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Nouns: The Accusative case

The Accusative case (Acc.) is usually the case of a noun functioning as the direct
object in a sentence.
In other words:
Nouns in the Accusative follow verbs that require some object to act on. So if
a noun is in the Accusative, it usually means that something is being done to
it.
Verbs that are usually used together with the Accusative case include, among
others, very basic words such as mie (to have) and lubi (to like).
In this particular skill, the key verbs are je (to eat) and pi (to drink) both of
them are mostly used with nouns in the Accusative case.

The Accusative endings


The Accusative form is created in several ways, depending on the gender of the
declined noun.
For masculine animate nouns, you add the ending -a.
Noun (masculine animate)

I like + Accusative

kot (cat)

Ja lubi kota.

chopiec (boy)

Ja lubi chopca.

pies (dog)

Ja lubi psa.

Note that apart from adding an ending, declension may involve a change in the root
of the noun, as it is in the case of chopiec and pies, where the -ie segment
disappears in all cases other than the Nominative.

For masculine inanimate nouns, there is no change. The Accusative form is


exactly the same as the Nominative form.

Noun (masculine inanimate)

I like + Accusative

sok (juice)

Ja lubi sok.

chleb (bread)

Ja lubi chleb.

ser (cheese)

Ja lubi ser.

The same goes for neuter nouns - no change.


Noun (neuter)

I like + Accusative

dziecko (child)

Ja lubi dziecko.

zwierz (animal)

Ja lubi zwierz.

jajko (egg)

Ja lubi jajko.

In the case of feminine nouns, you arrive at the Accusative form by changing
the final -a into -.
Noun (feminine)

I like + Accusative

kobieta (woman)

Ja lubi kobiet.

ryba (fish)

Ja lubi ryb.

woda (water)

Ja lubi wod.

Exceptions
There are some exceptions to these rules. In the above examples, we assumed
that all nouns that end with -a are feminine, but this is not always the case.
Let's consider the most obvious exception: mczyzna (man). Although the word is
of masculine gender, it ends with -a. Therefore, it declines as if it was a feminine
noun its Accusative form is mczyzn.
To make things even more interesting, there are also feminine nouns that do not
end with -a and consequently decline in a different way. But since they are mostly
words for abstract concepts, we will discuss them later.
You may notice that the Accusative form of pomidor (tomato) is pomidora, even
though it is a masculine inanimate noun. It belongs to a large group of masculine
inanimate nouns which take the -a ending in the Accusative, instead of using the
same form as in the Nominative case.

Vocabulary: obiad and kolacja


Obiad is the main meal of the day, usually eaten around midday (12AM to 4PM). It
is usually translated as lunch (because of the time of the day when it is eaten),
sometimes as dinner (since it is the main meal which is often eaten socially with
family members, in a restaurant etc.)
Kolacja is a medium-sized evening meal, usually eaten between 6PM and 9PM.
Again, since the conventions for naming a meal of this kind in English vary, it can
be translated in two ways: as dinner or supper

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