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llearurcnefite
ANAI,YSIS A}ID PROIECTION OF POI{ER ST$'U-TS COURS.

PRACETCA.T flTTCEED DIST.INCE

3Y

P.T.Slrchenouglr D.Sc.

BEtAl

-- aryij:rqlFL

-**.

.' wJ-J

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'a=\

ccr.;[E$Ts

I.

Iatroduction

2.

libo CharacteriEtic

,.

hd-uclple of

4. - Practical

Measr:reroents

8e1ay

hactical

5.
6.

Operatioa of Pcactical Relay Dtai1

6.1.

Cucrent inpute and startlng eleoenta

6.2

D.c. srltchlng

6.5

Phage selectl.otl

6.4

Pbase

6.5

Zoue

6.6

Phase couparator

6.7

blpptag

6.8

Povec swi-Bg block{ng

6.9

Srritch - oB -

Qrcration of

Belay Geaeral

ehtftinA

tluers

and fla6g1log

to - fault

6.10 lfeutral cmpeneatior


7.
7.L
7.2

AppJ.i.catlo
Relay settlngs

AddltLonal featurea

Appeod{-s SJ-uptl;fled treatnent of t}re expanelo of a do ot^nsL


for a lbase to grourrtl fanlt trltb a erosr polar!.rcd
relay.

g'
-2-

1.

Introductioa

'

Dtstance.protection

fbig ls

ig

?rlso bowa as l4redance

protectla'

relays of this type are gensitlve to cbangrr


polrer
systen i4redaace. Uhen applLed to a feedet tborcfola
i-a
such a relay rllL detect faulte which cause a fall of ltr1ndsoc
nhlch ls rrlthin tbe relayr s range of neasuio@tr lbe nartm
i-upedance '*Lich when neasured by the relay trlll cause lt to
operate ls called the reach.
because

Relays of this tSrpe usually Lrve geveral zryr of ncaaureoot,


ia geaeral tbre. Faults occurlng Ls tbe f,lrst zolc osuta
'',
aolaal1y llstaataneors olnratlm-of tbe ralagr, rihllat tbc
olnratloa of zones trro aail threa ls tlne del4red. !&1r 1r
tllusttated in flgure A be}m. I,qe L usueffy crtadr to
about 80/o of the flrst feeder. thlg anrnrc! thet om tl I .
tlre ueasureneat of qrateo paraoetera, toletancc La thc lahy -' -',
lnpedaace settbgp and errors ln tlre aslooleted GPrr gd t'!!r.l' . ,
caruot cause tbe relay it locatlo D to olnretr lr toal-..'::..:;.::..1r':,
for farrlts Jnat bryond clrsclt brsaker E. Ia aililltl&r 1tr16i,:,r-.::i ':.'
z@es of p:rotectlsr a,re usus.Uy illractim r, thSt trl ttr . 't ,
'i,
reIry la oaly senqitlve to chang;g ln lnpedscc of tb. ftdlE ,. *,,.
,
ita oe dlrectlo fron tbe relayLng point. Zoc 214 unrlly ' .'- ",ri,
set to abort 5CD6 fato the aeood fccder od aor 11r rtt r'.:'.i,,;':'il'
about N6 Lnto the thlrd feeder. &e frnctlm of !@ra

zorS 2

zort

r.r.' I

Fro A
2 and 5 is to'back-up protectiolr at potrata E od !. A
clrsuit breakers at thege loiatl.ong f,atl to tutp fe tf,I,
faults, tlen the ot,lret proteetlon rrtUl cause H.lptlgl o{l''i
orn circuit breaker af,ter a zone 2 oc 5 tLoc dal4r.
1[he cbaracteristlcs of a nbo relay are gbora f! flgura E llf
are plotted on t'he iolndance plane.
':,r.

Introduction cont...

Frc B
tbe relay ls set to protect a Llne the angl.c of r&loh fr e..j . ,
IIre inpedance eettlngp of z@ea .L, 2 and ,t are Z. lr -ti.il^o|il|he
!:J.
-ii^a-Cl !:J.
A firll di.stace relay nould hsve nsasrslr elmtl
tc flbfault codl.tlou, tbat ls A - E, B - E, C r E, A - !1't'-.$;:+i; -';.,
C - Ar rhere A, B and C arr the phase dcalgnstlcof I'Sli.r,.
phase elrsteo aad E

ig earth.

Qnrs a J zoia relay rould


eleseertg.

ls the subJcct of thlr fcofidi


oaly oae. three startbgi eloentg ouo ltct lbee te{oh
aa Lupedaace reach Zs Ln flgure C arc rrrcil flrrw toi
this neesur{.ng eleoont to the correot f,slit ooillti$J

llhe type of relay nhlch

is lrrova aa lhasa gelectl@. Secodltrr, tJrs sona gslf


iacreese the reach of the ueasuriag eloot st tbt of ,
elapsed tt-oes b'y predeteralned anouat!. ec aitrut{p"
svitched rlay is In temg of slze aad coet. Orc

ls irr t$ms of
2.

perforoamce.

llho Relay
The neasursmert characterlstl.c of a do rslry 1r lhcnflgure 0. trtre circle has a dlaneter 4 and tbe aCl,r o(:
inpedance ls e. |ftre relay uust olnrate lf lt ucraurf.'i
inpedaace lnside the cl.rcle aad be stabl,e for

F rc C

' Prlnciple of l'Ieasurenent

,.

ft is a property of a circle - figure


and AB are dranrr

fron

each

- that lf 1laeg 0B

Frf'D
of^a dlameter 0A and tf B ls o flre clrcle

goo

llbls propert5r caa be oade use of.


ff a phage cooFarator ls taken and arrangeil so that ttr
If the phase.alsl? betneen, itc tno tnpt! lr
*thaap":tS"t
9O- aad aot present tf tlre ptraae srgle Lg lelr ttn
tf the tro lngrta are chogelr cor"rectly, tbe ilerl.cc trttl
as aa lnpedance ielay.

In ft6ure E, e is the rorrce voltagc of

Zc

Zs
e

Yr

Frc

-rX"

gr

j--\

the fault inpedance of a fault


current which rvill be supplled

the systen, Z" the source impeda,nce


F. and
Yf, dd h *" the voltage
to the rel'ay.

at

Tf Ze is the relay reach, that is the fault

imgedance wtrlch

just

causea

oper'dtion then

vF

vF

h= 4
at tbe

tof ttre clrcler 0B ls

*d l3 le
b
44.
(fu+b+BO=O
Z*+AB -?A= O.'.A3 =%-%)
.'.
So tf the phase comparator ia g:iven signals
t *U + - \ tbe rclagr

Thus

for

any

'rd11 neasure

'+

4F"
1

:
I

.t

i
{I
ti

vF

and V,

fault ft,

a^sr

bound ary

ue reqrrLre.

so the signals tre

- UR

rdrere

ca,n

tke

h, 1" a repllca

a,re

:-

lnlndalrce

nltbfn tlre rrlegr.

llhe above relay 1s terned self-polarlsed bccauae the quantlty T" le


taken fron the failteil phase.
Eowever, for faults cloge to the relay locetlo YD rdLL b. sE LL gi! .:
Y? - IZD rill be latge. Dlfficulty Ln neasuraeat could bG s4|cfootd'
sl.nce n6st faults a,ri r:abalancea, iuat ls aot J phasel tbtr poltitilgg-'''''
voltage ca,n be taken from a healtby phase aacl cuttsbfy !bs!a !hl,fhir,'.;i,,'
Such a relay is sald to be cross-polarlsed. lblc tcchiquo ber ttra '
advantage tlat lf tlre conect phale le chogn tJreu fc eff rnbrlrcdl:1
faults, the reach of the relay nhllgt staylng the sae alog t&c
'
cba,racteristlc aagle will increase al@gi thc reslgtive a-rc. llhll ' '''gfves the relay a gtcater tolerance to arc and toner footlng relblFdir, ',-

4.

PracticaL Relay

.',:-

Figure 1 sbons the block diagraa of a gractLcal srftcbcd - -.'.":1;;


l31t .,-.r .:. .
distance relay, tbe t5rpe P:ftS. llre prlnclple elmt!
as follors:

4.1 Input Ctrcuits (rz)


4.1.I Cur=ent
faput transactors

4.L.2

Voltage
Connections

4.!.,

DC supply

directly to the phase selector

ac/*,/ac convertor

or dc-dc convertor

1i:l'::.]

4.2

Starting elenents (s.1, s: and Sc)

4.1

Phase selecting

4.4

D.C. sritching: circuits

4.5

Signal processingi elenent

net '"rork

lbis arda lfiase shifts the restraint


to sjruulate the replica impedance.
4.6

'Zoae

and polarisi.ng voltaSee

tiners

alter the relay teach at the expiration


of zoe 2 and zone 5 times.

These

4.'l

Conpa.rator

rbnn{nes the phase relatlonship betneea Vn and Yr

4.10

clrcuit
Srrltcb - on - to - fault clrcuit
Porer svtng: bl6qkrng circult (PSts)

,.

Operatlo of Practlcal Belay

4.8
4.9

llrlfrplas

and flaggtng

lbe basl.c operatlolr of the rlry ls ea follova :'


Startlng eleoente detect tbat a faglt has oGglrt1cd. Drfc frilt
c.- be either i.nslde or outslde the otber z@ts of protcotlc '
of the relay. Signale frm tJre phase rtarten actrtl!. rrcd '.
relagrs i3 tire pU"i" selectim nodule. Ib,lc c@ctt th f!ry!
of tle phase cmparator to the correct sl8nels. Operatlo of, '
the starter also eaerglses thE d.c. snitcbtat nodule sd r rpe{
relay consects the d.I. supply to the $aee cosparatol ee ?ql.'
rllt 'ii.',"':r.l
tlners.. lf the fault fs G-zoneltrthe phese cooparator
l[rtr
nodute.
flagd!8
trtp
aa{
wf,:r,'::..',,
the
aend a trlp signal to
tJrc-flr8$l4|l.:.,,.
cmectc
and-elso
to
be
euergtsed
the trtpprns reray
clrcgit to a sf;t frm each phase ttartr for a ghort tlD. ,.,.. :.ir.:
llhe rota,qy ladicators which alle assocleted rlt'b thoac fhr!. , .-tj....'.-:.
, ,. ,.
starterc ntrfch detected the fault rdll thea operatc. If tbl.,
r,IEE slrB.s--5topcrrtfrr-i:i;i;!;:{1,
zcra I2lfrer
then llllell
the zcBa
nhea IIl
I, EAeB
zore 1,
in ZCE1e
not Itr
fanlt
fault lE
ls not
..,.,.--.'-:,;:{.:,.:i,
the
fltrlt
tr ln^..-.=,.1,''+.tlij:"
tf
be
ertendad.
ttre reach of tJre r'elatr riLL
zcre 2 and has not beelr cleared W tlll! tlne by ot'bsr
,

2, on oyre=atiln of t,lre zme 5 tlnsr sgafn pwl*il:.i:g'::


fE irii L
: r.' ;
"*.
that the fault b'as aol been clearcd by other lnotectl.o.
llben the curleat fa1ls to uomal. Ioad oar.zero and tbe lryit{
voltage is restored, the relay qr:J.ckly resets.
,

: :.;-:,i:;.t
.

:-."j

':::.: irrli:i:: .
., ..::::-*: :l'
: . ;,il..njir

5. cont...
A fourth zoare of protection can also be incorporated. Strls
is effectively the starter circle. A zone 4 tiner is required
and at the end of its operating tine trippi.:og is pe:rattted i.f
any starter is picked up or if directional plotectioa is requlred
the restraint voltage circuit is opened. [hls results in the
relay beconing a simple directional elenent. (fZ fs conpa,red

with the polarising voltage). The dlrectionaL zoe


characteristlc is showa in figrrre F.

now only

Frer
t

the phase startbg eloents can bc either of tihe rndcr


lnpedaace or slnple orelcumEat tJrp. &e chotce of rnirr
i-upedaace or overcurrcnt atarterg deparila upcr the r;rata
to be protected. Orelcr:rent starters aae cbceper rad fartrr
than the under lupedaace ty?e, hrt u tf,e cur-slt l"n tlc
'.'
bealtlry ohases increasei aignlflcantly durfngi a feultr tJlcn
lf lncorzect phase selectlou ls to be arolileil slthcr tbr
@ercrErent starter would nead a hrgt settLng or rrudcr fspeCrmr
etarters sboutd be useal. Under lulndaace lhasc starttrr thAfld
also be r:sed lf ![s rn{n{nnrm fault cnnot ic ].eas flren tte
Bq-{nnn load cunerrt.

'j
:

'ij

6.

Detailed Operatio

5.1

clcoeato.
Flgura 2 shwa tbe cuneat Lqnrt clrgult. therc ls oc *"h. :,-;'.
lnput ctrcutt pr lhase and oe for thc ncutra.l ol.roult. Slf,;'
is connecterl l.a the restfiral clrcul.t. Sach trlfnt copllll.tiQ,,,r.'-,.
trangactors La sedes. A transactor or qusdratura cnrtut .,,.,. :,.
ti','.::-.':.
trarisfoDBer has an outlnrt voltage rblch leadg tbc lnlnrt at
b5r 90" and is tlLrectly ptopotti."r'1 to Lt. lbe ortlut ${ q cin- tlrerefore be considlred to te v = fr1/;9o or Y = XIISQ. -" ,,.
Thls signaL is the=efore the voltage nUfcU rould be ttevelolrll
across an impedance Z, in uagrritude. this slutrlates
the na,gnitude of a repllca impedance, that ls the relay
- gettlug'
Cnr"cent

lnput clrcuits and stastlng:

,.

.1

,;1

..

r:

or reach. the value of this setting can be changpd

t\

-'

6.L. cont...
by chang:ing the constant K. Coarse charrges are nade \r neans
of taps on the prirnq' winding and fine changes by the we of
a potential Civider connected across the seconda:ry windlng.
Fhe second transacio= is connected to the startirg unit. the
output frou the transactor is used either for overcurrent
Eeasurenent or in conjuaction rrith a volta6e input for uuder
iupedance neasu:eraent. The overcusent starters have cugeat
seltings of 5Fri to lOA! rate<i cr:rrent for the phase cor:nected
units .e;a1a Zq5 rated current for the eartb farrLt unit. tbe under
impedance etarters have a raage of a adjustnelrt fron 20 obos to
-70 ohns for ![ relays and frou 4 ohnE to f4.'obng for 5A rIErst
both when rated voltage is present. llhis reach settlng lncrgalcg
when the systen voltae i.s depressed becanrse these startelt bEve
the characteristics of voltage coatrolled overcr:nEtrt rel4rrt
that is, the effective curreat setttng falls rrhen the srytP-volta6e io depressed. llhe characteriatics a,re sho$l t'11 detell
io fiure ,. Tt cp- be Eeen in flgure JA tlrat as tlre voltap
applted to the clrcuit faUs the culreot setttlg faUs uttl
it-iras reached a Birdrrug of 2fr3 rated cur.reot at Wo ratcd
voltage. In temg of i-npedanca settlng, tJre olulc rcrcb of tlc
relay Lncresses as the'"oftagp fe}ls, ai caa be scca !n f16p!t F.
I'lgu;e 5G shons the characteristLc of ttre rnderlnpeitooc rtaltcr
plotted oar the lmpedaace plan. Uba a falrlt ts dltccted tgl tla
itarter r:aitg each oae that ls affected by the farlt tlver
severar out-uut slgnars' llhese signars sas a'g follouar
:

elgns,I

Phase starters

to

phase'gelector

slgnal to d.c. snltchltr6 uodule

cotact

clogrrre

for e-tinral glgna'Iltng . i''

slgrral to d-c- crltchlng noduh


gigDa,r to pcer art! tfoc-ffns ooduli 1..''*.".
contact closur for ertartal Elgn8ULng.,..''r.1,.'

l{eutral starter

hm the abwe lt caa be eeeo that the neutnal ctaster doat


take pact i.n lhase selectlo.
6.2 D.c. switchS.ng.

:. -, .')1, . .

not
'.':.:
tl
...

:"

,
. i.'-:

.-i;

Ilader no::aal conititlms the nbo ueasurlng clrcult end ld. t|ilsl
are not e4elgised. [he d.c. rirltahing -cffi lnrfou tbtr!|t;. :, ':.
fi.:uctl.ons. Flrstlyr lt c@ta{nr e oaiorlty gab. thlr otsent!.. ;,,,
ri1I o,ry glve an outlut lf tto ol no;s of tuc four.rtastrn,ip,.',.,,.
energl.sei. tbanslgltts i8 tUe fault cu$ot and voltagr rtsdll-11i.ii; '
can ia,r"e a aetay in the operatl@ of the rmdardglndlt9" .ttstgli:,
Inco:rect rb.ase selectioa ls seolded because at leest tu! -f{f.t 1:'',
uugt have operated and primeil thc phage eelectiefo clalcnrlt bafP!_.'+i
the neasr:rlng clrcult |s peJ:tsltted to opelat ag tb18 oanol . , . .:.
'occut r:4t11 ttre najority gate has given-an orttrut tdlrlab d,!toh'i':: '1.'
foi pfrase-to grorul ''
the d.c.supply onto the phase ""*i"iio".
faults of cousse, the sta,rter on the faulted Pb8s9 oaly.rrtl tlto
coatrol phase sej.ection but gick-up of the aeutral ltartc5 1l
Ext thta rtrSt;f
requireri before the neasgrlng unit can operater
-fhe sec@d
fpnatlo Of ':
gate.
also has a.n ingut to the najority
atartel.l'qtLt'
tbe
comoa
to
operate
is
the d.c. switching eircuit
contacts. l.lhen tie d.c. supply is svitched by the d.o.erdfn&lag;
nodule to the phase coroparator, ttre zone timers ars aflo- 9aqg4d A
a3d

start to tirae. lhe thlrd filrction of the d.c. gtrltcbJ.Ag

t@

5.2 cont...
eircuit is to provide a time deLay between starters pick{ng up
and the sw'itching of the d.c. onto the neasuringi urlit. Ehls ls
reguired where capacitor voltage transfomers aure used 'rl.tb
r.rnderimpedance starters. the tine delay is required to ealtule
that transients generated by the Cfllrs have dled away beforo
phase selection is carried out.
6.t

Phase Selector

Circuit

eirauit.
ls a cllagran of the p[rase
""l"cto"
Its inputa 3 3Secoada.lry voltage of the line ilr A, B, C & tr;
tde TZ slgnals fron p[ase A, B aad C tapgt trarsactolg and tJrc
IZ signal frm the transactor in the reslthral clr"sutt for ncotral
cmpensetlo; a signal fro each plraee gtarter drich Lr plcted up.
Ite outpnt ts a resiralnt vollage Vo, a pola,rLsJlg voltegs_Tp- aDd
tbe co:=ect cmbiaatioa of IZ slepatE accordl-ng to the tablc belc'

-Ftgrrre 4

vn

Yp

- .G
B-C
AA

A-r
3-N
c-[
A-3
B-C
C-A
C-A

C-I{
A-Il
B-x
C-A
A-3
B-C
3-C

.6.

L-tt

A-3
.3-C

c-A

A-3-C

6.4

Phase

\z

TAIIIA

Slfti''g (Sfgraf Proceesing

A+f,
3+X

c+I[

A+B
3+C
C+A
C+A

l{odule)

Fbase eelection the restraint voltaga and lnlac:t-slrlq voltrSt


uust be plase shifted to cooplete tbe eLEulatl@ of tlrc tpdggl

After

repllca lqentLoed ln sectlo ]. &e Dapltudc of tbls lgtillol


Uieaance nas Ueea set b3r tbe-cu:r?at Lagtrt trangaatcrar tblt frr
+al V gtgnal is iq reattty I- I zl. lf tbo rslay le -to-!c rr!' ,,'
to an rry.aot"" zle taet ie."oie ior Ilbasc to phage fanltl El ,
for phase to grornd faulta m cer{read llnec Z'e "AU tr,ta4qq,y1t
the rertraLnt and polarisLng slgnals sust be phpe shr{t'il r'foilldlrr'
lhe range of adJus-tneut of tfre iefry 1g fro tO' to 85-'- , , .-.1:,,.5"'
llheu the relay is operatin8 af@g ltg chsractertstfc 48lsr lbA '':i:''
fro the ffgure be1ow re cul gee ttrEt V" 'r lft'

Vn-&
e-re

a 0nboa,.O

.'. vR =

gts

.;-:,..

':: '.

i*,iase a;.r*:i.iqq

So

i$igr:ai

Pxocessi-:lg

fron the figure for say z

aa angle

l"'ieriri":i co;rr-,

pbase

to ground fault rrittr

uust be pbase shlfted by 90 - e leadtag aled % tnc plarlrlng:


vtftaep nust be phaee sblftad^I50- l.eading. Silra as thc satl8p
of relay adJusfuerrt ls to 10' to^85" ligELng tJrc oortreepodlag
V^.

sbtfts for Vo and Vp are 60' to 5'aad fro 120- to 55leadllrg respectivety. 1[hus, the quantlties nhich h.8Ta baG
selected l"n the phase eelectlm nodule a,re appll.ed to t'b. 1srr.
ehlftJ.rrt nodnle. Eere each ls lgoleted b5r a voltagu tE&tf68.
&e fbrrr
Flgurc 5 gbors tha eigDgl proceaalng nodule.
afiftf.ne !s carrled out as PrEdor1gly dclcribed and tbr rotrrlnt
voltaga tg agplled to I ettlmratfre Lfmuftc Ear&cd 9, Y, Ed !C.
Ihege ane Urougbt lnto operatLo rdren tbc zora 2 ed 5 tt-urn
operat. KC f; flre zoJI ertaaeloa featurc. llhls le qflfl.nrt
G sectl@ ?. Tbe cotact Z, opelra lf a zoe 4 tt-Eer te fltrt4
at tlre end of zclrra 4 tl-ue anfi glvcg tJre relay a dlrectlcrl'
':'
cha.racterlstlc as shour ln flg;; f.
"'
phase

6.5

Zoue

,|!fuoers

.
llbese ace sJ-uple B.C. ttuers as ghor1u La Ftgp$ 6 atoil ubo tba'

,..,.

]'::

set tige itelry oa each has e4rired Lt cloees Lts outlnt q@tlct.::-" '
Thls svitcbes an atteauator lnto the regttaLut voltagp ot'toult
rrhlcb has tbe effect of iacreaslng the dlaaeter of the do clithr
' ,l '
that is lncrcasing the reach of ttle reIay.

6.6
.

Pbase Coparator

trbe phase cmparator block dlara ls flur 8. be phstc


gigea-I V? ar:,d tbe signal -fr ata edded by aa op'eratloal
sqtr","6ssves fn phase *tth the regult are ganereted. &rti',;f,: .'
"1xnii"i';
"
phase with the polarislng voltae a,re fed tnto the see6d loft t
of tfre phase comparator. lbe outgrt of this is a rectaagU.lar
qn61o
wave vilh a sark space ratio of urrity yben the pbage
angle
1s lrgA
the
betneen the h*o input q..natities is !0". If
than 9Oo then tEe rnark space ratio increases and for angteg
gireate= than lOo it becoues less then unlt5r.

=:

;$"'#;';" ?fi f l'' iil

;;; ; :;;;' 6-I*:'

'.;*i:iiia^cator *1ni",,

lhis

change is detected by the integrating


detector ruhich foIlow it.

circuit

and level

the relay is in the restraired condi.tioa, that is the alr8le


is Iess tnan'9Oo the leve1 detector output is zeto. For an olnrate
condition the integrator outprt vill be positive and hence tlre
level detector will operate the output relay.
6.7 trlppins and Flagglng Module
\.lhea

Figureg

shows a diagrau of the trlpptng sa! ffzggllrl clrsnit.


any
starter
detects a fault, the d.c. srrtchilg;oduh
'dhen
is energJ.sed. this causes contat'a'to op!r.as thti ootrot te
on tbe relay rdeich is uged to $rltch the d.c. supply to tbe
neaaurlrg circults.
-:

.t'',

'

,!
:l
;i

In the baalc node of operatlo the Ibr. L fu ta ald th. r


i1,,; .
flag control Lg not cmected. llhen the phrre ooperrte-r{rt1f,h.,...
tbat a fault is rdthta tJre relay reacb thr H.pplng rtglrl,flFil-.+,,
thlg cllcutt is a +JOV d.c. al8nrr and tibla ocr1gtlo i&1 tglD:li.;,.
relay and tha aurJ'ltaly rIay yhtcb ls ln pardfd ultb.lt.. :"fbi'i
aurlllary relay operates cloaJ-ng coatacte AI eld 12. Clolur.:gE* ,,.
AI eaergJ.seg tbe flag relay FC for a ehort ttne nhlcb lr solnolJ0l;
by t&e ierles capaciion. tlben the cotact FC oloc.t or rlir.ff.t.
tbe coi1s of the rota,rry ladicators A, 3, C, Z2 ann Z, Ll
to the zero volt !a1.1. L +7O as]f g{8'a41 fm qr ltera
nLtcb bas operated ls app[ed to tlrc reapecttvc lotrry
uhen tbe startets operate, so nbca cotact SC clorcll
l"adlcators co:reegodtng to the fatrlt co<ll'tlo ogrntl.
lf tlre fault hoo 6een ditacted l"a zoc 2 e 5t r 1O voli
be prcsent o tbe reapectlve zoe tLuer lnnti: hp thr ry*t*
stf ig ogerated a voldrge of opposltc polarlty to- !ry enrntf;;;;f ;"-i
to th6 rotar!-t'aiceior colig -*"|-i?.8;!4.$-.1
llnk L ts otttrd-qg;:..,;;:tr,.:;,,;.,,,.;;.
If e-teraa,r-ftal coatrol ls ueed, tJrelr
tJrat
place
tnpt la^tafo to +F". #,,s1*i#i,
*re1
ta,ke
o'ly
if"egt-ng 111.1
volli eiteraally.- Oris lg cwared la gectlo 7.2'
.,:+{i
:

+rc

i!ti#";;ilJ

*ii.

.:'.-l-.{

"..+

-1.4

:i: '-qiil

,4i!,raij

ti.:.:i.

5.8

Power Swing Slocking

lbansient power swi:rgs ean occur on s;'steus that appear to


a distance relay as faults. fl:e function of the power strl:rtg
blocki.rrg nodule is to preveat such spr:rious operatlon. Its
operating charaiteristic is identical to an r:nderimBedance
starfer as shovrn in figure- G.
x

Potrl tyrrl3 SlcrtrrO


CHtaeif&rrtc

udol rnPcotuc,,

re4rc *, c,hAAaaT3et3tra

-x

This feeture can oaly be applled to relays uhD mch etrrtG!!"


a.re fitted. Sl.nce porerrrings are ugually balanced tbe o6ltod.E!
of one $rase only ls requlred. Ore slgDals usod by tha pomclt t!8
blockrng nodule are taken froa th,e phaae B rmder{,4ndoot ltarta8t
so the tno characterlstlcs track perfeetly,
..

.r,

prlaciple of operatlon ls to ne'esure tbe traagtt tl^uc of rbl-.,,.'..


locus at the dlsturbaace betreen the powerarlqi blocldng: ot!4L' '":.,.
and the r,hase 3 rraderLro6redance gtarter clrcIe. If t&lr 11 6ffrtrr
than a preaei. tlne then trlppLrag ts blocked. A selcatot tttlt&:,'.
allorls blockilg of Eppl:rg in zoe {, zmes 7& 4;' toaa. 2 L r,&-* "-.'.
or zones Lr 2,-pdrer
J and 4. Operatlm of the astra.l startehol@-,;,": ,-:.-:'
ove:rldes aff
srrfDg blocw"g aa Ltg operatlo lndlcctrt'::''t\1ffi--f:'.'1i1,
zero sequeace cureat Ls florJag, nhtch reenltg o$ fro ra
The

ea,rth

6.9

fault.

Srdtcb

- or - to - fault -

featr:re

ff a fault ls preseat on a systen when lt is enatElc6dt


should be lnstanta,neous. lbls is becauee the uort UkG\t
of suctr aa occuraace is the presouc of eaathltrg c1o1n. eltl::l!.:r
circult lnitiates tripping lmediately aay start:r pl.cll try 1l
ac voltaB was aot.preseat imedlate\r before tlre starte p1O4;:
A dlagran is shona in flgilre1o. Oae of tro nodu Olr:
up.
operation can be selected by a ll"lc. [he first operBtot 6 a
tine delayed basis. If a fault which causea sterbee ptctqt
occurs within JOO nsec of line energtsation, Lmedlete tirl,pgfng.
is inj.tiated. In the seeond node, tf tbe ac voltage supptl,cd to
the relay (3-C volts) is less than approxinately 5.Gr ac tJra'
the plck-up of arry starter will canrsre imedlate tripplngi.

\-

Lj
i ':i

coa'1 .

'

,.

A tine delay on reset is fitted to thls circuit to ensure it


always operates in one of the tvo nodes outlined. Oece the
relay has been engeri.sed at ful1 line volts' the switch - oD to - fault circuit is readered lnogerative for about 25 secontls
when the a.c. voltage is:educed to ze!o. This ensures corect
operatim &rri'g auto-reclose Eequences.

-ff a busb3'r'yT ts r:sed, the reJ.ay nll.l. be enelg[sed at full


systeu volts before its assocl.ated Line clrcult breaker ls
elosed. To enable cor:rect oper"ailon La sucb an lnstance aa
anrillary contact on the circnit breaker is used to supply
a.c. voltage to a te:rnlnal on the relay at ttre iletant dlen
the circrdt breaker is closed.

6.10. Neutr"al Copenaatioa


neutral cmpeasatl.oa for overAead ltnes needs oaly bc
scalar, as t&ete Ls aot uucb dlffercrlce ln feult angl.e betmca
lbase to ohase faultg and phase to grounit faultg.
Oa cebleg hor*ever, vectorlal coopansatlo la rcqnlrcd. &a
relay ty:pe pt'tC hae an ortre uodulc to 1rgrlde thl'g ccganrtlGo
The

6.11

tr\r.se

Patlnre Modnle (V[ Suporrrfslo)

If oe of the ftses betrsen tJre rysto voltap tranfolucr ot


ttre relagr blons, thea !f a fault occurs arytrbcaa o t}e ryrte '
11htcb catrsea the gtartlng cloqrta to olnratc tdrc eelagr oro
nls-tr1p becanrge of tbe agparant aellrcrilo of volts et I'trg1;Dlt
I
terutnals. Oae nagr of pri,v"ntfag gicU nfs-ta{pplng lt to.
YlE
ntfl
a relay vhtch detelts tbc fallure or blorlng: of e
-A
tnblbtie operatio of the rclay rnrtaatV' &it aot rrtll of,
cotrtno ueaa tUet the relry cabnot trlp for ary farilt. UndC
theea clrcungtanceg zoae oe faultc rJ'tl1 be cleafed by baok-Up
'
protectlo.
7.
?.1

Appllcattco
Belay ScttLag AdJrrstnelrts

Pf!!i
FigurE ? ls a pbotoga$ of a relay tyP
- . I',"..-.,.,
* the rnler -tupeOanoc starlter no0u'fuli',-,'
lt-., :
tb,e gtarter settlng;
"i" ltodule U ia tlre-netrtral ovleraurrnat -Q$$i'-mrnbers lC, LL aad 12.
lBbe eoarge aud line zone 1 Eettlngp are oa tlre currot fnFrt .' : '-.t.'.,',
sodnle mrmber 14 aad a,re malked'lZ and El reepectl'vely. &o
'
zone 1 reah can be ugltlplied by a factor set 6 a c6l3|1col Cl: , l*
ilO. t .' ''
nodule 5. tbl.s factor is 0.1 for very short ffnesl ffi-il
Arr idinity positio is also present on thls sritch. &r tbl'r
setting the restraint voltage is reucved frm the treasrElrgi cletult.
lhis causes the relay to behave as a ptuely itLrectlonal dcslor
a.nd is ueed dgring connissioaing io check the eorrectnesr of
connections usin6 load cr:rrent.

.L cont.. "

lIodule 5 also carries the zone 2 ao:td zone J setiings. llhese


are nultipliers on the sverall zone 1 setting a;rd are narked
K2 e.nd KJ respectively. fhe control on nodule 5 rm.rked e aetg
the relay cha.racteristic angl-e.

tbe zone 2 arrrtd J ti.ners are set using poteationeterE on module


The fi:actions of the other nodules are iut follows:
ModrrLE 7 is the trippi:tg and flag8:i:cg nodule. It ca'rrl.eg a
-rotary
indicator for each pbase. Indlcatio obtaiaed for
different faults is shosn in the table belotr.

f1aeglng

Fau].t

A.G
3-G
A.B
3-C
c-A
I pb.
1hls nodule also bas a

A
B

AB

BC

CA

A3C
s1;"1tch

for resetlrng indlcatio.

I is the povet EugPltrr nodule 2 ls the d.c. srltclr.fqg;


uodule, uodule J is the a.c. svltchtag oodule atrd oodule 4
houses tbe lhase comParator.
Module

7.2 Addltl@al

Feafi:res

Soue applicEtLong

uentioned up

of a distance relay rcqqlre featr:res only

to uor.

l[bege are zoa 1 ertension and e-ternal flag coatrol. lhsrc


dre selFeral schenes t*d.ch use tbcse-trc'o! uhlch bsre be$
choien.

7.2.L Auto Recloslrng:


As illustrated La ftgure A, zoae 1 usgally onlgr covers 8fl$ of
afeederlength.IauaryapplicatloDscle4rEracaof8lrlt''.b
the end 2Gf/6 b zone 2 tlne I's rnacceptable. If no nsrnq gf
sienal1lng betneen lllrE euds ls aval.Lable sln8le sbot auto
re-lostng can lmprole the situa,tion. About WA of faulta m
overhead lines a,re of a tlansleat nature, th&t ts tl| they afC
clea.red quickly, then on te-enrsi.sation of the clrcgltr't&o
fault will no loogsr be Present.
. Figure 11 shows schenatically a,n auto reclosing; appucatla.
llhen a.ny starter detects a far:lt, the conrnaon starter 1,ratrEat
contact oirerates. This is ar=anged to g:.ve a JOT stgnal t-o
the zone i e:rtension relay input. Zone 1 is nog e=teniled b5r.
an alount set on the KC poteationeter (not stroun 1n flgure 7)
which is located on nodule 5. lbis extension is aLlorved to
exist for 150 nSec a:rd is controlled by a,n ilte-ra.I tiaer.

!.

of the extension is usually set to be just beyoad


tbe next circuit breaker. Under these circumgtances faults
in the nert protected zone aay be cleared by breaker A but
this causes Iiitle inconvenience as this circr:it breaker is
reclosed after a short tine delay. If the fault was tra,nsient
the systen rvil1 now be healthy. fhe auto reclose tiBlngi
sequence will not al1ou a second zoae ] extension for a flxed
line so if the fault nas perslsteat it will be cleared i:e zoe 1
tine of relay A if in zone I zoaa 2 tine of relay A tf in tJre od
The anor:nt

zoae aad in zone 1 tine of relay 3 if ln tlre zoae 1 of that relay.


An lnput from relay A to the auto reclose ralay rril1 preveat
auto reclosing if relay A tp*ps a fault in zme 2.

7.2.2 Penissive

Ove:reachrng Schene

Fi6urel2 shows the d.c. circrrlt of a penolssive ilve:=eacb, tranrfer


trippireg schene. lbls utlllses a couualcatlor chanel betucar
tvo llne eadi. Thlg ls usually a casler slgla1 lngreagcd @ t;ba
porer ll!e. The node of operatlo ls ae folloug. lf the cartls
channel is out of serrlce ttren trlp relays 85 a,re oly enrrgl$d
for faults in the protected eectidr nbelr tbe zo;e 2 o@tact fnFl
operates 9{ 'lrfeU ia tu:ar sna?letea the elrcui.t to rclqra S6 !f
contacts 96-t, 86I-1 alrd A5-1 etc. With ca:rlet ln gswlco
'
howeve!, zoae 1, which ls set to about Vq" & the grotccted
ltrre rrtll caf,ure contact S6LI to close for all faulte I.n tJrc
protected }[ne plus faults up to 26 ortrlile. tblppfng cs@ot , 'occur horever unlege a ca,r=ler glgnal is recelvsd froo sod D. :'::.: ltrle slgnal rILL cause 95 r 2 to operate lncdlate\r. lhit ulll '..
cause circuit breaker H.ppf.ng and also suerglsc elaot rc r&la&.' .',,
,, .il,:;,
rrlLl cause the relay to flag.
.

bansnrlsgloa of ca,rler is talttated by tbe como gtarter lqlEt r' ,


contact on relay 3. Ibls a:rao6enent ls ca1led perrlaal.tr
:
uadeneach becauge zme I hae a rgtrch Ln elcegg of tJret $h{oh
is required hrt trlpptng is only per:oltted tn zoe I ttoa for ..' i,,.r.._,.d$
' ,.,r ii,,
a reach ',*rich is leis tJran thls- ana ts deter:oLrred by ca,lrllt
t,'','..,"i,.
trarrscissloa fron relay locatioa B.
.

!:-

.:.

'

'-

'

tbe

tno schenes erre oly tvo of nry alrd art ilcacr:lbrd ;:. *;'.1', ,.,,,.
to lllugtrate the r:se of the tno facltttles natl.Gcdr ,.,,'rr.i;,;-, :'

abonre

here

zoe 1 ertensl.on

and erte:rral f1a6

control.

.- , :.;_,.;,t.
i.r.:
a'+i:ltl:$'- ;'

" . lt. j,
I,jl,
'
t"'::,'
.r.i+r,:*:r,,jr,ijij..
".
,

..:l

AFi}ENDIX

SIMPLIFIED TREATI4ENT OF CIRCLE EXPANSION FOR EARTH FAULTS


ON SOLIDLY EARTHED SYSTEPI AND HEALTHY PHASE POLARISATION

1.

of a circle.
Consider the circle in Fig. I:-

Geometry

l.I

Fig. l.

Its centre is at point (a, b) and it hae a radiue r.


Any point P on its circumfererce is described:(i)
pZ+qZ=rZ
The co-ordinatee

of point P are (x, y).

x = a+p and y = b + q
Subetituting in (i)r
(x-a)2 + (t-O)t = tZ
and,

,2-2r"

+y? -Zyb = -a2-a2


"2

(ii)

Page

Fig.

L.2

Consider nou

Fig.

2 - Appendix

2.

2.

circle centre C hes a diameter 0A'


It ig a property of a circle that the artglc of interecctiqr of eny'tuo^
chorde nb ehA Og is a_right angle (90o) rtrera theeG chorda inturaet tha
A

sare dianetar 0A on the circr.rmferencs.

2.

Application of l. to a dietarne relay.


SeIf polarised relay.

Fig. ,

Let a trensmiseion line have inpedarpc Z = R + JX aa in Fig.


driving voltage be V.

I = U. If
z

l. Lrt thr

there ia a fault at F, then thc lmpcderrcc to

the fault ie Z. A seley at point A vill bc cncrgiacd rlth


voltage V end current I.

-l

bclor a velr.c ZR ,' , '"


If the relay ia to detect the fall in lirc
qr.rantitiee
and
I
takcn
rg followr !!?- -',i: i'.--:
Vp
than
if
i""i.i ;;aair.gi,
relay-rill de[ict a feU of inpcAanco"belou a aet vrlus rith thc addftltltl,':':i.-,,,
propirty of recogniairq the direction of the fault (feU in tqcdrnr)'fro!,.j,.,,,
,.'''
the relaying point.
.
. ,--.',-.'':;
'
iapedarrcc
'are

is a sirplification in that the va.Iue R inclu&a line, earth eird fult ' I
resi9tanceandthevalueXisthetotalIoopinductance.Itigststd
'
thet the source ie solidly earthedr
This

-ar:

'

Page

A diagram on the impedance plane

ZR= RR + jxn

is

shoun

in Figure

3 - Appondix

0=relayangle = line angle = Tan-l

Xx

u:

-.^
Figure

0A (Zn)

is the setting of the relay in ohms at en angle g.

The vector sum

_+

0A =

0B

BA ean be represented by ZR =

Thie rEans thet the.inpedence


angle betueen VR end Vp - Zp

rf+'i
or betseen vg and vp -126,

to the fault

fg * t\I

VR

Zf,l

Zg can be npasured by sxeaindql tha ph.sg


'r

a reprica ispedance cithin thc ralay.


It should be noted here that it ie only the angle betueen
tuo qlsrtltt6
that is nou of significance and not thiir megnitudas. gncethage
thc vector
subtraction YB - IZn hae been done, any signai in ptraae uith the rcrullrnt of
thrs subtraction
can_be conpared rrith any signal in phase uith vpe urirg I
phaee comparator.. If the angle ia greater tian goo th quantitiSi vo gio |
are the result of.a system inpedanci Zg shich ia leee than thc ratay"arttfng
heni:e operatlon of the relay ie raquircol'*-.ngr;
!:",.:!l
lF ("::^Figuri.5)
oF
reaa than
90o rysy|ling of a syetem iapedance greater thari Zj ard trnc;
reqriring relay stability
Zp being

Ftgut

)lo'

Page

3.

Mho

4-

Appendix

relay operating characteristics.

Fully cross poJ.arised earth fault relay.


Syetem agsumed

l.I

System

solidly

vith

earthed.

reactance only (Figure 6).

The vector Ve is replaced by another vector Vp in a croas polarirad


relay- (sometiilea cal]ed sound or heelthy phaae polarisation). Thia
vector is derived of eourse from e healthy Phese by the phaac

selection netvork.

to ground fault. The polarising qulntity


in the relay type PYTS is Eg phaae ehifted by 600 leedt
i.e. U,=Eg/.60=-EA
Initially let tht source reactance be zero.
Consider a phase A

Quantities to be, conpared are Vp end Vg - IR


Zg (Xp) is relay setting

tekcn

ZR

Ff$rsc 6

In Figure 7, for angle 0.{8 to be 90o

TanS= I

TEiT

aa

Real oart
Imaginary part

oA

= -Iqigrg!.
ReaI part

BA

::.

:..:..
:'

,.

.
I

Page

is Vp :
BA is Vp Vp=E4

-Eg (1 + j0)

0A

IpZp

;IR:

E4

Rp

Vs -16 Zii

rf

.a

+ jXp

Ea-EnjXn
Rp

!""L
lmao.

5 - Appendix

f ve -r*ze

jXp

| = Iq.
HeeI

lurl .: o

if the angle betyeen Vg -IjZj and Vp is 90o


Real part of nunerator of VX - IpZX = 0

EA(r-

jxR )
Rp

+ jXp

,'. np*xf -XRXr :

= ER (RA *

f - .it* (Rr - jxF) )

Conparing thia yith (ii-; * page I end it rapreacnte a


an inpedance diagram treating RF erd Xp .s vraieblas.

circlc

orl

x ! RF y:xF
and 2Xpb =

XgXp .' . b=Ig


2

ZRga=0 ..

a=0

and12 -b2-.2 =o
tL2

..r=o
.'. r -

XR

that the nfio circle hes radiu! ft rnd lt tqrhn-'r 1",,;,.,'


i;i.., .:,
f
"
the origin. (Figure 8), i.e. the diamter of t'hi circle Xtr lr rqff:ri.j:.
: :,1,:, .,ir; ,
to the relay reach along ite eherecteriatic angla..
The above shoue

'

.-!

Flgurc

:r.r .;

jjrXe

Page

3.2

5-

Appendix

Assune nov source impedance X5.

&xr
Figure

Lel

= eg ZSO = -EA
Vg = En (Rf + jxf)

V.p

. But

(f ti0)

IXp

tr6-?llfr-.1x5

.' .

Vp

= EA

ae before

En jXn

Rf+jlf+jXs

tf,p*jfri-i;1ixf) - ixn

en'. (Rr +
IXZp = EA

(Rr +

jxr)

(Rr

-j

(xp

* Xs)) - jxn (Rr.- J(x6 + x5))

=EA. np"xp+XpX5-Xn(x.r+X5) + j-RF *(xr*x5)2


Real part

.'.

np

i.e.

Rp2

ngz

"

of nr.merator = 0
xpz * xfXs - ft(xp + X5)

XFZ

+ Xp (X5

Xn)

XgZ + Xp (X5 - Xn) =

- 8c! P3$

XnXS

XgX5

2b=X6-X5

b =XR-XS a=0

,2 ta2 :

x6x5

,2 =

XpX5

(Xn -XS)z

_:4_

xnXs rx{
=CT 7-T

tt
Ir
..

XpX5

0
Q

Page

)
- XR
+ XpX5

r-T

7-

Appendix

x-z
J
4

.)

r=

+ X5)'
_T_

(XR

Xp+X5

Figun

10

If rrs let Xq in Fig. l0 = 0 thcn it is idcnticel to Fig. 8. Ih.


influence oF tne e6urce inpedarns ie to incrcarc ttre diantar of thacircle but not to affect the reach Xg.
Fig. 13 ehouE the expanaion of thc cheracterietlc rith thc rcloytrq
Erantitiea superinpoeed uhre the courcr end linc arc a!!&Gd to hrw
resistance and

vith

reecterrce.

Reaistance and Reactsrics.


Qr
4,-

- -Ea = E" (-l-jo)


vR = Ea (Zl. r Rf+jxJ
Vp = Eg Z60

Z5+7,y+Rpr+jXs
IZp = Ea ZR

Z5+Zg+RC'+jXo

Fignrc

Il

Page

I -

Appendix

- IZp - Ea. (ZL + Rf' + jXo) - ZR


79+7y*RFi+jXo
- Ea (Rl + jXL + RF' + jXo - Rg -jft)
Vp

R5
Rg

+ jXg +

+ jXt * Rg' + jXs

R1

- Rp

Rpl

=Ea.tp+jXp -

RR-jxn

ffi;x1

re)
-RR*j

Xg+XO'=XF

=Ee.Rr-RR+j(Xr-Xn)

- Ea. [nr

(xs

-x6fl

t*s*Rr - j (x5+xpfl

Denominetor

part of nurprstor is (Rf - RX) (R5 + Rp) * (Xf - Xn) (XS * Xg) = 0
.'. *rt+Rp (R5 - Rn) - RsRR *\FZ + rf (Xs - xn) - XgX5 = e

ReaI

i.e.

Xpz + X6 (X5

Xn)

RF2

+ R6 (R5

Rn)

Conparing uith

y2

zya

rz

- zu =,2

-oz -"2

2b=(X6-XS) b:Xp-X5

2a:(Rg-RS)

,2 -b2 -"2 =

j2=x5xR+R5Rx
= (Xn +

e=Rg-R5
XSXR

R5 Rg

- xS)2 * _r
_-:_
(Rn

(XR

Rs)2

,,

XS)z

* (Igi-ls,)-

Exainining Figure 12,

Point P, the'relay reaeh i"

i.e.

(Rn

RS

+ RR+

ZZTT

=RRTXR-Zp

RS

),

6i*F
(Xn

- X5+ Xp+X5

X5Xg

R5 R6

Page

9-

Appendix

Again, whilst the diameter of the circle is bigger the reach remeina
the same, and letting (.5 = 0 the diagram simplifies to Figurelo,

i.e. s=a. b=Xp


It is stressed that this treatment is a simplification of the
practical conditions but it serves to indicate hou a mho relay uith
caoas polarisation is better equipped to cope uith resiative faults
than a self polarised relay beeause the circle dianpter ilrcreeseg
for unbalenced faults rrithout affecting the reach atong the relay
characteristic, and the expansion of the characteristic is a
function of the aource to line inpedanee ratio.

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