direction


of travel, use stepped stop line

Note: 90 degree to the direction of travel


or stepped stop line are required
for safety camera installations.

C-38

< 60%

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Design Guide

3.17.3 Turn lines

References

Turn lines may be used within signalised intersections to indicate the proper course to be
followed by turning vehicles. They shall always be used within an intersection where there
is more than one turning lane for turns in a particular direction. They are not required when
the path to be followed is obvious to drivers under all conditions.

AS1742.2
AS1742.14

Turn lines should not be carried through pedestrian crosswalks but may continue after to
continue guidance. The radius of the turn line should be as large as possible and not less
than 7m.

turn lines not to be


carried through crosswalk
line width 100mm,
600mm stripe and
600mm gap

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Design Guide

3.17.4 Pavement arrows

References

Pavement arrows may only be used at an intersection.

ARR 92

Drivers are legally required to travel in the direction of the arrow at the intersection. Arrows
shall only be used in lanes where the movements differ from the ARR (refer to the
Intersection Pavement Arrows table (Page C-43)). For example, since drivers are permitted to
turn left or travel through an intersection from the left lane, a pavement arrow indicating these
directions shall not be used in the lane.

ARR Part 4

Intersection pavement arrows shall not be used:


l

For turns that are restricted during certain hours of the day, or

In bicycle and bus lanes.

When used, a minimum of 3 arrows shall be used on the approach to the intersection unless
insufficient length is available (refer below). The arrow closest to the intersection shall be
placed 6 metres from the stop line or from the tangent point of the start of a curve for a turn
lane. The last arrow shall be marked at a point where the full width ot the lane occurs. Arrows
between these two should be equally spaced as close to 30 metres as possible (tail to tail).
However, to ensure a minimum of three arrows are provided, spacing may be reduced to a
minimum of 15 metres.
The minium number of three arrows may be reduced when the lane is short or access to a
side road is permitted such that there is insufficient length to physically install the arrows at
the minimum 15 metres spacing. In such cases the last arrow shall be aligned with the end of
the opening.

6m

6m
distance
measured
from TP

. TP

6m
Insufficient length to
install 3 arrows at the
minimum 15m spacing

15 - 30m
first arrow aligned with
end of the opening

Side road

15 - 30m

15 - 30m

Arrows not installed


prior to or across the
side road intersection

first arrow placed,


at full lane width

The minimum number of 3 arrows


showing the equal spacing range

C-40

Modifying the number and start of


arrows due to a side road access

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Design Guide

References

3.17.4.1 Multiple turn lanes

AS1742.2 Section 2

BUS
ONLY

continuous line
lenght refer to
Part C 3.7

TP
6m

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Design Guide

References

3.17.4.1 Multiple turn lanes (cont)


T-Intersection combinations of left/right arrows are required to allow the movements intended.

1 row only

3 rows where length


of lanes permit

3 rows where length


of lanes permit

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NOT APPLICABLE

Markings for shared right turn and through from


lane adjacent to two exclusive right turn lane

1
2
3
4

Three lane

Use of Intersection Pavement Arrows

Four lane

Black symbols indicate arrows to be marked.


Grey symbols indicate manoeuvres which are permitted by regulations but which need not be marked.
On some intersection approaches, it may be necessary to combine two or more of the marking methods shown.
Arrows for all movements shall be marked on multi-lane side road approaches to signal controlled "T" intersections and on all multi-lane approaches to roundabouts.

Notes:

Markings to indicate right lane prohibition

Markings to indicate left lane prohibition

NOT APPLICABLE

Two lane

Markings for shared left turn and through from


lane adjacent to two exclusive left turn lane

Markings for shared right turn and through from


lane adjacent to right turn lane

Markings for shared left turn and through from


lane adjacent to left turn lane

Markings for two exclusive right turn lanes

Markings for two exclusive left turn lanes

Legal manoeuvres if right lane only marked

Legal manoeuvers if left lane only marked

Legal manoeuvres if lane unmarked

Description of requirements

Design Guide

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Design Guide

3.17.5 Lane lines

References

On the immediate approaches to traffic signals, the use of lane lines is essential where the
approach width will accommodate two or more traffic streams.

ARR 146, 147, 148

On the approach lane lines should cease with a full line segment at the stop line. This may
require a shorter gap segment, or a longer line segment.
On exits from intersections where pedestrian crosswalks exist, lane lines should start as
close as practicable (but not closer than 300mm) to the crosswalk.
For zip merges on the exit from intersections, refer to Part C 3.4.2.
For the use of continuity lines as lane lines, refer to Part C 3.7.

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3.17.6 Non-reflective raised pavement markers


Drivers may require guidance through intersections by the placement of Non-Reflective
Raised Pavement Markers (NRPM) within the intersection for non-turning traffic.
Treatment is normally applicable only to wide signalised intersections on multilane roads.
NRPM must be placed such that they do not interfere with the alignment of the cross
movement lanes.

References

AS1742.2 Section 5

Typical situations are:


l

Lanes on opposite sides of the intersection offset by half a lane width or more.

Drivers required to steer a curved course through the intersection.

Highly skewed intersections where the travel distance within the intersection is
excessive.

Features such as tram lines or adverse geometry which may make the course
difficult to follow.

Typical situation

Location of guidance markers

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3.18 EXPRESSWAYS

References

3.18.1 Expressway exit lane arrows

AS1742.2 Section 3

Expressway exit lane arrows shall only be used where multiple lanes exit onto a ramp.

50m

mid - block left lane


becomes trap lane

entry ramp continues as


trap lane to next exit

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3.19 PATH TREATMENTS

References

3.19.1 Destination group layout

AS1742.9

1m x 80mm wide dividing


line with 7m spacing

C
3m

150mm

1m

1.2m

7m
150mm

1m

1.2m
300mm

1.2m

pavement
edge

3.19.2 Connector group layout

1m x 80mm wide dividing


line with 7m spacing

2m

1m

150mm

1.2m

7m
150mm

1m

1.2m

1.2m

pavement
edge

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Design Guide

3.19.3 Shared use paths, T intersection layout

References

destination group
see Part C 3.19.1
for typical layout
1m x 7m gap x 80mm wide
dividing line

15m min

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout

12m x 80mm wide


single continuous line

50m

10m
5m

connector path eg.


SMITH STREET

5m
10m

50m

symbol groups should


be spaced at not more
than 200m intervals

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout

15m min

destination group
see Part C 3.19.1
for typical layout

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References

3.19.4 Shared use paths, intersection layout

destination group
see Part C 3.19.1
for typical layout
15m min

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout
1m x 7m gap x 80mm wide
dividing line

15m min

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout

12m x 80mm wide


single continuous line

25m

10m
5m
connector path eg.
SMITH STREET

connector path eg.


JONES AVENUE
5m
10m

25m
symbol groups should
be spaced at not more
than 200m intervals

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout

15m min

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout

destination group
see Part C 3.19.1
for typical layout

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References

3.19.5 Shared use paths, T intersection offset layout

destination group
see Part C 3.19.1
for typical layout

1m x 7m gap x 80mm wide


dividing line

15m min

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout

symbol groups should


be spaced at not more
then 200m intervals

50m

10m
5m
connector path eg.
JONES AVENUE

12m x 80mm wide


single continuous line
5m

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout

5m
connector path eg.
SMITH STREET
5m
10m

50m
12m x 80mm wide
single continuous line

connector group
see Part C 3.19.2
for typical layout

15m min

destination group
see Part C 3.19.1
for typical layout

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References

3.20 PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES


There are a number of distinctive facilities to assist the safe passage of pedestrians walking
adjacent to and across roads. The distinctive features including the legal effect for some of
these facilities is partly created by the pavement markings.
These facilities are:
l
Pedestrian refuge
l
Emu crossing
l
Koala crossing
l
Wombat crossing
l
Pedestrian actuated crossing

3.20.1 Pedestrian refuge

AS1742.10

Refuges shall be outlined and the outline shall continue past the pedestrian opening.

Where pedestrian openings are provided through medians, outlines shall also continue
past the opening or a line placed across the opening as shown in Part B 2.16.5.

Where the pedestrian refuge divides opposing traffic movements unidirectional yellow
RRPMs shall be provided at 6.0m spacings. White RRPMs shall be provided at the same
spacing where the refuge separates traffic travelling in the same direction.

Special purpose broken line should be used for lane line for short isolated pedestrian refuges
on multi-lane roads.

Pedestrian refuges are either short lengths of raised medians used on roads for the sole
purpose of providing a staging area for pedestrians crossing the road or are long lengths of
median through which cut outs or walkthroughs may be provided.
minimum treatment for
two-lane two-way

multi-lane two-way undivided and preferred


treatment for two-lane two-way
standard
lane line

30m
min

enhanced

Td = V W
3.6S

special purpose
broken line

Td = diverge length (m)


V = design speed or speed limit (km\h)
W = lateral movement (m)
S = rate of lateral movement (m/s)
(0.6 m/s for multi-lane two-way
undivided and preferred for
two-lane two-way)

3m

Td = V W
3.6

Pavement Marking Manual

enhanced
broken line
(9m line 3m gap
200wide)

W
30m
min

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3.20.2 Emu crossing

References

two-lane two-way road

The Code Section 8


AS1742.10

post and flag

6m

2.4m - 6m

post

post

kerb

single broken
dividing line

standard stop line

kerb

post

post

6m
post and flag

two-lane two-way road (with kerb extensions)

6m

2.4m - 6m

post and flag


kerb
post

kerb
extension

post
kerb extension

single broken
dividing line

standard stop line


kerb
extension
post

post
kerb
6m

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3.20.3 Koala crossing

References

AS1742.10
two-lane two-way road

6m

2.4m - 6m

C
kerb

single broken
dividing line

standard stop line

kerb
6m
twin alternate yellow
flashing signals

two-lane two-way road (with kerb extensions)

6m

2.4m - 6m

kerb
kerb
extension

kerb extension

single broken
dividing line

standard stop line


kerb
extension
kerb
6m

Pavement Marking Manual

twin alternate yellow


flashing signals

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Design Guide

3.20.4 Wombat and Zebra crossings

References

Wombat crossing

The Code Section 8


AS1742.10

two-lane two-way road

Top of ramp

10m minimum**

Top of ramp

10m minimum**

6m minimum
6.6m minimum

1.2m min

1.2m min
* Equal, 0.3m minimum
** A single barrier line should be provided on
each approach if the road has a dividing line

divided carriageway
Top of ramp

raised median

Top of ramp

raised median

6m minimum
1.2m min

6.6m minimum

1.2m min

* Equal, 0.3m minimum

Zebra crossing

off-street

4m minimum

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References

3.20.5 Pedestrian actuated crossing

AS1742.10
Undivided roads
two-lane two-way

C
6m

5m preferred
(2.4m min)

kerb

20m single continuous


barrier line (optional)
refer to Part C 3.1

standard stop line

kerb
single post with
pedestrian push button

6m

four-lane two-way

6m

5m preferred
(2.4m min)

kerb

20m single enhanced continuous


barrier line (optional) refer to Part C 3.1

standard stop line

kerb
single post with
pedestrian push button

Pavement Marking Manual

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Design Guide

3.21 SCHOOL ZONES

References

A zigzag marking is used to increase driver awareness of a school zone. It is placed in


advance of a School Zone sign, subject to site conditions.

ARR 23
The Code Section 4

Zigzag pavement markings shall be used at all School Zones.


Typically the trailing end of the zigzag marking is placed at the school zone sign with the
marking commencing 30m in advance of the sign.
SCHOOL pavement messages may be used where visibility to the R3-SA58 School Zone
sign is limited by the horizontal or vertical alignment of the road. This message may
supplement the WG-SA106 School Zone warning sign(s) in which case the message shall
be adjacent the sign see Part C 3.21.3.
Other markings, such as speed limits, coloured patches or symbols shall not be used.
The zigzag markings must be as shown in Part B 2.9, unless otherwise indicated in the
following examples.
3.21.1 Zigzag marking position
(a) Parking prohibited at all times.
zigzag positioned
centrally in lane
R3-SA58

edgeline or edge of seal

dividing line or
centre of road

(b) Adjacent indented parking lane and full time bicycle lane.
kerb extensions may be present
to provide protected parking lane
R3-SA58
marked parking lane
bicycle lane (full time)

R3-SA58

median or dividing line

zigzag positioned
centrally in lane

(c) Adjacent wide kerbside lane.


R3-SA58
a part-time bicycle lane may be installed

lane width

a (see below)

R3-SA58

median or dividing line

zigzag positioned
centrally in lane
indicates direction of travel

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References

(d) Part time parking restriction.


R3-SA58

lane width
a (see below)

R3-SA58

dividing line or
centre of road

Width of lane

Value of a

less than or equal to 4.0m

0.2m

between 4.0m to 6.0m

0.6m

greater than 6.0m

1.2m

3.21.2 Basic school zone


R3-SA58

R4-SA59

R4-SA59

R3-SA58

R3-SA58

R4-SA59

R4-SA59

R3-SA58

3.21.3 Curved alignment

Notes :

WG-SA106

1. SCHOOL pavement message may be used


adjacent to a WG-SA106 School Zone warning
sign where sight distance to the R3-SA58
School Zone sign may be restricted.

SCHO

OL

2. Zigzag shall follow the curve of the road.


8
A5

-S

R3

59

A
-S

A5
-S

R4

R3

A5
-S

R4
R4

-SA

59
R3

-SA

58

R4

-SA

indicates direction of travel

59
R3

-SA

58

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References

3.21.4 At intersections and Emu crossings

4
R3-SA58

3
1.0m min

R3-SA58

30m
1.0m min

Notes :
1. Zigzag marking should be 30m long but may be reduced to a minimum of 21m.
2. Zigzag markings must not extend into an intersection. It must be clear of the
prolongation of the kerb or edge of road by at least 1.0m.
3. Prolongation of kerb or edge of road.
4. Zigzag marking may retain its length by extending past the School Zone sign i.e.
where sign installation may be restricted due to driveways.
3.0m min
1
21m min

R3-SA58
2

1.0m
min

for Emu crossings


refer to Part C 2.20.2

30m
1

R3-SA58

3.21.5 Undivided multi-lane road


R3-SA58

R3-SA58

R4-SA59

R4-SA59

R3-SA58

R3-SA58

indicates direction of travel

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References

3.21.6 Divided multi-lane road

R4-SA59

R3-SA58

R3-SA58

R4-SA59

R3-SA58

<3m

>3m
R4-SA59

R3-SA58
R4-SA59

indicates direction of travel

3.22 BUS FACILITIES


Bus facilities on roads include part time Bus Lanes, full time Bus Lanes and Bus Only areas.
All three are pavement marked differently.
General requirements:
l

For Bus Lane widths on an urban arterial road agreement shall be sought from
Operational Services, DPTI.

At the start of a Bus Lane where road users are required to diverge to avoid entering the
lane, a continuity line transition shall be provided.

Full time Bus Lanes shall have an continuous lane line.

Part time Bus Lanes shall have a special purpose broken lane line.

BUS LANE AHEAD pavement messages placed in advance of the continuity line transition
are preferred for both full and part time Bus Lanes.

BUS LANE pavement messages must be placed at the start of both full and part time Bus
Lanes after intersections and at intervals not exceeding 200 metres.

BL pavement messages shall not be used.

Continuity line transitions lines shall be


- Not less than 35 metres where traffic is not required to merge with another lane of traffic
to avoid entering the Bus lane.
- Full merging transition length where traffic is required to merge with another lane.

Pavement messages need not be in lateral alignment with Bus lane signs.

Red pavement colouring in a lane or part of a lane shall only be used with a Bus Only
pavement message. Red shall not be used for any other purpose.

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Design Guide

References

3.22.1 Placing of lane messages

AS1742.12

Bus Lane Ahead


2.5m

1.2m - 2.5m

2.5m

1.2m - 2.5m

2.5m

Part Time Bus Lane


2.5m

1.2m - 2.5m

2.5m

special purpose broken line

bus lane

Full Time Bus Lane


2.5m

1.2m - 2.5m

2.5m
continuous lane line

bus lane

Bus Only
2.5m

1.2m - 2.5m

2.5m
continuous lane line

Indicates direction of travel

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3.22.1 Placing of lane messages (cont)

References

6.2m - 7.5m

35m

kerb

continuity
line

35m - 100m

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Design Guide

3.22.2 Full-time / Part-time bus lanes

References

ARR 154, 158, 187


AS1742.12 Section 6

continuous lane line

special purpose broken line

10m
to
50m

10m
to
50m

200m max

200m max
100m

Full-time bus lane

C-62

7.5m

7.5m

35m

35m

30m
to
100m

30m
to
100m

12.5m

12.5m

Part-time bus lane

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3.22.3 Parking bays in Bus Lanes

References

Parking bays should not normally be marked in part-time bus lanes. However, when they
are required, they should be marked with T and L markings.

C
AS1742.12

3.22.4 Bus Only


GRD Part 3

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3.22.4 Bus Only (cont)

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References

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3.23 DISTINCTIVE COLOURED BICYCLE FACILITIES

References

3.23.1 Left turn deceleration lane


OI 9.3

for details see


Part B 2.15

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3.23.2 Left turn acceleration lane

References

OI 9.3

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References

3.23.3 High angle left turn lane

OI 9.3

3.23.4 Minor side road junction

OI 9.3

for the extent of continuity


line see Part C 3.7.3

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3.23.5 Bicycle storage area (with a bicycle lane)

References

4.0m minimum

x* symbols to be
evenly spaced

x*

x*

kerb

x*

place symbol at the


start of the continuity line

NOTES: 1. For bicycle logo details see AS1742.3 - 2000.


2. Green coloured pavement surface shall be Emerald Green G13.

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References

3.23.6 Bicycle storage area (without a bicycle lane)

C
x* symbols to be
evenly spaced

4.0m minimum
x*

x*

x*

300mm
water table

varies

NOTES: 1. For bicycle logo details see AS1742.3 - 2000.


2. Green coloured pavement surface shall be Emerald Green G13

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Design Guide

3.24 OTHER BICYCLE FACILITIES

References

3.24.1 Indented hook turn

3m

start continuity
line

1.5m
3m

1.2m

1.8m

holding
rail
5.8m

6m

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3.24.2 Detector loop

References

stop line

kerb or edge line

6 diamond markings
(100mm x 100mm)
at 300mm centers

300mm

500mm
250mm
250mm
160mm

lane line

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Design Guide

References

4.0 RURAL TREATMENTS


This section details the pavement marking differences between the general or urban
treatments and those in rural areas. In cases other than those listed below, treatments should
be the same for both built up urban and rural situations.
4.1 DIVIDED RURAL ROADS
Although most of the design details for treatments between intersections in this section relate
to undivided roads, the same principles, with the exception of dividing lines, should be applied
for divided roads.
4.2 MULTI-LANE UNDIVIDED RURAL ROADS
Multi-lane undivided roads shall not be used in high speed rural environments with the
exception of specific treatments such as overtaking lanes, channelised right turn treatment
(CHR) and channelised left turn treatment (CHL).
4.3 DIVIDING LINES ON RURAL ROADS
Dividing lines shall be installed in accordance with AS1742.2 other than at isolated
intersections treatments. The use of single continuous barrier lines as dividing lines are not
recommended in high speed rural environments. Although such lines prohibit certain crossing
movements, including u-turns, they do not prohibit entering or leaving the road (see Barrier
Lines on Rural Roads).

GRD Part 3
GRD Part 4A

ARR 132, 134


AS1742.2 Section 5

Any assessment for the need for dividing lines needs to consider the following:
l

All rural arterial roads shall be provided with dividing lines and should be augmented with
RRPMs.

All rural collector roads should be provided with dividing lines.

Local rural roads may be provided with dividing lines. Installing dividing lines on narrow
roads may have implications for parking.

Where provided between major rural intersections dividing lines should be broken, and
shall be standard width for 2 lane roads and enhanced for multi lane roads.

Where provided on minor or local rural roads at intersections, short sections of single
continuous barrier line may be provided.

Dividing lines on rural arterial roads through minor road intersections are generally broken
(see Part B 2.4 Rural Intersections).

4.4 BARRIER LINES ON RURAL ROADS


A single continuous barrier line should be used through rural townships as an alternative to
double two-way barrier lines. This allows the line to be crossed by traffic entering or leaving
the road.
Barrier lines on high speed rural roads shall only consist of double lines, either Double One
Way Barriers or Double Two Way Barriers to create No Overtaking Zones and shall be
restricted to locations with either horizontal or vertical sight restrictions or both and only be
determined in accordance with AS1742.2.
Double barrier lines, one way or two way, are not generally used in SA to prohibit overtaking
at isolated locations unless there are sight restrictions which meet the requirements for such
lines.
The only exceptions to the above requirement include:
l

l
l

C-72

Railway level crossings in accordance with Australian Standards Manual of Uniform Traffic
Control Devices (AS1742.7).
Overtaking lanes in accordance with this document and Operational Instruction 2.15
Ferry approaches in accordance with Australian Standards Manual of Uniform Traffic
Control Devices.

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AS1742.7 Section 3
OI 2.15

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Design Guide

4.5 WIDE DIVIDING LINE TREATMENTS

References

For wide dividing line treatments the following requirements for the establishment of noovertaking zones apply. For all other locations, refer to AS1742.2.

AS1742.2

For 110km/h design speed


l
l
l
l
l

Minimum overtaking sight distance


Barrier line distance
Maximum length with no Barrier Lines
Minimum length of Barrier Lines
Minimum distance between Barrier Lines

590m
280m
55m*
165m
310m

For 120km/h design speed


l
l
l
l
l

Minimum overtaking sight distance


Barrier line distance
Maximum length with no Barrier Lines
Minimum length of Barrier Lines
Minimum distance between Barrier Lines

690m
330m
60m*
180m
350m

*where a short length of road has substandard overtaking sight distance, barrier lines should
not be marked e.g. short sag (floodway) on an otherwise level road.
4.6 LANE LINES ON RURAL ROADS
Lane lines i.e. lines dividing lanes of the same direction traffic, must be provided on roads
where traffic is expected to travel in more than one line of traffic.
Lanes should not be marked on a rural road where it would result in lane widths of less than
3.2 metres. Restricted access routes may require greater lane widths.
Lane lines are normally standard broken. However, unbroken lane lines may be used between
exclusive through and exclusive turn lanes on approaches to intersections.
Lane lines on rural roads should be continued through minor road intersections.
All multi lane divided rural roads shall be provided with enhanced edge lines and outlines.

Multi lane divided rural road


enhanced edge line

sealed shoulder or emergency stopping lane

dividing strip

(unkerbed)

(kerbed)
175mm
min

sealed shoulder or emergency stopping lane

enhanced edge line

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4.7 EDGE LINES ON RURAL ROADS

References

Edge lines shall be provided on all rural roads to ensure the lane width does not exceed 3.5
metres.

AS1742.2 Section 4
AS1742.2 Section 5
GRD Part 3

Edge lines provide a clear definition of the lane both day and night and discourage traffic from
travelling on shoulders.
Practices regarding lane and sealed shoulder widths including the issues relating to pavement
depth, should be considered before providing an edge line.
Part C 4.7.1 and 4.7.2 show best practice in regard to installing edge lines.
Part C 4.7.3 and 4.7.4 indicates a required treatment.

4.7.1 Narrow rural two-lane two-way road (sealed width >5.5m, <6.8m)

unsealed shoulder

AS1742.2 Section 4

edge of seal
(no edge line unless
AS1742.2 clause 4.2.2.1 (b)
or clause 5.3.2.4 applies)

> 5.5m

unsealed shoulder

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4.7.2 Standard rural two-lane two-way road


(sealed width >6.8m)

References

unsealed shoulder

standard edge line

edge of seal

minimum width 200mm

> 6.8m
(seal width)

Pavement Marking Manual

unsealed shoulder

> 6.4m

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4.7.3 Wide sealed shoulder rural two-lane two-way road


(sealed shoulder width >0.5m )

References

edge line*

> 0.5m

> 6.6m

> 7.6m
(seal width)

*on the following roads, the


edge line shall be enhanced
- Dukes Highway
- Sturt Highway
- Riddoch Highway
- Augusta Highway

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References

4.7.4 Multi-lane divided road (sealed shoulder width >0.5m )

C
enhanced
edge line
or
outline

> 0.5m

> 0.5m

> 0.5m

> 0.5m

median (or other


dividing treatment)

Indicates direction of travel

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4.8 AUDIO TACTILE LINE MARKING (ATLM)

References

ATLM consists of a thermoplastic pattern of transverse ribs installed in accordance with DPTI
Master Specification Part 247 Audio Tactile Line Marking with the location of such markings as
detailed in this section. The "discontinuous thermoplastic style" is used in South Australia. It is
effective, less expensive and avoids the risk of localised water pooling between the pavement
and the thermoplastic.

MS Part 247

Edge lines and outlines


Minimum criteria for edge line ATLM
l
History of fatigue related crashes
l
Sealed shoulder shall be no less than 0.5m wide
l
Sealed lane width greater than or equal to 3.3m (3.5m preferred)
l
Posted speed limit greater than or equal to 100km/h
l
Not installed within 300m of a residence (200m minimum acceptable if location has a
high fatigue crash history)
l
Not installed across locations subject to constant wear from traffic braking and turning e.g.
intersections, service stations, rest stops.
Additional criteria that may be considered
l
Road section prone to frequent fog and low visibility conditions
Wide dividing line treatments
Where wide dividing treatments have been installed (see Part B 2.1.1), the following criteria
applies.
l
Not installed within 300m of a residence (200m minimum acceptable if location has high
fatigue crash history)
l
Not installed across locations subject to constant wear from traffic braking and turning e.g.
intersections, service stations, rest stops.
Dividing lines
Continuation of ATLM on the dividing and barrier line between wide dividing treatments must
meet the following criteria:
l
Posted speed limit greater than or equal to 100km/h i.e. discontinue ATLM through
townships
l
Not installed within 300m of a residence (200m minimum acceptable if location has fatigue
crash history)
l
Not installed across locations subject to constant wear from traffic braking and turning e.g.
intersections, service stations, rest stops.
Minimum criteria for dividing line ATLM
l
High speed rural road section where the section of road has recorded history of fatigue
related head-on crashes
l
Sealed lane width greater than or equal to 3.3m (3.5m preferred)
l
Not installed within 300m of a residence (200m minimum acceptable if location has high
fatigue crash history)
Additional criteria that may be considered
l
Road section prone to frequent fog and low visibility conditions

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4.9 OVERTAKING LANE TREATMENTS

References

More details in Operational Instruction 2.15 Overtaking Lanes.

AS1742.2 Section 2
GRD Part 3
OI 2.15

4.9.1 Overtaking lane - diverge

edge line

W
C

D = Diverge
V = Design Speed (km/h)
W = Lateral movement (m)

D = VW
3

V85

km/h
75 - 90

60

>90

96

edge line

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4.9.2 Overtaking lane - merge

G9-73B

References

.
A
2

V85

km/h

<75

100

75-90

150

>90

250

W4-9C

W8-15C

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4.10 SLOW VEHICLE TURNOUTS

References

Slow vehicle turnouts are short sections of sealed shoulder or added lane to provide drivers of
slow-moving vehicles an area to be overtaken or passed by another vehicle where constraints
do not allow provision of a full overtaking or climbing lane. Located on low speed, winding or
hilly two-lane two-way roads, which have limited passing opportunities, they consist of a
widened unobstructed sealed shoulder and are most effective if used in a series along a
section of road.

ARR 167, 168, 169


AS1742.2 Section 4
GRD Part 3

Turnouts should be located where drivers of slow moving vehicles believe their use will not
result in undue delay. Turnouts should not be interspersed with overtaking or climbing lanes.
Drivers should have a clear view of the entire turnout to determine whether it is available for
use and to anticipate the movement of any other vehicles which may be exiting. Experience
suggests that turnouts which cannot be seen for some distance by approaching drivers are
less likely to be used.
A total length of 80-100m (including tapers) is considered suitable for most environments.
Total length should not exceed 160m. The lengths below are provided as a guide.
Mean Approach *Rec. overall
Speed (km/h)
Length (m)
<50
60
50 - 59
80
60 - 69
100
70 - 79
135
>80
160
* These lengths are based on the assumption that slow moving vehicles enter the turnout
8km/h slower than the mean speed of the through traffic. They are sufficient to allow a vehicle
to enter the turnout at the assumed speed, coast to the midpoint and then, if necessary, stop
in the remaining length using a deceleration rate of 3 m/s 2 .

No Parking or No Stopping?
If the driver of the slow moving vehicle were to stop in the slow vehicle turnout to allow
multiple vehicles to pass and No Stopping signs and/or yellow edge lines were installed, the
driver could be committing an offense under ARR 167 and ARR 169 respectively. Therefore,
No Stopping signs and yellow edge lines shall not be used.
No Parking signs shall be installed to allow drivers to stop for short periods (up to 2 minutes see ARR 168).

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References

Slow vehicle turnout

GRD Part 6

15m - 30m

edge lines

3.7m
min

edge of seal

15m - 30m

generally 80m - 100m

edge of unsealed shoulder

1.0m

edge of seal

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References

4.11 REST AREAS


Rest areas may be lay bys, truck (only) parking bays, information bays, and points of interest
sites. These may be sealed or unsealed.

ARR 150 (1B), (3)

4.11.1 Roads with edge lines

C
sealed shoulder only
(typically >3.0m)

OI 20.3

*
acceleration
lane

edge line

edge of
existing seal

continuity
line

length of continuity line for both acceleration


and deceleration (if provided) see Part C 3.7

sealed
shoulder only

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References

4.11.2 Roads without edge lines

narrow sealed shoulder


may exist after opening

edge of
existing seal

deceleration lane
(if necessary)

continuity
line

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4.11.3 Full acceleration / deceleration lane

References

edge of seal

acceleration
lane

>3.5m
150m min

(30m
taper)

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4.11.4 Sealed shoulders only

References

edge of seal

100m min

(30m
taper)

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4.12 STRUCTURES AND OBSTRUCTIONS

References

Includes narrow bridges and grids etc.

ARR 192 (1)

All bridges and other road narrowings shall be edge lined.

Barrier lines to be provided only in accordance with no overtaking zone sight distance
requirements and only on roads greater than 5.5m width.

If the road is provided with an enhanced edge line, the enhanced edge line shall be
continued across the narrow bridge to match.

Special purpose broken lines to be used for dividing lines on floodways and causeways
only (see Part C 4.13).

Yellow edge lines shall not be used as ARR 192 (1) applies.

narrowing of
formation
width only

narrowing of
formation
width only

30m

30m
edge lines

edge lines

<5.5m
(no edge lines)

no narrowing of road
formation or seal width

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>5.5m
(no edge lines)

no narrowing of road
formation or seal width

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References

Grid example

grid

narrowing of
sealed width

100m
minimum

edge lines

existing road
edge line if provided

>6.8m
(edge lined)

narrowing of road formation


and/or seal width

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4.13 FLOODWAYS AND CAUSEWAYS

References

Floodways and causeways are sections of road that are subject to flooding. When water is
over the road, delineation is reduced because the edge lines and particularly the standard
dividing line (3m line, 9m gap) are very difficult to see through the water.

ARR 192 (1)

It is important not to unreasonably prohibit overtaking or u-turns by providing a continuous


dividing line. To increase delineation qualities of the dividing line while still allowing the line
to be crossed, a special purpose broken dividing line (i.e. 9m line, 3m gap) shall be used
across the section of road regularly subject to flooding.

Floodway/causeway examples

edge of seal

floodway /
causeway

enhanced
edge lines

floodway / causeway

special purpose broken


dividing line

edge of seal
edge
of seal

special purpose
broken dividing line
100m
minimum

edge lines
edge lines

existing road
edge line if provided

>5.5m

>6.8m
edge of seal

no narrowing of road
formation or seal width

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